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Sample records for cd-20 c2b8 i-131

  1. CD20-induced B cell death can bypass mitochondria and caspase activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, L. E.; Evers, L. M.; Omene, C.; Lens, S. M. A.; Lederman, S.; van Lier, R. A. W.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Eldering, E.

    2002-01-01

    The apoptotic pathway activated by chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab, IDEC.C2B8) was analyzed using the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Ramos. Crosslinking of CD20 (CD20XL) induced apoptosis in Ramos cells, which involved loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), the

  2. Unusual Closure of the Ten-Vertex Nido Cage via Alkylation: Regiospecific Synthesis of 3-Alkyl Derivatives of closo-1,2-C2B8H10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Tok, Oleg L.; Holub, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2018), s. 1368-1372 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01618S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : electrophilic halogenation * nido-5,6-c2b8h12 * carboranes * decaborane * boranes * 5,6-dicarba-nido-decaborane(12) Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  3. Recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Borowski, G.D.; Shtasel, P.; Rose, L.I.

    1984-01-01

    The first clinically and biochemically documented case of recurrent thyrotoxicosis after I-131 induced hypothyroidism in a patient with Graves' disease is reported. Two months after the administration of 9.2 mCi of I-131, the subject developed hypothyroidism. One month later, the patient became euthyroid. Then, nine months following ablation, the patient again developed thyrotoxicosis. A second dose of I-131 of 12.5 mCi was required to finally produce permanent hypothyroidism. This case illustrates the recurrence of hypothyroidism after what had seemed to have been adequate I-131 radiation

  4. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled chlordiazepoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, P.; Yurt, F.; Asikoglu, M.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Dundar, C.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    1,4 Benzodiazepine derivatives have been largely used in Medicine since 1960. Chlordiazepoxide (7-Chloro-2-(methyl amino)-5-phenyl-3H-1.4 benzodiazepine 4-oxide) has been mostly used and the oldest one after diazepam. The aim of this study is labeling of chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) with I-131 and investigation of radiopharmaceutical potential as a benzodiazepine receptor agent. Iodogen has been used as iodination agent. Labeling yields have been determined by ITLC (instant This Layer Chromatography) and Paper Electrophoresis. pH and iodogen amount effects to labeling yields have been examined to obtain optimum reaction conditions. Labeling yield was 90% for 1 mg chlordiazepoxide, 1 mg iodogen, 1 pH, 15-20 minutes at room temperature. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide was searched in vivo experiments carried out on rabbits by using Sophy DX Gamma Camera. I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide of specific activity 690 MBq/mmol has been injected ear vein of rabbit and static perspectives were taken by pointed time intervals. Brain activity has increased after the injection, reached to maximum in 20th minutes and has not decreased during the imaging time (90 minutes). Obtained results have shown that I-131 labeled chlordiazepoxide can be used as a benzodiazepine receptor radiopharmaceutical for SPECT studies of brain. (author)

  5. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  6. Uptake of I-131 MIBG by medullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Sakahara, H.

    1985-01-01

    I-131 MIBG scans are useful for the localization of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with high catecholamine levels. Recently the authors have found that medullary thyroid cancer also showed an uptake of I-131 MIBG in both primary neck tumors and metastatic sites. Up to now scintigraphic studies were performed in 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy was done at 24 and 48 hours after the administration of 0.5 mCi of I-131 MIBG, thyroid uptake of dissociated I-131 being prevented by Lugol's solution. Four out of 5 cases were familial type and uptake of I-131 MIBG was similarly observed in medullary thyroid cancer as well as in pheochromocytoma. Bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer was also detected with I-131 MIBG. However, one case of sporadic form was negative with I-131 MIBG, whereas there was a high uptake of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: a newly developed radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid cancer, visualizing a different uptake mechanism of both reagents (J Nucl Med 25: 323-325, 1984). After adrenalectomy high uptake of I-131 MIBG was still observed in medullary thyroid cancer, in spite of normal catecholamine levels. The tumor to blood ratio was estimated in vivo to be about several hundreds at 24 hours after the administration. These cells are of neural crest origin and the mechanism of uptake of I-131 MIBG may not be related to the catechamine uptake mechanism. This paper concludes that I-131 MIBG is useful not only for the localization but also for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, as preliminary performed in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

  7. Migration of radionuclide I-131 through a clayey porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlat, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical and physical behavior of the radiotracer I-131 through a porous matrix are described. The study was evaluated using the laboratory column, which contains porous soils. The collected activities have been measured by gamma counting with a NaI(Tl) detector. The indicators were observed and analyzed by using the one dimension mass transport equation. The solution was utilized to interpret the obtaining experimental data. The experimental values of I-131 are in agreement with those calculated by the model. However, the utilization of (I-131) in the punctual hydrogeological studies is proved. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Masayuki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    We report three cases of respiratory failure after I-131 radioiodine therapy. All cases involved relapsed cervical lesions, and two showed edema of the larynx. Emergency tracheostomy was performed to treat the respiratory failure in one case while the others were treated conservatively. All patients showed improvements without after-effects. Patients who undergo I-131 radioiodine therapy, especially those with cervical lesions, should be carefully monitored for this rare complication after treatment. (author)

  9. Calculated activity incorporated in the therapy with I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chica, L.G.; Puerta, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the product S(T→ S).A s (T e ), the absorbed dose to thyroid delivered by I 131 incorporated is calculated. Where S(T→ S) is the absorbed dose in the thyroid per nuclear transformation (tn.) of I 131 localized in the thyroid and as a potential function of the mass is expressed. A s (T e ) is the number of tn. of I 131 in the thyroid since the moment of the incorporation until the time T e (the effective middle time); to find A s (T e ) to normal as different pathological conditions, the metabolic model of the iodo proposed by the ICRP is used. Of the expressions of the doses, the incorporated activity, l o , is obtained

  10. Experimental radioimmunotherapy with I-131-antibody against a differentiation antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, C.C.; Krohn, K.A.; Bernstein, I.D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that I-131-labeled antibodies (Ab) against the Thyl.l antigen can care AKR/Cu (Thyl.2+) mice bearing the AKR/J (Thy 1l.1+) SL2 T-cell lymphoma. The authors have now extended these studies to therapy with I-131-anti-Thyl.1 of SL2 lymphoma in AKR/J mice where Ab reacts with both tumor and normal cells. A 25 μg bolus was rapidly cleared from serum by binding to spleen cells (75% with Tl/2 <60 min.) and only low concentrations of Ab(<2% ID/gm) were present in tumor after infusion. Therapy of AKR/J mice bearing established s.c. lymphoma nodules with 1500 μCi I-131-anti-Thyl.1 resulted in complete regression of the nodule in 6/6 animals although tumor eventually regrew and all animals died of metastatic lymphoma. In contrast, I-131-irrelevant Ab given to produce the same amount of whole body radiation (750 μCi) did not affect tumor growth. These studies suggest that radiolabeled-AB against differentiation antigens may be useful for therapy in spite of binding to normal cell populations

  11. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souti, Maria-Evangelia; Hormann, Volker; Toma, Edda; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Alle 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I{sup -}) and iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  12. I-131 therapy for graves' disease in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phach, N.X.

    2004-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common thyroid disease in Vietnam. For children and adolescents the therapy with anti-thyroid drugs is often inefficacious or relapsed in a short time after therapy. Therefore the treatment with I-131 is the first choice when the anti-thyroid therapy is failed. 45 patients with the median age 15 (range 8-16), including 9 males and 36 females , were hospitalized and treated with 1-131.28/45 (62%) patients are not cured with antithyroid drug (ATD), 17/45 (38%) were the first use of I-131. Examen findings show: an elevated concentration of serum free thyroxin (fT4) = 92 pmol/L ±62, a decrease of TSH=0.04 UI/L±0.02, the 2h uptake=51%±22%, the 24h uptake=71%± 28%. We have divided the patients in three group of severity, based on pulse rates (PR): 5 patients in mild group (PR 100 <121), 9 patients in severe group (PR 121-140). The hematological and biochemical findings were in normal range. All patients were treated with capsules of I-131, oral administration. The mean dose was: 7±1.2 mCi. The mean dose per gram of thyroid tissue was 274.5±97 mCi. The therapy efficacy was very high: 41/45 (91%) return to euthyroid status with only a single dose, 4/45 (9%) needed a second dose of I-131 after 3 months with several moderate clinical symptoms. Conclusions: The radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease is a method of choice for all juvenile patients non responding to ATD treatment. The mean dose of 7 mCi is sufficient, safe and efficacious. The recurrence rate is relative low, about 9-10%. (authors)

  13. [Efficacy of treatment with I(131) in paediatric Graves disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes Romero, P; Martín-Frías, M; de Jesús, M; Caballero Loscos, C; Alonso Blanco, M; Barrio Castellanos, R

