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  1. THE INFLUENCE OF CETIRIZINE ON THE CONCENTRATION OF sCD14 IN BLOOD OF THE CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

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    E.S. Nisheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 66 children with atopic dermatitis aged 1B2 years and 21 children as A control group were examined in an effort to study the impact of cetirizine on the concentration of scd14 in case of allergic disbeases in children. 33 children with atopic dermatitis had referbences in anamnesis on obstructive bronchitis. Children with atopic dermatitis were divided into 3 approximately equal groups — the first group took cetirizine during 2 weeks, the second group — during 4 months, for the third group cetirizine was not given. The level of sCD14 was determined in children's blood by immuneb enzyme analysis method before treatment, directly after treatment with cetirizine and in 2 months after it. In children with allergic diseases the level of sCD14 was 50% lower than in children with out allergy. The short course of cetirizine treatment transiently reduced clinical presentations of atopic dermatitis, but didn't have effect on sCD14 content. Prolonged therapy with cetirizine not only improved the condition of children with atopic dermatitis and decrease the occurrence of obstructive bronchitis in these cases, but also resulted in considerable increase in the concentration of sCD 14 in blood of these patients. We presume the therapeutic and prophylactic effects of cetirizine in allergic diseases in many respects are conditioned by its capacity to improve functions of macrophages in response to infectious and allergic stimuli.Key words: sCD 14, atopic dermatitis, cetirizine, children, treatment.

  2. Plasma sCD14 as a biomarker to predict pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

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    Bradley S Quon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One in four cystic fibrosis (CF patients diagnosed with a pulmonary exacerbation will not recover their baseline lung function despite standard treatment. This highlights the importance of preventing such events. Clinical decision-making can be improved through a simple blood test that predicts individuals at elevated short-term risk of an exacerbation. METHODS: We obtained plasma samples from 30 stable CF patients from the St. Paul's Hospital Adult CF Clinic (Vancouver, Canada. For 15 patients, an additional plasma sample was obtained during an exacerbation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14 and C-reactive protein (CRP were quantified using ELISA kits. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin(IL-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF were quantified using Luminex™ immunoassays. Stable state biomarker levels were examined in their ability to predict individuals that would experience a pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous (IV antibiotics within 4 months. Paired stable and exacerbation plasma biomarker levels were also compared. RESULTS: sCD14 levels were significantly higher in patients that experienced a pulmonary exacerbation requiring IV antibiotics within 4 months (p = 0.001. sCD14 cut-off value of 1450 ng/mL was associated with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.99 for predicting an exacerbation within 4 months of a stable visit, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82%. Plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher during exacerbations than during periods of clinical stability (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 is a promising biomarker for identifying CF patients who will exacerbate within 4 months of a stable visit but requires further study in larger, independent cohorts.

  3. The clinical significance of sCD14-ST for blood biomarker in neonatal hematosepsis: A diagnostic accuracy study.

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    Xiao, Ting; Chen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Li-Hua; Lai, Fu-Huang; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Qun-Feng; Que, Rong-Liang; Xie, SiSi; Wu, Ding-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Hematosepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with suspected or confirmed infection, which is the most common infectious disease in clinical neonatal intensive care unit. As the rapid development of neonatal hematosepsis caused by various basic diseases, the mortality rate is high, and there are some sequelae.We report the lasted study to date with 96 cases from Fujian Longyan First Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The aim of our study is to explore the value of soluble cluster of differentiation 14 subtype (sCD14-ST) in whole blood for differential diagnosis of neonatal hematosepsis at an early stage, and used in evaluation of the severity about sepsis combined with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte (WBC).In our cohort, all cases met the diagnostic criteria for hematosepsis specific for newborns. We selected 42 neonates with hematosepsis, 54 neonates with nonhematosepsis, 44 noninfectious SIRS neonates, and 53 healthy neonatal controls. Which were determined the sCD14-ST, PCT, CRP, and WBC of all samples before treatment. Then assign the APACHE-II score for the all samples before and after treatment.The study shows, sCD14-ST levels were significantly higher in hematosepsis than nonhematosepsis group (t = -2.112, P = .041). Meanwhile, sCD14-ST levels were significantly higher in neonatal hematosepsis than in noninfectious SIRS group and controls (χ = 57.812, 68.944, P APACHE-II score (R-value = 0.415, P APACHE-II score, PCT, CRP, and WBC (χ = 35.019, 78.399, 52.363, 25.912, 7.252, all P values <.01). The area under the curve (AUC) of sCD14-ST was 0.942. The differences in ROC of sCD14-ST compared with PCT, CRP, and WBC were statistically significant (Z = -6.034, -4.474, -5.722, all P values <.01). The sensitivity and specificity of sCD14-ST were 95.2% and 84.9%, respectively.sCD14-ST could be a blood biomarker for early

  4. Exploring the link between innate immune activation and thymic function by measuring sCD14 and TRECs in HIV patients living in Belgium.

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    De Voeght, Adrien; Martens, Henri; Renard, Chantal; Vaira, Dolores; Debruche, Mathieu; Simonet, Julie; Geenen, Vincent; Moutschen, Michel; Darcis, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease progression. The goal of this study was to explore the hypothesis of potential links between microbial translocation and thymic function in HIV-1 patients living in Belgium. The extent of microbial translocation was assessed through the measurement of soluble CD14 (sCD14). T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs and dβTRECs) were used as a measure of thymic function. Data were collected from 75 HIV-infected patients. Simple and complex linear regressions were done to analyze the link between these two processes. We found a statistically relevant negative correlation between thymopoiesis (sjTREC) and sCD14 level (p = 0.004). These results suggest a link between thymic function failure, microbial translocation and innate immune activation.

  5. Exploring the link between innate immune activation and thymic function by measuring sCD14 and TRECs in HIV patients living in Belgium.

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    Adrien De Voeght

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease progression. The goal of this study was to explore the hypothesis of potential links between microbial translocation and thymic function in HIV-1 patients living in Belgium. The extent of microbial translocation was assessed through the measurement of soluble CD14 (sCD14. T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs and dβTRECs were used as a measure of thymic function. Data were collected from 75 HIV-infected patients. Simple and complex linear regressions were done to analyze the link between these two processes. We found a statistically relevant negative correlation between thymopoiesis (sjTREC and sCD14 level (p = 0.004. These results suggest a link between thymic function failure, microbial translocation and innate immune activation.

  6. Circulating sCD14 is associated with virological response to pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.

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    Giulia Marchetti

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients.98 HIV/HCV patients who received pegylated-alpha-interferon (peg-INF-alpha/ribavirin were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline MT (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, host response to MT (sCD14, CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+/CD8+, HCV genotype, severity of liver disease were assessed according to Early Virological Response (EVR: HCV-RNA <50 IU/mL at week 12 of therapy or ≥2 log(10 reduction from baseline after 12 weeks of therapy and Sustained Virological Response (SVR: HCV-RNA <50 IU/mL 24 weeks after end of therapy. Mann-Whitney/Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation were used. Multivariable regression was performed to determine factors associated with EVR/SVR.71 patients displayed EVR; 41 SVR. Patients with HCV genotypes 1-4 and cirrhosis presented a trend to higher sCD14, compared to patients with genotypes 2-3 (p = 0.053 and no cirrhosis (p = 0.052. EVR and SVR patients showed lower levels of circulating sCD14 (p = 0.0001, p = 0.026, respectively, but similar T-cell activation compared to Non-EVR (Null Responders, NR and Non-SVR (N-SVR subjects. sCD14 resulted the main predictive factor of EVR (0.145 for each sCD14 unit more, 95%CI 0.031-0.688, p = 0.015. SVR was associated only with HCV genotypes 2-3 (AOR 0.022 for genotypes 1-4 vs 2-3, 95%CI 0.001-0.469, p = 0.014.In HIV/HCV patients sCD14 correlates with the severity of liver disease and predicts early response to peg-INF-alpha/ribavirin, suggesting MT-driven immune activation as pathway of HIV/HCV co-infection and response to therapy.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) for prediction of bacterial infection in cerebrospinal fluid samples from children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis.

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    Stubljar, David; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Groselj-Grenc, Mojca; Suhadolc, Kristina; Fabjan, Teja; Skvarc, Miha

    2015-04-01

    Children with temporary external ventricular drains (EVD) are prone to nosocomial infections. Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and ventriculitis in these children is challenging due to frequent blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the presence of chemical ventriculitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection in CSF, to predict bacterial infection in comparison to the accuracy of established biomarkers like those demonstrated in biochemical analysis of CSF. We conducted a prospective study with 18 children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis who had 66 episodes of disease. CSF samples were taken from external ventricular drainage. We measured presepsin in CSF, as well as CSF leukocyte count, glucose, and proteins. CSF was also taken to prove bacterial infection with culture methods or with 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR (SepsiTest; Molzym, Germany). Infection was clinically confirmed in 57 (86%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Chemical ventriculitis was diagnosed in 9 (14%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies presented as area under the curve (AUC) for sCD14-ST, leukocytes, and proteins measured in CSF were 0.877 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.961), 0.798 (95% CI, 0.677 to 0.920), and 0.857 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.964), respectively. With CSF culture, we detected bacteria in 17 samples, compared to 37 detected with broad-range PCR. It was found that presepsin was present at a significantly higher level in children with clinically proven ventriculitis than in those without meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies of presepsin were superior to those of leukocytes or proteins in CSF. Presepsin-guided 16S rRNA gene PCR could be used in everyday clinical practice to improve etiological diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis and to prescribe more appropriate antibiotics. Copyright

  8. CD14 polymorphisms in mother and infant, soluble CD14 in breast milk and atopy development in the infant (KOALA Study)

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    Snijders, Bianca E. P.; Stelma, Foekje F.; Reijmerink, Naomi E.; Thijs, Carel; van der Steege, Gerrit; Damoiseaux, Jan G. M. C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; van Ree, Ronald; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    Different CD14 polymorphisms have been associated with atopic phenotypes in infants. In addition, CD14 genotypes of breastfeeding mothers have been associated with soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels in breast milk. The role of CD14 genotypes of infant and mother and their interaction with sCD14 levels in

  9. Gene cloning of human soluble CD14 and its expression in eucaryotic cells.

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    Yin, Jun; Bai, Jie; Wang, Wei; Song, Wei; Wang, Zhongze

    2002-06-01

    To express human soluble CD14 (sCD14) in eukaryotic cells. Human sCD14 cDNA was amplified from U937 cells with RT-PCR method. The recombinant expression plasmid pEF1/HisC/sCD14(348aa) was constructed and the expression in COS-7 cells was carried out using liposome transfection method. The yield was examined with scanning map identification. The expressed product was purified by immuno-affinity chromatography. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the amplified gene sequence and those reported by documents were completely identical. sCD14 was expressed with high-yield. The expressed product was purified to above 90%. Recombinant sCD14, specifically combinable with endotoxins, had a natural biological activity. Human sCD14 was expressed in COS-7 cells, which laid a foundation for further study.

  10. Soluble CD14 is a nonspecific marker of monocyte activation

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    Shive, Carey L.; Jiang, Wei; Anthony, Donald D.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD14 is associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV disease. It is a co-receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is released from monocytes upon activation. We demonstrate here, that inflammatory cytokines can induce the release of sCD14 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy donors, and that TLR ligands other than LPS can cause a decrease in the monocyte cell surface expression of CD14. Thus, sCD14 is a marker of monocyte activation, not restricted to activation by LPS. PMID:26035325

  11. The production and characterization of anti-bovine CD14 monoclonal antibodies.

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    Sohn, Eun J; Paape, Max J; Peters, Robert R; Fetterer, Raymond H; Talbot, Neil C; Bannerman, Douglas D

    2004-01-01

    To characterize further the chemical and biological properties of bovine soluble (bos) CD14, a panel of ten murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with recombinant (r) bosCD14 were produced. A sandwich ELISA, using murine mAb and rabbit polyclonal antibodies reactive with rbosCD14 was developed. All the mAb were reactive by ELISA with baculovirus-derived rbosCD14 and they recognized rbosCD14 (40 kDa) by western blot analysis. The mAb also identified by western blot sCD14 (53 and 58 kDa) in milk and blood and sCD14 (47 kDa) in a lysate of macrophages obtained from involuted bovine mammary gland secretions. Analysis by ELISA of whey samples after intramammary injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 micro g) revealed increased sCD14 levels between 8 to 48 h after injection. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the mAb bound to macrophages isolated from involuted mammary gland secretions and mouse macrophages but not to swine or horse monocytes. Addition of anti-rbosCD14 mAb to monocytes stimulated with LPS reduced in vitro production of TNF-alpha. The anti-rbosCD14 antibodies generated in this study will be useful in studying CD14, an accessory molecule that contributes to host innate recognition of bacterial cell wall components in mammary secretions produced during mastitis.

  12. Elevated levels of M-CSF, sCD14 and IL8 in type 1 Gaucher disease

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    Hollak, C. E.; Evers, L.; Aerts, J. M.; van Oers, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    In type 1 Gaucher disease, decreased activity of glucocerebrosidase results in accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophages. Infiltration of liver, spleen and bone marrow by lipid-laden macrophages leads to hepatosplenomegaly, bone lesions and cytopenia. These abnormal macrophages may produce and

  13. Breastfeeding, soluble CD14 concentration in breast milk and risk of atopic dermatitis and asthma in early childhood: birth cohort study.

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    Rothenbacher, D; Weyermann, M; Beermann, C; Brenner, H

    2005-08-01

    Breast milk contains a variety of bioactive substances, among them, soluble CD14 (sCD14), which plays an important role in innate immunity. We analysed data of a large prospective birth cohort study to examine the determinants of sCD14 in breast milk, and investigated whether breastfeeding practice and sCD14 concentrations in breast milk are determinants of the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) and asthma in children. Eight hundred and three mothers and their newborns were included in this analysis. We measured sCD14 concentrations in breast milk samples collected 6 weeks post-partum. During a 2-year follow-up the cumulative incidences of AD and asthma were recorded. Overall, AD was reported for 20.6% of the 2-year-olds and asthma was reported for 19.6%. We found the lowest incidence of physician-reported AD in children of mothers without a history of atopic diseases if breastfed for 6 to less than 9 months. Furthermore, we found an inverse association between duration of breastfeeding and risk of asthma, which was especially evident in children with mothers without a history of atopic disease (P=0.01). These patterns persisted after control for other factors by multivariate analysis methods. The protective effect of breastfeeding seemed to be synergistic with sCD14 concentrations in breast milk (P for trend 0.0005). The results of this prospective birth cohort study suggest that a longer duration of breastfeeding does decrease the risk for asthma in early childhood, especially in children of mothers without a history of atopic disease. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding might be further supported by high levels of sCD14 in breast milk.

  14. CD14-159C/T polymorphism in the development of delayed skin hypersensitivity to tuberculin.

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    Magdalena Druszczynska

    Full Text Available The skin tuberculin test (TST, an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD. Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG. The TST size was negatively correlated with the number of BCG inoculations. The distribution of C/T genotype was significantly more frequent among TST-negative compared with TST-positive individuals. The concentration of serum sCD14 was positively associated with mCD14 expression, but not with the TST status or CD14(-159C/T polymorphism. A significant increase in mCD14 expression and serum sCD14 levels was found in TB group. We hypothesize that CD14(-159C/T polymorphic variants might be one of genetic components in the response to attenuated M. bovis BCG bacilli.

  15. ASSOCIATION OF POLYMORPHISM OF C159T GENE OF RECEPTOR CD14 AND ANTIENDOTOXIN IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH REFRACTORY / CORTICOSTEROIDSSENSITIVE ASTHMA

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    Bisyuk Yu.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The refractory asthma refers to the phenotype, which is characterized by severe persistent course with frequent exacerbations and resistance to corticosteroid therapy. This phenotype of asthma can be related to C159T polymorphism of CD14 receptor gene Material and methods. There were studied the C159T polymorphism of CD14 gene in 331 patients with bronchial asthma. The control group consisted of 285 healthy individuals of Crimea. The C159T gene polymorphism of CD14 was detected by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction with electrophoretic detection. The distribution of genotypes was checked according to the law of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium by using Fisher's exact test and χ2. There was used logistic regression to determine the difference in the frequency of genotypes and alleles. Results and discussion. In our study have been identified 291 patients with corticosteroid-sensitive and 40 with refractory asthma. The genotype distribution of control (CC – 34%, CT – 51%, CT – 15% and patients with corticosteroid-sensitive asthma (CC – 29%, CT – 53%, CT – 18% were in accordance with the law of Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium and did not significantly differ (χ2 = 2.204, P = 0.332. There were no significant differences when comparing the allele and genotype frequencies by using risk allele T and C model. In the control group the frequency distribution of genotypes CC – 34%, CT – 51%, TT – 15% did not differ significantly (χ2 = 3.540, P = 0.170 from refractory asthma (CC – 52%, CT – 35%, CT – 13%. The risk analysis for the T allele showed that the frequency of CT+TT genotype in patients with refractory asthma (49% was significantly lower (OR = 0.467, CI = [0.240-0.910], χ2 = 5.17, p = 0.023 compere to control (66 %. In turn, the difference of allelic frequencies for the control and patients with persistent asthma did not differ significantly (p = 0.076. The content of antiendotoxin antibody of class A in

  16. Usefulness of presepsin (sCD14 subtype) measurements as a new marker for the diagnosis and prediction of disease severity of sepsis in the Korean population.

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    Kweon, Oh Joo; Choi, Jee-Hye; Park, Sang Kil; Park, Ae Ja

    2014-12-01

    Presepsin has recently emerged as a new useful sepsis marker, and our study is focused on the usefulness of presepsin as earlier detection and monitoring biomarker for sepsis comparing with other conventional biomarkers. We compared the mean values of presepsin, procalcitonin, interleukin 6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels between infection group and noninfection group of study subjects and assessed whether the values decreased during treatment. Furthemore, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in sepsis and compared the mean level of presepsin to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score and mortality rate on the 30th day. Mean presepsin levels were significantly different between infection group and noninfection group (1403.47 pg/mL vs 239.00 pg/mL). During treatment, mean levels of presepsin decreased significantly, and in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under curve value of presepsin was significantly higher than that of other biomarkers. The presepsin levels did not correlate significantly with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores and mortality rates on the 30th day. Presepsin showed significantly higher values in infection group than in noninfection group. The diagnostic accuracy of presepsin was higher than other conventional biomarkers. For early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial sepsis, presepsin could be a more useful marker than the other markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetics of plasma procalcitonin, soluble CD14, CCL2 and IL-10 after a sublethal infusion of lipopolysaccharide in horses.

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    Bonelli, Francesca; Meucci, Valentina; Divers, Thomas J; Wagner, Bettina; Intorre, Luigi; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2017-02-01

    Endotoxemia represents a significant clinical and economic problem for the equine industry. This study assesses the kinetics of soluble CD14 (sCD14), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and plasma procalcitonin (PCT) in healthy horses after the intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim was to contribute to the basic understanding of the equine species-specific kinetics of these molecules in response to LPS exposure, which could support further findings in clinical studies and identify valuable inflammatory biomarkers for equine practice. Eleven healthy horses were involved in this experimental in vivo study. Horses were classified as healthy before the LPS infusion. After the pre-infusion blood collection (T0), all horses received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin (30ng/kg over 30min). Data and samples were collected 1h (T1), 2 (T2), 3 (T3) and 24h (T24) after infusion. Plasma sCD14, CCL2 and IL-10 were evaluated with a fluorescent bead-based assay, while PCT was evaluated with an equine PCT ELISA assay. A one-way ANOVA test was performed between each blood-sampling time for PCT, sCD14 and IL-10, and a Friedman test was performed for CCL2. Plasma PCT, IL-10 and CCL2 concentrations increased statistically significantly at T1, T2 and T3 compared to T0. No statistically significant differences were found between plasma IL-10 and CCL2 concentrations between T0 vs T24, although plasma PCT values remained high 24h after LPS infusion. Plasma sCD14 concentration showed no statistically significant differences for any of sampling times. Our results demonstrate that LPS injection into healthy horses results in PCT, CCL2 and IL-10 increases in plasma without an increase in sCD14. The increases in PCT, CCL2 and IL-10 are related to the inflammatory response induced by circulating lipopolysaccharide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble CD14 in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with markers of inflammation and axonal damage in untreated HIV-infected patients

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    Jespersen, Sofie; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Anesten, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    and the resulting monocyte activation, respectively. We hypothesised that microbial translocation contributes to inflammation and axonal damage in the central nervous system (CNS) in untreated HIV infection. METHODS: We analyzed paired samples of plasma and CSF from 62 HIV-infected, untreated patients without...... cognitive symptoms from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Measurements of neopterin and NFL in CSF were available from previous studies. Plasma and CSF sCD14 was measured using ELISA (R&D, Minneapolis, MN), and plasma and CSF LPS was measured using LAL colorimetric assay (Lonza...

  19. Mycobacterial PIMs inhibit host inflammatory responses through CD14-dependent and CD14-independent mechanisms.

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    Nathalie Court

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria develop strategies to evade the host immune system. Among them, mycobacterial LAM or PIMs inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages. Here, using synthetic PIM analogues, we analyzed the mode of action of PIM anti-inflammatory effects. Synthetic PIM(1 isomer and PIM(2 mimetic potently inhibit TNF and IL-12 p40 expression induced by TLR2 or TLR4 pathways, but not by TLR9, in murine macrophages. We show inhibition of LPS binding to TLR4/MD2/CD14 expressing HEK cells by PIM(1 and PIM(2 analogues. More specifically, the binding of LPS to CD14 was inhibited by PIM(1 and PIM(2 analogues. CD14 was dispensable for PIM(1 and PIM(2 analogues functional inhibition of TLR2 agonists induced TNF, as shown in CD14-deficient macrophages. The use of rough-LPS, that stimulates TLR4 pathway independently of CD14, allowed to discriminate between CD14-dependent and CD14-independent anti-inflammatory effects of PIMs on LPS-induced macrophage responses. PIM(1 and PIM(2 analogues inhibited LPS-induced TNF release by a CD14-dependent pathway, while IL-12 p40 inhibition was CD14-independent, suggesting that PIMs have multifold inhibitory effects on the TLR4 signalling pathway.

  20. Mycobacterial PIMs inhibit host inflammatory responses through CD14-dependent and CD14-independent mechanisms.

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    Court, Nathalie; Rose, Stéphanie; Bourigault, Marie-Laure; Front, Sophie; Martin, Olivier R; Dowling, Jennifer K; Kenny, Elaine F; O'Neill, Luke; Erard, François; Quesniaux, Valerie F J

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacteria develop strategies to evade the host immune system. Among them, mycobacterial LAM or PIMs inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages. Here, using synthetic PIM analogues, we analyzed the mode of action of PIM anti-inflammatory effects. Synthetic PIM(1) isomer and PIM(2) mimetic potently inhibit TNF and IL-12 p40 expression induced by TLR2 or TLR4 pathways, but not by TLR9, in murine macrophages. We show inhibition of LPS binding to TLR4/MD2/CD14 expressing HEK cells by PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues. More specifically, the binding of LPS to CD14 was inhibited by PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues. CD14 was dispensable for PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues functional inhibition of TLR2 agonists induced TNF, as shown in CD14-deficient macrophages. The use of rough-LPS, that stimulates TLR4 pathway independently of CD14, allowed to discriminate between CD14-dependent and CD14-independent anti-inflammatory effects of PIMs on LPS-induced macrophage responses. PIM(1) and PIM(2) analogues inhibited LPS-induced TNF release by a CD14-dependent pathway, while IL-12 p40 inhibition was CD14-independent, suggesting that PIMs have multifold inhibitory effects on the TLR4 signalling pathway.

  1. TLR4/CD14 Variants-Related Serologic and Immunologic Dys-Regulations Predict Severe Sepsis in Febrile De-Compensated Cirrhotic Patients.

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    Wen-Chien Fan

    Full Text Available Genetic variants and dysfunctional monocyte had been reported to be associated with infection susceptibility in advanced cirrhotic patients. This study aims to explore genetic predictive markers and relevant immune dysfunction that contributed to severe sepsis in febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patents. Polymorphism analysis of candidate genes was undergone in 108 febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients and 121 healthy volunteers. Various plasma inflammatory/regulatory cytokines, proportion of classical (CD 16-, phagocytic and non-classical (CD16+, inflammatory monocytes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and intracellular/extracellular cytokines on cultured non-classical monocytes, mCD14/HLA-DR expression and phagocytosis of classical monocytes were measured. For TLR4+896A/G variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, high plasma endotoxin/IL-10 inhibits HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis were noted in their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset, enhanced LPS-stimulated TLR4 expression and TNFα/nitrite production, and systemic inflammation [high plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14 and total nitric oxide (NOx levels] were noted. For CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers with severe sepsis, persist endotoxemia inhibited mCD14/HLA-DR expression and impaired phagocytosis of their classical monocyte. In the same group, increased non-classical monocyte subset up-regulated TLR4-NFκB-iNOS and p38MAPK pathway, stimulated TNFα/nitrite production and elicited systemic inflammation. In febrile acute de-compensated cirrhotic patients, TLR4+896A/G and CD14-159C/T polymorphisms-related non-classical and classical monocytes dysfunction resulted in increased severe sepsis risk. Malnutrition, high plasma endotoxin and sCD14 levels, single TLR4+896A/G or CD14-159C/T variant allele carriers and double variant allele carriers are significant predictive factors for the development

  2. Diverging pathways for lipopolysaccharide and CD14 in human monocytes

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    Antal-Szalmas, P; Poppelier, MJJG; Broekhuizen, R; Verhoef, J; van Strijp, JAG; van Kessel, KPM

    2000-01-01

    Background: CD14 is considered to be the major endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) binding molecule on human monocytes. It initiates cellular response, but its role in the clearance of LPS is not well understood. Under conditions that ensure totally CD14-dependent LPS binding on human monocytes,

  3. Endotoxin and CD14 in the progression of biliary atresia

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    Chen Ching-Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary atresia (BA is a typical cholestatic neonatal disease, characterized by obliteration of intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile ducts. However, the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of BA remain uncertain. Because of decreased bile flow, infectious complications and damaging endotoxemia occur frequently in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to investigate endotoxin levels in patients with BA and the relation of these levels with the expression of the endotoxin receptor, CD14. Methods The plasma levels of endotoxin and soluble CD14 were measured with a pyrochrome Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with early-stage BA when they received the Kasai procedure (KP, in patients who were jaundice-free post-KP and followed-up at the outpatient department, in patients with late-stage BA when they received liver transplantation, and in patients with choledochal cysts. The correlation of CD14 expression with endotoxin levels in rats following common bile duct ligation was investigated. Results The results demonstrated a significantly higher hepatic CD14 mRNA and soluble CD14 plasma levels in patients with early-stage BA relative to those with late-stage BA. However, plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in both the early and late stages of BA relative to controls. In rat model, the results demonstrated that both endotoxin and CD14 levels were significantly increased in liver tissues of rats following bile duct ligation. Conclusions The significant increase in plasma endotoxin and soluble CD14 levels during BA implies a possible involvement of endotoxin stimulated CD14 production by hepatocytes in the early stage of BA for removal of endotoxin; whereas, endotoxin signaling likely induced liver injury and impaired soluble CD14 synthesis in the late stages of BA.

  4. Ceramide-enriched LDL induces cytokine release through TLR4 and CD14 in monocytes. Similarities with electronegative LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Montserrat; Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Benítez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In vitro ceramide-enriched LDL (CER-LDL) reproduces most of the properties of electronegative LDL (LDL(-)), a heterogeneous subfraction of LDL found in plasma. LDL(-) comprises several modifications of LDL and has an increased content in ceramide (CER). It promotes cytokine release in monocytes through CD14 and TLR4. CER-LDL also induces cytokine release in these cells but the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate TLR4 and CD14 as the putative receptors involved in cytokine release induced by CER-LDL. CER-LDL was obtained by incubating native LDL with CER-enriched liposomes. CER content in CER-LDL was assessed by thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts. CER-LDL and LDL(-) were incubated for 20 h with human monocytes in the presence or absence of a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. Both LDLs were also incubated with two human monocytic cell lines, normal and THP1 overexpressing CD14 (THP1-CD14) cells. The release of IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 was evaluated by ELISA in culture medium. The release of IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 induced by CER-LDL in monocytes was inhibited by VIPER (90% inhibition), a specific TLR4 inhibitor. The cytokine release induced by CER-LDL was negligible in THP1, cells presenting a very low CD14 expression. In contrast, the induction of cytokine release in THP1-CD14 was high and dependent on the CER content in LDL. CER-LDL induces IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 release through the activation of CD14 and TLR4 in monocytes, reproducing the behavior of LDL(-). The increased content of CER in LDL(-) is then related to the inflammatory action of LDL(-). Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Pattern of CD14+ follicular dendritic cells and PD1+ T cells independently predicts time to transformation in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Jacob P; Jones, Jason M; Ziesmer, Steven C; Grote, Deanna M; Xiu, Bing; Ristow, Kay M; Yang, Zhi Zhang; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Feldman, Andrew L; Cerhan, James R; Novak, Anne J; Ansell, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Transformation of follicular lymphoma is a critical event associated with a poor prognosis. The role of the tumor microenvironment in previous transformation studies has yielded conflicting results. To define cell subtypes associated with transformation, we examined tissue specimens at diagnosis from patients with follicular lymphoma that later transformed and, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), stained for CD68, CD11c, CD21, CXCL13, FOXP3, PD1, and CD14. Cell content and the pattern of expression were evaluated. Those identified as significantly associated with time to transformation (TTT) and overall survival (OS) were further characterized by flow cytometry and multicolor IHC. Of note, 58 patients were analyzed with median TTT of 4.7 years. The pattern of PD1(+) and CD14(+) cells rather than the quantity of cells was predictive of clinical outcomes. On multivariate analysis, including the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index score, CD14(+) cells localized in the follicle were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 3.0; P = 0.004). PD1(+) cells with diffuse staining were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 1.9; P = 0.045) and inferior OS (HR, 2.5; P = 0.012). Multicolor IHC and flow cytometry identified CD14(+) cells as follicular dendritic cells (FDC), whereas PD1(+) cells represented two separate populations, TFH and exhausted T cells. These results identify the presence of PD1(+) T cells and CD14(+) FDC as independent predictors of transformation in follicular lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2862-72. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. CD14: a soluble pattern recognition receptor in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Karine; Donnet-Hughes, Anne

    2008-01-01

    An innate immune system capable of distinguishing among self, non-self, and danger is a prerequisite for health. Upon antigenic challenge, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of proteins, enable this system to recognize and interact with a number of microbial components and endogenous host proteins. In the healthy host, such interactions culminate in tolerance to self-antigen, dietary antigen, and commensal microorganisms but in protection against pathogenic attack. This duality implies tightly regulated control mechanisms that are not expected of the inexperienced neonatal immune system. Indeed, the increased susceptibility of newborn infants to infection and to certain allergens suggests that the capacity to handle certain antigenic challenges is not inherent. The observation that breast-fed infants experience a lower incidence of infections, inflammation, and allergies than formula-fed infants suggests that exogenous factors in milk may play a regulatory role. There is increasing evidence to suggest that upon exposure to antigen, breast milk educates the neonatal immune system in the decision-making processes underlying the immune response to microbes. Breast milk contains a multitude of factors such as immunoglobulins, glycoproteins, glycolipids, and antimicrobial peptides that, qualitatively or quantitatively, may modulate how neonatal cells perceive and respond to microbial components. The specific role of several of these factors is highlighted in other chapters in this book. However, an emerging concept is that breast milk influences the neonatal immune system's perception of "danger." Here we discuss how CD14, a soluble PRR in milk, may contribute to this education.

  13. Diagnostic value of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in neonatal sepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The majority of monocytes (MO) are strongly positive for CD14 and negative for CD16. The phenotype and function of peripheral blood monocytes change after trauma and during sepsis. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, identified as a minor population of monocytes which constitute a potent phagocytosing and ...

  14. Promoter polymorphisms of the CD14 gene are associated with atopy in Pakistani adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micheal, S.; Minhas, K.; Ishaque, M.; Ahmed, F.; Ahmed, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that promoter polymorphisms of the CD14 gene are associated with atopic asthma. However, the results of association studies in different populations are conflicting. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the CD14 polymorphisms A-1145G

  15. DMPD: CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7542643 CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. Kiel...her recognition molecules for lipopolysaccharide: a review. PubmedID 7542643 Title CD14 and other recognition molecules for lipopolys...accharide: a review. Authors Kielian TL, Blecha F. Publi

  16. Effects of hepatocyte CD14 upregulation during cholestasis on endotoxin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Chou

    Full Text Available Cholestasis is frequently related to endotoxemia and inflammatory response. Our previous investigation revealed a significant increase in plasma endotoxin and CD14 levels during biliary atresia. We therefore propose that lipopolysacharides (LPS may stimulate CD14 production in liver cells and promote the removal of endotoxins. The aims of this study are to test the hypothesis that CD14 is upregulated by LPS and investigate the pathophysiological role of CD14 production during cholestasis. Using Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and promoter activity assay, we demonstrated that LPS was associated with a significant increase in CD14 and MD2 protein and mRNA expression and CD14 promoter activity in C9 rat hepatocytes but not in the HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cell line in vitro. To correlate CD14 expression and endotoxin sensitivity, in vivo biliary LPS administration was performed on rats two weeks after they were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL or a sham operation. CD14 expression and endotoxin levels were found to significantly increase after LPS administration in BDL rats. These returned to basal levels after 24 h. In contrast, although endotoxin levels were increased in sham-operated rats given LPS, no increase in CD14 expression was observed. However, mortality within 24 h was more frequent in the BDL animals than in the sham-operated group. In conclusion, cholestasis and LPS stimulation were here found to upregulate hepatic CD14 expression, which may have led to increased endotoxin sensitivity and host proinflammatory reactions, causing organ failure and death in BDL rats.

  17. TLR-4 and CD14 Polymorphisms in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Associated Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Puthothu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common viral respiratory pathogen during infancy world wide. It induces innate and adaptive immune response in host cells. The toll like receptor 4 (TLR4/CD14 complex is particularly important for the initiation of an innate immune response to RSV. Thus we were interested whether an association exists between severe RSV associated diseases and polymorphisms within TLR4 and CD14.

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  5. DMPD: Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10380893 Monocyte CD14: a multifunctional receptor engaged in apoptosis from both s...ides. Heidenreich S. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Jun;65(6):737-43. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte CD14: a multifunction...al receptor engaged in apoptosis from both sides. PubmedID 10380893 Title Monocyte CD14: a multifunction

  6. CD14 Gene Variants and Their Importance for Childhood Croup, Atopy, and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna C. Rennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CD14 gene has an important role in the detection of inflammatory provoking pathogens and in the ensuing signaling of the innate immune response. We assessed the role of CD14 C-159T, G-1359T in the expression of asthma, croup, and allergy in Canadian school children of ages 6 to 14 years. Methods. Children attending schools in a rural community participated in a cross-sectional survey of respiratory health. Following consent, we conducted clinical assessments to collect buccal swabs for genotyping and perform skin prick testing (SPT to determine atopic status. Genotyping and SPT results were available for 533 and 499 children, respectively. Separate multivariable analyses that included both polymorphisms were conducted for each phenotype. Results. The prevalence of asthma, allergy, and croup was 18.6%, 22.4%, and 6.6%, respectively. Children with the T/T variant of CD14 G-1359T were more likely to have physician diagnosed asthma (26.8%. Children with C/C variant of CD14 C-159T had a significantly lower prevalence of croup (2.6%. Haplotype analyses of the two CD14 polymorphisms showed that individuals with the T|T haplotype combination were significantly more likely to have asthma (P=0.014. Conclusions. In this study, CD14 variants are important for the expression of croup and asthma but not atopy.