    2014-01-01

    Radioiodine is an important therapeutic option in young patients with Grave's disease (GD). In the United States it is a widespread therapy, but in Europe its use in paediatrics is still controversial. To report our experience in radioiodine therapy of paediatric GD patients and analyse its effectiveness and safety. We retrospectively studied our paediatric population (<18 years of age) with GD, diagnosed from 1982 to 2012. A curative option was offered to patients who did not respond to anti-thyroid drug (AT) at puberty. We analysed, the patient characteristics, TSH, T4, T3 and thyroid antibodies levels, AT response, remission post I(131), side effects, and hypothyroidism rates. A total of 50 patients were diagnosed with GD from 1982 to 2012. All patients received AT as initial treatment (mean duration: 35.3±25.9 months). Permanent remission was achieved in 46%. Thyroidectomy was performed in 5 patients, and 14 patients received I(131) (mean dose: 10.9±1.09 mCi). Remission with I(131) was obtained in 100%. The rate of permanent hypothyroidism was 90%. There was no progression of ophthalmopathy or side effects in any patients treated with I(131.) Radioiodine treatment of paediatric GD patients is safe, leads to complete remission at the expense of hypothyroidism, and does not exacerbate ophthalmopathy. It can be considered in patients older than 5 years, who do no not respond to AT or with significant side effects with this medication. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Does I-131-MIBG underestimate skeletal disease burden in neuroblastoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controversy persists as to the need for both MIBG and bone scanning in routine evaluation of neuroblastoma. Aim: To compare the efficacy of I-131- metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scan against that of conventional Tc99m- methylene diphosphonate (MDP bone scan for the detection of skeletal deposition of neuroblastoma. Methods and Material: The study included 57 patients (36 boys, 21 girls: age range 1-14 years of neuroblastoma who underwent both bone scan with Tc99m-MDP and I-131-MIBG scan within 15 days of each other at presentation and during follow-up. Results: At presentation 11(19.2% patients had evidence of skeletal metastases on MDP scan against 7 patients who showed bony secondaries on MIBG scan. Of the 7 patients, with positive MIBG and MDP scans, MDP scan detected 11 sites whereas MIBG scan detected 7 sites. On follow-up study, 3 patients with initial abnormal MDP scan but normal MIBG scan, developed skeletal metastases detectable on MIBG scan, whereas 3 of the 46 patients who had normal MDP and MIBG scan at presentation; developed skeletal metastases detectable on MDP scan. MIBG scan was concordant in 2 of them but was normal in the third patient. Conclusion: I-131-MIBG underestimates skeletal disease burden in neuroblastoma. Therefore, Tc99m-MDP bone scan should remain a part of routine assessment of patients with neuroblastoma.

  15. Treatment of Graves' disease with I131: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Povis, J.E.; Sandoval Okuma, J.C.; Contreras Carreno, S.E.; Cabello Morales, E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the response and complications in children and teenagers suffering Graves' disease who received radioactive iodine therapy. Material and Methods: The clinical records of the patients attended at Paediatric Endocrinology Unit of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia who received therapy with I 131 were reviewed. Demographic characteristics, thyroid weight, radioactive iodine uptake, I 131 dose and clinical and thyroid function evolution were registered. Results: We include thirteen patients: 1 male and 12 females. The mean thyroid weight obtained was 47.56 ± 10.70 gr. Initial calculated dose was 3.92 ± 0.95 mCi, with a total dose of 4.47 ± 1.66 mCi, and mean following period of 2.76 years. Ten patients received only one dose, 2 patients received two doses and one patient received three doses; all cases remitted. Patients who received only 1 dose showed disease remission at 13.13 weeks and mean remission period of the population was 24.62 weeks. Hypothyroidism prevalence up to six months from initiating treatment was 66.66%, and up to 257 weeks 83.33%. Conclusions: We conclude that I 131 was 100% effective in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering Graves' disease in this small series. (author)

  16. Distribution and Bioaccumulation of I-131 Within The Water-Fish System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darussalam, M; Wijaya, DGO; Sutrisno

    1996-01-01

    Distribution and Bioaccumulation of I-131 Within The Water-Fish System. As one of fission products, radioiodine I-131 potentially become a pollutant either resulted froma fallout or radioactive waste. Therefore, special interest has been given to handle I-131 starting from its production implementation and its waste management. The observations in this research have been focussed on distribution and bio accumulation of I-131 within the water-fish systems. Some number of Tilapia fish were put in aquaria containing I-131 contamined water with certain radioactivity concentration. Within time interval of 0, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment the radioactivities of water media. fish and their organs have been measured. The results show that the radioactivity percentage different water media containing different I-131 concentration tend to have similar patterns. Meanwhile, the I-131 concentrations of fish and their organs were varied with similar patterns for different I-131 content in water media

  17. Vocal cord paralysis following I-131 ablation of a postthyroidectomy remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.C.; Harbert, J.C.; Dejter, S.W.; Mariner, D.R.; VanDam, J.

    1985-01-01

    Vocal cord paralysis has been reported following I-131 therapy of thyrotoxicosis and following ablation of the whole thryoid. However, this rare complication has not previously been described following I-131 ablation of a postthyroidectomy remnant. The authors report a patient who required tracheostomy for bilateral vocal cord paralysis following I-131 ablation after near-total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma

  18. Dosimetry prior to I-131-therapy of benign thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The activity to be administered in I-131 therapy of benign thyroid disease is determined by the radiation absorbed dose necessary to cure the disease, the target mass, and the residence time of the I-131 in the target volume. Data from 73 patients with complete sets of uptake measurements 2, 6, 24, 48, and 96 (n = 53) or 120 (n = 20) hours after oral administration of 1 MBq I-131 were used to deduce residence times from subsets of 3, 2, or only 1 measurement for each individual. The values were compared to those obtained with the reference method, i.e. a fit of an uptake function based on a 2-compartment model to all 5 measurements, to quantify the errors introduced by the less demanding assessments. Deviations are less than 10% if the 2- compartment uptake function is fitted to only 3 values measured after 6, 24, and 96-120 h. Use of 2, 24, and 96-120 h data results in errors > 20% in individual patients. The effective half-lives as determined from 2 measurements after 24 and 96-120 h correlate well with those deduced from the reference method with larger deviations in individuals with slow iodine kinetics and late maximal uptake. Residence times determined from the 24 h uptake, assuming linear increase during the first day, and the effective half-life limited to maximum 8 days underestimate the actual values systematically in patients with long and short half-lives. These errors can be eliminated by a modification of the calculation method resulting in deviations less than 14% in all but one individual for this procedure. The accuracy of methods based on only one retention value increases with the time of measurement after the administration of I-131. While systematic errors up to a factor of two occur if the 24 h uptake is used for the estimate, deviations are less than 18% for measurements after 120 h. The results suggest that only one late uptake assessment warrants residence time estimates with an acceptable error. Given the high inherent uncertainties in the

  19. Reducing radiation exposure during oral I-131 therapy administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.; Krinsky, S.; Wilson, B.; Teague, E.

    1982-01-01

    A new, closed-system method to reduce air-, direct-, and incidental-contamination during therapeutic administration of oral I-131 was experimentally evaluated on twelve patients. We studied a standard control population using the routine practice of drinking the solution through a straw and compared results with our new technique. Various measurements were performed throughout all phases of dose administration to assess the relative difference of the two approaches. Using the closed system method before and during iodine administration revealed between 100 and 1000 times less activity per millimeter of air sample; whereas, the direct radiation exposure values were higher for the control population. Both the experimental and control methods had similar levels of incidental contamination

  20. Radioiodine (I-131) therapy and the influence of antithyroid medication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine therapy began to play a major role in the management of hyperthyroidism as early as 1941. It later evolved to become what it is today, the treatment of choice for majority of patients who are suffering from Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter. It is generally considered safe, inexpensive, effective, and devoid of major side effects. Despite the extensive experience with radioactive therapy, the adjunctive role of antithyroid medication remains controversial. Some authors claim that it has a positive influence on the outcome of radioiodine therapy while others insist otherwise. The reasons behind the adjunctive use of antithyroid medication include a more rapid attainment of euthyroid state and a decrease in the rise of developing thyroid crisis. However, a higher treatment failure rate is observed compared to radioiodine alone. This is due to the reputed radioprotective effect of the antithyroid medication. As a result, higher doses of I-131 are needed in order to obtain the desired effect but, unfortunately, that would also increase the radiation exposure to the rest of the body. The majority of clinicians would require discontinuation of the medication a few days before therapy to overcome these undesirable effects but the question is, is this safe? The issue of when antithyroid medication is warranted is a big question to the clinician. For optimal use of radioiodine therapy, appropriate selection criteria and good clinical judgment concerning pretreatment with antithyroid medication are required. Otherwise, we may put some patients into unnecessary increased risk and added cost. (author)

  1. Post-laryngectomy localization of I-131 at tracheostomy site on a total body scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, G.A.; Schulz, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    A post-thyroidectomy, post-I-131-therapy patient had a laryngectomy and neck dissection for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. A subsequent I-131 total body scan revealed persistent anterior neck activity, which disappeared upon removal of the tracheostomy tube and dressings

  2. Bioaccumulation factor for I-131 in aquatic biota II fish - tilapia (Tilapia Mossambica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.F.; Casyao, J.M.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The study was undertaken to provide local values for an essential parameter in the estimation of the dose contribution of I-131 through ingestion of fresh water fish. The result showed that the tilapia used in the experiment did not vary significantly in weight and no definite conclusion can be derived as to the effect of body size to bioaccumulation of I-131. (ELC)

  3. The usefulness of I-131 MIBG scintigraphy in extra-adrenal lesions of pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Nakayama, Toshitake; Nishiguchi, Iku; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has been performed in 55 patients with suspected pheochromocytomas, from January, 1984. I-131 MIBG scintigraphy was performed after 0.5 mCi was injected intravenously over 20 to 30 seconds. Whole body image and/or spot images of head, chest, posterior midabdomen and lower anterior abdomen were obtained 4, 24, 48 and occasionally 72 hours later by means of Toshiba GCA-90 B gamma camera with a high-energy, parallelhole collimator interfaced to a data processor. Thyroid uptake of I-131 was blocked by Lugol solution several drops per day, beginning two days before the tracer injection. 13 extra-adrenal lesions of 3 matastatic pheochromocytomas and 2 extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas could be detected by I-131 MIBG scintigraphy. Extensive bone, liver, lung and lymph nodes metastases were demonstrated by I-131 MIBG scintigraphy in 3 patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas. In 1 of 2 patients with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma, an abnormal concentration of I-131 MIBG was observed in anterior middle mediastinum proved to be mediastinal ectopic pheochromocytoma, and in another patient it was seen in the region of visceral paraganglia, while X-ray CT failed to demonstrate the tumors in both patients. Thus I-131 MIBG scintigraphy has proved to be safe, specific and noninvasive, and it has been of considerable value, especially in the location of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and metastatic pheochromocytoma. (author)

  4. Software for dosimetry hypothyroid patients treated with I131 pick up and using probe gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Felstrom, D.; Luis simon, J.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Derecho Torres, P.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this communication the process recently implemented in our hospital for pre and post treatment of patients treated with I-131 in benign diseases of the thyroid gland internal dosimetry is described. We have developed a proprietary software that facilitates the process of dosimetry. Through scans Planar or pictures Spect be determines the mass of the gland thyroid. In function of the mass, is calculated by Monte Carlo the media power absorbed by disintegration of the I-131 in said gland endocrine. (Author)

  5. The present status of I-131 therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism in Japan. Survey by questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kanaya, Shinichi; Nakada, Kunihiro; Mori, Yutaka

    2003-01-01

    A survey on the I-131 therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism was undertaken by questionnaire in 1,246 hospitals of Japan. One thousand and ninety seven of them (88.0%) responded to the questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results and analysis of the replies to the questionnaire. In the 121 hospitals (11.03%) of the respondents, I-131 therapy is being performed for Graves' hyperthyroidism. A gradual increase was observed in the annual number of I-131 treated Graves' disease patients during the period of 1998-2001, from 1,740 to 2,484. I-131 treatment was selected mainly for the cases with side effects from antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy, followed by the cases with complication of heart or hepatic diseases, recurrences of hyperthyroidism after surgery, radioiodine treatment, and long-term ATD treatment. The 41% of respondents used I-131 in order to restore euthyroidism, 34% aimed for hyperthyroidism and 41% used the dose properly between the two according to the patients. Administration dosage of I-131 was estimated mainly on the basis of thyroid uptake and volume in 93% of the respondents and 48% calculated the radiation dose by also determining the effective half-life in the thyroid gland. Thyroid size was estimated by scintigram (51%), ultrasonography (US) (33%), CT (22%) and palpation (12%). ATD treatment was used before I-131 administration by 70% of the respondents and 34% after radioiodine therapy. A low-iodine diet was given to the patients for a week (46%) or two weeks (47%) before I-131 administration. However, after treatment only 46% of the respondents continued low-iodine diet for a week. (author)

  6. New heavy-fermion antiferromagnet UPd2Cd20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yusuke; Doto, Hiroshi; Honda, Fuminori; Li, Dexin; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio

    2016-10-01

    We succeeded in growing a new high quality single crystal of a ternary uranium compound UPd2Cd20. From the electrical resistivity, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat experiments, UPd2Cd20 is found to be an antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound with the Néel temperature {{T}\\text{N}}   =  5 K and exhibits the large electronic specific heat coefficient γ exceeding 500 mJ (K2· mol)-1. This compound is the first one that exhibits the magnetic ordering with the magnetic moments of the U atom in a series of UT2X20 (T: transition metal, X  =  Al, Zn, Cd). UPd2Cd20 shows typical characteristic features in heavy-fermion systems such as a broad maximum in the magnetic susceptibility at {{T}{{χ\\text{max}}}} and a large coefficient A of T 2 term in the resistivity.

  7. Role of gambogic acid and NaI131in A549/DDP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Huan; Han, Shuhua; Liu, Lu; Xie, Yan; Chen, Daozhen; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to platinum in tumor tissue is a considerable barrier against effective lung cancer treatment. Radionuclide therapy is the primary adjuvant treatment, however, the toxic side effects limit its dosage in the clinical setting. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether an NaI 131 radiosensitizer could help reduce the toxic side effects of radionuclide therapy. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine whether NaI 131 can inhibit platinum resistance in A549/DDP cells, which are cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, and whether gambogic acid (GA) is an effective NaI 131 radiosensitizer. Cell proliferation following drug intervention was analyzed using MTT and isobolographic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the mechanisms of drug intervention were analyzed by measuring the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gP), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and P53 using western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. According to isobolographic analysis, a low concentration of NaI 131 combined with GA had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of A549/DDP cell proliferation, which was consistent with an increased rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bax, and the downregulation of P-gP, P53 and Bcl-2 observed demonstrated the potential mechanism(s) of NaI 131 and GA intervention. NaI 131 may induce apoptosis in A549/DDP cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. A low concentration combination of NaI 131 and GA was able to significantly inhibit A549/DDP cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. Thus, the two drugs appear to have a synergistic effect on apoptosis of A549/DDP cells.

  8. False-positive I-131 scan by contaminated muffler in a patient with thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Kyung; Kim, Min Woo; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    A 39-year-old female patient who had undergone a total thyroidectomy for a papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent a whole body scan with I-131. The I-131 scan was performed 72 hours after administering 185 MBq (5 mGi) of an I-131 solution. The anterior image of head, neck, and upper chest showed multiple areas of increased uptake in the mediastinal area considering of functional metastasis. However, radioactivity was not evident in the image taken after removing her clothes and muffler. The image obtained after placing the muffler on the pallet showed that the radioactivity was still present. It is well known that artifacts on an I-131 scan can be produced by styling hair sputum, drooling during sleep, chewing gum, and paper or a cloth handkerchief that is contaminated with the radioactive iodine from either perspiration or saliva. This activity might be mistaken for a functional metastasis. Therefore, it is essential that an image be obtained after removing the patient's clothes. In this study, artifacts due to a contaminated muffler on the I-131 scan were found. These mimicked a functional metastasis of the mediastinal area in a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of the RBE of I-131 radiation using DNA damage as biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Ahad Ollah; Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Ali; Studenski, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations. The electron spectra at energies lower than 1 keV were obtained by extrapolation (down to 10 eV). The calculated electron spectra were input into the MCDS micro-dosimetric Monte Carlo code to calculate the DSB induction and related RBE. The calculated RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 photons, as the reference radiation recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), was 1.06, 1.03 and 1.02 for oxygen concentrations of 0, 5 and 100%, respectively. Results of MC simulations indicate the RBE of I-131 is greater than one. This finding, despite a 10% discrepancy with the findings of the previous in vitro study of one of the authors of this paper, reemphasizes that I-131 radiation induces more severe biological damage than current ICRP recommendations.

  10. Unexpected Uptake by the Gallbladder in Post-Ablative I-131 Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Ünal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old woman was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma. I-131 ablation therapy was applied following total thyroidectomy, and the whole-body scan revealed a focus of increased uptake in the right upper quadrant. Lateral view images of the uptake site showed that the focus was located near the right liver lobe. The patient was referred to radiology department for correlative abdominal Computed Tomography (CT and Ultrasonography (US to rule out a possible liver metastasis. CT images detected a gallstone in the corresponding area, which was verified by US. These methods did not reveal any metastatic disease in the liver or in other abdominal organs. This is the first published case report documents a rare false-positive finding of I-131 scan that was associated with an asymptomatic gallstone, and emphasizes the importance of correlative imaging in gallbladder related I-131 uptake.

  11. Calculation of the activity incorporated in the therapy with I 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chica, L.G.; Puerta, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the product S(T--S). A-s-(T-e-). the absorbed dose to thyroid delivered by I-131 incorporated is calculated. Where S(T--S) is the absorbed dose in the thyroid per nuclear transformations (tn.) of I-131 localized in the thyroid and as a potential function of the mass is expressed. A-s-(T-e-) is the number of tn. of I-131 in the thyroid since the moment of the incorporation until the time T-e- (the effective middle time); to find A-s-(T-e-) to normal as different pathological conditions, the metabolic model of the iodo proposed by the ICRP is used. Of the expression of the doses, the incorporated activity, I-o- is obtained

  12. Testicular impact of the treatment with I-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebel, G.; Gutierrez, S.; Fadel, A.; Suarez, S.; Levalle, O.

    2007-01-01

    Young patients carriers differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are treated with high doses of I-131 for much of his life with very good prognosis and projects with paternity. However, there is scarce information on the effect of radioiodine on the male gonad and their future fertility. This therapy may compromise on a temporary and / or definitively the role of the germinal cells. The testicular irradiation depends on the blood flow, the dose of I-131 administered and of the presence or absence of metastasis pelvic near to the gonads. A single dose of 100 mCi of I-131 throws an absorbed dose at gonadal level of 50-150 cGy. It has been reported that absorbed doses of 50 cGy can produce transitory decrease spermatogenesis and higher doses can also affect the function of the Leydig cells [es

  13. Does the use of recombinant TSH in preparation for I-131 scintigraphy scan affect hearing function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Doğan

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Sensorineural hearing loss was detected, especially at low frequencies, in patients with DTC after surgical treatment whose hormone replacement therapy was withdrawn but not in those receiving rhTSH. It is therefore preferred to use rhTSH when preparing for I-131 scintigraphy scan in patients at risk for hearing loss.

  14. 76 FR 81517 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Travel Document. (3) Agency form... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information...-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 131, Application for Travel Document. The...

  15. 77 FR 71432 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Travel Document, Form Number I-131...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...-0013] Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Travel Document, Form Number I-131... of the Form/Collection: Application for Travel Document. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information collection as DACA recipients that can establish a need to travel outside of the United States...