  7. Molecular Characterization and SNP Detection of CD14 Gene of Crossbred Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CD14 is an important molecule for innate immunity that can act against a wide range of pathogens. The present paper has characterized CD14 gene of crossbred (CB cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus. Cloning and sequence analysis of CD14 cDNA revealed 1119 nucleotide long open reading frame encoding 373 amino acids protein and 20 amino acids signal peptide. CB cattle CD14 gene exhibited a high percentage of nucleotide identity (59.3–98.1% with the corresponding mammalian homologs. Cattle and buffalo appear to have diverged from a common ancestor in phylogenetic analysis. 25 SNPs with 17 amino acid changes were newly reported and the site for mutational hot-spot was detected in CB cattle CD14 gene. Non-synonymous substitutions exceeding synonymous substitutions indicate the evolution of this protein through positive selection among domestic animals. Predicted protein structures obtained from deduced amino acid sequence indicated CB cattle CD14 molecule to be a receptor with horse shoe-shaped structure. The sites for LPS binding, LPS signalling, leucine-rich repeats, putative N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor, disulphide bridges, alpha helix, beta strand, leucine rich nuclear export signal, leucine zipper and domain linker were predicted. Most of leucine and cysteine residues remain conserved across the species.

  8. Morphine inhibits AP-1 activity and CD14 expression in leukocytes by a nitric oxide and opioid receptor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, I D; Menzebach, A; Goumon, Y; Langefeld, T W; Harbach, H; Mühling, J; Cadet, P; Stefano, G B

    2007-11-01

    Activator protein 1 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of proinflammatory mediators. Activation of phagocytes by lipopolysaccharide depends on the expression of CD14 on the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the effects of morphine and nitric oxide on CD14 expression and activator protein 1 activation in human blood monocytes and neutrophils as well as the leukocyte cell line HL-60. Whole blood was incubated with morphine, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, naloxone or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors Nomega-nitro-l-arginine and Nomega-nitro-l-arginine-methylester and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Activator protein 1 nuclear content was determined by flow cytometry in human blood neutrophils and monocytes. CD14 expression on neutrophils was measured after incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled antibodies. Electric mobility shift assay served for evaluation of activator protein 1 nuclear binding in HL-60 cells. Incubation of whole blood with morphine and subsequent stimulation with lipopolysaccharide decreased activator protein 1 nuclear content. Exposure to naloxone before morphine treatment abolished morphine-induced inhibition of activator protein 1 activity in human blood monocytes and neutrophils. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors also reversed morphine's effects. CD14 expression on neutrophils was reduced after morphine treatment. These effects were antagonized by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and naloxone. Morphine inhibits activator protein 1 activation by a mu opioid receptor pathway coupled to nitric oxide as second messenger. The decrease in CD14 expression caused by morphine may play a role in inhibition of activator protein 1 activation following lipopolysaccharide treatment of phagocytes.

  9. Predictive analysis for prognosis of CD14+ monocyte HLA-DR in geriatric trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-fu LU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the prognostic roles of HLA-DR+/CD14+ expression rate in peripheral blood monocytes in geriatric trauma sepsis. Methods  A retrospective study of clinical data was carried out. Clinical data of geriatric trauma patients (age≥60 years admitted to intensive care unit (ICU of Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Command from January 2011 to December 2015 were collected. The expressions of HLA-DR+/CD14+, procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP were detected within 24 hours after admission. Spearman correlation analysis was adopted to analyze the correlation between the HLADR+/CD14+ and the length of ICU stay, and between the length of stay and APACHE Ⅱ. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to evaluate the prognostic roles of HLA-DR+/CD14+ expression, PCT, CRP and APACHE Ⅱscore. Results  There were significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors in APACHE Ⅱscore (17.49±6.25 vs 27.38±8.68, P<0.05 and the expressions of HLA-DR+/CD14+ (59.80±18.02 vs 37.70±13.96, P<0.01. There were significant differences between sepsis and non-sepsis in APACHEⅡscore (26.16±8.44 vs 17.90±7.04, P<0.01 and the expressions of HLA-DR+/CD14+ (38.61±14.48 vs 59.79±18.17, P<0.01, PCT (34.45±68.29 vs 4.25±8.26, P<0.01 and CRP (129.88±103.25 vs 76.04±73.48, P<0.011. There existed a negative relationship between the HLA-DR+/CD14+ and length of ICU stay (r=–0.304, P=0.008, and APACHE Ⅱ(r=–0.559, P=0.000. There was no significant relationship between the HLA-DR+/CD14+ and length of stay (r=0.188, P=0.106. By ROC for sepsis prognosis, the area under the curve (Mean±SE of HLA-DR+/CD14+ was 0.807±0.051 (95%CI 0.706-0.907, P=0.000, the AU-ROC (Mean±SE of PCT was 0.714±0.063 (95% CI:0.591-0.837, P=0.003. The best cut-off for HLA-DR+/ CD14+ was 40%, with the sensitivity of 88.0% and specificity of 60.0%.The best cut-off for PCT was 1.01, with the sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 65

  10. Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) and procalcitonin levels for mortality prediction in sepsis: data from the Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis, a leading cause of death in critically ill patients, is the result of complex interactions between the infecting microorganisms and the host responses that influence clinical outcomes. We evaluated the prognostic value of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection, and compared it with procalcitonin (PCT). Methods This is a retrospective, case–control study of a multicenter, randomized clinical trial enrolling patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in ICUs in Italy. We selected 50 survivors and 50 non-survivors at ICU discharge, matched for age, sex and time from sepsis diagnosis to enrollment. Plasma samples were collected 1, 2 and 7 days after enrollment to assay presepsin and PCT. Outcome was assessed 28 and 90 days after enrollment. Results Early presepsin (day 1) was higher in decedents (2,269 pg/ml, median (Q1 to Q3), 1,171 to 4,300 pg/ml) than in survivors (1,184 pg/ml (median, 875 to 2,113); P = 0.002), whereas PCT was not different (18.5 μg/L (median 3.4 to 45.2) and 10.8 μg/L (2.7 to 41.9); P = 0.31). The evolution of presepsin levels over time was significantly different in survivors compared to decedents (P for time-survival interaction = 0.03), whereas PCT decreased similarly in the two groups (P = 0.13). Presepsin was the only variable independently associated with ICU and 28-day mortality in Cox models adjusted for clinical characteristics. It showed better prognostic accuracy than PCT in the range of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (area under the curve (AUC) from 0.64 to 0.75 vs. AUC 0.53 to 0.65). Conclusions In this multicenter clinical trial, we provide the first evidence that presepsin measurements may have useful prognostic information for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. These preliminary findings suggest that presepsin may be of clinical importance for early risk stratification. PMID:24393424

  11. CD14 is a key organizer of microglial responses to CNS infection and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janova, Hana; Böttcher, Chotima; Holtman, Inge R; Regen, Tommy; van Rossum, Denise; Götz, Alexander; Ernst, Anne-Sophie; Fritsche, Christin; Gertig, Ulla; Saiepour, Nasrin; Gronke, Konrad; Wrzos, Claudia; Ribes, Sandra; Rolfes, Simone; Weinstein, Jonathan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Pukrop, Tobias; Kopatz, Jens; Stadelmann, Christine; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Weber, Martin S; Prinz, Marco; Brück, Wolfgang; Eggen, Bart J L; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Priller, Josef; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in microglia. First, it confers an up to 100-fold higher LPS sensitivity compared to peripheral macrophages to enable efficient proinflammatory cytokine induction. Second, CD14 prevents excessive responses to massive LPS challenges via an interferon β-mediated feedback. Third, CD14 is mandatory for microglial reactions to tissue damage-associated signals. In mice, these functions are essential for balanced CNS responses to bacterial infection, traumatic and ischemic injuries, since CD14 deficiency causes either hypo- or hyperinflammation, insufficient or exaggerated immune cell recruitment or worsened stroke outcomes. While CD14 orchestrates functions of TLR4 and related immune receptors, it is itself regulated by TLR and non-TLR systems to thereby fine-tune microglial damage-sensing capacity upon infectious and non-infectious CNS challenges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Innate Immune Receptor CD14 Mediates Lymphocyte Migration in EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Halmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in young adults and histopathologically characterized by inflammation, demyelination and gliosis. It is considered as a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease, but also a disease-promoting role of the innate immune system has been proposed, based e.g. on the observation that innate immune receptors modulate disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Recent studies of our group provided first evidence for a key role of the innate immune LPS receptor (CD14 in pathophysiology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CD14-deficient experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice showed increased clinical symptoms and enhanced infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils in brain and spinal cord. Methods: In the current study, we further investigated the causes of the disease aggravation by CD14-deficiency and examined T cell activation, also focusing on the costimulatory molecules CTLA-4 and CD28, and T cell migration capacity over the blood brain barrier by FACS analysis, in vitro adhesion and transmigration assays. Results: In the results, we observed a significantly increased migration of CD14-deficient lymphocytes across an endothelial monolayer. In contrast, we did not see any differences in expression levels of TCR/CTLA-4 or TCR/CD28 and lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from CD14-deficient compared to wildtype mice. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an important role of CD14 in migration of lymphocytes, and strengthen the importance of innate immune receptors in adaptive immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis.

  13. Expression of HLA-DR/CD14 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei LI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the HLA-DR/CD14 expression on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cell and its clinical significance.Methods One hundred and forty patients hospitalized from Apr.2008 to Apr.2009 were involved in present study,including 101 of acute and severe cases and 39 other cases,while 20 persons undergoing health examination were involved as control.The expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was detected by flow cytometry,and the serum level of C-reactive protein(CRP in acute and severe group was determined,and the correlation between HLA-DR/CD14 expression rate and CRP level was analyzed.Meanwhile,15 cases were selected from acute and severe group,the expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 1,4,8,12,16 and 20 days after emergency hospitalization was determined and its relation to disease courses and clinical symptoms was dynamically observed.Results The expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 was markedly lower in acute and severe group(38.64%±14.15% than in other disease group(56.04%±21.01%,P < 0.05 and control group(76.33%±7.82%,P < 0.01,and in other diseases group than in control group(P < 0.05.Correlation analysis indicated that a negative correlation existed between the expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 and serum CRP level in acute and severe group(r=-0.704,P < 0.01.Dynamic observation of 15 patients in acute and severe group showed:the expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 decreased continuously without amelioration in 6 died patients till their death;while was improved gradually to normal level with symptom improving in other 9 survival patients till their recovery.Conclusion The expression rate of HLA-DR/CD14 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells is closely related to the severity of infection and disease,and may be used as an immune parameter to estimate the clinical severity and prognosis of acute and severe diseases.

  14. Polymorphism of the CD14 and TLR4 genes and post-treatment apical periodontitis.

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    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F; Del Aguila, Camila A; Provenzano, José C; Guilherme, Bianca P S; Gonçalves, Lucio S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association of CD14 -260C>T and TLR4 +896A>G gene polymorphisms with post-treatment apical periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. The study population consisted of 41 patients with post-treatment apical periodontitis and 42 individuals with root canal-treated teeth exhibiting healed/healing periradicular tissues (controls). All teeth had apical periodontitis lesions at the time of treatment, which was completed at least 1 year previously. Saliva was collected from the participants; DNA was extracted and used for CD14 and TLR4 genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism approach and a real-time polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), respectively. No specific genotype or allele of the CD14 and TLR4 genes or any combination thereof was positively associated with post-treatment apical periodontitis (P > .05). Data from the present study suggest that polymorphisms in the CD14 and TLR4 genes do not influence the response to endodontic treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced host immune recognition of E.coli causing mastitis in CD-14 transgenic mice.

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    Escherchia coli causes mastitis, an economically significant disease in dairy animals. E. coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) when bound by host membrane proteins such as CD-14, causes release of pro-inflammatory cytokines recruiting neutrophils as a early innate immune response. Excessive pr...

  16. CD14 is a key organizer of microglial responses to CNS infection and injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janova, Hana; Boettcher, Chotima; Holtman, Inge R.; Regen, Tommy; van Rossum, Denise; Goetz, Alexander; Ernst, Anne-Sophie; Fritsche, Christin; Gertig, Ulla; Saiepour, Nasrin; Gronke, Konrad; Wrzos, Claudia; Ribes, Sandra; Rolfes, Simone; Weinstein, Jonathan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Pukrop, Tobias; Kopatz, Jens; Stadelmann, Christine; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Weber, Martin S.; Prinz, Marco; Brueck, Wolfgang; Eggen, Bart J. L.; Boddeke, Hendrikus W. G. M.; Priller, Josef; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    Microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, sense infection and damage through overlapping receptor sets. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and multiple injury-associated factors. We show that its co-receptor CD14 serves three non-redundant functions in

  17. INFLUENCE OF CD14 GENE POLYMORHISM ON CLINIC AL COURSE AND OUTCOME OF NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA

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    E. A. Baygozina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypes CD14 gene genotypes frequencies of in control group and in group of patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP correspond to Hardy-Weinberg law. We revealed a statistically significant increase of genotype Т/Т frequency in the patients with NP (33.33% in contrast to control group (18.09% (р = 0.008. Notable is a difference in severity of NP cours in the patients with C/С, C/Т and Т/Т genotypes. In first case, the score of discase severity, using CPIS scale, was 7.81±1.32, whereas in second case it was 8.93±1.48 (р < 0.05. A positive correlation was found between resolution time of NP and CD14 genotype, i.e. Т/Т genotype was associated with prolonged respiratory support in NP with mecanical ventilation, as compared with NP cases in the patlents with C/С and C/Т genotypes (r = 0.70; р = 0.01. It was shown that the patients with CD14 Т/Т genotype exhibited hypercytokinemia due to TNFα. IL-1β and IL-1RN, thus pointing to a key role of CD14 gene polymorphism in immune pathogenesis of NP.

  18. Directed evolution of an LBP/CD14 inhibitory peptide and its anti-endotoxin activity.

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    Li Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LPS-binding protein (LBP and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12 for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. METHODS: We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. RESULTS: 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T to methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05. Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1 with a threonine (T-to-methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

  19. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

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    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  20. Clinical proteomics identifies urinary CD14 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis of stable coronary artery disease.

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    Min-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Recently, urinary proteins were found to be useful markers for reflecting inflammation status of different organs. To identify potential biomarker for diagnosis of CAD, we performed one-dimensional SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among the proteins differentially expressed in urine samples, monocyte antigen CD14 was found to be consistently expressed in higher amounts in the CAD patients as compared to normal controls. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to analyze the concentrations of CD14 in urine and serum, we confirmed that urinary CD14 levels were significantly higher in patients (n = 73 with multi-vessel and single vessel CAD than in normal control (n = 35 (P < 0.001. Logistic regression analysis further showed that urinary CD14 concentration level is associated with severity or number of diseased vessels and SYNTAX score after adjustment for potential confounders. Concomitantly, the proportion of CD14+ monocytes was significantly increased in CAD patients (59.7 ± 3.6% as compared with healthy controls (14.9 ± 2.1% (P < 0.001, implicating that a high level of urinary CD14 may be potentially involved in mechanism(s leading to CAD pathogenesis. By performing shotgun proteomics, we further revealed that CD14-associated inflammatory response networks may play an essential role in CAD. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated that release of CD14 in urine coupled with more CD14+ monocytes in CAD patients is significantly correlated with severity of CAD, pointing to the potential application of urinary CD14 as a novel noninvasive biomarker for large-scale diagnostic screening of susceptible CAD patients.

  1. CD14 is a key mediator of both lysophosphatidic acid and lipopolysaccharide induction of foam cell formation.

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    An, Dong; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Fuqiang; Kong, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We report here that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages. Our data revealed that both LPA and LPS highly induce the CD14 expression at messenger RNA and protein levels in macrophages. The role of CD14, one component of the LPS receptor cluster, in LPA-induced biological functions has been unknown. We took several steps to examine the role of CD14 in LPA signaling pathways. Knockdown of CD14 expression nearly completely blocked LPA/LPS-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages, demonstrating for the first time that CD14 is a key mediator responsible for both LPA- and LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To determine the molecular mechanism mediating CD14 function, we demonstrated that both LPA and LPS significantly induce the expression of scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI), which has been implicated in lipid uptake process, and depletion of CD14 levels blocked LPA/LPS-induced SR-AI expression. We further showed that the SR-AI-specific antibody, which quenches SR-AI function, blocked LPA- and LPS-induced foam cell formation. Thus, SR-AI is the downstream mediator of CD14 in regulating LPA-, LPS-, and LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence that CD14 is a novel connecting molecule linking both LPA and LPS pathways and is a key mediator responsible for LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. The LPA/LPS-CD14-SR-AI nexus might be the new convergent pathway, contributing to the worsening of atherosclerosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. CD14 and TNFα single nucleotide polymorphisms are candidates for genetic biomarkers of peri-implantitis.

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    Rakic, Mia; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra; Struillou, Xavier; Matic, Smiljana; Stamatovic, Novak; Vojvodic, Danilo

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to investigate whether CD14-159 C/T and TNFα -308 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with peri-implantitis and to evaluate their effects on bone resorption by correlating with local levels of receptor activator nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Study population included 369 Southeastern Europe Caucasians (180 with peri-implantitis and 189 with healthy peri-implant tissues). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction from the periphery blood samples, while RANKL and OPG were evaluated in peri-implant crevicular fluid specimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of CD14-159 C/T polymorphism showed that genotype of CC nucleic acid combination was associated with peri-implantitis demonstrating a fivefold increased risk in these carriers. Furthermore, for TNFα -308 A/G polymorphisms, it was evidenced that AG genotype was associated with peri-implantitis and a fivefold increased risk in these carriers. Peri-implantitis patients with CC genotype at CD14-159 exhibited significantly higher concentrations of RANKL and relative ratio RANKL/OPG when compared to patients with CT genotype, while concentration of biomarkers between different genotypes at TNFα -308 remained insignificant. Within the limitations of the study, we can conclude that CD14-159 C/T and TNFα -308 A/G polymorphisms are associated with peri-implantitis and may present biomarkers for peri-implantitis. Investigated genetic markers might serve as precious parameters in clinical practice in course of treatment planning and prognosis, since preventive and treatment approach could be positively shifted and adjusted depending on present genotype.

  3. Association between CD14 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

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    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two polymorphisms, -260C/T and -651C/T, in the CD14 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between the two polymorphisms and risk of cancer. METHODS: All eligible case-control studies published up to March 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and WanFang database. Pooled odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were used to access the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: 17 case-control studies from fourteen articles were included. Of those, there were 17 studies (4198 cases and 4194 controls for -260C/T polymorphism and three studies (832 cases and 1190 controls for -651C/T polymorphism. Overall, no significant associations between the two polymorphisms of CD14 gene and cancer risk were found. When stratified by ethnicity, cancer type and source of control, similar results were observed among them. In addition, in further subgroups analysis by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection status and tumor location in gastric cancer subgroup, we found that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the CD14 -260C/T polymorphism may increase the risk of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals. However, large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  4. Pathogenic roles of CD14, galectin-3, and OX40 during experimental cerebral malaria in mice.

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    Miranda S Oakley

    Full Text Available An in-depth knowledge of the host molecules and biological pathways that contribute towards the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria would help guide the development of novel prognostics and therapeutics. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the brain tissue during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA parasites in mice, a well established surrogate of human cerebral malaria, has been useful in predicting the functional classes of genes involved and pathways altered during the course of disease. To further understand the contribution of individual genes to the pathogenesis of ECM, we examined the biological relevance of three molecules -- CD14, galectin-3, and OX40 that were previously shown to be overexpressed during ECM. We find that CD14 plays a predominant role in the induction of ECM and regulation of parasite density; deletion of the CD14 gene not only prevented the onset of disease in a majority of susceptible mice (only 21% of CD14-deficient compared to 80% of wildtype mice developed ECM, p<0.0004 but also had an ameliorating effect on parasitemia (a 2 fold reduction during the cerebral phase. Furthermore, deletion of the galectin-3 gene in susceptible C57BL/6 mice resulted in partial protection from ECM (47% of galectin-3-deficient versus 93% of wildtype mice developed ECM, p<0.0073. Subsequent adherence assays suggest that galectin-3 induced pathogenesis of ECM is not mediated by the recognition and binding of galectin-3 to P. berghei ANKA parasites. A previous study of ECM has demonstrated that brain infiltrating T cells are strongly activated and are CD44(+CD62L(- differentiated memory T cells [1]. We find that OX40, a marker of both T cell activation and memory, is selectively upregulated in the brain during ECM and its distribution among CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells accumulated in the brain vasculature is approximately equal.

  5. Correlation between CD14+CD16++ monocytes in peripheral blood and hypertriglyceridemia after allograft renal transplantation.

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    Xue, D; He, X; Zhou, C; Xu, X; Xu, R; Xu, N

    2013-11-01

    Cardio-cerebrovascular diseases are key factors causing recipient the death after kidney transplantation (KT). Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), a complication commonly occurring among KT patients, is a major risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between peripheral CD14+CD16++ monocytes in KT patients and blood lipids as well as factors affecting hyperglycemia, seeking to understand mechanisms of inflammatory immune reactions. KT patients (n = 60) were divided into subjects with HTG (n = 35) versus without HTG (n = 25). A cohort of healthy participants (55 cases) was divided into the cases without (n = 30) versus with HTG (n = 25). The proportion of peripheral CD14+CD16 ++ monocytes was determined using flow cytometry and hematology, and biochemical indicators were measured by conventional methods. We correlated HTG with these indicators. The proportion of peripheral blood CD14+CD16++ monocytes among the renal transplant group was significantly lower (P HTG after KT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glutathione peroxidase-1 modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells by altering CD14 expression.

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    Lubos, Edith; Mahoney, Christopher E; Leopold, Jane A; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E

    2010-07-01

    CD14 contributes to LPS signaling in leukocytes through formation of toll-like receptor 4/CD14 receptor complexes; however, a specific role for endogenous cell-surface CD14 in endothelial cells is unclear. We have found that suppression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in human microvascular endothelial cells increases CD14 gene expression compared to untreated or siControl (siCtrl)-treated conditions. Following LPS treatment, GPx-1 deficiency augmented LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, CD14 expression, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and protein expression compared to LPS-treated control cells. GPx-1 deficiency also transiently augmented LPS-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. Adenoviral overexpression of GPx-1 significantly diminished LPS-mediated responses in adhesion molecule expression. Consistent with these findings, LPS responses were also greater in endothelial cells derived from GPx-1-knockout mice, whereas adhesion molecule expression was decreased in cells from GPx-1-overexpressing transgenic mice. Knockdown of CD14 attenuated LPS-mediated up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein, and it mitigated the effects of GPx-1 deficiency on LPS-induced adhesion molecule expression. Taken together, these data suggest that GPx-1 modulates the endothelial cell response to LPS, in part, by altering CD14-mediated effects.

  7. Dopamine Increases CD14+CD16+ Monocyte Migration and Adhesion in the Context of Substance Abuse and HIV Neuropathogenesis

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    Coley, Jacqueline S.; Calderon, Tina M.; Gaskill, Peter J.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in dopamine rich brain

  8. Dopamine increases CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration and adhesion in the context of substance abuse and HIV neuropathogenesis.

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    Jacqueline S Coley

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in

  9. Role of CD14 in responses to clinical isolates of Escherichia coli: effects of K1 capsule expression.

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    Metkar, Shalaka; Awasthi, Shanjana; Denamur, Erick; Kim, Kwang Sik; Gangloff, Sophie C; Teichberg, Saul; Haziot, Alain; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M

    2007-11-01

    Severe bacterial infections leading to sepsis or septic shock can be induced by bacteria that utilize different factors to drive pathogenicity and/or virulence, leading to disease in the host. One major factor expressed by all clinical isolates of gram-negative bacteria is lipopolysaccharide (LPS); a second factor expressed by some Escherichia coli strains is a K1 polysaccharide capsule. To determine the role of the CD14 LPS receptor in the pathogenic effects of naturally occurring E. coli, the responses of CD14-/- and CD14+/+ mice to three different isolates of E. coli obtained from sepsis patients were compared; two isolates express both smooth LPS and the K1 antigen, while the third isolate expresses only LPS and is negative for K1. An additional K1-positive isolate obtained from a newborn with meningitis and a K1-negative isogenic mutant of this strain were also used for these studies. CD14-/- mice were resistant to the lethal effects of the K1-negative isolates. This resistance was accompanied by significantly lower levels of systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in these mice than in CD14+/+ mice, enhanced clearance of the bacteria, and significantly fewer additional gross symptoms. In contrast, CD14-/- mice were as sensitive as CD14+/+ mice to the lethal effects of the K1-positive isolates, even though they had significantly lower levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 than CD14+/+ mice. These studies show that different bacterial isolates can use distinctly different mechanisms to cause disease and suggest that new, nonantibiotic therapeutics need to be directed against multiple targets.

  10. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

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    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Conversely, the yield was increased upon co-culture of CD34+ cells with CD14+ cells (full contact or transwell assays) or CD34+ cells re-constituted in conditioned medium from CD14+ cells. In particular, CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes/macrophages enhanced erythroblast outgrowth from CD34+ cells. No effect of CD14+ cells on erythroblasts themselves was observed. However, 2 days of co-culturing CD34+ and CD14+ cells increased CD34+ cell numbers and colony-forming units 5-fold. Proliferation assays suggested that CD14+ cells sustain CD34+ cell survival but not proliferation. These data identify previously unrecognized erythroid and non-erythroid CD34− and CD34+ populations in blood that contribute to the erythroid yield. A flow cytometry panel containing CD34/CD36 can be used to follow specific stages during CD34+ differentiation to erythroblasts. We have shown modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival by CD14+ cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells which can also be found near specific hematopoietic niches in the bone marrow. PMID:26294724

  11. A Genetic Variant of the CD14 C-159T in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia (FD) in Japanese Subjects.

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    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Wang, Fangyu; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Okubo, Masaaki; Maruyama, Naoko; Kamiya, Yoshio; Nakamura, Masahiko; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Iwata, Masami; Takahama, Kazuya; Watanabe, Makoto; Hirata, Ichiro; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa are commonly observed in Japanese patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, detailed data regarding the relationship between the genetic regulatory factors of inflammation and FD are not available. CD14 is an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the first line of host defense by recognition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We aimed to investigate the association between CD14 promoter C-159T polymorphism and FD in a Japanese population. 108 patients with FD and 99 non-dyspeptic subjects enrolled in this study. Dyspeptic symptoms were divided according to Rome III criteria. CD14 gene C-159T polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In the non-dyspeptics, the CD14 genotype distribution was 28CC (28.3%), 51CT (51.5%), 21TT (21.2%). Meanwhile, the CD14 genotype distribution in FD was 31CC (28.4%), 56CT (51.4%), 22TT (20.2%). The genotype distribution was not significantly different. There was no significant difference between two groups in the genotype distribution. We did not found any association between CD14 genotypes and dyspeptic patients in different gender and Helicobacter pylori infection status. No significant association was also found between CD14 polymorphism and any of different subtypes of FD according to Rome III while there was a weak correlation between TT genotype and PDS in male subjects (TT vs others, OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 0.98-10.26, p = 0.06). In conclusion, our results suggest that CD14 polymorphism is unlikely to associate with susceptibility of dyspeptic symptoms. The role of inflammation related-gene polymorphisms to the development of dyspepsia needs to further evaluation.

  12. Human trophoblast cells induced MDSCs from peripheral blood CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells via elevated levels of CCL2.

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    Zhang, Yun; Qu, Daiwei; Sun, Jintang; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Qingjie; Shao, Qianqian; Kong, Beihua; Zhang, Yun; Qu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Successful human pregnancy requires the maternal immune system to recognize and tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetus. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which are capable of inhibiting T-cell responses, are highly increased in the early stages of pregnancy. Although recent reports indicate a role for MDSCs in fetal-maternal tolerance, little is known about the expansion of MDSCs during pregnancy. In the present study, we demonstrated that the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo could instruct peripheral CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells toward a novel subpopulation of MDSCs, denoted as CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells, with suppressive activity and increased expression of IDO1, ARG-1, and COX2. After interaction with HTR8/SVneo cells, CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells secrete high levels of CCL2, promoting the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. We utilized a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to reveal the prominent role of CCL2 in the induction of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs. In combination, the results of the present study support a novel role for the cross-talk between the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo and maternal CD14(+) myelomonocytic cells in initiating MDSCs induction, prompting a tolerogenic immune response to ensure a successful pregnancy.

  13. Frontline Science: CXCR7 mediates CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier: a potential therapeutic target for NeuroAIDS.

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    Veenstra, Mike; Williams, Dionna W; Calderon, Tina M; Anastos, Kathryn; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W

    2017-11-01

    CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes transmigrate into the CNS of HIV-positive people in response to chemokines elevated in the brains of infected individuals, including CXCL12. Entry of these cells leads to viral reservoirs, neuroinflammation, and neuronal damage. These may eventually lead to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the lives of HIV-infected people, the prevalence of cognitive deficits remains unchanged despite ART, still affecting >50% of infected individuals. There are no therapies to reduce these deficits or to prevent CNS entry of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes. The goal of this study was to determine whether CXCR7, a receptor for CXCL12, is expressed on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes and whether a small molecule CXCR7 antagonist (CCX771) can prevent CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte transmigration into the CNS. We showed for the first time that CXCR7 is on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes and that it may be a therapeutic target to reduce their entry into the brain. We demonstrated that CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes and not the more abundant CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes or T cells transmigrate to low homeostatic levels of CXCL12. This may be a result of increased CXCR7 on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes. We showed that CCX771 reduced transmigration of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes but not of CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes from uninfected and HIV-infected individuals and that it reduced CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes. We propose that CXCR7 is a therapeutic target on CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes to limit their CNS entry, thereby reducing neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Our data also suggest that CCX771 may reduce CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte-mediated inflammation in other disorders. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-Elicited TSLPR Expression Enriches a Functionally Discrete Subset of Human CD14+ CD1c+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Vastolo, Viviana; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Visconte, Feliciano; Raia, Maddalena; Scalia, Giulia; Loffredo, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Granata, Francescopaolo; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2017-05-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced mainly by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory or microbial stimuli and binds to the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) complex, a heterodimer composed of TSLPR and IL-7 receptor α (CD127). TSLP activates multiple immune cell subsets expressing the TSLPR complex and plays a role in several models of disease. Although human monocytes express TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in response to the TLR4 agonist LPS, their responsiveness to TSLP is poorly defined. We demonstrate that TSLP enhances human CD14+ monocyte CCL17 production in response to LPS and IL-4. Surprisingly, only a subset of CD14+ CD16- monocytes, TSLPR+ monocytes (TSLPR+ mono), expresses TSLPR complex upon LPS stimulation in an NF-κB- and p38-dependent manner. Phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic analysis revealed specific features of TSLPR+ mono, including higher CCL17 and IL-10 production and increased expression of genes with important immune functions (i.e., GAS6, ALOX15B, FCGR2B, LAIR1). Strikingly, TSLPR+ mono express higher levels of the dendritic cell marker CD1c. This evidence led us to identify a subset of peripheral blood CD14+ CD1c+ cells that expresses the highest levels of TSLPR upon LPS stimulation. The translational relevance of these findings is highlighted by the higher expression of TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in monocytes isolated from patients with Gram-negative sepsis compared with healthy control subjects. Our results emphasize a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in an apparently homogeneous population of human CD14+ CD16- monocytes and prompt further ontogenetic and functional analysis of CD14+ CD1c+ and LPS-activated CD14+ CD1c+ TSLPR+ mono. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Association among oral health, apical periodontitis, CD14 polymorphisms, and coronary heart disease in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Damiano; Bergandi, Loredana; Palumbo, Luigi; Borraccino, Alberto; Dambra, Valentina; Alovisi, Mario; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Gaetana; Ghigo, Dario; Bergerone, Serena; Scotti, Nicola; Aimetti, Mario; Berutti, Elio

    2012-12-01

    There is evidence to suggest that an association exists between oral infections and coronary heart disease (CHD). Subjects presenting lesions of endodontic origin (LEOs) or pulpal inflammation had an increased risk of developing CHD. However, findings concerning systemic manifestations of apical periodontitis (AP) remain controversial. An association between CD14 gene polymorphisms and atherosclerosis-associated diseases has been shown, but there are no data regarding an association between CD14 polymorphism and AP. This study evaluated associations between clinical oral health status, CD14 polymorphisms, and CHD. A case-controlled clinical trial was designed to compare middle-aged adults with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina (n = 51) within 12 months of the acute event defined as first manifestation with healthy controls (n = 49). Participants were matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Indicators of oral disease and compliance were evaluated. CD14 polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. CHD subjects had a higher prevalence of oral diseases and lower compliance to oral preventive strategies than healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between missing teeth (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.85), the number of LEOs (OR = 4.37; 95% CI, 1.69-11.28), chronic periodontitis (OR = 5.87; 95% CI, 1.17-29.4), and CHD. No statistically significant association emerged between the CD14 C(-260)T and the CD14 C(-159)T polymorphism, endodontic or periodontal disease, and CHD. Chronic oral diseases may increase the risk of CHD and may be an unconventional risk factor for CHD. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Genes Implicate CD14+ Tissue Macrophages in Cellular Intestine Allograft Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ningappa, Mylarappa; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Higgs, Brandon W.; Sun, Qing; Schmitt, Lori; Snyder, Sara; Dobberstein, Jennifer; Branca, Maria; Jaffe, Ronald; Zeevi, Adriana; Squires, Robert; Alissa, Feras; Shneider, Benjamin; Soltys, Kyle; Bond, Geoffrey; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Humar, Abhinav; Mazariegos, George; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent rejection shortens graft survival after intestinal transplantation (ITx) in children, most of whom also experience early acute cellular rejection (rejectors). To elucidate mechanisms common to early and recurrent rejection, we used a test cohort of 20 recipients to test the hypothesis that candidate peripheral blood leukocyte genes that trigger rejection episodes would be evident late after ITx during quiescent periods in genome-wide gene expression analysis and would achieve quantitative real-time PCR replication pre-ITx (another quiescent period) and in the early post-ITx period during first rejection episodes. Eight genes were significantly up-regulated among rejectors in the late post-ITx and pre-ITx periods, compared with nonrejectors: TBX21, CCL5, GNLY, SLAMF7, TGFBR3, NKG7, SYNE1, and GK5. Only CCL5 was also up-regulated in the early post-ITx period. Among resting peripheral blood leukocyte subsets in randomly sampled nonrejectors, CD14+ monocytes expressed the CCL5 protein maximally. Compared with nonrejectors, rejectors demonstrated higher counts of both circulating CCL5+CD14+ monocytes and intragraft CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages in immunohistochemistry of postperfusion and early post-ITx biopsies from the test and an independent replication cohort. Donor-specific alloreactivity measured with CD154+ T-cytotoxic memory cells correlated with the CCL5 gene and intragraft CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages at graft reperfusion and early post-ITx. CCL5 gene up-regulation and CD14+ macrophages likely prime cellular ITx rejection. Infiltration of reperfused intestine allografts with CD14+ macrophages may predict rejection events. PMID:21854741

  17. TLR2-TLR4/CD14 polymorphisms and predisposition to severe invasive infections by Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería-Orriols, J J; García-Salido, A; Varillas, D; Serrano-González, A; Casado-Flores, J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are major causes of severe invasive bacterial infections in some individuals. Apparently the genetic is a major susceptibility determinant to these infectious diseases. We study if the functional polymorphisms within genes of the innate immune system (TLR2-TLR4 and CD14) are related to the predisposition to severe invasive infections caused by S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Prospective descriptive study. Sixty-six Caucasian healthy children and 173 consecutive Caucasian children with invasive bacterial infections by N. meningitidis (n=59) and S. pneumoniae (n=114) were enrolled between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. All blood samples were genotyped with description of the coding polymorphisms in p.R753Q of TLR2 gene and p.D299G of TLR4 gene as well as the promotor polymorphism c.-159C>T of the CD14 gene. Compared to the controls the p.753Q allele of TLR2 and the allele c.-159T of CD14 were more frequent in patients with S. pneumoniae (pGenetical variations in the innate immune system by polymorphisms in the TLR2 and CD14, could be related with an increases susceptibility to severe invasive infections by S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of mitochondrial function in HL60 cells is associated with an increased apoptosis and expression of CD14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K I; Woodgate, L J; Gilkes, A F; Walsh, V; Sweeney, M C; Brown, G; Burnett, A K

    1999-09-24

    The myelomonocytic cell line HL60 can be induced by a variety of chemical agents to differentiation to either neutrophils or monocytes. Examination of gene expression, by differential display, in cells induced to monocytes with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or neutrophils with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) identified a number of clones with altered patterns of expression over the period of differentiation. One of these clones was the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) which showed a differential pattern of expression between the neutrophil and monocyte lineages. The potential of mitochondrial inhibitors to induce differentiation was investigated by treating the HL60 cells with either the NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor, Rotenone, the complex III inhibitor, Antimycin A, or the highly specific mitochondrial ATP-synthase inhibitor, Oligomycin. Although functional assays of differentiation did not produce any positive results, all the inhibitors resulted in a dramatic increase in CD14 expression at day 1, with CD38 markers not observed until day 3. The increased expression of CD14 was accompanied by a decrease in viability and all CD14 positive cells were also positive for Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis. These results suggest that inhibition of the components of the mitochondrial pathways may lead to the marking of some cells, via CD14, for cell death, whilst allowing commitment to differentiation to occur in the surviving population. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression on CD14+ monocytes during adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Rohrer, Karin Melanie; Erbacher, Annika; Gieseke, Friederike; Schwarze, Carl-Philipp; Bader, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Hofbeck, Michael; Kerst, Gunter

    2015-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression on CD14+ monocytes reflects the degree to which these cells have been activated. Given the central role monocytes and macrophages play in the immune system, a decreased human leukocyte antigen DR expression on CD14+ monocytes results in a hallmark of altered immune status during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We hypothesize that human leukocyte antigen DR expression might be similarly altered after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and during post-transplant complications. Using flow cytometry, this study investigates the human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression of CD14+ monocytes in 30 pediatric and young adult patients up to 1 year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Normal values were derived from a control group of healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression decreased significantly prior and during bacterial infection or sepsis. By contrast, human leukocyte antigen DR expression levels were elevated before and at the time of viremia. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression was also elevated during acute graft-versus-host disease. In contrast, the expression was reduced when patients had hepatic veno-occlusive disease. A significant decrease of human leukocyte antigen DR expression was associated with a relapse of the underlying disease and before death. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression on CD14+ monocytes appears to be a promising parameter that might allow identification of patients at risk after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  20. The Effect of Tacrolimus and Mycophenolic Acid on CD14+ Monocyte Activation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Nynke M; Hesselink, Dennis A; Dieterich, Marjolein; Kraaijeveld, Rens; Rowshani, Ajda T; Leenen, Pieter J M; Baan, Carla C

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages play key roles in many disease states, including cellular and humoral rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). To suppress alloimmunity after SOT, immunosuppressive drug therapy is necessary. However, little is known about the effects of the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid (MPA) on monocyte activation and function. Here, the effect of these immunosuppressants on monocytes was investigated by measuring phosphorylation of three intracellular signaling proteins which all have a major role in monocyte function: p38MAPK, ERK and Akt. In addition, biological functions downstream of these signaling pathways were studied, including cytokine production, phagocytosis and differentiation into macrophages. To this end, blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with diverse concentrations of tacrolimus and MPA. Tacrolimus (200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of p38MAPK by 30% (mean) in CD14+ monocytes which was significantly less than in activated CD3+ T cells (max 60%; p tacrolimus or MPA. The production of IL-1β and phagocytosis by monocytes were not affected by tacrolimus concentrations, whereas MPA did inhibit IL-1β production by 50%. Monocyte/macrophage polarization was shifted to an M2-like phenotype in the presence of tacrolimus, while MPA increased the expression of M2 surface markers, including CD163 and CD200R, on M1 macrophages. These results show that tacrolimus and MPA do not strongly affect monocyte function, apart from a change in macrophage polarization, to a clinically relevant degree.