  16. 77 FR 15787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-131, Revision of an Existing Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the Form/Collection: Application for Travel Document. (3) Agency Form Number, if any, and the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information...-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 131, Application for Travel Document. The...

  17. Conditioning liquid waste from I131 production by natural TeO2 neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalaqua Junior, L.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment techniques assayed to decontamination and volume reduction of the waste from I 131 production, are described. The assayed techniques were: (NH 4 ) 2 TeO 4 precipitation in alcoolic medium and chemical reduction using Sn 2+ in acid medium and too Fe 2+ in alcaline medium. Some considerations about products features and final results, are presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Conditioning liquid waste from I131 production by natural TeO2 neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalaqua Junior, L.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the treatment techniques assayed to decontamination and volume reduction of the waste from I-131 production. The assayed techniques were: (NH 4 ) 2 TeO 4 precipitation in alcoolic medium and chemical reduction using Sn 2+ in acid medium and Fe 2+ in al alkaline medium. There is some considerations about products features and final results. (Author) [pt

  19. Renal I-131-hippurate clearance overestimates true renal blood flow in the instrumented conscious dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, CA; DeZeeuw, D; Navis, G; VanZanten, AK; DeJong, PE; Huisman, RM

    We evaluated renal I-131-hippurate clearance (ERPF(hip)) as a measure of renal blood flow (RBF) in chronically instrumented conscious dogs. When adjusted for renal hippurate extraction (E(hip), 0.77 +/- 0.01) and hematocrit (Hct, 39.7 +/- 1%), calculated RBF(hip) (656 +/- 37 ml/min) markedly

  20. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131; Sistema de control de efluentes liquidos generados en el tratamiento con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  1. Is it safe to treat hyperthyroid patients with I-131 without fear of thyroid storm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, V.; Nusynowitz, M.L.; Ali, S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid storm is extremely rare. However, hyperthyroid patients with severe thyrotoxicosis are frequently not treated immediately with I-131 for fear of thyroid storm but are placed on thiouracil drugs for varying periods of time. We demonstrate herein that it is safe to treat these patients with I-131, without pretreatment with thiouracil drugs, provided they do not have complicating intercurrent disease. Our definition of severe hyperthyroidism includes marked signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), markedly elevated free T4 and/or free T3 and elevated radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) (>30%) at 4 or 24 hours. Our diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm include two or more findings of fever (>38 deg C, 100 deg F), severe tachycardia, high pulse pressure, agitation with tremors, flushing, sweating, heart failure, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice associated with high free T4 and/or free T3. Patients were selected retrospectively for the period between August 2003 and December 2004. One hundred and twenty-two patient visits were identified. These patients were treated with 370-740 MBq (10-20 mCi) of I-131 and were evaluated for any evidence of thyroid storm. Most of the patients were placed on beta blocker drugs at the time of initial I-131 therapy; these were continued for at least two months, when the first follow-up visit occurred. At the time of I-131 therapy, it is our policy to educate the patients to seek immediate medical attention for exacerbation of symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Not one of these patients developed thyroid storm. A subset of 25% of these cases with higher potential for thyroid storm (RAIU more than 65%, very marked signs and symptoms, and very markedly elevated free T4 and/or free T3) also tolerated the I-131 therapy well with marked clinical improvement and no exacerbation of the thyrotoxic state. It is safe to administer I-131 to patients who are severely hyperthyroid without fear of thyroid

  2. Evaluation of results of more than 20 years treating hyperthyroidism by I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, S.A.; Mai, T.K.; Tran, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have summarized their works of more than 20 years using I-131 for treatment and close observation of 723 patients with hyperthyroidism in 1000 ones in the Nuclear Medicine Department, Bach Mai University Hospital in Hanoi to collect data and draw experience for the report. Patient selection for the treatment is based on clinical features and laboratory tests results by the Nuclear Medicine Department such as thyroid uptake, scintigraphy and RIA determinations of thyroid hormones. I-131 dose is determined in compliance with a prevailing formula. The average dose is 6.2 ± 1.1 mCi (that is 233.1 ± 40.7 MBq). The average number of times is 1.3 time for one patient. The results are as follows: Euthyroid status after 4- year following- up from date of I-131 dose administration: 72.3%; Persistent or recurrent hyperthyroidism: 20.0%; Hypothyroid complications: appear 4 to 12 months after date of I-131 administration: 3.0%; appear 4 years after date of I-131 administration: 7.7%; appear 6 years after date of I-131 administration. 14.0%; so the cumulative hypothyroid rate is 2.3% per year. No occurrence of other serious complications by all the observed patients. This is therefore a safe, efficient treatment method to be applied on a large scale including adolescents and children. However, much more study has still to be made on the dose due to high rate of recurrence of the therapeutic method although the hypothyroid complications cases are not serious. Hyperthyroidism is a common health problem in Viet Nam. Previously, only anti-thyroid drugs and surgery were used. Use of I-131 was firstly introduced to Viet Nam in the Nuclear Medicine Department in Bach Mai in 1974 and afterwards applied larger nationwide. Initial therapeutic results have been published in national medical magazines. This is a general study aiming at analyzing the way to carry out the work and get experience and recommendation from gained results for further work in the future. (author)

  3. I-131 therapy for thyroid diseases: Doses, new regulations and patient advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, H.; Michaud, P.

    2001-01-01

    I-131 therapy has been widely used in the past 50 years. Its main applications are hyperthyroidism and functioning thyroid cancer. The indications, doses, regulations, precautions and guidelines differ in various centers. The following are recommended: 1. I-131 should be indicated in agreement of the endocrinologist and the nuclear physician with the patient consent; 2. Pre-treatment I-131 thyroid uptake must be performed; 3. The only contraindication for treatment is pregnancy, in children it might be used with caution; 4. For thyrotoxicosis both a calculated or an ablative dose (555 MBq) criteria are acceptable In this case secondary hypothyroidism must be considered an objective rather than a complication; 5. In uninodular toxic goiter a 1110 MBq dose is recommended; 6. Iodine free diet is indicated only for cancer patients; 7. Propylthiouracil (PTU) must be discontinued 5 days before treatment, it should be reinitiated 5 days later; 8. Prophylactic use of corticoid in Graves' disease still require more clinical data to support its use; 9. In treatment failure, wait six months for a new dose; 10. In intrathyroid cancer disease an ablative dose of 3700 MBq should be administered 4 weeks post-thyroidectomy or with a TSH level above 30 μUI/mL; 11. A whole body scan should be done one week later; 12. Follow-up whole body scan should be used only if there is clinical suspicion of metastasis. Thyroid hormone replacement must be discontinued for 30 days or with TSH value above 30 I/mL. For follow-up scan 185 MBq of I-131 are recommended to ovoid thyroid tissue stunning; 13. For metastases, 5700 to 7400 MBq dose is recommended if there are cervical lymphatic nodes or distant metastases. We recommended to adopt the criteria proposed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published as 10 CFR 35.75 and the Regulatory Guide 8.39 for patients release after I-131 administration. (author)

  4. Radioiodine (I-131) treatment for uncomplicated hyperthyroidism: An assessment of optimal dose and cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Rahman, H.A.; Jahan, N.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioiodine (I-131) is increasingly being considered for the treatment of hyperthyroidism but there is no general agreement for the initial dose. To determine the cost-effectiveness and optimal dose of I-131 to cure disease, we prospectively studied the outcome of radioiodine therapy of 423 patients. Material and Methods: Any of the fixed doses of 6, 8, 10, 12 or 15 mCi of I-131 was administered to the patients relating to thyroid gland size. The individual was excluded from this study who had multinodular goitre and autonomous toxic nodule. Patients were classified as cured if the clinical and biochemical status was either euthyroid or hypothyroid at one year without further treatment by antithyroid drugs or radioiodine. The costs were assessed by analyzing the total cost of care including office visit, laboratory testing, radioiodine treatment, average conveyance and income loss of patient and attendant and thyroxine replacement for a period of 2 years from the day of I-131 administration. Results: The results showed a progressive increase of cure rate from the doses of 6, 8 and 10 mCi by 67%, 76.5% and 85.7% respectively but the cure rate for the doses of 12 and 15 mCi was 87.9% and 88.8% respectively. Cure was directly related to the dose between 6 and 10 mCi but at higher doses the cure rate was increased marginally at the expense of increased total body radiation. There was little variation in total costs, but was higher for low dose-therapy and the cost proportion between the 6 mCi regimen and 10 mCi regimen was 1.04:1. Conclusion: We could conclude that an initial 10 mCi of I-131 may be the optimal dose for curing hyperthyroidism and will also limit the total costs

  5. Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma After I-131-MIBG Treatment for Neuroblastoma During Childhood: Description of the First Two Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Tytgat, Godelieve A. M.; van de Wetering, Marianne D.; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; van der Steeg, Alida F.; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is well known that the thyroid gland is sensitive to the damaging effects of irradiation (X-radiation or I-131(-)). For this reason, during exposure to I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in children with neuroblastoma (NBL), the thyroid gland is protected against radiation damage by

  6. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  7. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively 3 mm FWHM and 10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  8. Comparison of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in diagnosis of suspicious metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ju Won; Chung, June Key