  1. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  2. Systemic immune suppression in glioblastoma: the interplay between CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, tumor factors, and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Michael P; Lin, Yi; New, Kent C; Bulur, Peggy A; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Gastineau, Dennis A; Dietz, Allan B

    2010-07-01

    Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit profound systemic immune defects that affect the success of conventional and immune-based treatments. A better understanding of the contribution of the tumor and/or therapy on systemic immune suppression is necessary for improved therapies, to monitor negative effects of novel treatments, to improve patient outcomes, and to increase understanding of this complex system. To characterize the immune profile of GBM patients, we phenotyped peripheral blood and compared these to normal donors. In doing so, we identified changes in systemic immunity associated with both the tumor and dexamethasone treated tumor bearing patients. In particular, dexamethasone exacerbated tumor associated lymphopenia primarily in the T cell compartment. We have also identified unique tumor and dexamethasone dependent altered monocyte phenotypes. The major population of altered monocytes (CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/neg)) had a phenotype distinct from classical myeloid suppressor cells. These cells inhibited T cell proliferation, were unable to fully differentiate into mature dendritic cells, were associated with dexamethasone-mediated changes in CCL2 levels, and could be re-created in vitro using tumor supernatants. We provide evidence that tumors express high levels of CCL2, can contain high numbers of CD14(+) cells, that tumor supernatants can transform CD14(+)HLA-DR(+) cells into CD14(+)HLA-DR(lo/neg) immune suppressors, and that dexamethasone reduces CCL2 in vitro and is correlated with reduction of CCL2 in vivo. Consequently, we have developed a model for tumor mediated systemic immune suppression via recruitment and transformation of CD14(+) cells.

  3. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic

  4. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1373512 Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, therec....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccharide

  5. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    OpenAIRE

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor...

  6. Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Suppress Osteoclast Formation and Activity in Human CD14+ Monocytes, In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonga, Abe E.; Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C.; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    An unbalanced diet can have adverse effects on health. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been the focus of research owing to their necessity of inclusion in a healthy diet. However, the effects of LCPUFAs on human osteoclast formation and function have not been explored before. A human CD14+ monocyte differentiation model was used to elucidate the effects of an ω-3 LCPUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and an ω-6 LCPUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), on osteoclast formation and activity. CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors and stimulated with macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand to generate osteoclasts. Data from this study revealed that both the LCPUFAs decreased osteoclast formation potential of CD14+ monocytes in a dose-dependent manner when treated at an early stage of differentiation. Moreover, when exposed at a late stage of osteoclast differentiation AA and DHA impaired the bone resorptive potential of mature osteoclasts without affecting osteoclast numbers. AA and DHA abrogated vitronectin receptor expression in differentiating as well as mature osteoclasts. In contrast, the degree of inhibition for calcitonin receptor expression varied between the LCPUFAs with only AA causing inhibition during osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, AA and DHA down regulated the expression of key osteoclast-specific genes in differentiating as well as mature osteoclasts. This study demonstrates for the first time that LCPUFAs can modulate osteoclast formation and function in a human primary osteoclast cell line. PMID:25867515

  7. Streptococcus sanguis secretes CD14-binding proteins that stimulate cytokine synthesis: a clue to the pathogenesis of infective (bacterial) endocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Julia; Poole, Stephen; Nair, Sean P; Lewthwaite, Jo; Tabona, Peter; McNab, Rod; Wilson, Michael; Paul, Angela; Henderson, Brian

    2002-03-01

    Streptococcus sanguis is the major causative organism of infective (bacterial) endocarditis but, surprisingly, almost nothing is known about how it induces endocardial inflammation. In earlier studies we have shown that many bacteria secrete potent cytokine-inducing or -inhibiting proteins. We have therefore isolated the material secreted by S. sanguis grown on blood agar or in broth culture and have tested its ability to induce human peripheral blood monocytes to synthesize pro-inflammatory cytokines. The activation of monocytes by the secreted components of S. sanguis was almost totally blocked by heat and trypsin treatment but not by the lipopolysaccharide-inactivating antibiotic, polymyxin B, suggesting that activity is due to secreted proteins. The activity of the secreted material was significantly reduced by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibodies suggesting that the active protein (or proteins) was binding to the CD14/Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 complex. Fractionation of the secreted proteins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identified two proteins as being responsible for the majority of the cytokine induction: a manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase and a 190 kDa protein, which could not be sequenced, but which was neither CshA nor the PI/II proteins. These proteins, or the receptors to which they bind, may be therapeutic targets and may allow the development of adjunctive therapies to prevent endocardial damage during the often prolonged treatment of infective endocarditis with antibiotics. In addition, blocking of CD14 may have some therapeutic benefit. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  8. The relationship between asthma and bronchiolitis is modified by TLR4, CD14, and IL-13 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Ho; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Song, Dae Jin; Kim, Woo Kyung; Shim, Jung Yeon; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of study was to investigate the combined effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) polymorphisms and bronchiolitis in the development of childhood asthma. A modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was used to survey 1,341 elementary school children and 919 nursery children in Seoul, Korea. TLR4 (rs1927911), CD14 (rs2569190), and IL-13 (rs20541) polymorphisms were genotyped by the TaqMan assay. In elementary school and nursery children, parental history of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.56 [95% CI 1.16-5.63], aOR 3.60 [95% CI 1.66-7.76], respectively), and past history of bronchiolitis (aOR 3.11 [95% CI 1.84-5.24], aOR 3.94 [95% CI 2.27-6.84], respectively) were independent risk factors for asthma diagnosis. When compared to children with each CC of TLR4 polymorphism or TT of CD14 polymorphism or GG of IL13 polymorphism and no past history of bronchiolitis, children with CT or TT of TLR4 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 4.23 and 5.34 times higher risk to develop asthma, respectively; children with TT of CD14 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 3.57 and 7.22 times higher risk for asthma, respectively; children with GA or AA of IL-13 polymorphism and past history of bronchiolitis had 3.21 and 4.13 times higher risk for asthma, respectively. Family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis and past history of bronchiolitis could be independent risk factors for the development of childhood asthma. The relationship between asthma and bronchiolitis is modified by the TLR4, CD14, and IL-13 polymorphisms in Korean children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Increased Serum CD14 Level Is Associated with Depletion of TNF-α in Monocytes in Migraine Patients during Interictal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Slawomir; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Danuta; Niezgoda, Adam; Losy, Jacek; Osztynowicz, Krystyna; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2017-02-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of circulating CD14 in relation to the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in monocytes, and serum levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) in migraine patients. Numerous studies revealed controversial changes in the components of the immune system during attacks and the interictal period in migraine patients. Our study included 40 migraineurs and 39 controls. The levels of TNF-α, MIP-1 and CD14 were measured in peripheral monocytes and in sera with the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, and the monocyte expression of TNF-α was also analysed by immunostaining. Serum CD14 concentrations were higher and the expression of TNF-α in monocytes was decreased in migraineurs. The serum MIP-1 level correlated with Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio in monocytes correlated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); the MIP-1:CD14 ratio correlated with Migraine Severity (MIGSEV)-Pain scores; and serum CD14 concentration correlated with migraine duration in years. Increased serum CD14 and depletion of TNF-α in monocytes can orchestrate other components of the immune system during the interictal period.

  10. Effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD14 and TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Xiao, Jian-Guo; Huang, Xue-Fei; Gong, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD14 and TGR5 expression in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: OJ, sham operation (SH), internal biliary drainage (ID) and external biliary drainage (ED). Rat models were successfully established by two operations and succumbed for extraction of Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver tissue collection on the 8th and 15th day. KCs were isolated by in situ hepatic perfusion and digested with collagen IV, density gradient centrifuged by percoll reagent and purified by cell culture attachment. The isolated KCs were cultured with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with and without the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The expression of iNOS, CD14 and bile acid receptor-TGR5 protein in rat liver tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of iNOS and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) on the isolated KCs was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TGR5 mRNA level in KCs was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The iNOS protein was markedly expressed in the liver of OJ rats, but rare expressed in SH rats. After relief of OJ, the iNOS expression was decidedly suppressed in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P < 0.01), but obviously increased in rats of ED (ED vs OJ, P = 0.004). When interfered only with LPS, the expression of iNOS mRNA by KCs was increased in the OJ group compared with the SH group (P = 0.004). After relief of biliary obstruction, the iNOS mRNA expression showed slight changes in the ED group (ED vs OJ, P = 0.71), but dropped in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P = 0.001). Compared with the simple intervention with LPS, the expressions of iNOS mRNA were significantly inhibited in all four groups after interfered with both LPS and UDCA (P < 0.01, respectively). After bile duct ligation, the CD14 protein expression in rat liver was significantly

  11. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells modulate CD14++CD16+expression on monocytes from sepsis patients in vitro via prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanguan; Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Huang, Lanfang; Tong, Haijiang; Chen, Ping; Lai, Dengming; Hu, Yaoqin; Cheng, Baoli; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2017-04-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to reduce sepsis-induced inflammation and improve survival in mouse models of sepsis. CD16 + monocytes are proinflammatory and abundant in inflammatory conditions such as sepsis. The primary objective in this exploratory study was to determine the effects of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on three subsets of monocytes from sepsis patients in vitro and to delineate the underlying mechanism. This is a prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) at an academic medical center. The levels of CD14 ++ CD16 + , CD14 + CD16 ++ , and CD14 ++ CD16 - monocytes from 23 patients in the early phase of severe sepsis or septic shock as well as 25 healthy volunteers were determined via flow cytometry after coculture with or without ASCs. To determine the molecular mechanisms, the effects of exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398 on monocyte phenotypes and cytokine expression were also examined. Basal levels of CD14 ++ CD16 + but not CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes were significantly elevated in severe sepsis and septic shock. A positive linear relationship existed between the levels of CD14 ++ CD16 + monocytes and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score as well as Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Coculture of ASCs with monocytes from sepsis patients for 24 h significantly reduced CD14 ++ CD16 + expression while increasing the CD14 ++ CD16 - phenotype. The coculture also significantly elevated PGE2, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP)4 levels generated from monocytes. Functionally, ASCs reduced the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and increased the interleukin (IL)-10 secretion in monocytes of septic patients. Furthermore, the effects of ASCs on the CD14 ++ CD16 + phenotype and cytokine expression were mimicked by exogenous PGE2 and abolished by the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. Additionally, ASCs also modified levels

  12. Sialoadhesin (CD169 expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progression.

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    Antoinette C van der Kuyl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sialoadhesin (CD169, siglec-1 or Sn is an activation marker seen on macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases and in tumours, and on subsets of tissue macrophages. CD169 is highly expressed by macrophages present in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. It is also increased on blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients with a high viral load despite antiretroviral treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated expression of sialoadhesin in untreated HIV-1 and HHV-8 infected patients, by real-time PCR and FACS analysis to establish its expression in relation to infection and disease progression. Patients analysed were either HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 7, in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection (n = 21, or in the AIDS stage (n = 58. Controls were HHV-8 infected, but otherwise healthy individuals (n = 20, and uninfected men having sex with men (n = 24. Sialoadhesin mRNA was significantly elevated after HIV-1, but not HHV-8 infection, and a further increase was seen in AIDS patients. Samples obtained around HIV-1 seroconversion indicated that sialoadhesin levels go up early in infection. FACS analysis of PBMCs showed that sialoadhesin protein was expressed at high levels by approximately 90% of CD14(+ and CD14(+CD16(+cells of HIV-1(+ patients with a concomitant 10-fold increase in sialoadhesin protein/cell compared with uninfected controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that sialoadhesin is induced to high levels on CD14(+ cells early after HIV-1 infection in vivo. The phenotype of the cells is maintained during disease progression, suggesting that it could serve as a marker for infection and probably contributes to the severe dysregulation of the immune system seen in AIDS.

  13. Improved flow cytometric identification of myelopoiesis by the simultaneous labelling with CD13, CD14 and CD66 monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, J; Meyer, K; Broe, M K

    1996-01-01

    in the fast determination of remission state. In MDS, the immature myeloid component could be distinguished in patients defined according to the FAB classification with the possibility of identifying aberrant phenotypes, the assay should also be of interest in other myeloproliferative disorders. Moreover......The aim of the present study was to increase our knowledge of myelopoiesis evaluated by flow cytometry. We therefore designed a triple-marker assay employing monoclonal antibodies against the CD13 (immature), the CD14 (monocytic), and the CD66 (mature myeloid) antigens using three...

  14. Microglial Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Facilitate the Cluster-of-Differentiation 14 (CD14)/Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)-Dependent Inflammatory Response*

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Li, Jin-Ping; Lannfelt, Lars; Lindahl, Ulf; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Microglia rapidly mount an inflammatory response to pathogens in the central nervous system (CNS). Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been attributed various roles in inflammation. To elucidate the relevance of microglial HSPGs in a pro-inflammatory response we isolated microglia from mice overexpressing heparanase (Hpa-tg), the HS-degrading endoglucuronidase, and challenged them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin. Prior to LPS-stimulation, the LPS-receptor cluster-of-differentiation 14 (CD14) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4; essential for the LPS response) were similarly expressed in Ctrl and Hpa-tg microglia. However, compared with Ctrl microglia, Hpa-tg cells released significantly less tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), essentially failed to up-regulate interleukin-1β (IL1β) and did not initiate synthesis of proCD14. Isolated primary astroyctes expressed TLR4, but notably lacked CD14 and in contrast to microglia, LPS challenge induced a similar TNFα response in Ctrl and Hpa-tg astrocytes, while neither released IL1β. The astrocyte TNFα-induction was thus attributed to CD14-independent TLR4 activation and was unaffected by the cells HS status. Equally, the suppressed LPS-response in Hpa-tg microglia indicated a loss of CD14-dependent TLR4 activation, suggesting that microglial HSPGs facilitate this process. Indeed, confocal microscopy confirmed interactions between microglial HS and CD14 in LPS-stimulated microglia and a potential HS-binding motif in CD14 was identified. We conclude that microglial HSPGs facilitate CD14-dependent TLR4 activation and that heparanase can modulate this mechanism. PMID:25869127

  15. [The frequency of peripheral blood CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guan, Shihe; Yang, Kai; Ye, Jun; Yan, Kaili; Pan, Ying; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Aihua; Sun, Beibei

    2015-10-01

    To study the frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and the relationship with biochemical characteristics, viral load and liver pathology. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood of 96 patients with CHB and 20 healthy control cases were detected by flow cytometry. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies as well as HBV-related serological tests were performed in HBV-infected individuals to analyze the biochemical characteristics, viral load and pathology. The data were assessed using Spearman correlation analysis. The frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the 96 CHB cases was (6.03 ± 0.09)%, which was significantly higher than that of the 20 healthy control cases (1.87 ± 0.05)%. The group of HBeAg positive cases had a significantly higher frequency of the peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs compared with the group of HBeAg negative cases and the healthy control group. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. There was no correlation between the frequency of peripheral blood CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs and HBV load. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with the liver inflammation grade, but not related with the fibrosis stage in patients with CHB. The frequency of CD14⁺HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs is negatively correlated with the inflammation of CHB.

  16. Expression of FOXP3, CD14, and ARG1 in Neuroblastoma Tumor Tissue from High-Risk Patients Predicts Event-Free and Overall Survival

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    Sara Stigliani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of children with metastatic neuroblastoma (NB > 18 months at diagnosis is dismal. Since the immune status of the tumor microenvironment could play a role in the history of disease, we evaluated the expression of CD45, CD14, ARG1, CD163, CD4, FOXP3, Perforin-1 (PRF1, Granzyme B (GRMB, and IL-10 mRNAs in primary tumors at diagnosis from children with metastatic NB and tested whether the transcript levels are significantly associated to event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS, resp.. Children with high expression of CD14, ARG1 and FOXP3 mRNA in their primary tumors had significantly better EFS. Elevated expression of CD14, and FOXP3 mRNA was significantly associated to better OS. CD14 mRNA expression levels significantly correlated to all markers, with the exception of CD4. Strong positive correlations were found between PRF1 and CD163, as well as between PFR1 and FOXP3. It is worth noting that the combination of high levels of CD14, FOXP3, and ARG1 mRNAs identified a small group of patients with excellent EFS and OS, whereas low levels of CD14 were sufficient to identify patients with dismal survival. Thus, the immune status of the primary tumors of high-risk NB patients may influence the natural history of this pediatric cancer.

  17. CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is not associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in a large South Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N

    2011-02-01

    Similarities have been drawn between models of endotoxic shock and gross and microscopic pathology observed in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases. Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of endotoxin receptors could affect the outcome of toxaemia, and could, therefore, play a role in SIDS. The CD14 gene promoter contains a single nucleotide polymorphism that affects the level of CD14 gene expression. The TT genotype of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism causes a significantly higher density of CD14 receptor expression on monocytes which makes the individual more sensitive to endotoxin than those with the wild-type (CC). This investigation was designed to determine whether SIDS infants have a higher frequency of the CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism compared with non-SIDS controls. One hundred and sixteen SIDS and 228 control infants were genotyped using PCR followed by restriction fragment length analysis of amplified product. Carriage of the TT or CT genotypes did not significantly differ between SIDS and control infants (P = 0.218 and 0.081, respectively). The frequencies observed in the control group were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and did not differ significantly from the published frequencies in Caucasian Australians. These results suggest that CD14 (C-260T) polymorphism is unlikely to be implicated in SIDS.

  18. Circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cell is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Zhang, Guangbo; Li, Guangbin; Ma, Haitao; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrate that a population of suppressive cells known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is key immune modulators which suppress antitumor immunity. In this study, we found that the level of circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in patients was significantly higher than that of healthy donors and was correlated with tumor burden, lymph node metastasis, and tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) clinical stage. More importantly, we for the first time find the level of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) is a biological indicator of poor prognosis through the analysis of 3-year overall survival. Furthermore, we evidenced that the proportion of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in the tumor metastatic tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) was notably higher compared to tumor-free TDLNs. Additionally, CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients expressed dramatically increased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) comparing to that from healthy control. Subsequently, blocking PD-L1 pathway by antibody could effectively reverse the suppressive effect on autologous T cell proliferation mediated by CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in vitro. In conclusion, our data revealed CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs which increase in ESCC patients is a novel poor prognostic indicator and may exert immunosuppressive properties through PD-L1/PD-1 pathway.

  19. Association between CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.

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    Zhengting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene encoding CD14 has been proposed as an IBD-susceptibility gene with its polymorphism C-260T being widely evaluated, yet with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this polymorphism and IBD by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen articles met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 18 case-control studies, including 1900 ulcerative colitis (UC cases, 2535 Crohn's disease (CD cases, and 4004 controls. Data were analyzed using STATA software. Overall, association between C-260T polymorphism and increased UC risk was significant in allelic comparison (odds ratio [OR]  =1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.43; P=0.027, homozygote model (OR  =1.44, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01; P=0.033, as well as dominant model (OR  =1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.75; P=0.016. However, there was negative association between this polymorphism and CD risk across all genetic models. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity suggested the risk-conferring profiles of -260T allele and -260 TT genotype with UC in Asians, but not in Caucasians. There was a low probability of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Expanding previous results of individual studies, our findings demonstrated that CD14 gene C-260T polymorphism might be a promising candidate marker in susceptibility to UC, especially in Asians.

  20. Rosiglitazone influences the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and CD14 receptor in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulc, T; Svobodová, H; Krupičková, Z; Doležalová, R; Marinov, I; Češka, R

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased inflammatory response, which may contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Experimental results demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity of glitazones; their effect on leukocyte adhesion molecules has not been studied to date. We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects. 33 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 32 healthy controls were included; patients were examined at baseline and after 5 months of rosiglitazone treatment (4 mg/d). Leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules LFA-1, CD18 and ICAM-1 was quantified using flow cytometry; in addition, CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) expression was analyzed as a marker of nonspecific immunity. The expression of examined molecules at baseline was higher in patients compared to controls. Despite only mild decrease in blood glucose, rosiglitazone treatment induced substantial decrease of CD18 and CD14 expression and borderline decrease of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression (on monocytes only). We thus observed improvement in the expression of leukocyte inflammatory markers after rosiglitazone treatment. This effect is supposed to be mediated by direct effect of rosiglitazone on PPAR-gamma receptors on leukocytes.

  1. Asian Zika virus strains target CD14+ blood monocytes and induce M2-skewed immunosuppression during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Suan-Sin; Chen, Weiqiang; Chan, Yen; Bowman, James W; Chang, Lin-Chun; Choi, Younho; Yoo, Ji Seung; Ge, Jianning; Cheng, Genhong; Bonnin, Alexandre; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Brasil, Patrícia; Jung, Jae U

    2017-11-01

    Blood CD14+ monocytes are frontline immunomodulators categorized into classical, intermediate or non-classical subsets, and subsequently differentiated into M1 pro- or M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages on stimulation. Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) rapidly establishes viraemia, the target cells and immune responses, particularly during pregnancy, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether African- and Asian-lineage ZIKV have different phenotypic impacts on host immune responses. Using human blood infection, we identified CD14+ monocytes as the primary target for African- or Asian-lineage ZIKV infection. When immunoprofiles of human blood infected with ZIKV were compared, a classical/intermediate monocyte-mediated M1-skewed inflammation by the African-lineage ZIKV infection was observed, in contrast to a non-classical monocyte-mediated M2-skewed immunosuppression by the Asian-lineage ZIKV infection. Importantly, infection of the blood of pregnant women revealed an enhanced susceptibility to ZIKV infection. Specifically, Asian-lineage ZIKV infection of pregnant women's blood led to an exacerbated M2-skewed immunosuppression of non-classical monocytes in conjunction with a global suppression of type I interferon-signalling pathway and an aberrant expression of host genes associated with pregnancy complications. Also, 30 ZIKV+ sera from symptomatic pregnant patients showed elevated levels of M2-skewed immunosuppressive cytokines and pregnancy-complication-associated fibronectin-1. This study demonstrates the differential immunomodulatory responses of blood monocytes, particularly during pregnancy, on infection with different lineages of ZIKV.

  2. LPS-induced expression of CD14 in the TRIF pathway is epigenetically regulated by sulforaphane in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Pröll, Maren J; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Zhang, Rui; Tesfaye, Dawit; Fan, Huitao; Cinar, Mehmet U; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Tholen, Ernst; Islam, Mohammad A; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Uddin, Muhammad J; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AMs) are important in defense against bacterial lung inflammation. Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is involved in recognizing bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through MyD88-dependent and TRIF pathways of innate immunity. Sulforaphane (SFN) shows anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses DNA methylation. To identify CD14 epigenetic changes by SFN in the LPS-induced TRIF pathway, an AMs model was investigated in vitro. CD14 gene expression was induced by 5 µg/ml LPS at the time point of 12 h and suppressed by 5 µM SFN. After 12 h of LPS stimulation, gene expression was significantly up-regulated, including TRIF, TRAF6, NF-κB, TRAF3, IRF7, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-β. LPS-induced TRAM, TRIF, RIPK1, TRAF3, TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-β were suppressed by 5 µM SFN. Similarly, DNMT3a expression was increased by LPS but significantly down-regulated by 5 µM SFN. It showed positive correlation of CD14 gene body methylation with in LPS-stimulated AMs, and this methylation status was inhibited by SFN. This study suggests that SFN suppresses CD14 activation in bacterial inflammation through epigenetic regulation of CD14 gene body methylation associated with DNMT3a. The results provide insights into SFN-mediated epigenetic down-regulation of CD14 in LPS-induced TRIF pathway inflammation and may lead to new methods for controlling LPS-induced inflammation in pigs.

  3. CD14 as a Mediator of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG Chronotropic Effect on Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannic, Tiphaine; Satta, Nathalie; Pagano, Sabrina; Python, Magaly; Virzi, Julien; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Frias, Miguel A; James, Richard W; Maturana, Andres D; Rossier, Michel F; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    In vitro and animal studies point to autoantibodies against apolipoprotein A-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgG) as possible mediators of cardiovascular (CV) disease involving several mechanisms such as basal heart rate interference mediated by a mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent L-type calcium channel activation, and a direct pro-inflammatory effect through the engagement of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/CD14 complex. Nevertheless, the possible implication of these receptors in the pro-arrhythmogenic effect of anti-apoA-1 antibodies remains elusive. We aimed at determining whether CD14 and TLRs could mediate the anti-apoA-1 IgG chronotropic response in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVC). Blocking CD14 suppressed anti-apoA-1 IgG binding to NRVC and the related positive chronotropic response. Anti-apoA-1 IgG alone induced the formation of a TLR2/TLR4/CD14 complex, followed by the phosphorylation of Src, whereas aldosterone alone promoted the phosphorylation of Akt by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), without affecting the chronotropic response. In the presence of both aldosterone and anti-apoA-1 IgG, the localization of TLR2/TLR4/CD14 was increased in membrane lipid rafts, followed by PI3K and Src activation, leading to an L-type calcium channel-dependent positive chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition of the Src pathway led to the decrease of L-type calcium channel activity and abrogated the NRVC chronotropic response. Activation of CD14 seems to be a key regulator of the mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent anti-apoA-1 IgG positive chronotropic effect on NRVCs, involving relocation of the CD14/TLR2/TLR4 complex into lipid rafts followed by PI3K and Src-dependent L-type calcium channel activation.

  4. MARCO, TLR2, and CD14 are required for macrophage cytokine responses to mycobacterial trehalose dimycolate and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M E Bowdish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all of the elements of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb pathogenesis, including pro-inflammatory cytokine production, granuloma formation, cachexia, and mortality, can be induced by its predominant cell wall glycolipid, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM/cord factor. TDM mediates these potent inflammatory responses via interactions with macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-dependent manner via phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, implying involvement of toll-like receptors (TLRs. However, specific TLRs or binding receptors for TDM have yet to be identified. Herein, we demonstrate that the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO, a class A scavenger receptor, is utilized preferentially to "tether" TDM to the macrophage and to activate the TLR2 signaling pathway. TDM-induced signaling, as measured by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter assay, required MARCO in addition to TLR2 and CD14. MARCO was used preferentially over the highly homologous scavenger receptor class A (SRA, which required TLR2 and TLR4, as well as their respective accessory molecules, in order for a slight increase in NF-kappaB signaling to occur. Consistent with these observations, macrophages from MARCO(-/- or MARCO(-/-SRA(-/- mice are defective in activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to TDM. These results show that MARCO-expressing macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TDM by cooperation between MARCO and TLR2/CD14, whereas other macrophage subtypes (e.g. bone marrow-derived may rely somewhat less effectively on SRA, TLR2/CD14, and TLR4/MD2. Macrophages from MARCO(-/- mice also produce markedly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection with virulent Mtb. These observations identify the scavenger receptors as essential binding

  5. [The expression and association of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like cells and interleukin-1β in ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Zhao, R; Ren, H; Zou, M J; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y

    2017-09-12

    Objective: To analyze the percentage of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) myeloid-derived suppressor cell-like cell subtypes(MDSCs) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) concentration in peripheral blood and ascites of ovarian cancer patients, and to explore their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Methods: Blood samples of 31 patients and ascites of 5 patients in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 2016 to December 2016 were collected. Blood samples of 20 healthy volunteers with matched age were collected as control. The percentages of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cell subtypes in CD14(+) monocytes were collected by flow cytometry and their phenotypes were analyzed. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of immunosuppression factors in this subtype. ELISA was used to analyze IL-1β concentration in peripheral blood and ascites of ovarian cancer patients and healthy controls. The correlation between CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cell percentage and IL-1β concentration was explored. The association between CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cell percentage, IL-1β concentration and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Results: The percentage of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cells in CD14(+) monocytes of peripheral blood of healthy controls was (2.30±0.49)%, and the percentage in ovarian cancer patients was (3.74±0.95)%, with statistical significance (t=6.96, PDR(Low/-) cells in peripheral blood ascites of ovarian cancer patients was (16.60±7.35)%, significantly higher than those in peripheral bloods (4.03±0.94)%(t=3.87, PDR(Low/-) cell percentage in ovarian cancer patients (R(2)=0.36 in peripheral blood, P0.05). The percentage of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cells and IL-1β concentration were associated with metastasis and FIGO stage of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: The elevated percentage of CD14(+) HLA-DR(Low/-) cells and IL-1β concentration might involve in the development of ovarian cancer.

  6. CD14+CD16+monocytes are the main target of Zika virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a paediatric study in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michlmayr, Daniela; Andrade, Paulina; Gonzalez, Karla; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The recent Zika pandemic in the Americas is linked to congenital birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. White blood cells (WBCs) play an important role in host immune responses early in arboviral infection. Infected WBCs can also function as 'Trojan horses' and carry viruses into immune-sheltered spaces, including the placenta, testes and brain. Therefore, defining which WBCs are permissive to Zika virus (ZIKV) is critical. Here, we analyse ZIKV infectivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and from Nicaraguan Zika patients and show CD14 + CD16 + monocytes are the main target of infection, with ZIKV replication detected in some dendritic cells. The frequency of CD14 + monocytes was significantly decreased, while the CD14 + CD16 + monocyte population was significantly expanded during ZIKV infection compared to uninfected controls. Viral RNA was detected in PBMCs from all patients, but in serum from only a subset, suggesting PBMCs may be a reservoir for ZIKV. In Zika patients, the frequency of infected cells was lower but the percentage of infected CD14 + CD16 + monocytes was significantly higher compared to dengue cases. The gene expression profile in monocytes isolated from ZIKV- and dengue virus-infected patients was comparable, except for significant differences in interferon-γ, CXCL12, XCL1, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels. Thus, our study provides a detailed picture of the innate immune profile of ZIKV infection and highlights the important role of monocytes, and CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in particular.

  7. Increased circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with poor prognosis in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Gu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Chao; Shao, Lijuan; Guo, Yajun; Fan, Kexing

    2015-01-01

    High expression of CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is correlated with immunosuppressive activity in various cancers, however, no studies have shown a correlation of these immunosuppressive cells with clinical outcomes in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate the number, frequency and clinical significance of CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low MDSCs in SCLC patients. The peripheral blood of 42 patients with SCLC and 37 healthy controls was analyzed by using flow cytometry. The relationships between the number and frequency of MDSCs, clinicopathological features and overall survival(OS) were analyzed. The prognostic value of MDSCs was tested by using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results demonstrated that number and frequency of peripheral CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low MDSCs were significantly increased in SCLC patients than in controls (pDR-/low MDSCs as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in SCLC patients during follow-up. Our study provides the first evidence that the frequency of CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low MDSCs negatively correlates with clinical outcomes in SCLC patients. The frequency of CD14(+)HLA-DR-/low MDSCs could be considered as a poor prognostic predictor in SCLC and the elimination of MDSCs during medical interventions may improve the prognosis of SCLC patients.