    2005-01-01

    There are several reports about the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer. There were 46 patients (11 men, 35 women; age range, 18-74yr; mean age, 47.3yr) with suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy who performed FDG PET and I-131 scan. The interval of FDG PET and I-131 scan was within 6 months. An overall clinical evaluation was performed including cytology, thyroglobulin level, sonography, MRI and CT. Metastatic regions were divided into four areas: neck, mediastinum, lung and bone. Among 46 patients, the number of patients, metastatic lesions were detected, totaled 36 (78.3%). Twenty-nine patients (63.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 18 patients (39.1%) were detected by I-131 scan. Twenty-one patients were detected in neck by two methods. Nineteen patients (90.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 7 patients (33.3%) were detected by I-131 scan. Eighteen patients were detected in mediastinum by two methods. Ten patients (55.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 10 patients (55.5%) were detected by I-131 scan. Ten patients were detected in lung by two methods. Nine patients (90.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 3 patients (30.0%) were detected by I-131 scan. Three patients were detected in bone by two methods. Three patients (100%) were detected by FDG PET and 0 patients (0%) were detected by I-131 scan. These data indicate that for detecting metastatic lesions, F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan may provide complementary information. Thus, the combination of FDG PET and I-131 scan is the method of choice for detecting suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy

  9. A feasibility study of thyroid cancer among patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.W.

    1984-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of conducting a Canada-wide follow-up study of persons receiving I-131 before 1970, to see if current estimates of induction of thyroid cancer are well founded. It is concluded that such a study is not feasible due to the widespread destruction of old records, and the limited quantity of personal identifying information on those records that do still exist

  10. I-131 Dose Response for Incident Thyroid Cancers in Ukraine Related to the Chornobyl Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Alina V.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; Oliynik, Valery A.; Lubin, Jay H.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zamotaeva, Galina A.; O?Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C.; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V.; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case?control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. Objective: To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose?response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. Methods: The cohort consists of individuals < 18 years of age on 26 April 1986 who ...

  11. I-131 attraction by thyroid during first hours following its oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquiz, J.M.; Cardenas, R.; Blanco, J.; Garcia, M.

    1982-01-01

    From radioisotopic investigations used to study thyroid function, that of I-131 attraction results to be one of the most known and used in medical practice. In the authors' laboratory measurement of I-131 activity upon the gland has been for long adopted at 24 hours after administration; however, current needs compel to look for an early time (within the first six hours) for measuring it. In the paper results of I-131 attraction by thyroid in a group with more than 200 patients at 2,4 and 24 hours following its administration are presented in order to assess a 24 hours attraction representativeness by an early attraction. Results demonstrate early attraction is representative of an attraction at 24 hours and with the same diagnostic usefulness. Normal and doubtful ranks for attraction in our medium are determined at 2 and 6 hours, being adopted as proceeding for those cases whose value should be found within doubtful rank, a measurement at 24 hours in order to determine functional condition of the gland. (author)

  12. Intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy for ovarian cancer: pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of I-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.S.; Hird, V.; Snook, D.; Sullivan, M.; Hooker, G.; Courtenay-Luck, N.; Sivolapenko, G.; Griffiths, M.; Myers, M.J.; Lambert, H.E.

    1989-02-01

    Thirty-six patients with ovarian cancer were treated with intraperitoneal I-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies to tumor associated antigens. The activity of I-131 administered was increased from 20 mCi to 158 mCi and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity evaluated. Five patients who had developed HAMA (Human Antimouse Antibodies) were retreated, and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the first and second treatment compared. Patients receiving their first therapy (HAMA negative), had a maximum of 25% (range 19.8-39.8%) of the injected activity in their circulation. This was accompanied by severe marrow suppression at I-131 activities over 120 mCi. The 5 HAMA positive patients had only 5% injected activity in the systemic circulation (range 3.8-6%), with rapid urinary excretion and neglible marrow suppression. In 31 patients with assessable disease there were no responses in 8 patients with gross disease (nodules greater than 2 cms), partial responses in 2 out of 15 patients with nodules less than 2 cms, and complete responses in 3 out of 6 patients with microscopic disease. The non specific radiation dose to the peritoneal cavity was estimated to be less than 500 cGy by lithium fluoride TLD, and could not be expected to account for the responses seen.

  13. Study of the therapeutic dose and the clinical effect on Graves' disease with I-131 treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Graves' disease is being treated with I-131 for more than 40 years in China. Previously the dose of I-131 used to be calculated using the 'Quimby' formula. We have now observed that the dose of I-131 administered to patients is now lower in recent years than the early years. The radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid gland has also changed significantly over a period of time. In this paper we intend to explore these reasons and to research the relationship between the dose and the effect as well as the main cause of the incidence of the hypothyroidism. The parameters in 'Quimby' formula including I-131 uptake, effective half-life and thyroid weight were analyzed and compared with each year data from 1961 to 1988 and subjected to multiple regression analysis to determine the influence on the calculation of dose in 4465 patients. The therapeutic effects were compared with the data of the clinical follow-up of patients between 1961-1973 and 1978-1988 in 748 patients. The factors which might lead to the hypothyroidism were investigated with the non-condition logistic regression. The I-131 uptake was repeatedly measured within one week in 100 patients to identify the changing pattern of the I-131 uptake and its influence on the administered therapeutic dose. We observed an increase in the value of I-131 uptake. The value of I-131 uptake showed an increase after 1977, as well as a prolongation of effective half-life after 1973. The main reason for these changes being a replacement of the equipment in 1977 (G-M counter tube was replaced by scintillation counter), and the other reason being salt iodization in China in 1973. These two factors resulted in a significant reduction in the administered dose of I-131 during the period 1974-1988 as compared to the previous period 1961-1973; the mean administered doses being 168.35MBq and 330.33MBq respectively. The result of multiple regression analyses suggested that the thyroid weight and the effective half

  14. Radiation protection recommendations for I-131 thyrotoxicosis, thyroid cancer and phaeochromocytoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodings, S.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-131 patients pose a radiation risk to their family members, carers and colleagues. Doses from thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer patients undergoing standard treatments have been well characterised in the literature. However the resulting precautions cannot be easily adapted to circumstances where the patient has an unusual affliction, or an atypical family or occupational environment. In this study, a model for calculating dose from an I-131 patient is derived from first principles. The model is combined with existing results from the literature to determine a distance weighting factor between patients and family members. This technique reduces the uncertainty in the dose calculations by removing the need to guess the unknown patterns of close contact, a problem common to all previous dose calculation techniques. Data is presented for four unusual I-131 treatments; a child thyroid cancer patient, two thyroid cancer dialysis patients and a phaeochromocytoma patient. The model is used to calculate appropriate periods of restricted contact for these patients. The recommendations provide a useful guide for future unusual I-131 treatments. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  15. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine technologists from administering I-131 therapy dosages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudakshetrin, P.; Pusuwan, P.; Sritongkul, N.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Therapeutic doses of I-131 for treatment of thyroid cancer are administered orally in liquid or capsule form. During the last few years, a total number of patients loaded in our isolation ward increased from 4 to 10 patients per week. When considering radiation safety precautions for attending technologists, it is preferable to use the dose in capsules. The purpose of this study is to compare radiation exposure to nuclear medicine technologists from administering I-131 therapy dosages in capsules and in liquid form in a closed system. Materials and Methods: Three year radiation exposure to technologists during I-131 administration was analyzed. From January 2004 to June 2005 dose administration was in liquid form (n=263) and from July 2005 to February 2007 in capsules (n=541). Radiation dose assessment was performed with an electronic personal dosimeter (PDM 112). The dose rate in μSv and time spent per patient were recorded. Results: Dose received per patient when I-131 was given in a liquid was 3.50 ± 1.67 μSv and 1.17 ± 0.66 μSv when given in capsules. Compared with the use of a liquid, capsules significantly reduced radiation dose to technologists by 66% (P < 0.001). These doses received depended not only on the administered activity but also on the time, distance and shielding. Time spent per patient, including a brief visit before the time of dosing to explain the procedure and answer questions was reduced slightly from 4.4 ± 2.2 to 3.7 ± 1.8 minutes (P < 0.01). These correspond to a reduction in a yearly dose to 1 technologist by 40%, from 0.63 mSv to 0.38 mSv from dosing to 175 and 325 patients respectively. Conclusions: The measured doses clearly showed that handling of I-131 therapy dosages either in a liquid form or capsules are not the major contributors to the technologist's radiation exposure in routine clinical practice. However, one has to be cautious and follow good work practice to avoid risk of radiation exposure and radioiodine

  16. Targeted therapy of neuroblastoma with I-131 MIBG: Experience in 15 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Nisa, L.; Karim, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: I-131 MIBG has been proven to be an effective therapeutic option in neuroblastoma targeted both at the primary tumor and its distant metastasis. We describe our initial experience in the targeted treatment of 15 patients with neuroblastoma. The patients were grouped and treated according to three protocols. Group 1: patients were in the advanced stage of the disease with either metastatic or unresectable disease; Group II: patients were treated immediately after diagnosis before surgery or any other management. Group III patients were treated with combined I-131 MIBG and high dose chemotherapy. The method of administration was by slow infusion (120min). Dose varied from 4 to 12 GBq in a single dose. All patients were followed up with periodic blood counts, liver and kidney function tests, thyroid and adrenal function tests. The response rate in group-I was 38%, group-II patients showed 52% and in group-III the overall response rate was 72.6%. Responses depended on high tumoral I-131 MIBG uptake and limited spread of the neoplasm. As regards toxicity, the major side effect observed was myelosuppression and this was found to be more severe in patients with bone marrow involvement and after chemotherapy. Toxicity was relatively mild in the neuroblastoma patients who were treated at diagnosis. There was no incidence of serious infections or significant bleeding in any of our patients. Extramedullary toxicity of hypothyroidism was observed in 1 patient. On the basis of the results, we can conclude that MIBG is an excellent pharmaceutical for the delivery of therapeutic doses of radioiodine for neuroblastoma. When combined with chemotherapy it is effective in obtaining a rapid response in heavily pre-treated patients who are resistant to other therapies. (author)