  8. Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 reduces efferocytosis in human macrophages: Role of CD14 and SR-AI receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligini, S; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Colli, S

    2016-10-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), a member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, is a multifunctional protein involved in numerous events spanning from cell differentiation, to signal transduction, apoptosis, and wound healing. It is expressed in a variety of cells, macrophages included. Macrophage TGM2 promotes the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and emerging evidence suggests that defective efferocytosis contributes to the consequences of inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerotic lesion progression and its sequelae. Of interest, active TGM2 identified in human atherosclerotic lesions plays critical roles in plaque stability through effects on matrix cross-linking and TGFβ activity. This study explores the mechanisms by which TGM2 controls efferocytosis in human macrophages. Herein we show that TGM2 increases progressively during monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and controls their efferocytic potential as well as morphology and viability. Two experimental approaches that took advantage of the inhibition of TGM2 activity and protein silencing give proof that TGM2 reduction significantly impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Among the mechanisms involved we highlighted a role of the receptors CD14 and SR-AI whose levels were markedly reduced by TGM2 inhibition. Conversely, CD36 receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were not influenced. Of note, lipid accumulation and IL-10 secretion were reduced in macrophages displaying defective efferocytosis. Overall, our data define a crucial role of TGM2 activity during macrophage differentiation via mechanisms involving CD14 and SR-AI receptors and show that TGM2 inhibition triggers a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  10. Atopy and new-onset asthma in young Danish farmers and CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 genetic polymorphisms: a nested case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, L A M; Bongers, S I M; Ruven, H J T

    2007-01-01

    genotyped 100 new-onset asthma cases and 88 control subjects for three CD14 SNPs, three TLR2 SNPs, and two TLR4 SNPs. Atopy at baseline (defined as a positive skin prick test to one or more common inhalant allergens) was found in 17 asthma cases (17.0%) and in 17 controls (19.3%). RESULTS: The CD14/-260T...... and atopy. OBJECTIVE: To study potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4 genes, and atopy and new-onset asthma in young farmers. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 1901 young Danish farmers. We...

  11. Double blockade of CD14 and complement C5 abolishes the cytokine storm and improves morbidity and survival in polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

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    Huber-Lang, Markus; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Pischke, Søren E; Sandanger, Øystein; Nilsson, Per H; Nunn, Miles A; Denk, Stephanie; Gaus, Wilhelm; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom E

    2014-06-01

    Sepsis and septic shock, caused by an excessive systemic host-inflammatory response, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The complement system and TLRs provide important pattern recognition receptors initiating the cytokine storm by extensive cross-talk. We hypothesized that double blockade of complement C5 and the TLR coreceptor CD14 could improve survival of experimental polymicrobial sepsis. Mice undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis were treated with neutralizing anti-CD14 Ab biG 53, complement C5 inhibitor coversin (Ornithodoros moubata C inhibitor), or a combination thereof. The inflammatory study (24-h observation) revealed statistically significant increases in 22 of 24 measured plasma biomarkers in the untreated CLP group, comprising 14 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and 8 chemokines, growth factors, and granulocyte activation markers. Single CD14 or C5 blockade significantly inhibited 20 and 19 of the 22 biomarkers, respectively. Combined CD14 and C5 inhibition significantly reduced all 22 biomarkers (mean reduction 85%; range 54-95%) compared with the untreated CLP group. Double blockade was more potent than single treatment and was required to significantly inhibit IL-6 and CXCL1. Combined inhibition significantly reduced morbidity (motility and eyelid movement) and mortality measured over 10 d. In the positive control CLP group, median survival was 36 h (range 24-48 h). Combined treatment increased median survival to 96 h (range 24-240 h) (p = 0.001), whereas survival in the single-treatment groups was not significantly increased (median and range for anti-CD14 and anti-C5 treatment were 36 h [24-48 h] and 48 h [24-96 h]). Combined with standard intervention therapy, specific blockade of CD14 and C5 might represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for treatment of polymicrobial sepsis. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes producing TNF-α in complication-free diabetes type 1 juvenile onset patients.

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    Myśliwska, Jolanta; Smardzewski, Marcin; Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Raczyńska, Krystyna

    2012-10-01

    We concentrated on the complication-free phase of juvenile onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) searching for associations between concentration of inflammatory factors TNF-α, CRP and VEGF and two monocyte subsets the CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+). We analysed a randomly selected group of 150 patients without complications (disease duration 2.74 ± 2.51 years) at the start of the project and 5 years later. They were compared with 24 patients with retinopathy (6.53 ± 3.39 years of disease) and 30 healthy volunteers. Our results indicate that in the complication-free period the concentration of TNF-α significantly increased and continued to increase after retinopathy was established. After 5 years the percentage and absolute number of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes doubled in complication-free patients. Our study indicates that the size of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subset may be used alternatively to CRP values as an indicator of inflammation grade. Our results imply the necessity of trials using anti-TNF-α therapy in the complication-free phase of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CD14++ CD16+ HLA-DR+ Monocytes in Peripheral Blood are Quantitatively Correlated with the Severity of Pre-eclampsia.

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    Tang, Mao-Xing; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Hu, Lian; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Liao, Ai-Hua

    2015-08-01

    We aim to investigate the proportion and absolute counts of peripheral blood monocyte subsets in women with normal pregnancy (NP) and pre-eclampsia (PE), and their correlation with the clinical manifestation and severity of PE. Peripheral blood was obtained from women with NP (n = 30), mild PE (MPE, n = 15) and severe PE (SPE, n = 30). The proportion and absolute counts of CD16(+) monocytes and the subsets including intermediate (CD14(++) CD16(+) HLA-DR(+) ) and non-classical (CD14(+) CD16(++) HLA-DR(+) ) monocytes were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Women with MPE and SPE had significantly increased absolute count of CD14(++) CD16(+) HLA-DR(+) monocyte subsets (P DR(+) monocyte subsets between MPE and SPE groups (P DR(+) monocyte subsets was significantly increased in SPE compared to MPE and NP (P DR(+) monocytes were positively correlated with the severity of PE. Multivariate logistic regression analysis further revealed that the absolute count of CD14(++) CD16(+) HLA-DR(+) monocytes was a potential marker for PE (P DR(+) monocytes is quantitatively correlated with clinical manifestation of PE. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Infiltrating CD16+ Are Associated with a Reduction in Peripheral CD14+CD16++ Monocytes and Severe Forms of Lupus Nephritis

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    Anabel Barrera García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to characterize glomerular monocytes (Mo infiltration and to correlate them with peripheral circulating Mo subsets and severity of lupus nephritis (LN. Methods. We evaluated 48 LN biopsy samples from a referral hospital. Recognition of Mo cells was done using microscopic view and immunohistochemistry stain with CD14 and CD16. Based on the number of cells, we classified LN samples as low degree of diffuse infiltration (<5 cells and high degree of diffuse infiltration (≥5 cells. Immunophenotyping of peripheral Mo subsets was done using flow cytometry. Results. Mean age was 34.0±11.7 years and the mean SLEDAI was 17.5±6.9. The most common SLE manifestations were proteinuria (91% and hypocomplementemia (75%. Severe LN was found in 70% of patients (Class III, 27%; Class IV, 43%. Severe LN patients and patients with higher grade of CD16+ infiltration had lower levels of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ Mo in peripheral blood. Conclusions. Our results might suggest that those patients with more severe forms of LN had a higher grade of CD14+CD16+ infiltration and lower peripheral levels of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ Mo and might reflect a recruitment process in renal tissues. However, given the small sample, our results must be interpreted carefully.

  15. Aberrant overexpression of CD14 on granulocytes sensitizes the innate immune response in mDia1 heterozygous del(5q) MDS.

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    Keerthivasan, Ganesan; Mei, Yang; Zhao, Baobing; Zhang, Ling; Harris, Chad E; Gao, Juehua; Basiorka, Ashley A; Schipma, Matthew J; McElherne, James; Yang, Jing; Verma, Amit K; Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline; List, Alan F; Williams, David A; Ji, Peng

    2014-07-31

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) include a spectrum of stem cell malignancies characterized by an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Heterozygous loss of chromosome 5q (del[5q]) is the most common cytogenetic abnormality in MDS. DIAPH1 is localized to 5q31 and encodes one of the formin proteins, mDia1, which is involved in linear actin polymerization. Mice with mDia1 deficiency develop hematologic features with age mimicking human myeloid neoplasm, but its role in the pathogenesis of MDS is unclear. Here we report that mDia1 heterozygous and knockout mice develop MDS phenotypes with age. In these mice, CD14 was aberrantly overexpressed on granulocytes in a cell-autonomous manner, leading to a hypersensitive innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimuli through CD14/Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Chronic stimulation with LPS accelerated the development of MDS in mDia1 heterozygous and knockout mice that can be rescued by lenalidomide. Similar findings of CD14 overexpression were observed on the bone marrow granulocytes of del(5q) MDS patients. Mechanistically, mDia1 deficiency led to a downregulation of membrane-associated genes and a specific upregulation of CD14 messenger RNA in granulocytes, but not in other lineages. These results underscore the significance of mDia1 heterozygosity in deregulated innate immune responses in del(5q) MDS. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology

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    Pleijster Jolein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the CD14 -260 C>T polymorphism in the susceptibility to and severity (defined as subfertility and/or tubal pathology of C. trachomatis infection in Dutch Caucasian women. Methods The different CD14 -260 C>T genotypes were assessed by PCR-based RFLP analysis in three cohorts: 1 A cohort (n = 576 of women attending a STD clinic, 2 a cohort (n = 253 of women with subfertility, and 3 an ethnically matched control cohort (n = 170. The following variables were used in the analysis: In cohort 1 the CT-DNA status, CT IgG serology status, self-reported symptoms and in cohort 2, the CT IgG serology status and the tubal status at laparoscopy. Results In the control cohort the CC, CT and TT genotype distribution was: 28.2%, 48.2%, and 23.5% respectively. No differences were found in the overall prevalence of CD14 -260 genotypes (28.1%, 50.7%, and 21.2% in cohort 1 when compared to the control cohort. Also no differences were observed in women with or without CT-DNA, with or without serological CT responses, with or without symptoms, or in combinations of these three variables. In subfertile women with tubal pathology (cohort 2, n = 50 the genotype distribution was 28.0%, 48.0%, and 24.0% and in subfertile women without tubal pathology (n = 203, 27.6%, 49.3% and 23.2%. The genotype distribution was unchanged when CT IgG status was introduced in the analyses. Conclusion The CD14 -260 C>T genotype distributions were identical in all three cohorts, showing that this polymorphism is not involved in the susceptibility to or severity of sequelae of C. trachomatis

  17. Exercise training-induced lowering of inflammatory (CD14+CD16+) monocytes: a role in the anti-inflammatory influence of exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Kyle L; Flynn, Michael G; Coen, Paul M; Markofski, Melissa M; Pence, Brandt D

    2008-11-01

    Exercise training or higher levels of physical activity are known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. CD14+CD16+ monocytes are potent producers of inflammatory proteins, and elevated levels of these "inflammatory" monocytes have been implicated in disease development. Little is known about the influence of exercise training on this cell population. On the basis of their physical activity pattern, male and female subjects, 65-80 years old, were assigned to a physically active (PA; n=15) or inactive (PI; n=15) group. The PI group performed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of endurance (20 min at 70-80% heart-rate reserve) and resistance exercise training (eight exercises, two sets at 70-80% of one repetition maximum). Subjects in the PA group maintained their habitual activity level. Flow cytometry was used to determine monocyte phenotype and monocyte TLR4 expression. ELISAs were used to measure whole blood, LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP). At baseline, the PA group had a lower percentage of CD14+CD16+ monocytes and lower unstimulated production of TNF-alpha than the PI group. CD14+CD16+ monocyte percentage and 1 ng/ml LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production were reduced after the PI group underwent 12 weeks of exercise training. PI subjects also had higher TLR4 expression on classical monocytes, but there were no significant exercise training-induced changes in monocyte TLR4 expression. The PA group had significantly lower serum CRP than the PI group. Physical activity was associated with lower CD14+CD16+ monocyte percentage and LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production. Exercise training-induced reductions in CD14+CD16+ monocytes may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training.

  18. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  19. Sensitivity to House Dust Mites Allergens with Atopic Asthma and Its Relationship with CD14 C(-159T) Polymorphism in Patients of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan; Dutta, Shampa; Podder, Sanjoy; Mondal, Priti; Laha, Arghya; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Moitra, Saibal; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-10-17

    India is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics, and asthma prevalence is increasing in Indian metropolitan area, including Kolkata, West Bengal. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors are involved in asthma. Genome-wide search for susceptible loci regulating IgE response (atopy) have identified a candidate gene CD14 which is most important in the context of allergic responses of respiratory system. This study was aimed to investigate the role of house dust and house dust mites in development of bronchial asthma and to explore the possible association of candidate gene CD14 with disease manifestation among Kolkata patient population. Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 8 aeroallergens, including house dust and house dust mites and total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE were measured. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was done in patients and nonasthmatic control (n = 255 in each) to characterize a functional polymorphism, C(-159)T, of CD14, a positional candidate gene for allergy. We identified house dust as the most common aeroallergen sensitizer among atopic patients in Kolkata followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mites. Patient's sera contain significantly higher IgE level than that of control. Allergen-specific IgE antibody test revealed that 76.36% patients had specific IgE antibody against D. pteronyssinus mite. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles and genotypes for CD14 polymorphism with an increase in disease severity. So, in Kolkata, house dust mite is a common aeroallergen and D. pteronyssinus is predominant among mites. The present study revealed that bronchial asthma has a genetic background. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+) monocytes and CD34 (+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Cyprian C; Tarrant-Elorza, Margaret; Pari, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latent infection in CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells remain poorly identified. Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+) and CD34 (+) cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. The gene expression profile from natural infection in HCMV seropositive donors closely matched experimental latency models, and included two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), RNA4.9 and RNA2.7 as well as the mRNAs encoding replication factors UL84 and UL44. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+) monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. RNA4.9 interacts with components of the polycomb repression complex (PRC) as well as with the MIE promoter region where the enrichment of the repressive H3K27me3 mark suggests that this lncRNA represses transcription. Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE), which identifies nucleosome-depleted viral DNA, was used to confirm that latent mRNAs were associated with actively transcribed, FAIRE analysis also showed that the terminal repeat (TR) region of the latent viral genome is depleted of nucleosomes suggesting that this region may contain an element mediating viral genome maintenance. ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+) monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance.

  1. Cis and trans acting factors involved in human cytomegalovirus experimental and natural latent infection of CD14 (+ monocytes and CD34 (+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprian C Rossetto

    Full Text Available The parameters involved in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV latent infection in CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells remain poorly identified. Using next generation sequencing we deduced the transcriptome of HCMV latently infected CD14 (+ and CD34 (+ cells in experimental as well as natural latency settings. The gene expression profile from natural infection in HCMV seropositive donors closely matched experimental latency models, and included two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, RNA4.9 and RNA2.7 as well as the mRNAs encoding replication factors UL84 and UL44. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on experimentally infected CD14 (+ monocytes followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq were employed to demonstrate both UL84 and UL44 proteins interacted with the latent viral genome and overlapped at 5 of the 8 loci identified. RNA4.9 interacts with components of the polycomb repression complex (PRC as well as with the MIE promoter region where the enrichment of the repressive H3K27me3 mark suggests that this lncRNA represses transcription. Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements (FAIRE, which identifies nucleosome-depleted viral DNA, was used to confirm that latent mRNAs were associated with actively transcribed, FAIRE analysis also showed that the terminal repeat (TR region of the latent viral genome is depleted of nucleosomes suggesting that this region may contain an element mediating viral genome maintenance. ChIP assays show that the viral TR region interacts with factors associated with the pre replication complex and a plasmid subclone containing the HCMV TR element persisted in latently infected CD14 (+ monocytes, strongly suggesting that the TR region mediates viral chromosome maintenance.

  2. Presepsin (Soluble CD14 Subtype): Reference Ranges of a New Sepsis Marker in Term and Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugni, Lorenza; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Milani, Silvano; Vener, Claudia; Ronchi, Andrea; Falbo, Mariella; Arghittu, Milena; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype) has been shown to be beneficial as a sepsis marker in adults. Nevertheless, very few data are available in neonates. The aim of the present study was to determine reference ranges of presepsin in term and preterm neonates. Healthy term neonates and preterm neonates without clinical signs of infection admitted to the Neonatal Unit were consecutively enrolled. Presepsin concentrations in whole blood were measured using a point-of-care assay system located in the Unit. Demographic data, antenatal and perinatal variables commonly affecting C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values were considered. Of the 684 neonates enrolled in the study, 484 (70.8%) were born at term and 200 (29.2%) were preterm (24-36 weeks' gestation). In term infants, presepsin median value was 603.5 pg/mL (interquartile range: 466.5-791 pg/mL; 5th and 95th centiles: 315 and 1178 pg/mL respectively). In preterm infants, presepsin median value was slightly higher, equal to 620 pg/mL (interquartile range: 503-864 pg/mL; 5th and 95th centiles: 352 and 1370 pg/mL respectively). The reference ranges of presepsin we determined were much higher than those seen in healthy adults. No correlation between presepsin levels and postnatal age was observed, as well as no significant difference was demonstrated in preterm neonates at different gestational ages. None of the variables analyzed affected presepsin levels at a clinical significant extent. For the first time, this study provides reference ranges of presepsin in term and preterm neonates. Having reliable reference values is crucial for obtaining an adequate diagnostic accuracy. Based on our results, most variables commonly affecting C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values do not affect presepsin levels, which suggests that presepsin could be an effective sepsis marker. Further investigations in large groups of neonates with sepsis are needed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of this biomarker.

  3. Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni endotoxin promotes dendritic cell-mediated B cell responses through CD14-dependent production of IFN-β and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Ruth; van Rijs, Wouter; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J; Kuijf, Mark L; Laman, Jon D; Samsom, Janneke N; Jacobs, Bart C

    2013-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis and often precedes development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a life-threatening paralytic disease. The incorporation of the carbohydrate sialic acid into C. jejuni lipooligosaccharides (LOS) is associated with increased severity of gastroenteritis and with induction of GBS; however, the underlying mechanisms remain completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that sialic acids in C. jejuni endotoxin enhance the rapid production of IFN-β and TNF-α by human dendritic cells (DCs). Using neutralizing Abs and receptors it was shown that these DC-derived cytokines promote the proliferation of human mucosal B cells in a T cell-independent manner. The production of both IFN-β and TNF-α by DCs in response to LOS requires CD14, and the amplified response of DCs to sialylated C. jejuni LOS is CD14 dependent. Together, these results indicate that sialylation of C. jejuni LOS increases DC activation and promotes subsequent B cell responses through CD14-driven production of IFN-β and TNF-α. This enhanced DC/B cell response may explain the increased pathogenicity of sialylated C. jejuni and may be key to the initiation of B cell-mediated autoimmunity in GBS.

  4. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Neoglycoconjugate Containing the Human Milk Sugar LNFPIII Drives Anti-Inflammatory Activation of Antigen Presenting Cells in a CD14 Dependent Pathway.

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    Smanla Tundup

    Full Text Available The milk pentasaccharide LNFPIII has therapeutic action for metabolic and autoimmune diseases and prolongs transplant survival in mice when presented as a neoglycoconjugate. Within LNFPIII is the Lewisx trisaccharide, expressed by many helminth parasites. In humans, LNFPIII is found in human milk and also known as stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. LNFPIII-NGC drives alternative activation of macrophages and dendritic cells via NFκB activation in a TLR4 dependent mechanism. However, the connection between LNFPIII-NGC activation of APCs, TLR4 signaling and subsequent MAP kinase signaling leading to anti-inflammatory activation of APCs remains unknown. In this study we determined that the innate receptor CD14 was essential for LNFPIII-NGC induction of both ERK and NFkB activation in APCs. Induction of ERK activation by LNFPIII-NGC was completely dependent on CD14/TLR4-Ras-Raf1/TPL2-MEK axis in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs. In addition, LNFPIII-NGC preferentially induced the production of Th2 "favoring" chemokines CCL22 and matrix metalloprotease protein-9 in a CD14 dependent manner in BMDCs. In contrast, LNFPIII-NGC induces significantly lower levels of Th1 "favoring" chemokines, MIP1α, MIP1β and MIP-2 compared to levels in LPS stimulated cells. Interestingly, NGC of the identical human milk sugar LNnT, minus the alpha 1-3 linked fucose, failed to activate APCs via TLR4/MD2/CD14 receptor complex, suggesting that the alpha 1-3 linked fucose in LNFPIII and not on LNnT, is required for this process. Using specific chemical inhibitors of the MAPK pathway, we found that LNFPIII-NGC induction of CCL22, MMP9 and IL-10 production was dependent on ERK activation. Over all, this study suggests that LNFPIII-NGC utilizes CD14/TLR4-MAPK (ERK axis in modulating APC activation to produce anti-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines in a manner distinct from that seen for the pro-inflammatory PAMP LPS. These pathways may explain the in vivo

  6. GM-CSF increases LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators via upregulation of TLR4 and CD14 in murine microglia

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    Parajuli Bijay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia are resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS and cause innate immune responses via the LPS receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and CD14, in a variety of neuroinflammatory disorders including bacterial infection, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF activates microglia and induces inflammatory responses via binding to GM-CSF receptor complex composed of two different subunit GM-CSF receptor α (GM-CSFRα and common β chain (βc. GM-CSF has been shown to be associated with neuroinflammatory responses in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanisms how GM-CSF promotes neuroinflammation still remain unclear. Methods Microglia were stimulated with 20 ng/ml GM-CSF and the levels of TLR4 and CD14 expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and flowcytometry. LPS binding was analyzed by flowcytometry. GM-CSF receptor complex was analyzed by immunocytechemistry. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in culture supernatant of GM-CSF-stimulated microglia and NF-κB nuclear translocation were determined by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO was measured by the Griess method. The levels of p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, p-p38 and p38 were assessed by Western blotting. Statistically significant differences between experimental groups were determined by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test for multiple comparisons. Results GM-CSF receptor complex was expressed in microglia. GM-CSF enhanced TLR4 and CD14 expressions in microglia and subsequent LPS-binding to the cell surface. In addition, GM-CSF priming increased LPS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO by microglia. GM-CSF upregulated the levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-p38, suggesting that induction of TLR4 and CD14 expression by GM-CSF was mediated through ERK1/2 and p38, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that GM

  7. CD14(+)CD15(-)HLA-DR(-) myeloid-derived suppressor cells impair antimicrobial responses in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Brenig, Robert; Lebosse, Fanny J; Singanayagam, Arjuna; Patel, Vishal C; Pop, Oltin T; Khamri, Wafa; Nathwani, Rooshi; Tidswell, Robert; Weston, Christopher J; Adams, David H; Thursz, Mark R; Wendon, Julia A; Antoniades, Charalambos Gustav

    2017-06-07

    Immune paresis in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) accounts for infection susceptibility and increased mortality. Immunosuppressive mononuclear CD14(+)HLA-DR(-) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) have recently been identified to quell antimicrobial responses in immune-mediated diseases. We sought to delineate the function and derivation of M-MDSC in patients with ACLF, and explore potential targets to augment antimicrobial responses. Patients with ACLF (n=41) were compared with healthy subjects (n=25) and patients with cirrhosis (n=22) or acute liver failure (n=30). CD14(+)CD15(-)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(-) cells were identified as per definition of M-MDSC and detailed immunophenotypic analyses were performed. Suppression of T cell activation was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction. Assessment of innate immune function included cytokine expression in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-9) stimulation and phagocytosis assays using flow cytometry and live cell imaging-based techniques. Circulating CD14(+)CD15(-)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(-) M-MDSCs were markedly expanded in patients with ACLF (55% of CD14+ cells). M-MDSC displayed immunosuppressive properties, significantly decreasing T cell proliferation (p=0.01), producing less tumour necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-6 in response to TLR stimulation (all pDR during disease evolution was linked to secondary infection and 28-day mortality. Recurrent TLR-2 and TLR-4 stimulation expanded M-MDSC in vitro. By contrast, TLR-3 agonism reconstituted HLA-DR expression and innate immune function ex vivo. Immunosuppressive CD14(+)HLA-DR(-) M-MDSCs are expanded in patients with ACLF. They were depicted by suppressing T cell function, attenuated antimicrobial innate immune responses, linked to secondary infection, disease severity and prognosis. TLR-3 agonism reversed M-MDSC expansion and innate immune function and merits further evaluation as potential immunotherapeutic agent. © Article author(s) (or

  8. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Colm P

    2012-02-03

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng\\/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection.

  9. Early Dynamics of Cerebrospinal CD14+ Monocytes and CD15+ Granulocytes in Patients after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postl, Lukas Kurt; Bogner, Viktoria; Beirer, Marc; Kanz, Karl Georg; Egginger, Christoph; Schmitt-Sody, Markus; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) the analysis of neuroinflammatory mechanisms gained increasing interest. In this context certain immunocompetent cells might play an important role. Interestingly, in the actual literature there exist only a few studies focusing on the role of monocytes and granulocytes in TBI patients. In this regard it has recently reported that the choroid plexus represents an early, selective barrier for leukocytes after brain injury. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the very early dynamics of CD14+ monocytes and CD15+ granulocyte in CSF of patients following severe TBI with regard to the integrity of the BBB. Cytometric flow analysis was performed to analyze the CD14+ monocyte and CD15+ granulocyte population in CSF of TBI patients. The ratio of CSF and serum albumin as a measure for the BBB's integrity was assessed in parallel. CSF samples of patients receiving lumbar puncture for elective surgery were obtained as controls. Overall 15 patients following severe TBI were enrolled. 10 patients were examined as controls. In patients, the monocyte population as well as the granulocyte population was significantly increased within 72 hours after TBI. The BBB's integrity did not have a significant influence on the cell count in the CSF. PMID:26568661

  10. Association between CD14 SNP -159 C/T and gastric cancer: an independent case–control study and an updated meta-analysis

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    Gong AM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ai-Min Gong,1,2,* Xin-Yuan Li,2,* Yi-Qiang Xie,1 Zhan-Dong Jia,3 Yuan-Xin Li,4 Yong-Yan Zou,5 Chang-Qing Xu,2,* Zhen-Yu Wang2,* 1Department of Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Hainan, 2Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 3Department of Nephrology, Ningbo Tradition Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated to Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Ningbo, 4The Fifth Department of Acupuncture, 5Department of Nephrology, Jining Tradition Chinese Medicine Hospital, Jining, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The association between CD14 -159C/T polymorphism and the susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC has been reported. However, the results were inconclusive. In the present study, a case–control study and a meta-analysis were performed to assess the possible association between -159C/T in the CD14 gene and GC risk. Patients and methods: Relevant studies were searched in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Wanfang database (last search was performed on December 30, 2015. In addition, a case–control study involving 164 GC cases and 169 controls was also performed in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by the software Revman5.3.Results: A total of ten published studies and the present case–control study involving 2,844 GC and 3,983 controls were included for the meta-analysis. The analysis result indicated that the T allele of CD14 -159C/T polymorphism did not confer risk for GC (in our study: [P=0.93]; in the meta-analysis: T vs 2N odds ratio =1.28 and 95% confidence interval (CI =0.95–1.24, [P=0.24]. However, we found a significant association in the recessive model (in our study: TT vs TC+CC [P=0.04]; in the meta-analysis: TT vs TC+CC odds ratio =1.12 and 95% CI =1.01–1.26, [P=0.04]. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis by ethnicity

  11. The study of CD14+HLA-DR-/low myeloid-drived suppressor cell (MDSC) in peripheral blood of peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients and its biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Sun, X; Song, Y

    2017-03-31

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma is the generic term of a group of heterogeneous disease in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To investigate the quantity of CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC and T cell subsets in peripheral blood of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) patients, and explore the biological functions of CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC in peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Flow cytometry was used to determine CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC and T cell subsets in peripheral blood of 33 peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients and 23 healthy cases; CD3 +T cells, CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC cells and HLA-DR+ cells were selected with magnetic activated cell sorting; Biotin-labeled micro magnetic beads (CD2 / CD3 / CD28) were used to stimulate amplification of CD3 + T cells, which were co-cultured and analyzed by flow cytometry for the effect of different concentrations of CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSC on the proliferative activity of autologous CD3+ T cells. 1. CD14+HLA-DR-/low cells / CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ CD25+regulatory T cells Treg /CD4+Tlymphocytes were 3.28% (0.40% -17.74%) and 8.81% (0.76% -78.11 %) respectively, higher than the healthy  control group with statistically significant difference (PDR-/CD14+ monocytes in nucleated cells of lymphoma patients were 8.81% (0.76%-78.11%) and 3.28% (0.40% -17.74%) respectively, which was in positive correlation (correlation coefficient r = 0.510), with statistically significant difference (P = 0.002); 3. When the ratio of CD14+HLA-DR-/low and T cells was 1: 1, the proliferation inhibition of MDSC on autologous T cell is the strongest; after adding nor-NOHA, an ARG1 inhibitor, proliferation of T cells was recovered to 75.09 ± 5.18 %, IDO inhibitor 1-MT made the proliferation rate of T cells recovered to 84.05 ± 2.93%, and the proliferation rate of T cells was recovered to 97.80 ± 2.20% after combination of the IDO inhibitor and ARG1 inhibitor. CD14+HLA-DR-/lowMDSC inhibit the proliferation of T lymphocytes, which may be related ARG1 and IDO.

  12. Bacterial wall products induce downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on endothelial cells via a CD14-dependent mechanism: implications for surgical wound healing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, C

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogenic cytokine which has been identified as the principal polypeptide growth factor influencing endothelial cell (EC) migration and proliferation. Ordered progression of these two processes is an absolute prerequisite for initiating and maintaining the proliferative phase of wound healing. The response of ECs to circulating VEGF is determined by, and directly proportional to, the functional expression of VEGF receptors (KDR\\/Flt-1) on the EC surface membrane. Systemic sepsis and wound contamination due to bacterial infection are associated with significant retardation of the proliferative phase of wound repair. The effects of the Gram-negative bacterial wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) on VEGF receptor function and expression are unknown and may represent an important biological mechanism predisposing to delayed wound healing in the presence of localized or systemic sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a series of in vitro experiments investigating this phenomenon and its potential implications for infective wound repair. VEGF receptor density on ECs in the presence of LPS and BLP was assessed using flow cytometry. These parameters were assessed in hypoxic conditions as well as in normoxia. The contribution of CD14 was evaluated using recombinant human (rh) CD14. EC proliferation in response to VEGF was quantified in the presence and absence of LPS and BLP. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis revealed that LPS and BLP have profoundly repressive effects on VEGF receptor density in normoxic and, more pertinently, hypoxic conditions. The observed downregulation of constitutive and inducible VEGF receptor expression on ECs was not due to any directly cytotoxic effect of LPS and BLP on ECs, as measured by cell viability and apoptosis assays. We identified a pivotal role for soluble\\/serum CD14, a highly specific bacterial wall product receptor, in

  13. ZSTK474, a novel PI3K inhibitor, modulates human CD14+ monocyte-derived dendritic cell functions and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Wen; Wang, Huafeng; Huang, Biao; Ge, Zhenzhen; Gu, Chao; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Juhong; Han, Rong; Peng, Meiyu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Da; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-10-01

    ZSTK474 [2-(2-difluoromethylbenzimidazol-1-yl)-4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazine] is a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor that exhibits potent antitumor effects. Recent studies have shown that ZSTK474 is also with anti-inflammatory properties in collagen-induced arthritis. However, the effects of ZSTK474 on dendritic cells and inflammatory Th17 cell-mediated autoimmune central nervous system inflammation are not understood. In this study, we demonstrated that ZSTK474 suppressed human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell differentiation, maturation, and endocytosis, and further inhibited the stimulatory function of mature dendritic cell on allogeneic T cell proliferation. In addition, ZSTK474 inhibited the expression of dendritic cell-derived Th1 and Th17 cells polarizing cytokines interferon-γ/interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-6/IL-23. Furthermore, our results indicated that the in vivo administration of ZSTK474, which targets the dendritic cell and inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cell, led to a reduction of clinical score, central nervous system inflammation, and demyelination of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, ZSTK474 significantly suppressed the human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell functions and ameliorated mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We further found that ZSTK474 inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K downstream signaling Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in the dendritic cell. These data suggested that ZSTK474 exerted potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties via PI3K signaling and may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Key messages: STK474 inhibits dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and maturation. ZSTK474 inhibits DC-derived Th1 and Th17-polarizing cytokines. ZSTK474 ameliorates EAE and suppresses DCs, Th1, and Th17 cells in EAE. ZSTK474 reduces CNS inflammation and demyelination of EAE mice. ZSTK474

  14. Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1-derived recombinant fragment rD-7 induces monocyte differentiation to CD14+CD206+ phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Brackenbury, Louise S; Hill, Darryl J; Williams, Neil A; Qu, Xun; Virji, Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Circulating monocytes in the bloodstream typically migrate to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, the process being determined by the constituents of the microenvironments encountered. These may include microbes and their products. In this study, we investigated whether Moraxella catarrhalis Ubiquitous Surface Protein A1 (UspA1), known to bind to a widely expressed human cell surface receptor CEACAM1, influences monocyte differentiation as receptor engagement has been shown to have profound effects on monocytes. We used the recombinant molecules corresponding to the regions of UspA1 which either bind (rD-7; UspA1527-665) or do not bind (r6-8; UspA1659-863) to CEACAM1 and investigated their effects on CD206, CD80 and CD86 expression on freshly isolated human CD14+ monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Exposure to rD-7, but not r6-8, biased monocyte differentiation towards a CD14+CD206+ phenotype, with reduced CD80 expression. Monocytes treated with rD-7 also secreted high levels of IL-1ra and chemokine IL-8 but not IL-10 or IL-12p70. The effects of rD-7 were independent of any residual endotoxin. Unexpectedly, these effects of rD-7 were also independent of its ability to bind to CEACAM1, as monocyte pre-treatment with the anti-CEACAM antibody A0115 known to inhibit rD-7 binding to the receptor, did not affect rD-7-driven differentiation. Further, another control protein rD-7/D (a mutant form of rD-7, known not to bind to CEACAMs), also behaved as the parent molecule. Our data suggest that specific regions of M. catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 may modulate inflammation during infection through a yet unknown receptor on monocytes.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Properties of Human Steady State CD14+ and CD1a+ Antigen Presenting Cells and Epidermal Langerhans Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia M Fehres

    Full Text Available Cutaneous antigen presenting cells (APCs are critical for the induction and regulation of skin immune responses. The human skin contains phenotypically and functionally distinct APCs subsets that are present at two separated locations. While CD1ahigh LCs form a dense network in the epidermis, the CD14+ and CD1a+ APCs reside in the dermal compartment. A better understanding of the biology of human skin APC subsets is necessary for the improvement of vaccine strategies that use the skin as administration route. In particular, progress in the characterization of uptake and activatory receptors will certainly improve APC-targeting strategies in vaccination. Here we performed a detailed analysis of the expression and function of glycan-binding and pattern-recognition receptors in skin APC subsets. The results demonstrate that under steady state conditions human CD1a+ dermal dendritic cells (DCs were phenotypically most mature as measured by the expression of CD83 and CD86, whereas the CD14+ cells showed a higher expression of the CLRs DC-SIGN, mannose receptor and DCIR and had potent antigen uptake capacity. Furthermore, steady state LCs showed superior antigen cross-presentation as compared to the dermal APC subsets. Our results also demonstrate that the TLR3 ligand polyribosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (pI:C was the most potent stimulator of cytokine production by both LCs and dDCs. These studies warrant further exploration of human CD1a+ dDCs and LCs as target cells for cancer vaccination to induce anti-tumor immune responses.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes Th17 expansion via regulation of human dendritic cells toward a high CD14 and low IL-12p70 phenotype that reprograms upon exogenous IFN-γ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Laursen, Janne Marie; Rosholm, Lisbeth Buus

    2014-01-01

    that Mtb modifies human DC plasticity by expanding a CD14+ DC subset with weak IL-12p70-producing capacity. The CD14+ Mtb-promoted subset was furthermore poor inducers of IFN-γ by naive CD4+ T cells, but instead prompted IL-17A-producing RORγT+ CD4+ T cells. Mtb-derived peptidoglycan and mannosylated...... lipoarabinomannan partly recapitulated the subset partition induced by Mtb. Addition of IFN-γ, but neither IL-17A nor IL-22, which are potentially produced by Mtb-exposed γ/δ-T cells in mucosal linings, inhibited the differentiation toward CD14+ DCs and promoted high-level IL-12p70 in Mtb-challenged DCs. We...