  17. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  18. Septal penetration correction in I-131 imaging following thyroid cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Fiona; Scuffham, James; McQuaid, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Whole body gamma camera images acquired after I-131 treatment for thyroid cancer can suffer from collimator septal penetration artefacts because of the high energy of the gamma photons. This results in the appearance of ‘spoke’ artefacts, emanating from regions of high activity concentration, caused by the non-isotropic attenuation of the collimator. Deconvolution has the potential to reduce such artefacts, by taking into account the non-Gaussian point-spread-function (PSF) of the system. A Richardson–Lucy deconvolution algorithm, with and without prior scatter-correction was tested as a method of reducing septal penetration in planar gamma camera images. Phantom images (hot spheres within a warm background) were acquired and deconvolution using a measured PSF was applied. The results were evaluated through region-of-interest and line profile analysis to determine the success of artefact reduction and the optimal number of deconvolution iterations and damping parameter (λ). Without scatter-correction, the optimal results were obtained with 15 iterations and λ  =  0.01, with the counts in the spokes reduced to 20% of the original value, indicating a substantial decrease in their prominence. When a triple-energy-window scatter-correction was applied prior to deconvolution, the optimal results were obtained with six iterations and λ  =  0.02, which reduced the spoke counts to 3% of the original value. The prior application of scatter-correction therefore produced the best results, with a marked change in the appearance of the images. The optimal settings were then applied to six patient datasets, to demonstrate its utility in the clinical setting. In all datasets, spoke artefacts were substantially reduced after the application of scatter-correction and deconvolution, with the mean spoke count being reduced to 10% of the original value. This indicates that deconvolution is a promising technique for septal penetration artefact reduction that

  19. Determination of I-131 content in children's and cow's thyroid in Kozloduj NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, G.; Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M.

    1984-01-01

    Within the scope of general programme for the radiation safety investigations the I-131 content in thyroid has been measured. For this purpose a group of 20 children within the age of 8-12 supplied with milk from private cows was selected as well as a group of dairy cows of local breed during milking period. Both groups were selected in a village located at 4km from the NPP in the direction of the dominating winds. According to the measuring results both the separate and average count rates for the two groups did not differ from the background ones [ru

  20. Dosimetry study of [I-131] and [I-125]- meta-iodobenz guanidine in a simulating model for neuroblastoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, W H; Yaremko, B; McEwan, A; Amanie, J; Yee, D; Cho, J; McQuarrie, S; Riauka, T; Sloboda, R; Wiebe, L; Loebenberg, R; Janicki, C

    2013-02-01

    The physical properties of I-131 may be suboptimal for the delivery of therapeutic radiation to bone marrow metastases, which are common in the natural history of neuroblastoma. In vitro and preliminary clinical studies have implied improved efficacy of I-125 relative to I-131 in certain clinical situations, although areas of uncertainty remain regarding intratumoral dosimetry. This prompted our study using human neuroblastoma multicellular spheroids as a model of metastasis. 3D dose calculations were made using voxel-based Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) and dose-point-kernel (DPK) techniques. Dose distributions for I-131 and I-125 labeled mIBG were calculated for spheroids (metastases) of various sizes from 0.01 cm to 3 cm diameter, and the relative dose delivered to the tumors was compared for the same limiting dose to the bone marrow. Based on the same data, arguments were advanced based upon the principles of tumor control probability (TCP) to emphasize the potential theoretical utility of I-125 over I-131 in specific clinical situations. I-125-mIBG can deliver a higher and more uniform dose to tumors compared to I-131 mIBG without increasing the dose to the bone marrow. Depending on the tumor size and biological half-life, the relative dose to tumors of less than 1 mm diameter can increase several-fold. TCP calculations indicate that tumor control increases with increasing administered activity, and that I-125 is more effective than I-131 for tumor diameters of 0.01 cm or less. This study suggests that I-125-mIBG is dosimetrically superior to I-131-mIBG therapy for small bone marrow metastases from neuroblastoma. It is logical to consider adding I-125-mIBG to I-131-mIBG in multi-modality therapy as these two isotopes could be complementary in terms of their cumulative dosimetry.

  1. Methodology for Gamma cameras calibration for I-131 uptake quantification in Hyperthyroidism diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Palau San Pedro, A.; Martin Escuela, J. M.; Reynosa Montejo, R.; Castillo, J.; Torres Aroche, L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimization and verification of Patient-Specific Treatment Planning with unsealed I-131 sources is a desirable goal from medical and radiation protection point of view. To obtain a practical protocol to combine the estimation of the related parameters with patient's specific treatment dose in hyperthyroidism disease, 3 equipment were studied (Iodine Probe, a Philips Forte Camera with pin-hole collimators and a Mediso Nucline with HEGP for planar and SPECT techniques) and crossed calibrated. The linear behaviour on diagnostic and therapeutic activity range was verified, showing a linear correlation fitting factor R 2 > 0.99. The differences between thyroid uptake determinations in all equipment were less than 6% for therapeutic activities and less than 1.1% in the diagnostic range. The combined protocol to calculate, with only one administration of I 131 , all the necessary parameters to the treatment dose estimation in 2D or 3D, avoiding wasting time with gamma cameras, was established and verified. Following this protocol the difference between apparent and calculated activities were less than 3%. (Author)

  2. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  3. I-131 dose response for incident thyroid cancers in Ukraine related to the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I; Oliynik, Valery A; Lubin, Jay H; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereschenko, Valery P; McConnell, Robert J; Zamotaeva, Galina A; O'Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P; Shpak, Victor M; Ron, Elaine

    2011-07-01

    Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case-control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose-response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. The cohort consists of individuals radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, environmental transport models, and interview data. Excess radiation risks were estimated using Poisson regression models. Sixty-five incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed during the second through fourth screenings and 73,004 person-years (PY) of observation. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity on relative and absolute scales, although the excess relative risk (ERR) model described data better than did the excess absolute risk (EAR) model. The ERR per gray was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-6.34], and the EAR per 10⁴ PY/Gy was 2.21 (95% CI, 0.04-5.78). The ERR per gray varied significantly by oblast of residence but not by time since exposure, use of iodine prophylaxis, iodine status, sex, age, or tumor size. I-131-related thyroid cancer risks persisted for two decades after exposure, with no evidence of decrease during the observation period. The radiation risks, although smaller, are compatible with those of retrospective and ecological post-Chornobyl studies.

  4. Calibration of the Accuscan II In Vivo System for I-131 Thyroid Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orval R. Perry; David L. Georgeson

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the March 2011 calibration of the Accuscan II HpGe In Vivo system for I-131 thyroid counting. The source used for the calibration was an Analytics mixed gamma source 82834-121 distributed in an epoxy matrix in a Wheaton Liquid Scintillation Vial with energies from 88.0 keV to 1836.1 keV. The center of the detectors was position 64-feet from the vault floor. This position places the approximate center line of the detectors at the center line of the source in the thyroid tube. The calibration was performed using an RMC II phantom (Appendix J). Validation testing was performed using a Ba-133 source and an ANSI N44.3 Phantom (Appendix I). This report includes an overview introduction and records for the energy/FWHM and efficiency calibrations including verification counting. The Accuscan II system was successfully calibrated for counting the thyroid for I-131 and verified in accordance with ANSI/HPS N13.30-1996 criteria.

  5. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. SU-F-T-222: Dose of Fetus and Infant Following Accidental Intakes of I-131 by the Mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Hu, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the calculation of absorbed dose to the fetus and infants from intakes of I-131 by the mother. Thus provide some advice to the radioprotection of radioactive accident. Methods: In this clinical case, a staff of nuclear medicine accidently intake I-131 during (10–12 weeks) and after pregnancy. The infant was born at full term, but both lobes of the thyroid gland were found to be absent (bilobar thyroid agenesis). It was suspected that the fetal thyroid agenesis may be related with mother’s contamination of I-131 during pregnancy. Urine samples for 24h were collected at different times after administered and radioactivity were measured to calculate the dose of intake I-131. Calculate the intake I-131 by the results of personal TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two calculated results as the I-131 intake. According to the dose of intake I-131 by the mother, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother, fetus and infant were calculated. Results: The intake of I-131 was estimated for 8.18 mCi. I-131 intake was calculated for 7.9 mCi based on data of TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two results as the I-131 intake. The final result was 8.0 mCi. Effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother were 7.3Sv and 164 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for fetus were 2.035 Sv and 40.7 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for infant were 16.25 Sv and 355Gy. Conclusion: The intake during pregnancy was about 1mCi. The absorbed dose of thyroid of the mother was 19.5Gy, whereas the effective of infant was estimated for 40.7Gy. The function of the mother’s thyroid was normal after diagnosis. But the infant was diagnosed as bilobar thyroid agenesis.