  17. Circulating pathogen-associated molecular pattern - binding proteins and High Mobility Group Box protein 1 in nascent metabolic syndrome: implications for cellular Toll-like receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Rajamani, U; Adams-Huet, B; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome, (MetS) a global epidemic, is a state of low grade chronic inflammation and confers an increased risk for diabetes and CVD. We have previously reported increased activity of the pathogen recognition receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), TLR2 and TLR4 in MetS. We hypothesized that increased TLR activity in MetS is due in part to increased levels of circulating PAMP-binding proteins, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and the damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP), High Mobility Group Box protein 1 (HMGB-1). We measured sCD14, LBP and HMGB-1 in fasting plasma from nascent MetS (n = 37) and healthy control subjects (n = 32) by ELISA. We also investigated the effects of sCD14 and LBP on TLR4 activity in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Following adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference, sCD14, LBP and HMGB-1 levels remained significantly increased in MetS. Also their levels increased with increasing numbers of MetS risk factors. Only sCD14 correlated significantly with monocyte TLR4 protein and activity. None of these soluble biomarkers correlated with TLR2 protein. Both sCD14 and HMGB-1 correlated significantly with HOMA-IR. In LPS primed HAECs, sCD14 compared to LBP, resulted in a greater increase in both TLR4 abundance and inflammatory biomediators (NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α). Thus, we make the novel observation that sCD14 reflects increased monocyte TLR4 protein and activity in nascent MetS and by contributing to increased cellular inflammation could explain, in part, the increased risk for diabetes and CVD. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Glucocorticoid Treatment at Moderate Doses of SIVmac251-Infected Rhesus Macaques Decreases the Frequency of Circulating CD14+CD16++ Monocytes But Does Not Alter the Tissue Virus Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniuszko, Marcin; Liyanage, Namal P.M.; Doster, Melvin N.; Parks, Robyn Washington; Grubczak, Kamil; Lipinska, Danuta; McKinnon, Katherine; Brown, Charles; Hirsch, Vanessa; Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari; Pegu, Poonam; Fenizia, Claudio; Flisiak, Robert; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Dabrowska, Milena; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Silvestri, Guido; Stevenson, Mario; McCune, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Subsets of CD16-positive monocytes produce proinflammatory cytokines and expand during chronic infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). HIV-infected macrophage in tissues may be long lived and contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the HIV reservoir. We found that the (intermediate) CD14++CD16+ and (nonclassical) CD14+CD16++ monocyte subsets are significantly expanded during infection of Rhesus macaques with pathogenic SIVmac251 but not during infection of sooty mangabeys with the nonpathogenic isolate SIVSM. In vitro glucocorticoid (GC) treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from uninfected or SIVmac251-infected Rhesus macaques and HIV-infected patients treated or not with antiretroviral therapy (ART) resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of both CD16-positive monocyte subsets. Short-term in vivo treatment with high doses of GC of chronically SIVmac251-infected macaques resulted in a significant decrease in the CD14+CD16++ population and, to a lesser extent, in the CD14++CD16+ monocytes, as well as a significant decrease in the number of macrophages in tissues. Surprisingly, treatment of SIVmac251-infected macaques with ART significantly increased the CD14++CD16+ population and the addition of GC resulted in a significant decrease in only the CD14+CD16++ subset. No difference in SIV DNA levels in blood, lymph nodes, gut, and spleen was found between the groups treated with ART or ART plus GC. Thus, it appears that high doses of GC treatment in the absence of ART could affect both CD16-positive populations in vivo. Whether the efficacy of this treatment at higher doses to decrease virus levels outweighs its risks remains to be determined. PMID:24432835

  19. Associação dos polimorfismos dos genes TGF-beta1, CD14, IL-4, IL-4R e ADAM33 com a gravidade da asma em crianças e adolescentes Association of TGF-beta1, CD14, IL-4, IL-4R and ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with asthma severity in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. J. de Faria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar, em uma amostra de pacientes com asma atópica persistente leve, moderada e grave, a associação entre os polimorfismos dos genes fator de crescimento transformante-beta1 (TGF-beta1 (C-509T e T869C, CD14 (C-159T, IL-4 (C-590T, IL-4R (ILe50Val e ADAM33 (S_2 com a gravidade da asma. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo clínico laboratorial prospectivo em pacientes com asma atópica persistente, comparados a um grupo controle no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Estadual de Campinas nos anos de 2006 e 2007. A análise do polimorfismo T869C do gene TGF-beta1 foi realizada pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR + sistema de amplificação refratária de mutação (ARMS. Os outros polimorfismos, C-509T do gene TGF-beta1, C-159T do gene CD14, C-590T da IL-4, ILe50Val da IL-4Ra e S2 do gene ADAM33, foram detectados por PCR e enzima de restrição. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 88 pacientes com asma atópica persistente (27 leves, 23 moderados e 38 graves e 202 indivíduos saudáveis, doadores de sangue. Em relação ao polimorfismo T869C (TGF-beta1, observou-se uma associação entre o genótipo CC e os pacientes com asma grave. Nenhuma associação foi encontrada com os polimorfismos C-509T (TGF-beta1, C-590T (IL4 e S_2 (ADAM33. Quando se comparou a distribuição da freqüência genotípica do polimorfismo C-159T (CD14 na asma grave com o grupo controle, foi observado um resultado significativo com o genótipo TT. Houve associação significativa do genótipo Val/Val (IL-4R com a asma leve. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que os polimorfismos T869C (TGF-beta1, C-159T (CD14 e Val/Val (IL-4R podem estar envolvidos na modulação da gravidade da asma.OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 (C-509T and T869C, CD14 (C-159T, IL-4 (C-590T, IL-4R (ILe50Val and ADAM33 (S_2 gene polymorphisms with asthma severity in a sample of patients with mild, moderate and severe

  20. Increased, but Functionally Impaired, CD14(+) HLA-DR(-/low) Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Psoriasis: A Mechanism of Dysregulated T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C; Young, Andrew B; Fiessinger, Lori; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Debanne, Sara; Groft, Sarah; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    The clinical extent of psoriasis pathology is regulated in part by defects in immune networks, including a defect in the suppressive actions of regulatory T cells. Recently, CD14(+) HLA-DR(-/low) monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs) have been shown to suppress T-cell activation as one of their suppressive mechanisms. However, little is known about the role of Mo-MDSCs and their functional relationship to T-cell suppression in relation to human chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. Despite psoriasis being a hyperinflammatory condition, Mo-MDSCs were elevated in psoriatic patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared to nonpsoriatic healthy controls (2.6% vs. 0.9%, P T-cell proliferation less efficiently than healthy control Mo-MDSCs. In addition, psoriatic Mo-MDSCs expressed reduced surface expression of programmed cell death protein 1 compared to healthy controls. Additional in vitro assays also demonstrated that psoriatic and control Mo-MDSCs both induce regulatory T-cell conversion from naïve T effector cells, but, importantly, the regulatory T cells induced by psoriatic Mo-MDSCs displayed decreased suppressive functionality. These results suggest that aberrations in psoriatic Mo-MDSCs prevent proper suppression of effector T-cell expansion and hamper the immune system's ability to correctly self-regulate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene-environment interactions between CD14 C-260T and endotoxin exposure on Foxp3+ and Foxp3- CD4+ lymphocyte numbers and total serum IgE levels in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L Keoki; Oliver, Jennifer; Peterson, Edward L; Bobbitt, Kevin R; McCabe, Michael J; Smolarek, Derek; Havstad, Suzanne L; Wegienka, Ganesa; Burchard, Esteban G; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine C

    2008-02-01

    Innate immune system stimuli, such as endotoxin, seem to affect allergy risk. Previously, we described gene-environment interactions between the endotoxin receptor polymorphism C-260T of the CD14 gene and endotoxin exposure on total serum IgE level; however, the mechanism of this interaction is not known. To examine whether this gene-environment interaction affects early CD4(+)Foxp3(-) or CD4(+)Foxp3(+) lymphocyte numbers. Participating children were part of a birth cohort in the Detroit metropolitan area. Participants were genotyped for the CD14 C-260T polymorphism. Endotoxin exposure was estimated from dust measured in the home when children were 6 months old. Intracellular Foxp3 protein expression, a regulatory T-cell marker, was used to characterize CD4(+) lymphocytes in blood samples collected at the age of 12 months; total serum IgE level was also measured at this time. Because race/ethnicity may confound or modify genetic associations, all analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. We observed a significant gene-environment interaction between CD14 C-260T genotype and endotoxin exposure on CD4(+) lymphocyte numbers, particularly CD4(+)Foxp3(-) lymphocytes. Stratified analyses suggest effect modification by race/ ethnicity on CD4(+)Foxp3(+) lymphocyte numbers, with a significant interaction in African American children but not in white children. The interaction between CD14 C-260T genotype and endotoxin exposure on total IgE levels was opposite that observed for CD4(+) lymphocyte numbers, suggesting reciprocal relationships. A gene-environment interaction between endotoxin and CD14 C-260T genotype on IgE levels may be the result of an upstream, opposing effect on CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)Foxp3(-) lymphocyte numbers. Race/ethnicity may affect which of these cell populations is affected by this gene-environment interaction.

  2. The activation of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 by mmLDL induces IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion in human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Favela Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease in which monocytes and macrophages are critical. These cells express CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 on their surfaces, are activated by minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL and are capable of secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was thus to demonstrate that the activation of CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 by mmLDL induces the secretion of cytokines. Methods Human monocytes and macrophages were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 prior to stimulation with mmLDL. Cytokine secretion was then compared to that observed upon mmLDL stimulation in untreated cells. Results Stimulation with mmLDL induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blocking CD14 in monocytes inhibited secretion of interleukin (IL-1β (72%, IL-6 (58% and IL-10 (63%, and blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 67%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 60%. Blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 73%, IL-6 by 69% and IL-10 by 63%. Furthermore, blocking TLR2 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 65%, IL-6 by 62% and IL-10 by 75%. In macrophages, we found similar results: blocking CD14 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 59%, IL-6 by 52% and IL-10 by 65%; blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 53%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 61%; and blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 69%, IL-6 by 67% and IL-10 by 65%. Blocking TLR2 in macrophages inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 57%, IL-6 by 40% and IL-10 by 72%. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 participate in the immune response against mmLDL by inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that the activation of these receptors by mmLDL contributes to the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis.

  3. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytose antibody-opsonised Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes more efficiently than other monocyte subsets, and require CD16 and complement to do so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingling; Feng, Gaoqian; Beeson, James; Hogarth, P Mark; Rogerson, Stephen J; Yan, Yan; Jaworowski, Anthony

    2015-07-07

    With more than 600,000 deaths from malaria, mainly of children under five years old and caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum, comes an urgent need for an effective anti-malaria vaccine. Limited details on the mechanisms of protective immunity are a barrier to vaccine development. Antibodies play an important role in immunity to malaria and monocytes are key effectors in antibody-mediated protection by phagocytosing antibody-opsonised infected erythrocytes (IE). Eliciting antibodies that enhance phagocytosis of IE is therefore an important potential component of an effective vaccine, requiring robust assays to determine the ability of elicited antibodies to stimulate this in vivo. The mechanisms by which monocytes ingest IE and the nature of the monocytes which do so are unknown. Purified trophozoite-stage P. falciparum IE were stained with ethidium bromide, opsonised with anti-erythrocyte antibodies and incubated with fresh whole blood. Phagocytosis of IE and TNF production by individual monocyte subsets was measured by flow cytometry. Ingestion of IE was confirmed by imaging flow cytometry. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes phagocytosed antibody-opsonised IE and produced TNF more efficiently than CD14(hi)CD16- and CD14(lo)CD16+ monocytes. Blocking experiments showed that Fcγ receptor IIIa (CD16) but not Fcγ receptor IIa (CD32a) or Fcγ receptor I (CD64) was necessary for phagocytosis. CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes ingested antibody-opsonised IE when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reconstituted with autologous serum but not heat-inactivated autologous serum. Antibody-opsonised IE were rapidly opsonised with complement component C3 in serum (t1/2 = 2-3 minutes) and phagocytosis of antibody-opsonised IE was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by an inhibitor of C3 activation, compstatin. Compared to other monocyte subsets, CD14(hi)CD16+ monocytes expressed the highest levels of complement receptor 4 (CD11c) and activated complement receptor 3 (CD11b) subunits

  4. Common TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kirstine Marie; Lindboe, Sarah Bjerre; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa

    2007-01-01

    consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-alpha, (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), CD14...... hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: We did not find any association between TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors...... appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis....

  5. Human Endothelial Cell Activation by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Is Mediated by TNF and IL-1β Secondarily to Activation of C5 and CD14 in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Stig; Gustavsen, Alice; Nilsson, Per H; Lau, Corinna; Espevik, Terje; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) play a central role in inflammation. E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression are essential for leukocyte recruitment and are good markers of EC activation. Most studies of EC activation are done in vitro using isolated mediators. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of pattern recognition systems and downstream mediators in bacteria-induced EC activation in a physiological relevant human model, using EC incubated with whole blood. HUVEC were incubated with human whole blood. Escherichia coli- and Staphylococcus aureus-induced EC activation was measured by E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression using flow cytometry. The mAb 18D11 was used to neutralize CD14, and the lipid A analog eritoran was used to block TLR4/MD2. C5 cleavage was inhibited using eculizumab, and C5aR1 was blocked by an antagonist. Infliximab and canakinumab were used to neutralize TNF and IL-1β. The EC were minimally activated when bacteria were incubated in serum, whereas a substantial EC activation was seen when the bacteria were incubated in whole blood. E. coli-induced activation was largely CD14-dependent, whereas S. aureus mainly caused a C5aR1-mediated response. Combined CD14 and C5 inhibition reduced E-selectin and ICAM-1 expression by 96 and 98% for E. coli and by 70 and 75% for S. aureus. Finally, the EC activation by both bacteria was completely abolished by combined inhibition of TNF and IL-1β. E. coli and S. aureus activated EC in a CD14- and C5-dependent manner with subsequent leukocyte secretion of TNF and IL-1β mediating the effect. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kakazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The innate immune cells can not normally respond to the pathogen in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT, and that this exchange influences the immune responses. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance observed in patients with advanced cirrhosis on the function of circulating monocytes. METHODS: We used a serum-free culture medium consistent with the average concentrations of plasma amino acids from patients with advanced cirrhosis (ACM, and examined the function of CD14+ monocytes or THP-1 under ACM that contained 0-300 nmol/mL L-Cys with LPS. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, we actually determined the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes, and evaluated the correlation between the plasma L-Cys/L-Glu ratio and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: The addition of L-Cys significantly increased the production of TNF alpha from monocytes under ACM. Monocytes with LPS and THP-1 expressed xCT and a high level of extracellular L-Cys enhanced L-Cys/L-Glu antiport, and the intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased. The L-Cys transport was inhibited by excess L-Glu. In patients with advanced cirrhosis (n = 19, the TNF-alpha and xCT mRNA of monocytes were increased according to the Child-Pugh grade. The TNF-alpha mRNA of monocytes was significantly higher in the high L-Cys/L-Glu ratio group than in the low ratio group, and the plasma TNF-alpha was significantly correlated with the L-Cys/L-Glu ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A plasma L-Cys/L-Glu imbalance, which appears in patients with advanced cirrhosis, increased the TNF-alpha from circulating monocytes via increasing the intracellular oxidative stress. These results may reflect the immune abnormality that appears in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

  7. Common TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms are not associated with disease severity or outcome from Gram negative sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Olsen Jesper

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes associated with sepsis and septic shock with conflicting results. Only few studies have combined the analysis of multiple SNPs in the same population. Methods Clinical data and DNA from consecutive adult patients with culture proven Gram negative bacteremia admitted to a Danish hospital between 2000 and 2002. Analysis for commonly described SNPs of tumor necrosis-α, (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 was done. Results Of 319 adults, 74% had sepsis, 19% had severe sepsis and 7% were in septic shock. No correlation between severity or outcome of sepsis was observed for the analyzed SNPs of TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 or TLR-4. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, increasing age, polymicrobial infection and haemoglobin levels were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion We did not find any association between TNF-α, IL-1β, PAI-1, uPA, CD14 and TLR4 polymorphisms and outcome of Gram negative sepsis. Other host factors appear to be more important than the genotypes studied here in determining the severity and outcome of Gram negative sepsis.

  8. NOD2, CD14 and TLR4 mutations do not influence response to adalimumab in patients with Crohn's disease: a preliminary report Las mutaciones de NOD2, CD14 y TLR4 no influyen sobre la respuesta al adalimumab en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn: informe preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barreiro-de Acosta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: adalimumab is a recombinant fully-human monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG1 antibody utilized in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Unfortunately no clinical or genetic markers exist to predict response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between selected genes involved in cytokine regulation and response to adalimumab treatment in Crohn's disease. Methods: twenty-four patients with Crohn's disease either naïve (n = 8 or had lost response or were unable to tolerate the chimeric anti-TNF antibody infliximab (n=16 were enrolled in the study. Patients were genotyped for main polymorphisms in NOD2, CD14 and TLR4 genes. Response to adalimumab treatment was defined as a decrease of Crohn's disease activity index of at least 100 points or a closure of at least 50% of fistulas in case of fistulizing Crohn's disease. Results: overall, 75% of patients did respond to treatment. However, no statistically significant association was found between any of the genotypes and the response to adalimumab. Conclusions: in our small study group no association between the studied polymorphisms and response to adalimumab was apparent. Systematic studies to search for genetic markers of response to anti-TNF therapy are necessary.

  9. Impaired activation of the innate immune response to bacterial challenge in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Elif; Krause, Daniela; Wildenauer, Agnes; Meyer, Sebastian; Gruber, Rudolf; Schwarz, Markus J; Müller, Norbert

    2014-08-01

    Infections resulting in immune activation have been proposed to play an etiological role in a subgroup of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). In order to further characterize the interaction between pathogens and the innate immune system the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 on CD14 + monocytes and soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels were analyzed in the serum of 33 Tourette patients and 31 healthy controls. Moreover, collected blood samples were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking a bacterial infection. TLR4 was analysed by flow cytometry, sCD14 was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients had a lower receptor expression of TLR4 after stimulation with LPS (P = 0.045) and higher levels of sCD14 (unstimulated P = 0.014, after LPS P = 0.045). The increase in TLR4 expression after stimulation with LPS was significantly higher in the control group (P = 0.041). Higher levels of sCD14, lower levels of TLR4 expression after stimulation and a diminished up-regulation of TLR4 expression after LPS stimulation in patients might represent an impaired activation of the innate immune response in TS, especially in regard to bacterial infection. The impaired response to pathogens could eventually lead to a higher susceptibility for infections. Recurring infections and a chronic inflammation could trigger and maintain the symptoms of TS.

  10. The predictive value of soluble biomarkers (CD14 subtype, interleukin-2 receptor, human leucocyte antigen-G) and procalcitonin in the detection of bacteremia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Vincas; Eidukaitė, Audronė; Tamulienė, Indrė

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of bacteremia/sepsis in childhood oncology patients with febrile neutropenia still remains a challenge for the medical community due to the lack of reliable biomarkers, especially at the beginning of infectious process. The objective of this study was to evaluate diagnostic value of soluble biomarkers (CD14 subtype, interleukin-2 receptor, HLA-G) and procalcitonin (PCT) in the identification of infectious process at the beginning of a febrile episode in pediatric oncology patients. A total of 62 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 37 childhood oncology patients were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were collected at presentation after confirmation of febrile neutropenia and analyzed according to recommendations of manufacturers. Patients were classified into bacteremia/sepsis and fever of unknown origin groups. Median of PCT and sIL-2R were considerably higher in bacteremia/sepsis group compared to fever of unknown origin group, whereas median of sHLA-G and presepsin levels between investigated groups did not differ sufficiently. PCT and sIL-2R determination might be used as an additional diagnostic tool for the detection of bacteremia/sepsis in childhood oncology patients with febrile neutropenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial translocation contribute to febrile episodes in adults with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wong

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14, measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077 elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066 and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030. In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212.

  12. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brooks I; Byron, Mary Margaret; Ng, Roland C; Chow, Dominic C; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology. Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL), 18 patients (19%) had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++) monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034) and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019). Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007). Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042). Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017). Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  13. Hyaluronan carried by tumor-derived microvesicles induces IL-10 production in classical (CD14++CD16-) monocytes via PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Marzena; Rutkowska-Zapala, Magdalena; Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Szatanek, Rafał; Węglarczyk, Kazimierz; Smallie, Timothy; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Löms; Zembala, Marek; Siedlar, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV) can mimic effects of tumor cells leading to an increased anti-inflammatory cytokine production, such as interleukin 10 (IL-10), by tumor-infiltrating monocytes and macrophages. Yet, the mechanism of IL-10 induction by TMV in monocytes remains unclear. The co-incubation of TMV derived from the human pancreas carcinoma cell line (HPC-4) with human monocytes resulted in a nearly 30-fold increase in IL-10 protein production. This effect operates at the level of transcription since monocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing IL-10-promoter luciferase reporter gene showed a 5-fold induction of luciferase activity after treatment with TMV. Since tumor cells can express hyaluronan (HA), which participates in tumor invasion and metastases, we have tested its effect on IL-10 expression. We showed that HA at the concentration of 100μg/ml induces IL-10 protein expression and the IL-10 promoter activation in monocytes. Moreover, hyaluronidase treatment of TMV reduced IL-10 protein production by 50% and promoter activity by 40%. Inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway reduced both, TMV-induced IL-10 promoter activity and protein production, and the same was observed in monocytes when stimulated by HPC-4 cells or HA. Inhibition of PI3K activity down-regulated phosphorylation of the Akt and (to a lesser extent) mTOR proteins in monocytes following TMV or HA stimulation. When comparing monocyte subsets, TMV induced IL-10 protein and mRNA synthesis only in classical CD14++CD16- but not in CD16-positive monocytes. Our data show that TMV induce IL-10 synthesis in human classical monocytes via HA, which, in turn, activates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++ Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks I Mitchell

    Full Text Available High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART. Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR. Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology.Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL, 18 patients (19% had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++ monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034 and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019. Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007. Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042. Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017.Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  15. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brooks I.; Byron, Mary Margaret; Ng, Roland C.; Chow, Dominic C.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology. Results Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL), 18 patients (19%) had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++) monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034) and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019). Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007). Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042). Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017). Conclusion Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study. PMID:27097224

  16. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide activates NF-kappa B and enhances tumor cell adhesion and invasion through a beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    Beta(1) integrins play a crucial role in supporting tumor cell attachment to and invasion into the extracellular matrix. Endotoxin\\/LPS introduced by surgery has been shown to enhance tumor metastasis in a murine model. Here we show the direct effect of LPS on tumor cell adhesion and invasion in extracellular matrix proteins through a beta(1) integrin-dependent pathway. The human colorectal tumor cell lines SW480 and SW620 constitutively expressed high levels of the beta(1) subunit, whereas various low levels of alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(4), and alpha(6) expression were detected. SW480 and SW620 did not express membrane-bound CD14; however, LPS in the presence of soluble CD14 (sCD14) significantly up-regulated beta(1) integrin expression; enhanced tumor cell attachment to fibronectin, collagen I, and laminin; and strongly promoted tumor cell invasion through the Matrigel. Anti-beta(1) blocking mAbs (4B4 and 6S6) abrogated LPS- plus sCD14-induced tumor cell adhesion and invasion. Furthermore, LPS, when combined with sCD14, resulted in NF-kappaB activation in both SW480 and SW620 cells. Inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway significantly attenuated LPS-induced up-regulation of beta(1) integrin expression and prevented tumor cell adhesion and invasion. These results provide direct evidence that although SW480 and SW620 cells do not express membrane-bound CD14, LPS in the presence of sCD14 can activate NF-kappaB, up-regulate beta(1) integrin expression, and subsequently promote tumor cell adhesion and invasion. Moreover, LPS-induced tumor cell attachment to and invasion through extracellular matrix proteins is beta(1) subunit-dependent.

  17. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available is also delineated in order to demonstrate the implications of local content on building design, construction and operation. The advantages and disadvantages of local content approaches are discussed and illustrated through examples. Finally, broad...

  18. Sex differences in monocyte activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available TLR7/8 and TLR9 signaling pathways have been extensively studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE as possible mediators of disease. Monocytes are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are understudied in SLE. In the current project, we investigated sex differences in monocyte activation and its implications in SLE disease pathogenesis.Human blood samples from 27 healthy male controls, 32 healthy female controls, and 25 female patients with SLE matched for age and race were studied. Monocyte activation was tested by flow cytometry and ELISA, including subset proportions, CD14, CD80 and CD86 expression, the percentage of IL-6-producing monocytes, plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-6, and urine levels of creatinine.Monocytes were significantly more activated in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls in vivo. We observed increased proportions of non-classic monocytes, decreased proportions of classic monocytes, elevated levels of plasma sCD14 as well as reduced surface expression of CD14 on monocytes comparing women to men and lupus patients to controls. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively related to sCD14 and serum creatinine.Monocyte activation and TLR4 responsiveness are altered in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls. These sex differences may allow persistent systemic inflammation and resultant enhanced SLE susceptibility.

  19. Expansion of IL-6(+) Th17-like cells expressing TLRs correlates with microbial translocation and neurological disabilities in NMOSD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Priscila O; Dias, Aleida S O; Kasahara, Taissa M; Ornelas, Alice M M; Aguiar, Renato S; Leon, Soniza A; Ruiz, Anne; Marignier, Romain; Araújo, Ana Carolina R A; Alvarenga, Regina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2017-06-15

    Different microbial antigens, by signaling through toll-like receptors (TLR), may contribute to Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of different Th17-like cell subsets that express TLR in NMOSD patients. For this study, the frequency of different Th17 cell subsets expressing TLR subsets in healthy individuals (n=20) and NMOSD patients (n=20) was evaluated by cytometry. The peripheral levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and cytokines were determined by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the proportion of peripheral CD4(+) T cells expressing TLR2, 4 and 9 was significantly higher in NMOSD samples than in healthy subjects. In NMOSD, these cells are CD28(+)PD-1(-)CD57(-) and produce elevated levels of IL-17. Among different TLRs(+) Th17-like subsets, the proportion of those that co-express IL-17 and IL-6 was significantly higher in NMOSD patients, which was positively correlated with sCD14 levels and EDSS score. By contrast, the percentage of TLRs(+)Treg17 cells (IL-10(+)IL-17(+)) was negatively related to sCD14 and the severity of NMOSD. In conclusion, the expansion of peripheral IL-6-producing TLR(+) Th17-like cells in NMOSD patients was associated with both bacterial translocation and disease severity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Chasekwa, Bernard; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H

    2017-09-15

    Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression. At 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants. HIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.

  1. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Alyssa; Blackburn, Corinne; Chin, Judith; Srinivasan, Mythily

    2014-08-31

    Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity.

  2. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Methods Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. Conclusions The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity. PMID:25174416

  3. Reduced diversity and altered composition of the gut microbiome in individuals with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloteaux, Ludovic; Goodrich, Julia K; Walters, William A; Levine, Susan M; Ley, Ruth E; Hanson, Maureen R

    2016-06-23

    Gastrointestinal disturbances are among symptoms commonly reported by individuals diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). However, whether ME/CFS is associated with an altered microbiome has remained uncertain. Here, we profiled gut microbial diversity by sequencing 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes from stool as well as inflammatory markers from serum for cases (n = 48) and controls (n = 39). We also examined a set of inflammatory markers in blood: C-reactive protein (CRP), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14). We observed elevated levels of some blood markers for microbial translocation in ME/CFS patients; levels of LPS, LBP, and sCD14 were elevated in ME/CFS subjects. Levels of LBP correlated with LPS and sCD14 and LPS levels correlated with sCD14. Through deep sequencing of bacterial rRNA markers, we identified differences between the gut microbiomes of healthy individuals and patients with ME/CFS. We observed that bacterial diversity was decreased in the ME/CFS specimens compared to controls, in particular, a reduction in the relative abundance and diversity of members belonging to the Firmicutes phylum. In the patient cohort, we find less diversity as well as increases in specific species often reported to be pro-inflammatory species and reduction in species frequently described as anti-inflammatory. Using a machine learning approach trained on the data obtained from 16S rRNA and inflammatory markers, individuals were classified correctly as ME/CFS with a cross-validation accuracy of 82.93 %. Our results indicate dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in this disease and further suggest an increased incidence of microbial translocation, which may play a role in inflammatory symptoms in ME/CFS.

  4. Phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase mediates CD14 dependent signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Tom; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is an important mediator of innate immunity and septic shock, but the exact mechanisms mediating cellular LPS recognition and the subsequent translation to inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood.

  5. Phosphatidyl inositol-3-phosphate kinase mediates CD14 dependent signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Tom; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, is an important mediator of innate immunity and septic shock, but the exact mechanisms mediating cellular LPS recognition and the subsequent translation to inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood.

  6. (1→3-β-D-Glucan: A Biomarker for Microbial Translocation in Individuals with Acute or Early HIV Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hoenigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3-β-D-Glucan (BDG is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury. This study evaluated BDG as a biomarker of gut integrity in adults with acute or early HIV infection (AEH.Methods: Study samples were collected longitudinally during study visits at weeks 0, 12, and 24 in a cohort of 11 HIV-infected men starting antiretroviral therapy during AEH. Blood plasma levels of BDG, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS were measured and then correlated with the proportion of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome, as measured by 16s rDNA sequencing by using mixed-effects models with random intercepts. Results: Mean BDG and sCD14 levels across subjects were associated with Lactobacillales after controlling for time effects and within-subjects correlations (p-values<0.05, while LPS levels were not. Specifically, each point increase in mean BDG and sCD14 levels across participants was associated with 0.31±0.14 and 0.03±0.01 point decrease in mean Lactobacillales proportions, respectively.Conclusions: BDG and sCD14 may be indicators of low Lactobacillales in the gut in adults with acute or early HIV infection, and serve as biomarkers of gut integrity and microbial translocation in HIV infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  7. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  8. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor–Mediated Inflammation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2′-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3′-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. PMID:26773018

  9. Human Milk Components Modulate Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, YingYing; Lawlor, Nathan T; Newburg, David S

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is central to innate immunity. Aberrant expression of TLRs is found in neonatal inflammatory diseases. Several bioactive components of human milk modulate TLR expression and signaling pathways, including soluble toll-like receptors (sTLRs), soluble cluster of differentiation (sCD) 14, glycoproteins, small peptides, and oligosaccharides. Some milk components, such as sialyl (α2,3) lactose and lacto-N-fucopentaose III, are reported to increase TLR signaling; under some circumstances this might contribute toward immunologic balance. Human milk on the whole is strongly anti-inflammatory, and contains abundant components that depress TLR signaling pathways: sTLR2 and sCD14 inhibit TLR2 signaling; sCD14, lactadherin, lactoferrin, and 2'-fucosyllactose attenuate TLR4 signaling; 3'-galactosyllactose inhibits TLR3 signaling, and β-defensin 2 inhibits TLR7 signaling. Feeding human milk to neonates decreases their risk of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, the TLR regulatory components found in human milk hold promise as benign oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for the many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders mediated by abnormal TLR signaling. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Markers of Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation Predict Cognitive Processing Speed in Heavy-Drinking Men Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie A. Monnig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. All participants met federal criteria for heavy drinking and were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT of a brief alcohol intervention. This secondary analysis utilized blood samples and cognitive scores (learning, memory, executive function, verbal fluency, and processing speed obtained at baseline and three-month follow-up of the RCT. In generalized estimating equation models, LPS, sCD14, and EndoCAb individually were significant predictors of processing speed. In a model with all biomarkers, higher LPS and sCD14 both remained significant predictors of lower processing speed. These preliminary findings suggest that inflammation stemming from HIV and/or alcohol could have negative effects on the gut-brain axis, manifested as diminished processing speed. Associations of microbial translocation and immune activation with processing speed in heavy-drinking PLWH warrant further investigation in larger-scale studies.

  11. Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is Elevated in HIV Infection but Not Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, Judith M; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Knudsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    with viral replication, immune activation, coagulation, platelet function, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, marker of endothelial dysfunction) and soluble CD14 (sCD14, marker of monocyte activation) were measured in plasma from two previously established cross....... CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV infection and in untreated compared with treated HIV infection. In untreated HIV infection, the main driver of endothelial dysfunction was viral replication. Importantly, in treated HIV infection, ADMA was not associated with subclinical...... atherosclerosis. Thus, our data question the potential of ADMA as a useful biomarker of early atherosclerosis in treated HIV infection....

  12. Associations between Cognition, Gender and Monocyte Activation among HIV Infected Individuals in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Royal

    Full Text Available The potential role of gender in the occurrence of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI and associations with markers of HIV-related immune activity has not been previously examined. In this study 149 antiretroviral-naïve seropositive subjects in Nigeria (SP, 92 women and 57 men and 58 seronegative (SN, 38 women and 20 men were administered neuropsychological testing that assessed 7 ability domains. From the neuropsychological test scores was calculated a global deficit score (GDS, a measure of overall NCI. Percentages of circulating monocytes and plasma HIV RNA, soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 levels were also assessed. HIV SP women were found to be younger, more educated and had higher CD4+ T cell counts and borderline higher viral load measures than SP men. On the neuropsychological testing, SP women were more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency and had a higher mean GDS than SN women. Compared to SP men, SP women were also more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency as well as on tests of learning and memory. Numbers of circulating monocytes and plasma sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher for all SP versus all SN individuals and were also higher for SP women and for SP men versus their SN counterparts. Among SP women, soluble CD14 levels were slightly higher than for SP men, and SP women had higher viral load measurements and were more likely to have detectable virus than SP men. Higher sCD14 levels among SP women correlated with more severe global impairment, and higher viral load measurements correlated with higher monocyte numbers and sCD14 and sCD14 levels, associations that were not observed for SP men. These studies suggest that the risk of developing NCI differ for HIV infected women and men in Nigeria and, for women, may be linked to effects from higher plasma levels of HIV driving activation of circulating monocytes.

  13. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  14. Energy Efficient Content Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo J.; Giroire F.; Liu Y; Modrzejewski R.; Moulierac J.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize energy efficiency in network, operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impact of using in-network caches and CDN cooperation on an energy-efficient routing. We formulate this problem as Energy Efficient Content Distribution. The ...

  15. Low levels of microbial translocation marker LBP are associated with sustained viral response after anti-HCV treatment in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nyström

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP and soluble CD14 (sCD14 could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome.Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART treatment were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21 or non-responders (NR; n = 15 based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects--were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24 and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18, based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up. χ2-test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers.Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06-0.31, p = 0.004 and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.86, p = 0.07.In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14.

  16. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  17. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  18. Branded content infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Ferrándiz, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  19. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  20. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  1. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  2. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  3. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  4. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  5. COVER AND CONTENTS PAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1998-01-01

    Includes: Front Cover, Editorial Information, Contents Pages, Dr. Carl G. Anderson: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Eldon D. Smith: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Kenneth R. Tefertiller: Lifetime Achievement Award, Eduardo Segarra: 1998-99 President

  6. Contents of Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Contents of Presentation. Introduction on Power Quality (PQ). PQ Definitions. PQ Standards. Causes of PQ problems. PQ Mitigation Methods. Improved Power Quality Converters. Conclusion.