  7. SU-F-T-222: Dose of Fetus and Infant Following Accidental Intakes of I-131 by the Mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Hu, P [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the calculation of absorbed dose to the fetus and infants from intakes of I-131 by the mother. Thus provide some advice to the radioprotection of radioactive accident. Methods: In this clinical case, a staff of nuclear medicine accidently intake I-131 during (10–12 weeks) and after pregnancy. The infant was born at full term, but both lobes of the thyroid gland were found to be absent (bilobar thyroid agenesis). It was suspected that the fetal thyroid agenesis may be related with mother’s contamination of I-131 during pregnancy. Urine samples for 24h were collected at different times after administered and radioactivity were measured to calculate the dose of intake I-131. Calculate the intake I-131 by the results of personal TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two calculated results as the I-131 intake. According to the dose of intake I-131 by the mother, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother, fetus and infant were calculated. Results: The intake of I-131 was estimated for 8.18 mCi. I-131 intake was calculated for 7.9 mCi based on data of TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two results as the I-131 intake. The final result was 8.0 mCi. Effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother were 7.3Sv and 164 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for fetus were 2.035 Sv and 40.7 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for infant were 16.25 Sv and 355Gy. Conclusion: The intake during pregnancy was about 1mCi. The absorbed dose of thyroid of the mother was 19.5Gy, whereas the effective of infant was estimated for 40.7Gy. The function of the mother’s thyroid was normal after diagnosis. But the infant was diagnosed as bilobar thyroid agenesis.

  8. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of 188 Re-anti-CD20 and 131 I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres G, E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare 131 I-anti-CD20 and 188 Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of 131 I-anti-CD20 and 188 Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. 188 Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of 188 Re-anti-CD20, 125 I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and 188 Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. 188 Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and 188 Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that 188 Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or healthy organs. The absorbed dose (D) into cellular nucleus was calculated by two

  9. The anti-thyroid antibody and I-131 uptake in thyroid disorder patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridul Alam; Fatema Sultana Haque; Mohammad Abdul Karim; Liaquat Ali; Omer Faruque; Azad Khan, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of thyroid disorder is extensive in Bangladesh, even more than that of other developing countries. The high incidence rate of goiter is reduced after universal iodine supplement. This study has been undertaken to study the an-thyroid anti-body level among the thyroid disorder population (anti-TPO and anti-thyrogobulin antibody) and TSAb among Graves' disease and sub-acute thyroiditis. This study was performed over 300 persons of them 150 have some type of thyroid (patient) disorder and 150 have got no clinical thyroid disorder (volunteer). We also studied TSH receptor anti-body (TSAb) in 112 Graves' disease patients and 86 patients with sub-acute thyroiditis. All the patient had I-131 Uptake in 24 hours. Among the patient 42(28%) had elevated anti-TPO, 12(8%) had borderline and 96(64%) had normal anti-TPO. It was found the uptake percentage of this group of patient hade slight lower than average uptake of our population. 13±5% It was found that 28(18.6%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 9 (6.2%) had borderline and 113(75.3%) had normal level anti thyrogobulin anti-body. It was also that found the uptake percentage of this group of patient had slight lower than average uptake of our population. We also found that 21% patient had elevated both the antibodies. Among the normal volunteer 24(16%) had elevated anti-TPO, 8 (5.3%) had borderline and 118(78.7%) had normal level of anti-TPO. Thyroid 1-131 uptake was 15±4%. It was found that 14(9.3%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 6(4.1%) had borderline and 130 (76.6%) had normal level of anti thyrogobulin anti-body. Among the normal volunteer 6% had elevated both the antibodies. It was found 91% patient Graves' disease had positive TSAb and 92% of' sub-acute thyroiditis has negative TSAb, I-131 uptake was 31±8% among this group of patient.. Thyroid stimulating antibody is found in 91% of Graves' disease and very few patient with sub-acute thyroiditis. The uptake of I-131 in sub

  10. [Refractory CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma showing loss of CD20 expression after rituximab therapy and gain of CD20 expression after administration of vorinostat and gemcitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Kazuaki; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Kume, Masaaki; Takahashi, Satsuki; Saito, Masahiro; Takahashi, Naoto

    A 79-year-old male patient presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. A lymph node biopsy revealed effacement of the normal nodal architecture with diffuse proliferation of medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells. Southern blot analyses demonstrated rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene but not the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. He was diagnosed with CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), NOS. Although he achieved partial remission after six cycles of R-CHOP, he relapse occurred after 2 months. CD20-negative conversion was confirmed in the lymph node, which was positive for CCR4, and the skin at the time of relapse. The patient received the GDP regimen as salvage therapy with the addition of vorinostat for skin involvement; however, he failed to respond, and the disease systemically progressed. Furthermore, he also exhibited progression in the skin after stopping vorinostat due to hematologic toxicity. A lymph node biopsy at progression revealed CD20 re-expression by immunohistochemistry. At progression, the patient received mogamulizumab but failed to respond, and he died owing to disease progression 8 months after relapse. In this case, we demonstrated CD20-negative conversion following rituximab and CD20-positive reversion after using vorinostat and gemcitabine.

  11. Simulation for separation of radioisotopes I-123 from tellurium target using tracer I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwono, Daya Agung; Amiruddin, Cahyana; Abidin; Lubis, Hotman

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope Iodine-123 ( 123 I) can be used as material for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical imaging with SPECT tool. This is caused to 123 I emits gamma rays with energies 159 keV and a half-life 13.2 h. 123 I radioisotope was made from the target material in the form of a thin layer of solid tellurium targets with the reaction 123 Te (p, n) 123 I in energy protons 8-15 MeV or 124 Te (p, 2n) 123 I in the 20-26 MeV proton energy using the cyclotron. The use of I-131 tracer to simulate the separation of I-123 radioisotope from the tellurium target because BATAN Cyclotron CS-30 have not produce current yet so it can not generate a radioisotope I-123. Simulation of I-123 radioisotope separation from the tellurium target using tracer I-131 can be performed by irradiating solid tellurium targets in the reactor. Separation is conducted by dissolving Te targets in the target puck into the dissolution vessel with CrO 3 and H 2 SO 4 then insert to the distillation flask. Furthermore, tellurium irradiated in the reactor as a tracer was added to the distillation flask to be dissolved along with tellurium the results of electroplating. Before distilled done first iodate is reduced with oxalic acid to produce iodine. Iodine was formed, then carried distillation and distillate containing I accommodated with an alkaline solution containing sulfite Based on the results of separation experiments three times the yield were obtained with respectively 12.85%, 13.9% and 5.2% with 1-131 radio nuclide purity of 100%. (author)

  12. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedjasari, R S; Lubis, E

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake

  13. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  14. Medically-derived I-131: a potential tool for understanding the fate of wastewater nitrogen in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. S.; Smith, J. P.; Aller, R. C.; Cochran, J. K.; Swanson, R. L.; Murthy, S. N.; Coffin, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Iodine-131(t1/2 = 8 days) has been measured in Potomac River water and sediments in the vicinity of the Blue Plains Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP), Washington, DC. The source of I-131 is medical, where it is commonly used to treat thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. Iodine is metabolized by patients and eliminated primarily in urine. While other medical radioisotopes may enter the environment via sewage effluent, the nature and quantity of treatments using I-131 cause it to account for much of the radioactivity in sewage effluent. Natural iodine in aquatic systems is biologically cycled similar to other nutrients, such as nitrogen. Iodine-131 concentrations measured in sewage effluent from Blue Plains WPCP and in the Potomac River suggest a relatively continuous discharge of this isotope. Dissolved I-131 shows a strong, positive correlation with δ15N values of nitrate in the river. The range of I-131 concentrations detected in surface waters is 0.18 ± 0.01 to 0.68 ± 0.02 Bq/L. Surface water δ15NO3 values ranged from 8.7 ± 0.3 to 33.4 ± 7.3 ‰ with NO3+NO2 concentrations between 0.38 ± 0.02 and 2.79 ± 0.13 mgN/L. Sediment profiles of particulate I-131 and δ15N indicate rapid mixing or sedimentation and in many cases remineralization of a heavy nitrogen source consistent with wastewater nitrogen. Iodine-131 concentrations in sediments ranged from 1.31 ± 0.8 to 117 ± 2 Bq/kg dry weight. Values of δ15N in sediments ranged from 4.7 ± 0.1 ‰ to 9.3 ± 0.1 ‰. We propose that I-131 coupled with δ15N can be an excellent tracer for the short-term fate of wastewater nitrogen in this system. However, the utility of I-131 as a tracer is not limited to use in the Potomac River. Other studies have documented the presence of I-131 in several aquatic systems and continuous discharges of this radioisotope in sewage effluent are likely to be widespread in urban environments.

  15. Simple Synthesis, Halogenation, and Rearrangement of closo-1,6-C2B8H10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Holub, Josef; Padělková, Z.; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2015), s. 450-454 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-SPECTROSCOPY * ORGANOELEMENTAL DERIVATIVES * CLOSO-BORANES * CARBORANES * 5,6-DICARBA-NIDO-DECABORANE(12) Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2015

  16. Electrophilic Halogenation of closo-1,2-C2B8H10.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Růžička, A.; Růžičková, Z.; Holub, Josef; Tok, Oleg L.; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 10 (2017), s. 5971-5975 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01618S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : molecular-structure * ortho-carboranes * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  17. Ten-vertex dicarbaboranes from nido-5,6-C2B8H12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 798, DEC (2015), s. 30-35 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Boron * Carboranes * Dicarbaboranes * Mechanisms Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.336, year: 2015