  7. Long-term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Is Associated With Increased Microbial Product Translocation, Innate Immune Activation, and Reduced Immunologic Recovery in Patients With Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, J A; Rueda, A M; Somasunderam, A; Utay, N S; Lewis, D; Couturier, J P; Breaux, K G; Rodriguez-Barradas, M

    2017-10-30

    Translocation of microbial products from the damaged gut causes increased immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) predispose to bacterial overgrowth in the gut. We hypothesized that long-term use of PPIs is associated with greater microbial translocation and immune activation in HIV. HIV-infected persons on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), including those receiving long-term PPIs (PPI+ group) or not (PPI- group), were enrolled. We determined CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ (activated) T-cell frequency, and plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP). We recruited 77 HIV-infected participants (37 PPI+ and 40 PPI-) and 20 HIV-uninfected volunteers. PPI+ subjects were older and more likely to have hypertension and receive statins than PPI-. Nadir and enrollment CD4 counts, activated T-cells, and time on ART were similar in both groups. PPI+ group had higher sCD14 (2.15 vs. 1.50 mcg/mL, P immune activation and microbial translocation biomarkers than uninfected volunteers. In HIV, long-term use of PPIs was associated with increased microbial translocation, innate immune activation, and reduced immune reconstitution. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical implications of our findings. In the meantime, cautious use of PPIs is advised.

  8. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...

  9. Lead content of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D G; Aldous, K M

    1974-05-01

    The lead content of a number of foodstuffs, particularly baby fruit juices and milk, is reported. Samples were analyzed in quadruplicate by using an automated Delves cup atomic absorption procedure. A large proportion of the products examined contained significant amounts of lead. Of 256 metal can examined, the contents of 62% contained a lead level of 100 mug/l. or more, 37% contained 200 mug/l. or more and 12% contained 400 mug/l. lead or more. Of products in glass and aluminum containers, only 1% had lead levels in excess of 200 mug/l. Lead levels of contents also correlate with the seam length/volume ratio of the leaded seam can. A survey of bulk milk showed a mean lead level of 40 mug/l. for 270 samples; for canned evaporated milk the mean level was 202 mug/l. These data indicate a potential health hazard.

  10. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  11. Abdominal obesity contributes to neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients with increased inflammation and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Fred R; He, Jiaxiu; Letendre, Scott; Wilson, Cara; Sanders, Chelsea; Heaton, Robert; Ellis, Ronald; Franklin, Donald; Aldrovandi, Grace; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor; McCutchan, J Allen

    2015-03-01

    We tested our hypothesis that abdominal obesity when associated with increased levels of systemic and central nervous system immunoinflammatory mediators contributes to neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Cross-sectional. Six Academic Centers. One hundred fifty-two patients with plasma HIV RNA obesity, systemic inflammation (high IL-6), and immune activation in plasma (high sCD14) and CSF (high sCD40L). Abdominal obesity, inflammation, and central nervous system immune activation are potential therapeutic targets for NCI in HIV-positive patients.

  12. The Pursuit of Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library and information studies curriculum and suggests six areas that need to be addressed in addition to information access and collection development: assessing and filtering content, intermediation between the user and technology, negotiating ethical and regulatory difficulties, designing user-oriented services, managing knowledge…

  13. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content...

  14. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  15. Vitamin contents of archaebacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, K M; Barber, T S

    1988-01-01

    The levels of six water-soluble vitamins of seven archaebacterial species were determined and compared with the levels found in a eubacterium, Escherichia coli. Biotin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, and lipoic acid contents of Halobacterium volcanii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H, "Archaeoglobus fulgidus" VC-16, Thermococcus celer, Pyrodictium occultum, Thermoproteus tenax, and Sulfolobus solfataricus were measured by using bioassays. The archaebacte...

  16. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  17. Beyond Content of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2017-02-01

    Social interaction is pivotal to the formation of social relationships and groups. Much is known about the importance of interaction content (e.g., the transfer of information). The present review concentrates on the influence of the act of conversing on the emergence of a sense of solidarity, more or less independently of the content. Micro-characteristics of the conversation (e.g., brief silences, smooth turn-taking) can profoundly influence the emergence and the regulation of relationships and of solidarity. We suggest that this might be because the form of a conversation is experienced as an expression of the social structures within the group. Because of its dynamic nature, moreover, the form of conversation provides group members with a continuous gauge of the group's structural features (e.g., its hierarchy, social norms, and shared reality). Therefore, minor changes in the form and flow of group conversation can have considerable consequences for the regulation of social structure.

  18. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    the Digital Single Market (DSM). National and European authorities and legislators have created a host of – often industry- and sometimes business model-specific – initiatives, proposals and rules in order to facilitate the DSM and reconcile it with the territorial nature of copyright and its business......Copyright is territorial. But is the Internet? The Internet has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Yet, territorial segmentation of online content is a reality in the 28 EU Member States. Licensing and access practices do not reflect the digital reality, in which end......-legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  19. Radioactive content of charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Montero, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Extremadura, Sta.Teresa de Jornet, 06800 Merida (Badajoz) (Spain)], E-mail: pilar@unex.es; Duran Valle, C.J. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Jurado Vargas, M. [Departamento de Fisica, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Botet Jimenez, A. [Instituto del Corcho, la Madera y el Carbon, 06800 Merida (Badajoz) (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Coal and charcoal present similar physical and chemical characteristics. There is no standardized procedure to distinguish them. However, their differences in age and origin result in several differences in their natural radionuclide content. Moreover, charcoal can be contaminated with fallout. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs were determined in charcoal and coal samples in order to obtain evidence to distinguish the two kinds of sample.

  20. The content of intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    By distinguishing between prior intentions and intentions in action, Searle has helped solve a number of difficulties confronted by the earlier versions of the causal theory of actions. Yet this distinction also raises important new issues. In particular, once a distinction is posited between two types of intentions, one must specify what the exact nature of their respective contents is and explain how the two types of intentions are connected. I suggest that in addressing those issues we cou...

  1. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  2. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  3. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  4. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  5. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content...

  6. The Hazard Content of Cadmium, Lead, and Other Trace Elements in Some Medicinal Herbs and Their Water Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad A. Ababneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 54 samples belonging to 23 herbal species (15 individuals and 8 mixtures were analyzed for their contents of heavy metals in the raw materials and in their water infusions. Trace and toxic elements in these samples were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES following acid digestion. The order of decreasing mean metal concentrations in raw materials (mg/kg was found to be as follows: Fe (440 > Mn (162 > Zn (45.8 > Cu (12 > Pb (10.4 > Ni (5.4 > Cr (2.9 > Co (0.91 > Cd (0.5. It was found that 21% of the analyzed samples contain both Cd and Pb above their permissible limits. However, the infusions produced from these plants were found to contain fewer amounts of metals than the raw materials. Studied metals had the following mass transfer percentages to the infusion solutions (Fe: 3.5%, Cd: 14%, Cr: 15%, Pb: 20%, Co: 29%, Ni: 31%, Zn: 36%, Cu: 48%, and Mn: 53%. The estimated daily intake calculated for the toxic elements Pb and Cd through the consumption of herbal infusions was far below the tolerable daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  7. Cognitive Content Engagement in Content-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of aspects of pedagogy that can bring about students' cognitive engagement with academic content and, thus, use of the academic language in content-based language lessons in three middle schools in Xi'an, China. Two criteria--academic content level and depth of processing--were used to determine cognitive content…

  8. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  9. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  10. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    of being recorded.This paper is the result of an action research process where researchers lookedat teachers’ embedded practices to discover hidden skillsets and content.Teachers who were intimidated by moving from the presentation style lecture tovideo based one, are focused on the process and sometimes......Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... of the presented self and enablingparticipation in creating active learning environments. This unlocks the potentialfor whole institutions to make course and department wide moves towardsbetter classroom practice and e-learning opportunities....

  11. [Dynamics of inflammatory mediators and indices of antiendotoxic immunity in children with purulent-destructive pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritulo, L F; Bisiuk, Iu A

    2014-02-01

    There were examined 220 children, in whom purulent-destructive pneumonia (PDP) was diagnosed. Level of anti-inflammatory mediators and indices of the antiendotoxine immunity was determined in the blood serum, using immunoassay analysis, after admittance to hospital. There was established, that in PDP in children the concentration of anti-inflammatory mediators interleucines (IL--1 beta, IL-6) is enhanced, as well as of the tumor necrosis factor-- alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), while titre of antibodies to endotoxine class G lowers, and the level of lipopolisaccharid-binded protein (LBP) and soluble form of CD14 receptor (sCD14) is raised, not depending from the patient state severity.

  12. Real time release testing of tablet content and content uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Denham, Mike; Barylski, Ian

    2017-12-09

    A comprehensive commercial control strategy for tablet content and content uniformity focussed on the unit operation of compression is presented and is proposed to enable real time release for these critical quality attributes. The control strategy is based on process understanding, process control through compaction force weight control on the tablet press, periodic checks of mean and individual tablet weight combined with at-line testing of tablet content by near infrared (NIR). The application of the at-line NIR tablet content method is discussed and an acceptance criteria based on a parametric tolerance interval test (PTIT) is proposed. Sample handling limitations and spectral acquisition time for the NIR content method limit the sample size, however the chosen PTIT assures an appropriate level of batch coverage. Data are presented for ten commercial-scale batches that demonstrates the control strategy delivered the quality standard for content and content uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital content contracts for consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Loos, M.B.M.; Guibault, L.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The application of consumer law to digital content contracts encounters a number of obstacles. Some of these are rather typical for digital content markets, e.g., the legal consequences of the classification of digital content as "goods" or "services" and, more importantly, the absence of general

  14. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cooper_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Cooper_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 /var...

  15. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues that the Bank is addressing can be accessed here: http://www.exim.gov/generalbankpolicies/content/2013...

  16. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial IJRED

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPotency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia pp.33-38 N.A. Handayani and D. AriyantiThe Social Aspects and Public Acceptance of Biomass Giving the Example of aHungarian Region pp.29-43 Z. Bujdosó, C. Patkós, T. Kovács, Z. Radics and Z. BarosCultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME pp. 45-49 H. Hadiyanto, M.M. Azimatun Nur, and G.D. HartantoThermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a BiomassGasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine pp.51-55 P.V. Aravind, C. Schilt, B. Türker, and T. WoudstraBiodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process pp. 57-60 W. Widayat and S. SuhermanBiogas Production from Cow Manure pp.61-64 D.A. Putri, R.R. Saputro, and Budiyono

  17. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  18. Microbial translocation is correlated with HIV evolution in HIV-HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Tudesq

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP were used. Clinical, biological and immunological characteristics of the population were studied in order to correlate them with the intensity of the MT. We demonstrate that indirect markers of MT, LBP and CD14s, and a marker of intestinal permeability (I-FABP are significantly higher in HIV-HCV co-infected patients than in healthy controls (17.0 vs 2.6 μg/mL, p < 0.001; 1901.7 vs 1255.0 ng/mL, p = 0.018; 478.3 vs 248.1 pg/mL, p < 0.001, respectively, while a direct marker of MT (16S rDNA copies is not different between these two populations. However, plasma 16S rDNA was significantly higher in co-infected patients with long-standing HIV infections (RGM = 1.47 per 10 years, CI95% = [1.04:2.06], p = 0.03. Our findings show that in HIV-HCV co-infected patients, plasma 16S rDNA levels, directly reflecting MT, seem to be linked to the duration of HIV infection, while elevated levels of LBP and sCD14 reflect only a persistence of immune activation. The levels of these markers were not correlated with HCV evolution.

  19. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Inflammation, Monocyte Activation, and Coagulation in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy, Compared With Uninfected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Katherine W; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Booiman, Thijs; van der Valk, Marc; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Reiss, Peter

    2016-12-15

    Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163), and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former, and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels and was borderline significantly associated with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels. We found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected individuals as compared to uninfected individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cationic liposomal drug delivery system for specific targeting of human cd14+ monocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This invention concerns a liposome comprising lipids and at least one active ingredient, wherein at least one of the lipids is a cationic lipid; said liposome exhibiting a net positive charge at physiological conditions at which said liposome preferentially adheres to monocytes in freshly drawn b......, an infectious disease, an inflammatory disease, an autoimmune disease or allergy....

  2. Combined implantation of CD34+and CD14+cells increases neovascularization through amplified paracrine signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krenning, G.; van der Strate, B. W. A.; Schipper, M.; Brouwer, L. A.; Fernandes, B. C. A.; van Luyn, M. J. A.; Harmsen, M. C.

    Cell therapy strategies that use adult peripheral blood-derived CD34+ progenitor cells are hampered by low cell numbers and the infrequent cellular incorporation into the neovasculature. Hence, the use of CD34+ cells to treat ischaemic diseases is under debate. Interaction between CD34+ cells and

  3. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandler, Netanya G; Wand, Handan; Roque, Annelys

    2011-01-01

    Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with intestinal permeability and microbial translocation that contributes to systemic immune activation, which is an independent predictor of HIV disease progression. The association of microbial translocation with clinical outcome...

  4. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergens and associated genetic pathway in nasso-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE concentration was measured.

  5. The involvement of CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by peptidoglycan monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Muhvic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell-wall components of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce the production of cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These cytokines are the main mediators of local or systemic inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the development of innate immunity.

  6. Characterization of osteoclasts derived from CD14+ monocytes isolated from peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Grøndahl; Henriksen, Kim; Schaller, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Bone resorption is solely mediated by osteoclasts. Therefore, a pure osteoclast population is of high interest for the investigation of biological aspects of the osteoclasts, such as the direct effect of growth factors and hormones, as well as for testing and characterizing inhibitors of bone...

  7. CD14, TLR4 and TRAM Show Different Trafficking Dynamics During LPS Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, D.C.; Skjesol, A.; Kers-Rebel, E.D.; Sherstova, T.; Sporsheim, B.; Egeberg, K.W.; Stokke, B.T.; Espevik, T.; Husebye, H.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is responsible for the immediate response to Gram-negative bacteria and signals via two main pathways by recruitment of distinct pairs of adaptor proteins. Mal-MyD88 [Mal (MyD88-adaptor-like) - MYD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88))] is recruited to

  8. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Objective: Present study involved identification of offending out-door aero-allergens and associated genetic pathway in nas- so-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE con- centration was ...

  9. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    ... in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content...

  10. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  11. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  12. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  13. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  14. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.

    2005-01-01

    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  15. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  16. North Dakota Drama Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Roger; Lindekugel-Willis, Paula; Nilsen, Cheryl; Opp, Dean; Rauschenberger, Paula

    This document outlines the content standards for drama in North Dakota public schools, grades K-12. Following an introduction, the document lists the drama content standards: (1) Dramatic Literature; (2) Acting; (3) Production; (4) Cultural Context of Drama; (5) Consumer of Theatre; (6) Drama and Human Development; and (7) Drama and Other…

  17. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  18. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  19. A plasma biomarker signature of immune activation in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available Immune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression in HIV infection. Combinatorial plasma biomarker signatures that represent surrogate markers of immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART have not been defined. Here, we identify a plasma inflammatory biomarker signature that distinguishes between both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART and healthy controls and examine relationships of this signature to markers of disease progression.Multiplex profiling and ELISA were used to detect 15 cytokines/chemokines, soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R, and soluble CD14 (sCD14 in plasma from 57 HIV patients with CD4 nadir <300 cells/µl and 29 healthy controls. Supervised and unsupervised analyses were used to identify biomarkers explaining variance between groups defined by HIV status or drug abuse. Relationships between biomarkers and disease markers were examined by Spearman correlation.The majority (91% of HIV subjects were on cART, with 38% having undetectable viral loads (VL. Hierarchical clustering identified a biomarker cluster in plasma consisting of two interferon-stimulated gene products (CXCL9 and CXCL10, T cell activation marker (sIL-2R, and monocyte activation marker (sCD14 that distinguished both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART from controls (p<0.0001 and were top-ranked in variables important in projection plots. IL-12 and CCL4 were also elevated in viremic and aviremic patients compared to controls (p<0.05. IL-12 correlated with IFNα, IFNγ, CXCL9, and sIL-2R (p<0.05. CXCL10 correlated positively with plasma VL and percentage of CD16+ monocytes, and inversely with CD4 count (p = 0.001, <0.0001, and 0.04, respectively.A plasma inflammatory biomarker signature consisting of CXCL9, CXCL10, sIL-2R, and sCD14 may be useful as a surrogate marker to monitor immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART during disease progression and

  20. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  1. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  2. Content Literacy: A Definition and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Michael C.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Defines "content literacy" as the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline. Identifies three principal cognitive components: general literacy skills; content-specific literacy skills; and prior knowledge of content. Discusses the implications of content literacy for content area reading…

  3. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  4. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  5. Marketing engagement through visual content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marius Manic

    2015-01-01

      Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels...

  6. Global Content in Global Coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun Melliti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the issue of “globality” in global coursebooks as manifested in investing features of connectedness, avoiding inappropriacy, and preserving inclusivity. To do this exploration, two research methods, content analysis and the questionnaire, were adopted. The content of an example of global coursebooks, Headway Intermediate (H/I, in addition to the perception of 251 of its users at Institute Bourguiba for Living Languages (IBLV were investigated. The results obtained revealed that “globality,” in terms of connectedness, inappropriacy, and inclusivity is partial in H/I as learners’ perceptions of it do not map with the content in the coursebook. This study raises questions about the suitability of global coursebooks to globally diverse learners and reveals the necessity of taking measures in the direction of localizing the content of English as a foreign language (EFL coursebooks.

  7. Enhanced Contention Resolution Aloha - ECRA

    OpenAIRE

    Clazzer, Federico; Kissling, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Random Access (RA) Medium Access (MAC) protocols are simple and effective when the nature of the traffic is unpredictable and random. In the following paper, a novel RA protocol called Enhanced Contention Resolution ALOHA (ECRA) is presented. This evolution, based on the previous Contention Resolution ALOHA (CRA) protocol, exploits the nature of the interference in unslotted Aloha-like channels for trying to resolve most of the partial collision that can occur there. I...

  8. Marketing engagement through visual content

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general ...

  9. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  10. Contents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yayın Kurulu: Prof.Dr. Uğur ALPAGUT Prof.Dr. Murat ALTUN Prof.Dr. Yasemin AYDOĞAN Prof.Dr. Cemal AVCI Prof.Dr. Soner DURMUŞ Prof.Dr. Nesrin KALYONCU Prof.Dr. Metin ORBAY Prof.Dr. Murat ÖZBAY Prof.Dr. Mehmet TAŞPINAR Doç.Dr. Türkan ARGON Doç.Dr. Zeki ARSAL Doç.Dr. Bayram BIÇAK Doç.Dr. Bahri AYDIN Doç.Dr. Mehmet CANBULAT Doç.Dr. Eyüp COŞKUN Doç.Dr. Nihal DOĞAN Doç.Dr. Tolga ERDOĞAN Doç.Dr. Halit KARATAY Doç.Dr. Kemalettin KUZUCU Doç.Dr. Salih Paşa MEMİŞOĞLU Doç.Dr. Şenay Se...

  11. Contents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yayın Kurulu: Prof.Dr. Uğur ALPAGUT Prof.Dr. Murat ALTUN Prof.Dr. Yasemin AYDOĞAN Prof.Dr. Cemal AVCI Prof.Dr. Soner DURMUŞ Prof.Dr. Nesrin KALYONCU Prof.Dr. Metin ORBAY Prof.Dr. Murat ÖZBAY Prof.Dr. Mehmet TAŞPINAR Doç.Dr. Türkan ARGON Doç.Dr. Zeki ARSAL Doç.Dr. Bayram BIÇAK Doç.Dr. Sefa BULUT Doç.Dr. Mehmet CANBULAT Doç.Dr. Eyüp COŞKUN Doç.Dr. Nihal DOĞAN Doç.Dr. Tolga ERDOĞAN Doç.Dr. Halit KARATAY Doç.Dr. Kemalettin KUZUCU Doç.Dr. Salih Paşa MEMİŞOĞLU...

  12. Intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Duy M; Volpe, Gretchen E; Duffalo, Chad; Bhalchandra, Seema; Tai, Albert K; Kane, Anne V; Wanke, Christine A; Ward, Honorine D

    2015-01-01

    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have increased microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota may play a role in microbial translocation and inflammation. We profiled the fecal microbiota by pyrosequencing the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and measured markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in 21 patients who had chronic HIV infection and were receiving suppressive ART (cases) and 16 HIV-uninfected controls. The fecal microbial community composition was significantly different between cases and controls. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, Enterobacteriaceae, Erysipelotrichi, Erysipelotrichales, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Barnesiella was significantly enriched in cases, whereas that of Rikenellaceae and Alistipes was depleted. The plasma soluble CD14 level (sCD14) was significantly higher and the endotoxin core immunoglobulin M (IgM) level lower in cases, compared with controls. There were significant positive correlations between the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the sCD14 level; the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, and Enterobacteriaceae and the interleukin 1β (IL-1β) level; the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales and Enterobacteriaceae and the interferon γ level; and the relative abundances of Erysipelotrichi and Barnesiella and the TNF-α level. There were negative correlations between endotoxin core IgM and IL-1β levels. Patients who have chronic HIV infection and are receiving suppressive ART display intestinal dysbiosis associated with increased microbial translocation and significant associations between specific taxa and markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. This was an exploratory study, the findings of which need to be confirmed. © The Author 2014

  13. Immune factors and fatty acid composition in human milk from river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Heidi J; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Yixiong; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Frøyland, Livar; Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2013-06-01

    Breast milk fatty acid composition may be affected by the maternal diet during gestation and lactation. The influence of dietary and breastmilk fatty acids on breast milk immune factors is poorly defined. We determined the fatty acid composition and immune factor concentrations of breast milk from women residing in river/lake, coastal and inland regions of China, which differ in their consumption of lean fish and oily fish. Breast milk samples were collected on days 3–5 (colostrum), 14 and 28 post-partum (PP) and analysed for soluble CD14 (sCD14), transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1, TGF-b2, secretory IgA (sIgA) and fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of breast milk differed between the regions and with time PP. The concentrations of all four immune factors in breast milk decreased over time, with sCD14, sIgA and TGF-b1 being highest in the colostrum in the river and lake region. Breast milk DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) were positively associated, and g-linolenic acid and EPA negatively associated, with the concentrations of each of the four immune factors. In conclusion, breast milk fatty acids and immune factors differ between the regions in China characterised by different patterns of fish consumption and change during the course of lactation. A higher breast milk DHA and AA concentration is associated with higher concentrations of immune factors in breast milk, suggesting a role for these fatty acids in promoting gastrointestinal and immune maturation of the infant.

  14. Innate and adaptive immune responses both contribute to pathological CD4 T cell activation in HIV-1 infected Ugandans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Eller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disease progression is associated with persistent immune activation. However, the nature of this association is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated immune activation in the CD4 T cell compartment of chronically HIV-1 infected individuals from Rakai, Uganda. Levels of CD4 T cell activation, assessed as co-expression of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR, correlated directly to viral load and inversely to CD4 count. Deeper characterization of these cells indicated an effector memory phenotype with relatively frequent expression of Ki67 despite their PD-1 expression, and levels of these cells were inversely associated with FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. We therefore use the term deregulated effector memory (DEM cells to describe them. CD4 T cells with a DEM phenotype could be generated by antigen stimulation of recall responses in vitro. Responses against HIV-1 and CMV antigens were enriched among the DEM CD4 T cells in patients, and the diverse Vβ repertoire of DEM CD4 T cells suggested they include diverse antigen-specificities. Furthermore, the levels of DEM CD4 T cells correlated directly to soluble CD14 (sCD14 and IL-6, markers of innate immune activation, in plasma. The size of the activated DEM CD4 T cell subset was predictive of the rate of disease progression, whereas IL-6 was only weakly predictive and sCD14 was not predictive. Taken together, these results are consistent with a model where systemic innate immune activation and chronic antigen stimulation of adaptive T cell responses both play important roles in driving pathological CD4 T cell immune activation in HIV-1 disease.

  15. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines but Not Endotoxin-Related Parameters Associate with Disease Severity in Patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannie du Plessis

    Full Text Available Intestinal dysbiosis and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPS levels have been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. In order to determine if LPS levels are elevated in patients with NASH compared to patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL and, if elevated LPS levels correlated with histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD we compared LPS, markers of LPS bioactivity and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. At the time of surgery a liver biopsy was taken allowing the stratification into well-delineated subgroups including: No NAFL/NAFL; NASH; NASH with fibrosis and NASH cirrhotics, using the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS. Anthropometric data and plasma were collected for assessment of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, soluble CD14 (sCD14, intestinal-type fatty acid binding protein (iFABP, Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, 4 and a panel of cytokines/chemokines. Similar analysis was performed on plasma from a cohort of healthy controls. Our data indicate elevated levels of LPS, LBP, sCD14, iFABP and TLR2,4 in obese patients compared to healthy controls, however, these parameters remained unaltered within patients with limited liver disease (NAFL compared to NASH/NASH with fibrosis subgroups. Hierarchic cluster analysis using endotoxin-related parameters failed to discriminate between lean controls, NAFLD. While similar cluster analysis implementing inflammation-related parameters clearly distinguished lean controls, NALFD subgroups and NASH cirrhotics. In addition, LPS levels was not associated with disease severity while TNFα, IL8, and CCL3 featured a clear correlation with transaminase levels and the histological severity of NALFD. In conclusion our data indicate a stronger correlation for circulating inflammatory- rather than endotoxin-related parameters in progression of NAFLD and highlights the need

  17. Safeguarding Digital Library Contents: Charging for Online Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the need for mechanisms for charging by digital libraries and other providers of online content, in particular for micropayments, i.e., charging for small amounts. The SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) protocols for charge card payments and the MiniPay micropayment mechanism for charging small amounts…

  18. Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Myriam

    1991-01-01

    A definition and description of elementary school content-based foreign language instruction notes how it promotes natural language learning and higher-order thinking skills, and also addresses curriculum development, language objective definition, and specific applications in mathematics, science, reading and language arts, social studies, and…

  19. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  20. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  1. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  2. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the ...

  3. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Brodowski, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to describe students' learning processes in a project-based and self-organized seminar on sustainability. A detailed knowledge of typical learning processes is part of a pedagogical content knowledge of sustainability and can therefore contribute to the professional development of university educators.…

  4. A Content Analysis of Internet Health Rumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen-Ling Lo; Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu

    2015-01-01

    This study used content analysis method to investigate Internet health rumors on Rumor Breaker, specifically on the characteristics of content and format, the similarities and differences by themes...

  5. Content Analysis of HUMINT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    11.1.2006). KIEForschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und ErgonomieFGAN Dr. M. Hecking Dr. Matthias Hecking...Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e.V. (FGAN) Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie (FKIE) Abtl...KIEForschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und ErgonomieFGAN Dr. M. HeckingContent 1. Introduction 2. Information Extraction 3. Project

  6. Political bias: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jarochová, Erika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to chart political bias in the news coverage during the election campaigns in years 2006, 2010 and 2013 in three the most widely read serious newspapers in the Czech Republic. The thesis summarizes theoretical framework of political bias. Newspapers in liberal-democratic countries should inform about political parties balanced. Content analysis was used to analyze the newspapers. This thesis compares the information balance in newspapers from several perspectives. It compares...

  7. Detecting Malicious Content on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2015-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) witness a rise in user activity whenever an event takes place. Malicious entities exploit this spur in user-engagement levels to spread malicious content that compromises system reputation and degrades user experience. It also generates revenue from advertisements, clicks, etc. for the malicious entities. Facebook, the world's biggest social network, is no exception and has recently been reported to face much abuse through scams and other type of malicious conten...

  8. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU-supported......The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU......-supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools...... is discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  9. Decreases in colonic and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection after IL-7 administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Sereti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART, some HIV-infected persons maintain lower than normal CD4(+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood and in the gut mucosa. This incomplete immune restoration is associated with higher levels of immune activation manifested by high systemic levels of biomarkers, including sCD14 and D-dimer, that are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. In this 12-week, single-arm, open-label study, we tested the efficacy of IL-7 adjunctive therapy on T-cell reconstitution in peripheral blood and gut mucosa in 23 ART suppressed HIV-infected patients with incomplete CD4(+ T-cell recovery, using one cycle (consisting of three subcutaneous injections of recombinant human IL-7 (r-hIL-7 at 20 µg/kg. IL-7 administration led to increases of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells in peripheral blood, and importantly an expansion of T-cells expressing the gut homing integrin α4β7. Participants who underwent rectosigmoid biopsies at study baseline and after treatment had T-cell increases in the gut mucosa measured by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 therapy also resulted in apparent improvement in gut barrier integrity as measured by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the rectosigmoid lamina propria 12 weeks after IL-7 administration. This was also accompanied by decreased TNF and increased FOXP3 expression in the lamina propria. Plasma levels of sCD14 and D-dimer, indicative of systemic inflammation, decreased after r-hIL-7. Increases of colonic mucosal T-cells correlated strongly with the decreased systemic levels of sCD14, the LPS coreceptor - a marker of monocyte activation. Furthermore, the proportion of inflammatory monocytes expressing CCR2 was decreased, as was the basal IL-1β production of peripheral blood monocytes. These data suggest that administration of r-hIL-7 improves the gut mucosal abnormalities of chronic HIV infection and attenuates the systemic inflammatory and coagulation

  10. T-cell phenotypes, apoptosis and inflammation in HIV+ patients on virologically effective cART with early atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Merlini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential relationship between T-cell phenotype, inflammation, endotoxemia, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in a cohort of HIV-positive patients undergoing long-term virologically suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. DESIGN: We studied 163 patients receiving virologically suppressive cART. METHODS: We measured IMT (carotid ultrasound; CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38, CD45R0, differentiation (CD127, apoptosis (CD95, and senescence (CD28, CD57 (flow cytometry; plasma sCD14, IL-6, TNF- α, sVCAM-1, hs-CRP, anti-CMV IgG (ELISA; LPS (LAL. The results were compared by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests, and factors associated with IMT were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 163 patients, 112 demonstrated normal IMT (nIMT, whereas 51 (31.3% had pathological IMT (pIMT: ≥1 mm. Of the patients with pIMT, 22 demonstrated an increased IMT (iIMT, and 29 were shown to have plaques. These patient groups had comparable nadir and current CD4+, VLs and total length of time on cART. Despite similar proportions of CD38-expressing CD8+ cells (p = .95, pIMT patients exhibited higher activated memory CD8+CD38+CD45R0+ cells (p = .038 and apoptotic CD4+CD95+ (p = .01 and CD8+CD95+ cells (p = .003. In comparison to nIMT patients, iIMT patients tended to have lower numbers of early differentiated CD28+CD57- memory CD4+ (p = .048 and CD28-CD57-CD8+ cells (p = .006, both of which are associated with a higher proliferative potential. Despite no differences in plasma LPS levels, pIMT patients showed significantly higher circulating levels of sCD14 than did nIMT patients (p = .046. No differences in anti-CMV IgG was shown. Although circulating levels of sCD14 seemed to be associated with a risk of ATS in an unadjusted analysis, this effect was lost after adjusting for classical cardiovascular predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the provision of full

  11. Kinetics of microbial translocation markers in patients on efavirenz or lopinavir/r based antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vesterbacka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether there are differences in the effects on microbial translocation (MT and enterocyte damage by different antiretroviral therapy (ART regimens after 1.5 years and whether antibiotic use has impact on MT. In a randomized clinical trial (NCT01445223 on first line ART, patients started either lopinavir/r (LPV/r (n = 34 or efavirenz (EFV containing ART (n = 37. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, sCD14, anti-flagellin antibodies and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP levels were determined in plasma at baseline (BL and week 72 (w72. RESULTS: The levels of LPS and sCD14 were reduced from BL to w72 (157.5 pg/ml vs. 140.0 pg/ml, p = 0.0003; 3.13 ug/ml vs. 2.85 ug/ml, p = 0.005, respectively. The levels of anti-flagellin antibodies had decreased at w72 (0.35 vs 0.31 [OD]; p<0.0004, although significantly only in the LPV/r arm. I-FABP levels increased at w72 (2.26 ng/ml vs 3.13 ng/ml; p<0.0001, although significantly in EFV treated patients only. Patients given antibiotics at BL had lower sCD14 levels at w72 as revealed by ANCOVA compared to those who did not receive (Δ = -0.47 µg/ml; p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of MT and enterocyte damage are elevated in untreated HIV-1 infected patients. Long-term ART reduces the levels, except for I-FABP which role as a marker of MT is questionable in ART-experienced patients. Why the enterocyte damage seems to persist remains to be established. Also antibiotic usage may influence the kinetics of the markers of MT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01445223.

  12. Deficit of IgG2 in HIV-positive pregnant women is responsible of inadequate IgG2 levels in their HIV-uninfected children in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Galluzzo, Clementina Maria; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Mancinelli, Sandro; Mphwere, Robert; Bokola, Enok; Amici, Roberta; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Palombi, Leonardo; Lucaroni, Francesca; Giuliano, Marina

    2018-02-27

    Transplacental passage of IgGs is impaired in HIV + pregnant women, possibly determining an inadequate immunological protection in their children. We aimed to determine the impact of maternal immunological IgG profile and immunoactivation status on the efficiency of transplacental passage of IgG subclasses in HIV + mothers. 16 mother/infants pairs were studied in Malawi. Mothers received antiretroviral therapy (ART) from the third trimester of pregnancy. Determinations of pre-ART levels of maternal sCD14, of IgG subclasses in mothers at delivery and in their 1-month-old infants, were performed using commercial ELISA kits. At delivery, after a median of 10 weeks of ART, 12/16 mothers were hypergammaglobulinemic, with IgG levels (20.5 mg/ml, 95% CI:18.8-26.8) directly correlated to the plasmatic levels of sCD14 (r = 0.640, p = 0.014). IgG1 levels (17.9 mg/ml) accounted for 82% of IgG, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were in the normal range. A profound deficit of IgG2 was observed both in mothers (0.60 mg/ml) and in infants (0.14 mg/ml). Placental transfer ratio (range 0.16-0.42) did not show a selective impairment between the different IgG subclasses. The transplacental passage of all IgG subclasses was decreased in the presence of maternal IgG over 16 mg/ml (significantly for IgG1, p = 0.031) and of high levels of sCD14 (p = 0.063). Transplacental passage was reduced for all IgG subclasses and inversely correlated to high levels of maternal IgGs and to the degree of immunoactivation. The profound depression of IgG2 in mothers suggests that IgG2 neonatal levels mostly reflect the maternal deficit rather than a selective impairment of IgG2 transfer.

  13. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated. Any...

  14. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image,

  15. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  16. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  17. [Ochratoxin A content in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; ELler, K I; Tutel'ian, V A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin A content in blood plasma. The analysis of ochratoxin A were performed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. The detection limit was 0.05 microg/l. Ochratoxin A was detected in all of 50 plasma samples up to 7.44 microg/l. Mean level was 1.54 microg/l. Ochratoxin A level was higher in men than in women and in August than in December. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained mean showed that the daily ochratoxin A dietary intake awere 3.03 ng/kg b.w.

  18. Error image aware content restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  19. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATIVE CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  1. Language context guides memory content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between language and memory was examined by testing accessibility of general knowledge across two languages in bilinguals. Mandarin-English speakers were asked questions such as "name a statue of someone standing with a raised arm while looking into the distance" and were more likely to name the Statue of Liberty when asked in English and the Statue of Mao when asked in Mandarin. Multivalent information (i.e., multiple possible answers to a question) and bivalent information (i.e., two possible answers to a question) were more susceptible to language dependency than univalent information (i.e., one possible answer to a question). Accuracy of retrieval showed language-dependent memory effects in both languages, while speed of retrieval showed language-dependent memory effects only in bilinguals' more proficient language. These findings suggest that memory and language are tightly connected and that linguistic context at the time of learning may become integrated into memory content.

  2. Caffeine content of common beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, M L; McWilliams, M

    1979-01-01

    Tea, coffee, carbonated and chocolate beverages were analyzed for caffeine, and results compared in terms of usual serving sizes. Significant differences in caffeine levels were found to result from the preparation method of coffee or brewing time of tea. It is possible for a cup of tea, instant coffee, or can of cola beverage to have similar caffeine content (55 to 65 mg.); however, the mean values per cup of black tea (28 to 46 mg.) are considerably lower than for brewed coffee (107 to 151 mg.). Caffeine is readily absorbed and can have pharmacologic effects on adults or on children who consume quantities of cola beverages or chocolate. Both preparation method and quantity of beverage consumed should be considered in taking dietary histories or estimating caffeine intake.

  3. Inverse statistics and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, H.; Bolgorian, Meysam; Jafari, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Inverse statistics analysis studies the distribution of investment horizons to achieve a predefined level of return. This distribution provides a maximum investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. There exists a significant difference between inverse statistics of financial market data and a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as an uncorrelated time-series, which is a suitable criteria to measure information content in financial data. In this paper we perform this analysis for the DJIA and S&P500 as two developed markets and Tehran price index (TEPIX) as an emerging market. We also compare these probability distributions with fBm probability, to detect when the behavior of the stocks are the same as fBm.

  4. Perception of Simultaneous Auditive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Christian

    Based on a model of pluralistic music, we may approach an aesthetic concept of music, which employs dichotic listening situations. The concept of dichotic listening stems from neuropsychological test conditions in lateralization experiments on brain hemispheres, in which each ear is exposed to a different auditory content. In the framework of such sound experiments, the question which primarily arises concerns a new kind of hearing, which is also conceivable without earphones as a spatial composition, and which may superficially be linked to its degree of complexity. From a psychological perspective, the degree of complexity is correlated with the degree of attention given, with the listener's musical or listening experience and the level of his appreciation. Therefore, we may possibly also expect a measurable increase in physical activity. Furthermore, a dialectic interpretation of such "dualistic" music presents itself.

  5. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  6. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....3, to update present ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at Periodicals prices with authorized Periodicals publications. DATES: Effective September 7, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  7. The contents of whiting stomachs: statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Degnbol, P

    1992-01-01

    .... The total stomach contents from 8292 non-regurgitated stomachs was measured. The distribution of the stomach contents/body weight ratio was found to conform to a delta distribution for most length-time-station combinations...

  8. Airline Facebook pages – a content analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grančay, Martin

    .... This topic has not been covered by scientific literature so far.This paper uses content analysis to identify types of content provided by airlines on their official Facebook pages and extent of services offered...

  9. Content Espresso: A Distributed Large File Sharing System for Digital Content Productions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANDO, Daisuke; TERAOKA, Fumio; KANEKO, Kunitake

    2017-01-01

    With rapid growth of producing high-resolution digital contents such as Full HD, 4K, and 8K movies, the demand for low cost and high throughput sharing of content files is increasing at digital content productions...

  10. Optimal content delivery with network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey; Cathey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    We present a unified linear program formulation for optimal content delivery in content delivery networks (CDNs), taking into account various costs and constraints associated with content dissemination from the origin server to storage nodes, data storage, and the eventual fetching of content from storage nodes by end users. Our formulation can be used to achieve a variety of performance goals and system behavior, including the bounding of fetch delay, load balancing, and robustness against...

  11. Smart Content Factory—Approaching the Vision

    OpenAIRE

    G. Güntner; Reich, S.

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we describe the objectives and achievements of a project called “Smart Content Factory”. The project aims at the creation of a knowledge-aware system infrastructure to support the utilization of audiovisual content. We will provide an overview of the project objectives and introduce “digital content engineering” as a scientific discipline dealing with concepts, methodologies, techniques and tools for a quantifiable approach towards the vision of smart content, thereby addressing ...

  12. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  13. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of the...

  14. 49 CFR 1121.3 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content. 1121.3 Section 1121.3 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.3 Content. Link to an amendment published at 78.... For the convenience of the user, the added and revised text is set forth as follows: § 1121.3 Content...

  15. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and shall...

  16. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in Specification...

  17. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and shall...

  18. Open content licensing: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Angelopoulos, C.

    2011-01-01

    Although open content licences only account for a fraction of all copyright licences currently in force in the copyright world, the mentality change initated by the open content movement is here to stay. To promote the use of open content licences, it is important to better understand the

  19. RSS: Lo-Fi Content Syndication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) is an XML format designed to let content providers share news headlines and content with other sites without having to create a completely new Web page. Discusses three issues to consider before creating a newsfeed: content integrity, bandwidth issues, and spellcheck. Identifies resources for getting started and the two…

  20. Disciplinary Literacy and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Michelle; Indrisano, Roselmina

    2013-01-01

    This review reports selected literature on theory, research, and practice in disciplinary literacy, primarily reading. The authors consider the ways this literature can be viewed through the lens of Lee S. Shulman's theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, which includes: subject matter content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and…

  1. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  2. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of the...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  4. An Introduction to Content Analysis. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steve

    This digest provides an introduction to content analysis, a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of a text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding. This allows inferences to be made that can then be corroborated using other methods of data collection. In a technical sense, content analysis is not…

  5. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  6. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of bioactive milk proteins in the intestine of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterton, Dereck E W; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Bering, Stine Brandt

    2013-01-01

    of proteins with anti-inflammatory properties and in this review we gather together some recent significant advances regarding the isolation and proteomic identification of these minor constituents of both human and bovine milk. We introduce the process of inflammation, with a focus on the immature gut......, and describe how a multitude of milk proteins act against the inflammatory process according to both in vitro and in vivo studies. We highlight the effects of milk proteins such as caseins, and of whey proteins such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, immunoglobulins, trefoil...... factors, lactoperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, alkaline phosphatase, and growth factors (TGF-β, IGF-I and IGF-II, EGF, HB-EGF). The effects of milk fat globule proteins, such as TLR-2, TLR-4, sCD14 and MFG-E8/lactadherin, are also discussed. Finally, we...

  7. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  8. Correlations and Prognostic Values of Antiendotoxin Immunity in Children with Different Stages of Septic Process during Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Pritulo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There were researched 91 children with gram-negative sepsis. All patients have been selected by a random way into 2 groups. The first group included children received pathogenetic immune correction with donors’ plasma enriched with the antibodies to endotoxin; the second group consisted of children who got complex treatment only. The different stages of gram-negative sepsis lead to acute deviation of antiendotoxin immune deficiency which manifested with immune deficiency of specific anti-ET-IgG and ascending primary (low-affinity anti-ET-IgM under excessive activation of non-specific components LBP and sCD14. Surgical treatment with adequate sanitation of purulent focus in the affected organ, based on prognostic criteria developed and immunomodulation led to a rapid regression of clinical signs of disease and made possible to increase a clinical efficacy of the therapy.

  9. An emerging role: the nurse content curator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved taken into account that players’ perceptions of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and cultural background. One...... of generating personalized content for the player: how can we measure player experience, how can we represent game content, playing style and the in-game interaction, what features should be used to capture player experience and how can they be extracted, how can we model the unknown function between game...... content, player behavior and affect, how can we generate game content that is tailored to particular player needs and style, how often game content should be adapted, and how the adaptation mechanism can be tested? We focus on 2D platform game genre as a testbed for our player-driven procedural content...

  11. 78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the... primarily intended for children 12 years old and younger, the lead content must be no greater than 100 parts per million (ppm), and the lead content of paints or surface coatings must be no greater than 90 ppm...

  12. Using Content Maps to Measure Content Development in Physical Education: Validation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Dervent, Fatih; Lee, Yun Soo; Ko, Bomna; Kim, Insook; Tao, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.…

  13. A prognostic model for development of significant liver fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheed Moqueet

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis progresses rapidly in HIV-Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infected individuals partially due to heightened inflammation. Immune markers targeting stages of fibrogenesis could aid in prognosis of fibrosis.A case-cohort study was nested in the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1119. HCV RNA positive individuals without fibrosis, end-stage liver disease or chronic Hepatitis B at baseline (n = 679 were eligible. A random subcohort (n = 236 was selected from those eligible. Pro-fibrogenic markers and Interferon Lambda (IFNL rs8099917 genotype were measured from first available sample in all fibrosis cases (APRI ≥ 1.5 during follow-up and the subcohort. We used Cox proportional hazards and compared Model 1 (selected clinical predictors only to Model 2 (Model 1 plus selected markers for predicting 3-year risk of liver fibrosis using weighted Harrell's C and Net Reclassification Improvement indices.113 individuals developed significant liver fibrosis over 1300 person-years (8.63 per 100 person-years 95% CI: 7.08, 10.60. Model 1 (age, sex, current alcohol use, HIV RNA, baseline APRI, HCV genotype was nested in model 2, which also included IFNL genotype and IL-8, sICAM-1, RANTES, hsCRP, and sCD14. The C indexes (95% CI for model 1 vs. model 2 were 0.720 (0.649, 0.791 and 0.756 (0.688, 0.825, respectively. Model 2 classified risk more appropriately (overall net reclassification improvement, p<0.05.Including IFNL genotype and inflammatory markers IL-8, sICAM-1, RANTES, hs-CRP, and sCD14 enabled better prediction of the 3-year risk of significant liver fibrosis over clinical predictors alone. Whether this modest improvement in prediction justifies their additional cost requires further cost-benefit analyses.

  14. Soluble membrane receptors, interleukin 6, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as prognostic markers in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Toro, Juan-Jesús; Márquez-Coello, Mercedes; García-Álvarez, José-María; Martín-Aspas, Andrés; Rivera-Fernández, Ricardo; Sáez de Benito, Ana; Girón-González, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 1 (sTREM-1), soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163), interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty patients admitted at the ICU with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were studied. SOFA and APACHE II scores as well as serum biomarkers were measured at days 0, 2 and 5. The influence of these variables on 28-day mortality was analyzed. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Baseline serum concentrations of sTREM-1, sCD163, IL-6 and PCT correlated with SOFA score. Only sTREM-1 levels correlated with APACHE II score. The 28-day mortality rate for all patients was 42%. The absence of risk factors for infection, presence of septic shock, baseline values of sCD14 and decrease of PCT and IL-6 from baseline to day 5 were variables associated to mortality in the univariate analysis. The unique independent factor associated to mortality in the multivariate analysis was a decrease of PCT higher than 50% from days 0 to 5. Serum levels of sTREM-1 are correlated with the severity of sepsis. A 50% decrease of PCT was the unique variable associated with survival in the multivariate analysis.

  15. Pattern of microbial translocation in patients living with HIV-1 from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abdurahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of microbial translocation (MT in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods: Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46, Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50 and Sweden (n=51; n=19. Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24 in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions: Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome.

  16. Soluble membrane receptors, interleukin 6, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as prognostic markers in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Jesús Ríos-Toro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 1 (sTREM-1, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14, soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163, interleukin-6 (IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT, and C-reactive protein (CRP serum levels for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU.Fifty patients admitted at the ICU with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were studied. SOFA and APACHE II scores as well as serum biomarkers were measured at days 0, 2 and 5. The influence of these variables on 28-day mortality was analyzed. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls.Baseline serum concentrations of sTREM-1, sCD163, IL-6 and PCT correlated with SOFA score. Only sTREM-1 levels correlated with APACHE II score. The 28-day mortality rate for all patients was 42%. The absence of risk factors for infection, presence of septic shock, baseline values of sCD14 and decrease of PCT and IL-6 from baseline to day 5 were variables associated to mortality in the univariate analysis. The unique independent factor associated to mortality in the multivariate analysis was a decrease of PCT higher than 50% from days 0 to 5.Serum levels of sTREM-1 are correlated with the severity of sepsis. A 50% decrease of PCT was the unique variable associated with survival in the multivariate analysis.

  17. Content Delivery and Vertical Integration in O-L Content Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzi, Diego; Marzo, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    On-line content delivery and vertical alliances between conduit and content providers are nowadays crucial issues in digital markets. In this paper, we discuss and compare a push and a pull model for on-line content delivery in the case of non-zero marginal cost for network transits because of network services for content delivery (like data caching). Under both models, we show that rationales for vertical strategic integration between conduit and content providers phase out in successive mon...

  18. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34(+) cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34(+) and CD34(-) populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting

  19. Rosiglitazone Influences the Expression of Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules and CD14 Receptor in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Stulc; H Svobodová; Z Krupicková; R Dolezalová; I Marinov; R Ceska

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore studied the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on leukocyte surface expression of adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared our results with findings in healthy subjects...

  20. Interleukin 13, CD14, pet and tobacco smoke influence atopy in three Dutch cohorts : the allergenic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R. W. B.; Reijmerink, N. E.; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G. H.; Stelma, F. F.; Gerritsen, J.; Thijs, C.; Brunekreef, B.; van Schayck, C. P.; Postma, D. S.

    Studying gene-environment interactions may elucidate the complex origins of atopic diseases but requires large study populations. Pooling data from several cohort studies may help but may also obscure findings. Gene-environment interactions in atopy development were studied and the benefits of

  1. Systemic immune suppression in glioblastoma: the interplay between CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, tumor factors, and dexamethasone

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Michael P.; Lin, Yi; New, Kent C.; Bulur, Peggy A.; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Gastineau, Dennis A.; Dietz, Allan B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit profound systemic immune defects that affect the success of conventional and immune-based treatments. A better understanding of the contribution of the tumor and/or therapy on systemic immune suppression is necessary for improved therapies, to monitor negative effects of novel treatments, to improve patient outcomes, and to increase understanding of this complex system. To characterize the immune profile of GBM patients, we phenotyped peripheral blood ...

  2. DMPD: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available obrovolskaia MA, Vogel SN. Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul;4(9):903-14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll re...Vogel SN. Publication Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul;4(9):903-14. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html

  3. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  4. Towards art content in original graphic arts

    OpenAIRE

    Grdina, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Graphic art defines numerous graphic art techniques; from classical original graphic art techniques to the new media techniques. The new media reproduction and communication capacity influences contemporary art works in such way that more attention is on non-artistic content, while artistic content with its visual efficiency becomes less important. Reproductibility is one of the non-artistic contents which plays a key role in original graphic arts, where it is a means of making o...

  5. Using Content Distribution Networks for Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M.; Christiansen, L. L.; André, M.

    2015-09-01

    Thousands of people from all over the world search the internet on a daily basis for the newest discoveries in astronomy: be it in the form of press releases, high resolution images, videos or even planetarium fulldome content. The growing amount of data available, combined with the increasing number of media files and users distributed across the globe, leads to a significant decrease in speed for those users located furthest from the server delivering the content. One solution for bringing astronomical content to users faster is to use a content delivery network.

  6. Content-Based Personalization Services Integrating Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Cataldo; Narducci, Fedelucio; Lops, Pasquale; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    Basic content-based personalization consists in matching up the attributes of a user profile, in which preferences and interests are stored, with the attributes of a content object. The Web 2.0 (r)evolution has changed the game for personalization, from ‘elitary’ Web 1.0, written by few and read by many, to web content generated by everyone (user-generated content - UGC), since the role of people has evolved from passive consumers of information to that of active contributors.

  7. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  8. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein. (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and methionine.

  10. 75 FR 47717 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Part 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\ ACTION: Final rule; revised. SUMMARY... Manual (DMM ) 707.3, to update ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at Periodicals prices with authorized Periodicals publications. DATES: Effective Date: August 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  11. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  12. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 wild plants were collected from the south of Tunisia. The dried aerial parts were extracted under a continuous reflux set-up in a Soxhlet extractor with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were screened for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Total phenolic contents were ...

  13. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    is the slope of saturation vapour pressure curve at air temperature T (kPa °C-1), T is air temperature (°C). Crop coefficient. Shoot water content was assumed to be crop coefficient, as crop evapotranspiration is always determined under unlimited water supply (Pereira et al., 2015), and hence the shoot water content reflects ...

  14. 14 CFR 125.73 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents. 125.73 Section 125.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND...; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.73 Contents. Each manual...

  15. 48 CFR 3006.303-270 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 3006.303-270 Section 3006.303-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Open Competition 3006.303-270 Content. (a)(9)(iv) For a proposed contract subject to the restrictions...

  16. 48 CFR 306.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Content. 306.303-2 Section 306.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.303-2 Content. (a)(1) Each...

  17. 48 CFR 301.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Content. 301.704 Section 301.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Determinations and Findings 301.704 Content. An example of a D&F format may be...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  19. 29 CFR 102.12 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contents. 102.12 Section 102.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act for the Prevention of Unfair Labor Practices 1 Charge § 102.12 Contents. Such...

  20. 19 CFR 122.114 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contents. 122.114 Section 122.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.114 Contents. (a) Form duplicates...

  1. 48 CFR 1806.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Content. 1806.303-2 Section 1806.303-2 COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1806.303-2 Content. ...

  2. 48 CFR 307.7102 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 307.7102 Section 307.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Plan 307.7102 Content. In accordance with 307.105, the FAR, HHSAR...

  3. 48 CFR 3506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2002-10-01 2001-10-01 true Content. 3506.303-2 Section 3506.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System PANAMA CANAL COMMISSION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 3506.303-2 Content. In addition to...

  4. 14 CFR 121.135 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2001-01-01 2001-01-01 false Contents. 121.135 Section 121.135 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (Continued) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.135 Contents. (a) Each manual required by...

  5. 43 CFR 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Content. 10010.18 Section 10010.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  6. 48 CFR 6.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content. 6.303-2 Section 6.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-2 Content. (a) Each justification shall...

  7. 49 CFR 1542.103 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content. 1542.103 Section 1542.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Content. (a) Complete program. Except as otherwise approved by TSA, each airport operator regularly...

  8. 19 CFR § 122.114 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2015-04-01 2015-04-01 false Contents. § 122.114 Section § 122.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.114 Contents. (a) Form...

  9. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Citations § 71.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall be...

  10. 48 CFR 3001.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 3001.704 Section 3001.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY....704 Content. The following format shall be used for all determinations and findings (D&Fs), unless...

  11. 48 CFR 3001.7001 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 3001.7001 Section 3001.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY..., Exceptions, Approvals, Reviews, and Submittals 3001.7001 Content. The general format at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001...

  12. 11 CFR 9428.4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Contents. 9428.4 Section 9428.4 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 9428.4 Contents. (a) Information about the applicant. The...

  13. 48 CFR 2806.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 2806.303-2 Section 2806.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.303-2 Content. In...

  14. 47 CFR 68.400 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Content. 68.400 Section 68.400 Title 47- FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION-(CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.400 Content. A complaint shall be in writing...

  15. 48 CFR 1.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content. 1.704 Section 1.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Determinations and Findings 1.704 Content. Each D&F shall set forth enough facts and...

  16. 48 CFR 701.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2016-10-01 2016-10-01 false Content. 701.704 Section 701.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Determinations and Findings 701.704 Content. There is no USAID-prescribed format...

  17. 27 CFR 200.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 1999-04-01 1999-04-01 false Content. 200.55 Section 200.55 ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND OTHER EXCISE TAXES-Continued RULES OF PRACTICE IN PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Hearing Procedure Citations § 200.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of...

  18. 43 CFR § 10010.18 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Content. § 10010.18 Section § 10010.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... Environmental Assessments § 10010.18 Content. (a) At a minimum, an EA will include brief discussions of the need...

  19. 14 CFR § 125.73 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2015-01-01 2015-01-01 false Contents. § 125.73 Section § 125.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.73 Contents...

  20. 11 CFR 8.4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Contents. 8.4 Section 8.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION NATIONAL VOTER REGISTRATION ACT (42 U.S.C. 1973gg-1 et seq.) National Mail Voter Registration Form § 8.4 Contents. (a) Information about the applicant. The application shall...

  1. 43 CFR 1862.1 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 1862.1 Section 1862.1 GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Patent Preparation and Issuance § 1862.1 Contents. (a) Patents for lands entered or located under general laws can be issued only in the name of the...

  2. 49 CFR § 1542.103 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. § 1542.103 Section § 1542.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Content. (a) Complete program. Except as otherwise approved by TSA, each airport operator regularly...

  3. 45 CFR § 900.301 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. § 900.301 Section § 900.301 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) DENALI COMMISSION NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Environmental Assessments § 900.301 Content. (a) An EA shall include brief...

  4. 48 CFR 206.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Content. 206.303-2 Section 206.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 206.303-2 Content. (a) Include sufficient...

  5. 48 CFR 606.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 606.303-2 Section 606.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 606.303-2 Content. (a) All...

  6. 27 CFR § 71.55 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 false Content. § 71.55 Section § 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Procedure Citations § 71.55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit...

  7. 24 CFR 7.32 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 1998-04-01 1998-04-01 false Contents. 7.32 Section 7.32 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL..., Religion, Sex, National Origin, Age, or Disability Complaints § 7.32 Contents. (a) The complaint filed...

  8. 49 CFR § 1121.3 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. § 1121.3 Section § 1121.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.3 Content. (a) A party filing a petition for exemption shall...

  9. 20 CFR § 726.315 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2017-04-01 2017-04-01 false Contents. § 726.315 Section § 726.315 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH... INSURANCE Civil Money Penalties § 726.315 Contents. Any petition or cross-petition for review shall: (a) Be...

  10. 20 CFR 726.315 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contents. 726.315 Section 726.315 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY... Money Penalties § 726.315 Contents. Any petition or cross-petition for review shall: (a) Be dated; (b...

  11. Content Propagation in Online Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents methods and techniques to analyze content propagation within online social networks (OSNs) using a graph theoretical approach. Important factors and different techniques to analyze and describe content propagation, starting from the smallest entity in a network, representing a

  12. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. ... TS Brand, DA Brandt, CW Cruywagen ... energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and methionine availability (with roosters) of the ...

  13. Metadata for Content-Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sterca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image retrieval technique that combines content based image retrieval with pre-computed metadata-based image retrieval. The resulting system will have the advantages of both approaches: the speed/efficiency of metadata-based image retrieval and the accuracy/power of content-based image retrieval.

  14. 10 CFR § 205.83 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 false Contents. § 205.83 Section § 205.83 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Interpretation § 205.83 Contents. (a) The request shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant facts pertaining to the circumstances, act...

  15. 48 CFR 206.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2016-10-01 2016-10-01 false Content. 206.303-2 Section 206.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Content. (b)(i) Include the information required by PGI 206.303-2(b)(i) in justifications citing the...

  16. 48 CFR 3001.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Content. 3001.704 Section 3001.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY....704 Content. The following format shall be used for all determinations and findings (D&Fs), unless...

  17. 48 CFR 3001.7001 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    ..., Exceptions, Approvals, Reviews, and Submittals 3001.7001 Content. The general format at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Content. 3001.7001 Section 3001.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY...

  18. 10 CFR § 1003.75 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.75 Section § 1003.75 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Private Grievances and Redress § 1003.75 Contents. The petition shall contain a full and complete statement of all...

  19. 49 CFR § 1542.103 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Content. § 1542.103 Section § 1542.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Content. (a) Complete program. Except as otherwise approved by TSA, each airport operator regularly...

  20. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Required by U.S. EPA regulation 40 CFR part 211, subpart ___.” EC01FE92.055 ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104... LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the...

  1. 48 CFR 3001.7001 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Exceptions, Approvals, Reviews, and Submittals 3001.7001 Content. The general format at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 3001.7001 Section 3001.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY...

  2. 48 CFR 3001.704 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content. 3001.704 Section 3001.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY....704 Content. The following format shall be used for all determinations and findings (D&Fs), unless...

  3. A Review of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ching Sing; Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews 74 journal papers that investigate ICT integration from the framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The TPACK framework is an extension of the pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986). TPACK is the type of integrative and transformative knowledge teachers need for effective use of ICT in…

  4. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  5. Antioxidant activity, phenols and flavonoids contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) belonging to 16 species, currently used in southern Moroccan traditional medicine, were evaluated here, firstly, for the action of their aqueous extracts against the bacterial canker agent of tomato in vitro. Then the phenolic contents, flavonoids contents and antioxidant capacities of these ...

  6. Neuroevolutionary Constrained Optimization for Content Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint-based procedural content generation (PCG) framework used for the creation of novel and high-performing content. Specifically, we examine the efficiency of the framework for the creation of spaceship design (hull shape and spaceship attributes such as weapon...... and survival tasks and are also visually appealing....

  7. Building an Intranet Content Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tredinnick, Luke

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the principals of creating content management processes and resources for Intranets, this article covers the creation of aims and objectives for Intranets, information management issues specific to Intranets, and how to turn those objectives and issues into working content management\\ud procedures.

  8. Teaching Content Analysis through "Harry Potter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis is a valuable research tool for social scientists that unfortunately can prove challenging to teach to undergraduate students. Published classroom exercises designed to teach content analysis have thus far been predominantly envisioned as lengthy projects for upper-level courses. A brief and engaging exercise may be more…

  9. 10 CFR § 1003.24 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.24 Section § 1003.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Exceptions § 1003.24 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant facts...

  10. 10 CFR § 1003.44 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.44 Section § 1003.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Stays § 1003.44 Contents. (a) An Application for Stay shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant facts...

  11. 48 CFR 2806.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Content. 2806.303-2 Section 2806.303-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Competition and Acquisition Planning COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 2806.303-2 Content. In...

  12. 10 CFR § 1003.35 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.35 Section § 1003.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Appeals § 1003.35 Contents. (a) The appeal shall contain a concise statement of grounds upon which it is brought and...

  13. 10 CFR § 1003.54 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 1003.54 Section § 1003.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Modification or Rescission § 1003.54 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of all...

  14. 10 CFR § 501.122 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2017-01-01 2017-01-01 false Contents. § 501.122 Section § 501.122 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Requests for Stay § 501.122 Contents. (a) A petition for a stay shall contain a full and complete statement of all facts...

  15. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer contents. 3030.14 Section 3030.14 Postal... Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement... believes additional such steps would be inappropriate and the reasons for that belief. (b) The Commission...

  16. Deploying Content Management System to enhance State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Various web-based applications have been launched as a step towards ... 2.0 Theoretical Framework for the. Study. Modern ... Web pages. Web content includes text and embedded graphics, photos, video, audio, and code (e.g., for applications) that renders other content or interacts with the user. A.

  17. INFLUENCE OF IRON CONTENT AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of iron content and plastic deformation on the mechanical properties of wrought Al-Fe-Si alloy. Seven samples each of dimension 240mm x 140mm x 7mm were cast for each aluminium alloy plate containing iron content of 0.708%, 0.909% and 0.931% by chill casting method. As-received ...

  18. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  19. Changes in Hydrogen Content During Steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrbek K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Štore Steel produces steel grades for spring, forging and engineering industry applications. Steelmaking technology consists of scrap melting in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF, secondary metallurgy in Ladle Furnace (LF and continuous casting of billets (CC. Hydrogen content during steelmaking of various steel grades and steelmaking technologies was measured. Samples of steel melt from EAF, LF and CC were collected and investigated. Sampling from Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace was carried out using vacuum pin tubes. Regular measurements of hydrogen content in steel melt were made using Hydris device. Hydrogen content results measured in tundish by Hydris device were compared with results from pin tube samples. Based on the measurement results it was established that hydrogen content during steelmaking increases. The highest values were determined in tundish during casting. Factors that influence the hydrogen content in liquid steel the most were steelmaking technology and alloying elements.

  20. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SELECTED DAIRY PRODUCTS FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NUTRIENT CONTENT CLAIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sadowska-Rociek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the content of protein, fat, and carbohydrates in selected homogenised cheeses, available on Polish market. Results were compared with the values declared by the manufacturers. The main protein content was equal to 6.6 g/100 g, fat content – 4.7 g/100 g, and carbohydrates content – 11.3 g/100 g. However, content of nutrients varied and depended on the manufacturer and the cheese flavour. Nutrient content claims were often different from the results obtained in our study: protein content resulted from this experiment was generally lower than declared by the manufacturers and obtained in our study fat content was higher than reported at the labels.

  2. Traffic Engineering of Peer-Assisted Content Delivery Network with Content-Oriented Incentive Mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MAKI, Naoya; NISHIO, Takayuki; SHINKUMA, Ryoichi; MORI, Tatsuya; KAMIYAMA, Noriaki; KAWAHARA, Ryoichi; TAKAHASHI, Tatsuro

    2012-01-01

    In content services where people purchase and download large-volume contents, minimizing network traffic is crucial for the service provider and the network operator since they want to lower the cost...

  3. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  4. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs.

  5. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  6. Content-based image and video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xun; Li, Honglin; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2002-08-01

    The term Content-Based appears often in applications for which MPEG-7 is expected to play a significant role. MPEG-7 standardizes descriptors of multimedia content, and while compression is not the primary focus of MPEG-7, the descriptors defined by MPEG-7 can be used to reconstruct a rough representation of an original multimedia source. In contrast, current image and video compression standards such as JPEG and MPEG are not designed to encode at the very low bit-rates that could be accomplished with MPEG-7 using descriptors. In this paper we show that content-based mechanisms can be introduced into compression algorithms to improve the scalability and functionality of current compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG. This is the fundamental idea behind Content-Based Compression (CBC). Our definition of CBC is a compression method that effectively encodes a sufficient description of the content of an image or a video in order to ensure that the recipient is able to reconstruct the image or video to some degree of accuracy. The degree of accuracy can be, for example, the classification error rate of the encoded objects, since in MPEG-7 the classification error rate measures the performance of the content descriptors. We argue that the major difference between a content-based compression algorithm and conventional block-based or object-based compression algorithms is that content-based compression replaces the quantizer with a more sophisticated classifier, or with a quantizer which minimizes classification error. Compared to conventional image and video compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, our results show that content-based compression is able to achieve more efficient image and video coding by suppressing the background while leaving the objects of interest nearly intact.

  7. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction...... is increased with increasing clay content, up to 30%, beyond which the mixture of silt and clay is not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction resistant under waves....

  8. Carbon Content of Tree Tissues: A Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the potential for forest carbon (C capture and storage requires accurate assessments of C in live tree tissues. In the vast majority of local, regional, and global assessments, C content has been assumed to be 50% of tree biomass; however, recent studies indicate that this assumption is not accurate, with substantial variation in C content among tree species as well as among tissue types. Here we conduct a comprehensive literature review to present a global synthesis of C content in tissues of live trees. We found a total of 253 species-specific stem wood C content records in 31 studies, and an additional 34 records of species with C content values of other tissues in addition to stem wood. In all biomes, wood C content varied widely across species ranging from 41.9–51.6% in tropical species, 45.7–60.7% in subtropical/Mediterranean species, and 43.4–55.6% in temperate/boreal species. Stem wood C content varied significantly as a function of biome and species type (conifer, angiosperm. Conifer species exhibited greater wood C content than angiosperm species (50.8 ± 0.7% (95% C.I. and 47.7 ± 0.3%, respectively, a trend that was consistent among all biomes. Although studies have documented differences in C content among plant tissues, interspecific differences in stem wood appear to be of greater importance overall: among species, stem wood C content explained 37, 76, 48, 81, and 63% respectively of the variation in bark, branch, twig, coarse root, and fine root C content values, respectively. In each case, these intraspecific patterns approximated 1:1 linear relationships. Most published stem wood C content values (and all values for other tree tissues are based on dried wood samples, and so neglect volatile C constituents that constitute on average 1.3–2.5% of total C in live wood. Capturing this volatile C fraction is an important methodological consideration for future studies. Our review, and associated data compilation

  9. On Domain Registries and Website Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2018-01-01

    The link of lawful domain names to unlawful content is a phenomenon that until recently has not been very topical. Traditionally, domain registries have been off the radar of content-related debates. Enforcement efforts, public discourse and academic research have focused on other intermediaries...... such as Internet access service providers, hosting platforms, and websites that link to content. This article shows that in recent years, however, that the (secondary) liability of domain registries and registrars, and more specifically country code top-level domain registries (ccTLDs) for website content, has...... been tested in several EU Member States. The article investigates tendencies in the national lower-court jurisprudence and explores to what extent the liability exemption regime of the E-Commerce Directive applies to domain registries. The analysis concludes that whereas domain registries fall under...

  10. Essential oil content and composition of aniseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 in three localities in Vojvodina (Serbia with the application of six different fertilizer regimes aimed at determining the content and composition of the aniseed essential oil. It was found that the average essential oil content of aniseed, obtained by hydrodistillation, was 3.72%. The weather conditions during the year and the locality had a statistically significant effect on the essential oil content, while different source of fertilizers was not statistically significant for the essential oil content and its composition. Essential oil composition was determined using GC-MS technique, and a total of 15 compounds were identified. It was found that the major component was trans-anethole, 94.78% on the average, and the coefficient of variation was 2%. The second most abundant component was γ-himachalene with 2.53% (CV 28%. All other components were present in less than 1%.

  11. Determination of cordycepin content of Cordyceps militaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC) for the determination of cordycepin content of Cordyceps militaris recombinant rice. Methods: Cordyceps militaris recombinant rice was made by mixing brown rice with artificial Chinese caterpillar fungus culture medium powder using ...

  12. Efficiency of tax administration: concepts and contents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proskura Ekaterina Petrovna

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the nature and content of the efficiency of tax administration, reviews the different points of view on the concept of fiscal efficiency, discloses factors affecting such efficiency...

  13. shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Penmann-Monteith equation and finally calculation of crop evapotranspiration. The objective of this study was to establish crop coefficients and evapotranspiration of different soybean varieties using shoot water content and reference evapotranspiration (ET0). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Reference evapotranspiration.

  14. Application of the technological, pedagogical, and content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge framework in a positivist study on the use of ICT in pedagogy by teachers of mathematical disciplines at Makerere University: a conceptual paper.

  15. Tourist maps – definition, types and contents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kacper Jancewicz; Dorota Borowicz

    2017-01-01

    Tourist maps are one of the most common groups of cartographic documents. Their variety in terms of content, subject matter and publication titles is a result of growing popularity of diverse forms of tourism activity...

  16. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  17. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  18. Spatial data content standards for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors provided an introduction to data content standards for digital geographical information in this presentation, and summarised their assessment of 170 standards that they identified as candidates for further examination. Of these...

  19. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J

    1986-06-01

    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.

  20. Study of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in chickens infected with avian infectious bronchitis virus. HF Wang, XH Zhong, W Shi, B Guo ...

  1. Apple wine processing with different nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Alberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the nitrogen content in different varieties of apple musts and to study the effect of different nitrogen concentrations in apple wine fermentation. The average total nitrogen content in 51 different apples juices was 155.81 mg/L, with 86.28 % of the values above 100 mg/L. The apple must with 59.0, 122.0 and 163.0 mg/L of total nitrogen content showed the maximum population of 2.05x 10(7; 4.42 x 10(7 and 8.66 x 10(7 cell/mL, respectively. Therefore, the maximum fermentation rates were dependent on the initial nitrogen level, corresponding to 1.4, 5.1 and 9.2 g/L.day, respectively. The nitrogen content in the apple musts was an important factor of growth and fermentation velocity.

  2. 36 CFR 294.14 - Petition contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; protecting human health and safety; reducing hazardous fuels and restoring essential wildlife habitats... biology, fish and wildlife management, forest management, outdoor recreation, and other important... environmental analysis for a rulemaking process. (b) The petition contents described in paragraphs (a)(1...

  3. [Possibilities of standardized qualitative content analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, P M

    1984-01-01

    This paper aims to develop further content analysis with reference to recent models of communication (pragmalinguistics, conversational analysis, and theory of texts). The central thesis is that any content analysis of linguistic symbols must include the conditions of their realization in the spoken discourse. Accordingly, the concepts for analyzing discourse are introduced which serve as the basis for the critique of traditional content analysis in psychotherapeutic research and indicate future perspectives. The first part presents concepts for analyzing spoken language: a model of the formal organization of speech, speech act theory, and a model for analyzing macrostructures in texts. In the second part the discoveries and problems of content analysis are discussed and evaluated with reference to these concepts.

  4. Cultural Archetype Contents for the Traditional Wedding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    In Hee Ahn

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to perform a contextual study of the wedding customs, wedding procedures, and wedding costumes included in Korean traditional wedding culture, making use of cultural contents which...

  5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.

  6. Decoding the content of delayed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J

    2011-02-23

    Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) plays a key role in our ability to postpone the execution of intended behaviors until after another activity has been performed. However, it is poorly understood in computational terms. One crucial question is whether RLPFC represents the content of delayed intentions or plays a nonspecific role. In this human functional magnetic resonance imaging study (n = 32), RLPFC was active while participants stored delayed intentions during a distracting ongoing task. Multivariate analysis showed that the intended cue for future action and the intended behavior could be decoded from distinct posterior brain regions. However, the content of intentions could not be decoded from RLPFC itself. Functional connectivity analysis showed that RLPFC increased its coupling with content-representing regions during intention storage. Furthermore, trials with relatively high RLPFC activity were associated with enhanced decoding. Thus, RLPFC may enable realization of delayed intentions via interactions with posterior brain regions, which represent their content.

  7. A Review of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ching Sing Chai; Joyce Hwee Ling Koh; Chin-Chung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    ...). The TPACK framework is an extension of the pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1986). TPACK is the type of integrative and transformative knowledge teachers need for effective use of ICT in classroom...

  8. Learning content and the creative cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 18 April). Learning content and the creative cloud. Presentation given at the workshop for creative cloud CLICK workshop Faculteit Bouwkunde & Architectuur TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands.

  9. Automatic web content categorization machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsuda Zapater, Masumi

    2012-01-01

    This Master Thesis consists of designing and implementing a web content classification application which include well-known algorithms for document classification such as Naïve Bayes and Maximum Entropy and inspired by proven tools like Rapidminer.

  10. Analysis, Retrieval and Delivery of Multimedia Content

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Leonardi, Riccardo; Migliorati, Pierangelo

    2013-01-01

    Covering some of the most cutting-edge research on the delivery and retrieval of interactive multimedia content, this volume of specially chosen contributions provides the most updated perspective on one of the hottest contemporary topics. The material represents extended versions of papers presented at the 11th International Workshop on Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services, a vital international forum on this fast-moving field. Logically organized in discrete sections that approach the subject from its various angles, the content deals in turn with content analysis, motion and activity analysis, high-level descriptors and video retrieval, 3-D and multi-view, and multimedia delivery. The chapters cover the finest detail of emerging techniques such as the use of high-level audio information in improving scene segmentation and the use of subjective logic for forensic visual surveillance. On content delivery, the book examines both images and video, focusing on key subjects including an efficient p...

  11. Consumer Preferences of Travel Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Mari

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to study the web content preferences of users in online travel. The research was done for the commissioning party, TripAhead, a start-up online travel organizer, in order to help get insight into the consumer opinions and preferences. Moreover, the thesis researches which web content features affect the consumer the most into choosing a holiday destination, and essentially purchasing a service or product from a travel website. Additionally, the travel...

  12. 29 CFR § 102.12 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2017-07-01 2017-07-01 false Contents. § 102.12 Section § 102.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10(A) to (I) of the Act for the Prevention of Unfair Labor Practices § 102.12 Contents. (a) A charge...

  13. 169 CONTENT NORMATIVITY AND THE INTERDEPENDENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    an argument for the thesis that mental content is constitutively normative. The argument is criticized Лy a. numЛer of critics. In this paper I will address a key. oЛУection against the normativity of content thesis proposed Лy Miller (2008). In section one I will reformulate Boghossian's argument for the thesis in details. In section ...

  14. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nethra; Anitha, J.; G. Thilagavathi

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  15. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Androi...

  16. USER GENERATED CONTENT IN TOURISM MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    ALİKILIÇ, DR. ÖZLEM

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on the idea that user generated content is of fundamental importance in tourism and travel industry to understand the role of consumer generated messages. This paper also describes interpersonal influences mean for user generated content and also word of mouth (WOM) which reflect cost effective for tourism and travel industry but as well as the real crisis lead by the customer and discusses the new technological and ethical considerations facing tourism and travel industry

  17. DNA content in human uterine cervical dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Romney, S L

    1979-01-01

    The DNA content of nuclei extracted from separate biopsies of normal cervical epithelium and from dysplastic sites in the same patient was determined biochemically. Mean percentage increase in the DNA content of dysplasias (mild: 143.3 +/- 14.9; moderate: 225.8 +/- 51.1; and severe: 359.8 +/- 45.8) was found to be statistically significant (F-Test: p less than 0.001) over the normal values in control cervical tissues.

  18. Designing Lesson Content in Adaptive Learning Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Milosevic

    2006-01-01

    Online learning is widely spreading and adaptive learning environments are increasing its potentials. We present a scenario of adapting learning content towards individual student characteristics taking into consideration his/her learning style type and subject matter motivation level. We use an ontology based student model for storing student information. The scenario of designing lesson content tailored to individual student needs is presented as a cross section of learning style and motiva...

  19. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Content validity of an acupuncture sensation questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunju; Park, Jongbae; Lee, Hyejung; Bang, Heejung; Park, Hi-Joon

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study are to collect acupuncture sensations reflecting real-life patients' experiences using qualitative methods and to test the content validity whether their sensations are proper candidates for de qi. The items for the Acupuncture Sensation Questionnaire (ASQ) were developed through in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and expert panel judgment for content validity. Descriptions of sensations were collected and categorized according to the three stages of acupuncture: insertion, manipulation, and retention of the needle. Those expressions chosen after review by a focus group were tested for the content validity by 10 expert panel judges. The content validity index (CVI) on each item was calculated, and the items that showed over 0.8 of CVI, representing 80% of consent by experts, were constituted for the ASQ. Sixty-one (61) in-depth interviews from 48 patients in the acupuncture clinic were analyzed. Thirty-three (33) expressions for the needle insertion, 59 for the manipulation, and 29 for the retention were collected. After the discussion by a focus group, the expressions were consolidated into 57 items (15 for insertion, 26 for manipulation, and 16 for retention) and they were tested for the content validity. In the final version, 19 items (3, 9, and 7, respectively) were listed. The items were found to be reflecting real-life experiences and expanded from the traditional acupuncture sensations. The newly developed ASQ incorporated real acupuncture experiences and has sufficient content validity for de qi.

  1. The Effect of Wheat Starch Addition Level on Moisture Content, Fat Content, Protein Content, Microstructure, and Organoleptic Quality of Processed Gouda Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Fitasari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to find out the optimum level of wheat starch to produce processed cheese with good quality based on its moisture content, fat content, protein content, microstructure, and organoleptic quality. The result showed that the different level of wheat starch gave highly significant effect (p<0.01 on moisture content, fat content, protein content, and panelist preference to texture, taste, and smell. It is concluded that wheat starch decrease moisture content, fat content, protein content, and panelist preference to texture, taste and smell processed Gouda cheese. It is suggested to add 10 % wheat starch to produce processed cheese because the product met the existing standard of commercial product chemically and physically, except fat content and protein content. Further research on the production of processed cheese is suggested by adding fat and protein sources to meet the standard of fat and protein content.   Keywords : processed cheese, wheat starch

  2. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  3. Aluminum Content of Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K; Heisel, Carl F; Vermillion, Benjamin R; Christensen, J Mark; Minc, Leah

    2017-04-01

    Calcium chloride (CaCl2) has been the only calcium additive available in the United States that has a low aluminum (Al) content. Calcium gluconate in glass vials (CaGluc-Gl) has a high Al content while calcium gluconate in plastic vials (CaGluc-Pl) has a low Al content. The purpose of this study was to measure Al concentrations in neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions prepared using various calcium additives. Samples of solutions compounded with CaCl2 or CaGluc-Gl and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) as well as CaGluc-Pl and sodium glycerophosphate (NaGP) with and without cysteine were analyzed for Al content. Samples of the cysteine and calcium gluconate additives were also sent for analysis. Solutions containing CaCl2 and CaGlu-Pl had mean Al concentrations of 1.2-2.3 mcg/dL, while those with CaGlu-Gl had mean concentrations of 14.6-15.1 mcg/dL. Solutions made with NaGP were low in Al content. The measured Al content of 2 lots of the cysteine additive were 168 ± 23 mcg/L and 126 ± 5 mcg/L. The Al concentration equalled 2730 ± 20 mcg/L for the CaGlu-Gl additive and 310 ± 80 mcg/L for the CaGlu-Pl additive. The study indicates that solutions containing CaCl2 or CaGluc-Pl and NaPhos or NaGP are low in Al content. Using these options for calcium and phosphate additives can limit aluminum intake from neonatal PN to levels within the Food and Drug Administration guideline of ≤5 mcg/kg/d.

  4. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  5. Oxygen content and oxidation in frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2013-01-01

    The relation between oxygen content and oxidation was investigated in frying oils. When canola oil, a canola-soybean oil blend or a trioctanoylglycerol (glycerol tricaprate) sample were heated with stirring, their dissolved oxygen content decreased abruptly at about 120°C and the carbonyl values (CV) increased gradually with heating and reached values of 6-7 at 180°C in the blended and canola oils, while the CV of trioctanoylglycerol was zero up to 150°C. Probably this abrupt decrease in oxygen content above 120°C can be attributed to the solubility of oxygen in oil rather than because of oxidative reactions. The oxygen content of oil that has been stripped of part of its oxygen, increased at temperatures between 25 and 120°C. In oils that have lost their oxygen by being heated to 180°C, standing at room temperature will slowly restore their oxygen content as the oil cools. Intermittent simple heating of oil promoted oxygen absorbance during cooling periods and standing times, and it resulted in an elevated content of polar compounds (PC). Domestic deep-frying conditions also favor the presence of oxygen in oil below 120°C and during the oil's long standing at room temperature. The oxygen content in oil was low during deep-frying, but oxidation was active at the oil/air interface of bubbles generated by foods being fried. Repeated use of oil at temperatures between 25-180°C resulted in oil with low oxygen values.

  6. The relationship between calcium content and aluminum and silicon content in uraemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, S; Yoshida, O

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between calcium (Ca) content and aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) content in uraemic rats was examined. Significant correlations with serum [Ca] x [Pi] products and serum Al levels and serum Si values were found (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01). There were significant (r = -0.26, p less than 0.05; r = -0.46, p less than 0.05) relationships between corpuscular [Ca] x [Pi] products and corpuscular Al levels and corpuscular Si values. We found that renal tissue [Ca] x [Pi] products tend to increase with the increase of renal tissue Al content and renal tissue Si content. Serum and corpuscular Al content and Si content can be used as one of the indicators of renal osteodystrophy.

  7. Description of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge on Muhammadiyah Semarang University's preservice teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Andari Puji; Wijayatiningsih, Testiana Deni; Azis, Abdul; Sumarti, Sri Susilogati; Barati, Dwi Anggani Linggar

    2017-12-01

    One of the competencies of teachers to be mastered under the constitution is pedagogic competence. This study aims to provide an overview of the pedagogic competence of Preservice teachers through the mastery of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Content knowledge (CK). The research method used is descriptive qualitative, with data retrieval technique through essay tests, questionnaire and interview. The results showed that of the five PCK indicators, only knowledge of learning strategies to teach chemistry already in high category. For Content Knowledge of preservice teachers are in the middle category for indicators of knowledge of disciplinary content, whereas knowledge that alternative frameworks for thinking about the content exist and the knowledge of the relationship between big ideas and the supporting ideas in a content area is in the fair category.

  8. Shear stress regulates occludin content and phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, L; Chang, Y S; Gardner, T W; Tarbell, J M; Antonetti, D A

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies determined that shear stress imposed on bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers increased the hydraulic conductivity (L(P)); however, the mechanism by which shear stress increases L(P) remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that shear stress regulates paracellular transport by altering the expression and phosphorylation state of the tight junction protein occludin. The effect of shear stress on occludin content was examined by Western blot analysis. Ten dyn/cm(2) significantly reduced occludin content in a time-dependent manner such that after a 3 h exposure to shear, occludin content decreased to 44% of control. Twenty dyn/cm(2) decreased occludin content to 50% of control and increased L(P) by 4.7-fold after 3 h. Occludin expression and L(P) depend on tyrosine kinase activity because erbstatin A (10 microM) attenuated both the shear-induced decrease in occludin content and increase in L(P). Shear stress increased occludin phosphorylation after 5 min, 15 min, and 3 h exposures. The shear-induced increase in occludin phosphorylation was attenuated with dibutyryl (DB) cAMP (1 mM), a reagent previously shown to reverse the shear-induced increase in L(P). We conclude that shear stress rapidly (shear stress increases L(P).

  9. Discontent with content analysis of online transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Guevarra Enriquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Content analysis has dominated computer-mediated communication and educational technology studies for some time, and a review of its practices applied to online corpus of data or messages is overdue. We are confronted with complexity given the various foci, nuances and models for theorising learning and applying methods. One common suggestion to deal with the complexity in content analysis is a call for standardisation by replication or systematic research studies. This article presents its ‘discontent' with content analysis, discussing the issues and concerns that surround the analysis of online transcripts. It does not attempt to resolve nor provide a definitive answer. Instead, it is an open inquiry into another way of looking at online content. It presents an alternative or perhaps an extension of what we have come to know as content analysis. It argues for the notion of genres as another way of conceptualising online transcripts. It proposes two things: first that in performing transcript analysis, it is worthwhile to think how messages relate to a system of interactions that persists even beyond the online environment; secondly, there is an emergent and recurring metastructuring that is at work in online environments that is worth exploring, instead of imposing structures – models and frameworks that do not fit the emerging communicative practices of participants.

  10. The Taurine Content of Japanese Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Azusa; Ono, Ayuko; Mizuta, Shoshi; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Takenaga, Takaaki; Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Japanese and South Koreans have a dietary habit of eating seaweed. Although it is known that some seaweed contains taurine, there have been few detailed analyses on the taurine content of seaweed other than the major types of edible seaweed. In the present study, we determined the content of free amino acids, including taurine, in seaweed obtained along the Sea of Japan coast. The taurine content in the seaweed varied according to the species. Among the 29 different types of seaweed that were studied, red algae contained relatively high concentrations of taurine. In contrast, the taurine content was low or undetectable in brown and green algae. The algal alanine level was relatively higher in brown sea algae, which was in sharp contrast to its taurine level. No clear trends were observed with regards to the distribution of the other free amino acids, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine. Considering the physiological role of taurine in cellular homeostasis, the algal taurine content may be associated with the growing environment. Taurine-rich red edible algae such as mafunori (Gloiopeltis tenax)/fukurofunori (Gloiopeltis furcata), kabanori (Gracilaria textorii), and ogonori (Gracilaria vermiculophylla) may be used to create functional foods that are rich in naturally occurring taurine.

  11. Energy content of municipal solid waste bales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2013-07-01

    Baling technology is a preferred method for temporary storage of municipal solid waste (MSW) prior to final disposal. If incineration is intended for final disposal of the bales, the energy content of the baled MSW gains importance. In this study, nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed and several parameters, including total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, moisture content, loss on ignition, gross calorific value and net calorific value (NCV) were determined before the baling and at the end of 10 months of storage. In addition, the relationships between the waste materials and the energy contents of the bales were investigated by the bivariate correlation analyses. At the end, linear regression models were developed in order to forecast the decrease of energy content during storage. While the NCVs of the waste materials before the baling ranged between 6.2 and 23.7 MJ kg(-1) dry basis, they ranged from 1.0 to 16.4 MJ kg(-1) dry basis at the end of the storage period. Moreover, food wastes exhibited the highest negative correlation with NCVs, whereas plastics have significant positive correlation with both NCVs and TCs. Similarly, TOCs and carbon/nitrogen ratios decreased with the increase in food amounts inside the bales. In addition, textile, wood and yard wastes increase the energy content of the bales slightly over the storage period.

  12. Visual discomfort prediction for stereo contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zhang, Tao; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    The current renaissance of 3D movies has drawn more and more attention from the audience. Three-dimensional television (3DTV) has been expected to be the next advance in television. Studies have shown that different people have different comfort range of depth in a 3D content, especially in 3DTV scenario, wherein much smaller screen sizes and viewing distances in home setup than in theater put more restrictions on the 3D content fed into the 3DTV. As a result, the version of the 3D content sent to home will not satisfy all the people in one family. In this paper, we try to solve this problem by providing a prediction of viewing discomfort of certain input content by certain viewer. Our method is based on the Disparity Discomfort Profile (DDP) built through subjective test for each viewer. The input content is analyzed by studying its disparity distribution. The prediction of discomfort is performed by matching the disparity distribution with the viewer's DDP. Then a mechanism to allow the viewers to adjust the depth range according to their visual comfort profile or viewing preference is used to minimize the discomfort. Experiments show promising results of the proposed method.

  13. Graft monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell content predicts the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Antonio; Gimondi, Silvia; Bermema, Anisa; Longoni, Paolo; Rizzitano, Sara; Corradini, Paolo; Carniti, Cristiana

    2014-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells that in mice play a role in infectious and inflammatory disorders, including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Their relevance in clinical acute GVHD is poorly known. We analyzed whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, affected the frequency of MDSCs in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts of 60 unrelated donors. In addition, we evaluated whether the MDSC content in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts affected the occurrence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Systemic treatment with G-CSF induces an expansion of myeloid cells displaying the phenotype of monocytic MDSCs (Lin(low/neg)HLA-DR(-)CD11b(+)CD33(+)CD14(+)) with the ability to suppress alloreactive T cells in vitro, therefore meeting the definition of MDSCs. Monocytic MDSC dose was the only graft parameter to predict acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD at 180 days after transplantation for recipients receiving monocytic MDSC doses below and above the median was 63% and 22%, respectively (P = .02). The number of monocytic MDSCs infused did not impact the relapse rate or the transplant-related mortality rate (P > .05). Although further prospective studies involving larger sample size are needed to validate the exact monocytic MDSC graft dose that protects from acute GVHD, our results strongly suggest the modulation of G-CSF might be used to affect monocytic MDSCs graft cell doses for prevention of acute GVHD. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Astronomica: Intergating Astronomy Content and Course Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.

    2004-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, the www.astronomica.org web site serves 1200 students per semester with a wide array of astronomy content that is integrated into course management capabilities. In addition to articles, an image data bank, news stories, and a linked 1200-term glossary, there is a recommendation system and a natural language question and answer tool. The site is built on an XML architecture, which allows the delivery of content to handheld devices. Another part of the web site serves voiceXML to web-enabled cell phones. The goal is to increase the level of student engagement and serve different learning styles. The site and content are available for use by outside instructors.

  15. TEACHING ADMINISTRATION: PROPOSAL OF THE PROGRAM CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The National Curriculum Guidelines established by MEC (Brazilian Ministry of Education, define the specific areas of vocational training content that should be included in the curricular organization of undergraduate courses in Brazil, without suggesting or detailing which content should be offered in each area. In this sense, this study aims at proposing the course syllabus for the financial area for the undergraduate courses of Management. To achieve this goal, the curriculum matrices and the teaching plans of the financial discipline of the undergraduate courses on Management with the highest grades in ENADE were analyzed. Based on this survey, seven disciplines were elaborated with the professional qualification contents of the area, with 560 hours/class in total, distributed in the curriculum matrix, according to their goals: presentation of corporate finance and personal finance, short and long-term financial decisions, financial economic analysis, financial planning, and financial strategies.

  16. Development of life skills through physics content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarči, Tomáš; Raganová, Janka

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with students' life skills which the physics teacher should intentionally develop through physics content. An attention is given not only to the physics content and activities connected with it, but also to the development of responsibility, freedom, ability to make decisions, group cooperation, self-evaluation and experience of success. Three activities implemented in the seventh class of the elementary school are described in the paper. Authors describe reasons for class selection, the physics content and the used methods as well as the skills which they decided to purposely develop. They emphasize the importance of activities requiring students' inquiry-based learning and the need to change organization and philosophy of physics teaching at secondary schools. At the end of the paper authors analyze the achievement of objectives, positives as well as negatives of the implemented approaches and propose changes for a future realization.

  17. Video databases: automatic retrieval based on content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, R. M.; Yeo, B.-L.; Yeung, M.

    Digital video databases are becoming more and more pervasive and finding video of interest in large databases is rapidly becoming a problem. Intelligent means of quick content-based video retrieval and content-based rapid video viewing is, therefore, an important topic of research. Video is a rich source of data, it contains visual and audio information, and in many cases, there is text associated with the video. Content-based video retrieval should use all this information in an efficient and effective way. From a human perspective, a video query can be viewed as an iterated sequence of navigating, searching, browsing, and viewing. This paper addresses video search in terms of these phases.

  18. Caffeine content of beverages as consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, R M; Marshman, J A; Schwieder, M; Berg, R

    1976-02-07

    Quantitative analysis of beverages prepared at home by staff of the Addiction Research Foundation revealed a lower and much more variable caffeine content of both tea and coffee than had been reported in earlier studies, most of which were based on analysis of laboratory-prepared beverages. Median caffeine concentration of 37 home-prepared samples of tea was 27 mg per cup (range, 8 to 91 mg); for 46 coffee samples the median concentration was 74 mg per cup (range, 29 to 176 mg). If tea and coffee as drunk contain less caffeine than generally supposed, the potency of caffeine may be greater than commonly realized, as may the relative caffeine content of certain commercial preparations, including chocolate and colas. The substantial variation in caffeine content emphasizes the need to establish actual caffeine intake in clinical, epidemiologic and experimental investigations of caffeine effects.

  19. Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walther; Marler, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Transactional Memory (TM) is considered as one of the most promising paradigms for developing concurrent applications. TM has been shown to scale well on >multiple cores when the data access pattern behaves "well," i.e., when few conflicts are induced. In contrast, data patterns with frequent write......-management has been proposed for increasing TM efficiency under high-contention [2, 5, 19]. However, only user-level schedulers have been considered. In this work, we propose, implement and evaluate several novel kernel-level scheduling support mechanisms for TM contention management. We also investigate...... different strategies for efficient communication between the kernel and the user-level TM library. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to investigate kernel-level support for TM contention management. We have introduced kernel-level TM scheduling support into both the Linux and Solaris...

  20. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved by realizing the fact that players’ perception of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and culture background....... While one player might find the game immersive, others may quit playing as a result of encountering a seemingly insoluble problem. One promising avenue towards optimizing the gameplay experience for individual game players is to tailor player experience in real-time via automatic game content generation....... Specifying the aspects of the game that have the major influence on the gameplay experience, identifying the relationship between these aspect and each individual experience and defining a mechanism for tailoring the game content according to each individual needs are important steps towards player...

  1. Data Content Protection for Virtual Libraries Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai DOINEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents aspects of digital content protection in virtual library systems. The legislation aspects are presented to better emphasize the need of new security mechanisms. Integrated library systems architecture is presented with focus on their main purpose, manipulating and rendering digital content to end-users. The cultural heritage stored in such systems is an important asset that needs to be protected against malicious manipulation. The characteristics of a smart virtual library, supported by an integrated library system, are analyzed and a security model is proposed for implementation, based on its particularities. The model aims to be an interface between the interactions of anonymous users with the Online Public Access Catalog of a virtual library that assures the protection of digital content. Conclusions are drawn to better support the idea of cultural persistence by the use of Information Systems.

  2. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  3. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentz Michel GA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and

  4. The Role of Content Aggregators In GEOValue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Breyer, S.; Hogeweg, M.; Foust, J.; Jordan, L.; Plunkett, G.

    2016-12-01

    Data (aka content) in the form of numbers or layers, and transformed into information by way of maps, images, graphs, charts, tables, even stories, are foundational for a myriad of decision-makers. Recent advances in information technology, as well as civil remote sensing of the Earth, are rapidly allowing us to advance beyond mere static data collection and archiving, further enabling information awareness and understanding, and leading us towards knowledge and better decision making. However, such volumes, velocities, and varieties of data streams also bring with them serious dilemmas with regard to effective organization, cataloging, and easy access. This is where the role of aggregator comes in, with their provision of the necessary sustainability and reliability of information via proven, well-engineered platforms, all with the necessary interoperability and openness as guaranteed through the adoption of established standards. Information technology (IT) giants such as Google, Facebook, IBM and Apple are well known for aggregating just about every aspect of life in modern society, from our music to our mood swings. A use case of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (aka Esri) is presented as a geospatial aggregator. It has over the years, compiled, assembled and produced a carefully curated library of public content into a global "Living Atlas of the World," organized into different themes such as Earth observation, transportation, demographics, natural hazards, ecological land units, elevation, and more. Among a myriad of decision scenarios with this content to be presented is the tracking of sea ice in the Arctic, estimating potential impact to shipping lanes or coastal infrastructure, and forecasting future conditions. Esri as the main aggregator of Living Atlas content continues to welcome not only contributors who will publish new content to be included in this global Atlas, but fellow curators who will assist in reviewing, organizing, and even

  5. Unsupervised Segmentation Methods of TV Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie El-Khoury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a generic algorithm to address various temporal segmentation topics of audiovisual contents such as speaker diarization, shot, or program segmentation. Based on a GLR approach, involving the ΔBIC criterion, this algorithm requires the value of only a few parameters to produce segmentation results at a desired scale and on most typical low-level features used in the field of content-based indexing. Results obtained on various corpora are of the same quality level than the ones obtained by other dedicated and state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice

    2007-01-01

    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  7. Practical guide to content delivery networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    With a practical and organized approach to learning and implementation, A Practical Guide to Content Delivery Networks presents a step-by-step process for building a highly available and highly scalable content delivery network (CDN). CDN refers to the infrastructure behind any service that provides utility or access to data to an end user. This book offers terminology, tactics, potential problems to avoid, and individual layers of design, providing clear understanding of the framework for CDNs using a structural and visual approach. The text emphasizes a best-of-breed strategy, allowing a tec

  8. CH-TRU Waste Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-16

    The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments

  9. Deciphering Individuals’ Preference for User Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth of user generated content presents a window of opportunity for online service providers (i.e., online review website) to utilize both forms of review information, namely numerical rating and opinionated review to facilitate trust building with users. Nevertheless, users’ trust...... online consumer review. To empirically validate our research mode, we conducted a field study on a custom developed online review website with a sample of 170 college students. Results suggest that dissonance between numerical rating and opinionated review, as well as individuals’ preferences for self......-reference and content relevance when processing online review information moderate the positive relationship between online consumer review and trust....

  10. Coalbed gas content simulation test and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. [New Star Petroleum Company, Zhengzhou (China). North China Petroleum Bureau

    2002-10-01

    With a high-pressure canister and accurate thermoregulation system of IS-100 isotherm instrument and an electronic flow meter, a coalbed gas content simulation method is established. A control program is combined with it to control data acquisition. The method simulates the whole process of gas content measurement from coring to the completion of desorption. It enables the understanding of gas desorption regularities, and for obtaining the volume of gas loss at any one time. The study would be useful for comparing the various approaches of calculating gas loss volume. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  12. A Comparison of General and Content-Specific Literacy Strategies for Learning Science Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Deborah K.; Whalon, Kelly; Lynn, Devon; Miller, Nicole; Smith, Keely

    2017-01-01

    This study employed an adapted alternating treatments single-case design to explore students' learning of biology content when using a general note-taking (GNT) strategy and a content-specific graphic organizer (CGO) to support reading high school biology texts. The 4 focal participants were 15-18-year-olds committed to a moderate risk juvenile…

  13. Digital content licenses, a barrier to digital content?: A South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital content licenses, a barrier to digital content?: A South African survey. C Masango. Abstract. No Abstract. Innovation Vol.34 () 2007: pp. 51-66. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/innovation.v34i1.26533 · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Content-Based Instruction and Content and Language Integrated Learning: The Same or Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the characteristics of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in order to examine their similarities and differences. The analysis shows that CBI/CLIL programmes share the same essential properties and are not pedagogically different from each other. In fact, the use of an L2 as…

  15. 78 FR 23918 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the Solubility of the Eight Elements Listed in ASTM F963-11 Correction In notice document 2013-8858 appearing on...

  16. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  17. Beginning History Teachers' Enactment of Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Content Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge exists in some capacity in every teacher. It is more well-developed as the wisdom in practice informs it. In their capacity as curriculum gatekeepers, teachers enact their PCK as they decide which content to teach. But what knowledge is of most worth? How do teachers employ the structures unique to their disciplines…

  18. Understanding Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers Mathematical Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kwan Eu; Meng, Chew Cheng; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to present findings from the analysis of the TEDS-M reports on the mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of the pre-service teachers in Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of teaching knowledge attained by the Malaysian pre-service primary and secondary…

  19. Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Koch Kapuire, Gereon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the el...... the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture....

  20. 169 CONTENT NORMATIVITY AND THE INTERDEPENDENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    It is widely held that a concept is normative only if it is constitutive of our understanding of a statement involving it such that the statement entails an ШЮРСЭ. In his papers (2003 2005) Paul Boghossian has developed an argument for the thesis that mental content is constitutively normative. The argument is criticized Лy a.

  1. Deploying Content Management System to enhance State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-governance offers a new way of helping to improve government processes, connect citizens, and build interactions with and within the civil society. The existing system is a semi-static government website with aesthetically attractive homepages, but very little content value. Most of these sites present only “public relations” ...

  2. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  3. The CODESRIA Bulletin: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    The purpose of this essay is to provide a content analysis of the 316 articles in the. CODESRIA Bulletin, from the ... writing on related topics for the journal, which is the leading publication of the Council for the Development of Social ..... research; leadership, security and governance; and health issues. Also, receiving a good.

  4. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... have also been widely used as preservatives in hand and body creams and lotions; hair shampoos, hair sets and rinses, hair straighteners, hair colour- ing, and other preparations. Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 1, April 2008. 88. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams. Voegborlo et al ...

  5. Feature Analysis for Modeling Game Content Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    ’ preferences, and by defining the smallest game session size for which the model can still predict reported emotion with acceptable accuracy. Neuroevolutionary preference learning is used to approximate the function from game content to reported emotional preferences. The experiments are based on a modified...

  6. Differential responses of growth, chlorophyll content, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proline (PRO) and glycine betaine (GB) contents significantly (p<0.05) increase, for all cultivars, in the stressed plants with the highest quantity in Fleur 11 and the lowest in Vanda. Malondialdehyde levels increased under salt stress in the leaves of cv. Vanda but decreased in cvsMbiah, PC 79-79 and Fleur 11 at 100 and ...

  7. Children's Animated TV Programs: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, E. Beverley; Clancy, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the use of content analysis to develop a framework for analysing children's animated television programs (in this case, "Bob the Builder") and as such represents the initial stage of a larger project. Results indicate this popular TV series for preschoolers presents contradictory social messages about the roles of…

  8. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md

    2016-08-01

    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  9. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the lactose content in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskova Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy has become a powerful and popular tool for food systems analyses lately. Based on characteristic vibrations of the studied material, the information on its content and structure can be answered. In the paper, Raman spectroscopy is studied for a purpose of lactose content in milk assessment. Lactose, the milk disaccharide, in a human organism decomposes during digestion by the act of enzyme lactase to more easily digestible monosaccharides – glucose and galactose. The lack of enzyme lactase causes symptoms of lactose intolerance what limits lactose-intolerant individuals in the intake of milk and dairy products. Lactose-free products in the diet can be a solution. Raman spectroscopy offers rapid measurement independent of the number of chemicals and other in the paper listed benefits. Raman spectra of lactose, glucose and galactose exhibit enough differences to distinguish the content of lactose in milk. C-O-H bending mode at 1087 cm-1 is used for lactose quantification. The method accuracy for measuring content of lactose was tested on dried milk droplets. Evaluation of the spectroscopic data was related to two different substances - phenylalanine contained generally in the milk and crystal violet used as an internal standard.

  11. Bird Boxes Build Content Area Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, Sherri Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a preservice teacher training in line with meeting the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) using geometric reasoning, spatial sense, measurement, representation, communication, and problem solving. The author infers that when preservice teachers lack pedagogical content knowledge they cannot successfully…

  12. Tyramine content of South African cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapeika, N; Moodie, I M; Kaplan, E R

    1975-04-05

    The tyramine content of certain South African cheeses has been determined by gas chromatographic analysis. Aged (mature) cheese such as cheddar and Roquefort contain relatively large concentrations of tyramine as compared with other cheese, especially cottage cheese. Foods containing pressor amines must be avoided by certain patients.

  13. Palliative care content on cancer center websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Laura B; Rebesco, Gina; Schenker, Yael; Torke, Alexia M; Gramelspacher, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Professional guidelines recommend that palliative care begin early in advanced cancer management, yet integration of palliative and cancer care remains suboptimal. Cancer centers may miss opportunities to provide palliative care information online. In this study, we described the palliative care content on cancer center websites. We conducted a systematic content analysis of 62 National Cancer Institute- (NCI) designated cancer center websites. We assessed the content of center homepages and analyzed search results using the terms palliative care, supportive care, and hospice. For palliative and supportive care webpages, we assessed services offered and language used to describe care. Two researchers analyzed all websites using a standardized coding manual. Kappa values ranged from 0.78 to 1. NCI-designated cancer center homepages presented information about cancer-directed therapy (61%) more frequently than palliative care (5%). Ten percent of cancer centers had no webpage with palliative care information for patients. Among centers with information for patients, the majority (96%) defined palliative or supportive care, but 30% did not discuss delivery of palliative care alongside curative treatment, and 14% did not mention provision of care early in the disease process. Cancer center homepages rarely mention palliative care services. While the majority of centers have webpages with palliative care content, they sometimes omit information about early use of care. Improving accessibility of palliative care information and increasing emphasis on early provision of services may improve integration of palliative and cancer care.

  14. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  15. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 ...

  16. Organic carbon content of tropical zooplankton

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    In the Zuari and Mandovi estuaries variations in organic carbon of zooplankton are 26.4-38.8 and 24-39.9% of dry weight respectively. Maximum carbon content of estuarine zooplankton is observed in November. Organic carbon in nearshore and oceanic...

  17. Changing National Forest Values: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Zhi Xu

    1995-01-01

    Empirically analyzes the evolution of national forest values in recent years. A computerized content analysis procedure was developed and used to analyze the forest value systems of forestry professionals, mainstream environmentalists, and the public. National forest values were found to have shifted significantly over the study period.

  18. Developing Reading Ability in the Content Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Subject-area teachers are not expected to be reading experts, but they can help students overcome reading difficulties. Students often fail to meet the subject-matter demands due to lack of purpose in reading content, unfamiliarity with technical vocabulary, and the heavy concept load and idea density in the material. Teachers can use reading…

  19. Lectin status, protein contents and ammonium assimilating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Lectin status, protein contents and ammonium assimilating enzymatic activity of two indigenous cultivars of mulberry species, Morus alba and Morus nigra. Muhammad Zahoor*, Zakia Javaid, Muhammad Ali, Saleem Khan, Farhad Ali and Zahoor A. Swati. Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, ...

  20. Lectin status, protein contents and ammonium assimilating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity of the ammonium assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase. M. nigra and M. alba extracts contained potent phytoagglutinins in various tissues with highest contents in M. nigra. The leaves and roots of both species of mulberry were used to determine the glutamine synthetase activity and high level of activity was ...