  18. The predictive significance of CD20 expression in B-cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Mateja

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our recent study, we determined the cut-off value of CD20 expression at the level of 25 000 molecules of equivalent soluble fluorochrome (MESF to be the predictor of response to rituximab containing treatment in patients with B-cell lymphomas. In 17.5% of patients, who had the level of CD20 expression below the cut-off value, the response to rituximab containing treatment was significantly worse than in the rest of the patients with the level of CD20 expression above the cut-off value. The proportion of patients with low CD20 expression who might not benefit from rituximab containing treatment was not necessarily representative. Therefore the aim of this study was to quantify the CD20 expression in a larger series of patients with B-cell lymphomas which might allow us to determine more reliably the proportion of patients with the CD20 expression below the cut-off. Methods Cytological samples of 64 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL, 56 follicular lymphomas (FL, 31 chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL, 34 mantle cell lymphomas (MCL, 18 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL and 15 B-cell lymphomas unclassified were analyzed for CD20 expression by quantitative four-color flow cytometric measurements using FACSCalibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences. Results The range of CD20 expression in different B-cell lymphomas was very broad, varying from 2 737 to 115 623 MESF in CLL and 3 549 to 679 577 MESF in DLBCL. However, when we compared the CD20 expression in the groups of patients with DLBCL, FL, MCL, MZL, CLL and B-cell lymphomas unclassified, it was found to be significantly lower (p = 0.002 only in CLL but did not significantly differ in other lymphoma types (p = NS. Fifty-three out of 218 (24.3% patients with B-cell lymphomas had the CD20 expression below the cut-off value. Conclusions The CD20 expression in CLL is significantly lower than in most histological types of mature B-cell lymphomas in which it appears to be comparable

  19. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  20. Risk from ionizing radiation to the clinical staff and incidental public in the course of therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chas, J.; Janiak, M.K.; Kowalczyk, A.; Siekierzynski, M.; Dziuk, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk to the personnel and neighbouring patients exposed to ionizing radiation during their stay at the Isotopic Therapy Clinic in Warsaw where therapeutic applications of I-131 are routinely performed. To this end, thermoluminescent dosimeters were deposited in various places throughout the Clinical ward and the absorbed doses were read after 125 days of the exposition. Additionally, exposure dose rates were determined at the skin surface over the thyroid gland at 0.5 and 1.0 m away from 71 patients treated with I-131 for hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer (as a supplementary therapy after thyroidectomy) and the potential dose equivalents were calculated. From these values ''restriction times'', i.e., the amounts of time needed for the potential dose equivalents to decline below the limit recommended for occupational or public exposures to ionizing radiation were derived. The results indicate that - a) the probability to exceed the recommended annual dose limit by the personnel (50 mSv y -1 ) and neighbouring patients not subjected to radiotherapy (1 mSv y -1 ) during their exposition at the Isotopic Therapy Clinic to the I-131 treated patients is practically equal to zero; b) no restrictions in terms of limiting the duration of contact with the I-131-treated patients are necessary during the occupational exposures of the personnel of the Clinic; and c) the treated patients may incur some risk to the general public only when injected with high doses of I-131 and/or only within about 3 days upon the application of the radionuclide. (author)

  1. Maximal safe dose therapy of I-131 after failure of standard fixed dose therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Seok, Ju Won; Uh, Jae Sun

    2005-01-01

    In patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy presents an awkward situation in terms of treatment decision making. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration base on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We investigated the efficacy of MSD in differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted after conventional fixed dose therapy. Forty-six patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had non-responsible residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy were enrolled in this study. The postoperative pathology consisted of 43 papillary carcinomas and 3 follicular carcinomas. MSD was calculated according the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. MSDs were administered at intervals of at least 6 months. Treatment responses were evaluated using I-131 whole body scan (WBS) and serum thyroglobulin measurements. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq. Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 (41.3%) stable disease, and 6 (13.0%) disease progression. Thus, about a half of the patients showed complete or partial remission, and of these patients, 14 (67%) showed response after a single MSD administration and 6 (29%) showed response after the second dose of MSD administrations. Twenty-nine patients (63%) experienced transient cytopenia after therapy, and recovered spontaneously with the exception of one. MSD administration is an effective method even in the patients who failed to be treated by conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD therapy of I-131 can be considered in the patients who failed by fixed dose therapy

  2. Dosimetry and microdosimetry of {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 and {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 for the treatment of No Hodgkin lymphomas; Dosimetria y microdosimetria del {sup 188} Re-anti-CD20 y {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 para el tratamiento de linfomas No Hodgkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres G, E

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and to estimate the radiation absorbed dose at macro- and micro- level during a NHL treatment. The work was divided in 4 general objectives: 1) preparation of {sup 131}I-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, 2) application in patients to obtain biokinetic parameters and estimate the organ absorbed doses 3) estimation of the cellular dosimetry using the MIRD methodology and the MCNP4C2 code and 4) estimation of the cellular microdosimetry using the NOREC code. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 was prepared by a direct labelling method using sodium tartrate as a weak ligand. To evaluate the biological recognition a comparative study of the in vitro binding of {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20, {sup 125}I-anti-CD20 (positive control) and {sup 188}Re-anti-CEA (negative control) to normal B Iymphocytes was performed. Biodistribution studies in normal mice were accomplished to assess the in vivo Re-anti-CD20 complex stability. The binding of ' Re-anti-CD20 to cells was in the same range as '251-anti-CD20 (>80%) considered as the positive control. {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 and '3'1-anti-CD20 prepared were administered in patients diagnosed with B cell NHL at the Centro Medico Siglo XXI (IMSS). The protocol was approved by the hospital's Medical Ethics Committee. AJI patients signed a consent form after receiving detailed information on the aims of the study. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the radiation absorbed dose to organs and whole body. Dosimetric studies indicate that after administration of 6.4 GBq and 4.87 to 8.75 GBq of '3'1-anti-CD20 and {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 respectively, the absorbed dose to total body would be 0.75 Gy which corresponds to the recommended dose for NHL therapies. The calculated organ absorbed doses indicate that {sup 188}Re-anti-CD20 may be used in radioimmunotherapy without the risk of toxicity to red marrow or

  3. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S. C.; van Rijn, R. R.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; Caron, H. N.; Tytgat, G. A. M.; van Santen, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Treatment with I-131-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to I-131-MIBG and to evaluate the

  4. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during I-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S. C.; van Rijn, R. R.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. E.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; Caron, H. N.; Tytgat, G. A. M.; van Santen, H. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/238668959

    Purpose Treatment with I-131-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to I-131-MIBG and to evaluate the

  5. Anti-CD20 multivalent HPMA copolymer-Fab′ conjugates for the direct induction of apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Te-Wei; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid biomimetic system comprising high-molecular-weight, linear copolymer of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) grafted with multiple Fab′ fragments of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by attachment of Fab′ fragments via thioether bonds. Exposure of human non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) Raji B cells to the multivalent conjugates resulted in crosslinking of CD20 receptors and commenceme...

  6. Compartmental and dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labelled with {sup 188}Re; Estudo compartimental e dosimetrico do Anti-CD20 marcado com {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Graciela Barrio

    2016-10-01

    The radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses MAbs conjugated to radionuclides α or β{sup -} emitters, both for therapy. Your treatment is based on the irradiation and tumor destruction, preserving the normal organs as the excess radiation. Radionuclides β{sup -} emitters as {sup 131}I, {sup 90}Y, {sup 188}Re {sup 177}Lu and are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and, when coupled with MAb and Anti-CD20 it is important mainly for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). {sup 188}Re (E{sub β} = 2.12 MeV; E{sub γ} = 155 keV; t1/2 = 16.9 h) is an attractive radionuclide for RIT. However, {sup 188}Re can be obtained from a radionuclide generator of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re, commercially available, making it convenient for use in research and for clinical routine. The CR of IPEN has a project aimed at the production of radiopharmaceutical {sup 188}Re-Anti-CD20, where the radionuclide can be obtained from a generator system {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re. With this proposed a study to assess the efficiency of this labeling technique for treatment in accordance compartmental and dosimetry. The objective of this study was to compare the marking of anti-CD20 MAb with {sup 188}Re with the marking of the antibody with {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 99m}Tc (for their similar chemical characteristics) and {sup 211}At, {sup 213}Bi, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac); through the study of labeling techniques reported in literature, the proposal of a compartmental model to evaluate its pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies, high interest for therapy. The result of the study shows a favorable kinetics for {sup 188}Re, by their physical and chemical characteristics compared to the other evaluated radionuclides. The compartment proposed study describes the metabolism of {sup 188}Reanti- CD20 through a compartment mammillary model, which by their pharmacokinetic analysis, performed compared to products emitters β{sup -131}I-labeled anti CD20, {sup 177

  7. Type I CD20 Antibodies Recruit the B Cell Receptor for Complement-Dependent Lysis of Malignant B Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelberts, Patrick J.; Voorhorst, Marleen; Schuurman, Janine; van Meerten, Tom; Bakker, Joost M.; Vink, Tom; Mackus, Wendy J. M.; Breij, Esther C. W.; Derer, Stefanie; Valerius, Thomas; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Beurskens, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Human IgG1 type I CD20 Abs, such as rituximab and ofatumumab (OFA), efficiently induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of CD20(+) B cells by binding of C1 to hexamerized Fc domains. Unexpectedly, we found that type I CD20 Ab F(ab ')2 fragments, as well as C1q-binding-deficient IgG mutants,

  8. Exposure of employees engaged on the production and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc-99m and I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trtic, T.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S.; Vucina, J.; Vuksanovic, Lj.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis is presented, of exposure control of employees in the Laboratory for radioisotopes, of the Vinca Institute of nuclear sciences, engaged in the production and quality control of the Tc-99m generator and radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc-99m and I-131. Effective doses equivalent (mSv) was measured by personal thermoluminescent dosimeter in the Laboratory for radiation and environmental protection each month. We calculated effective dose equivalents for each year in the period 1986-1990. Thirty one employees were analysed. They were separated into the groups both on the basis of radioisotope which they worked with and the kind of the professional work. The highest average effective doses equivalent were received in the group producing of Tc-99m generator (4-12.5 mSv) and in the group producing I-131 radiopharmaceuticals (3.55-13.73 mSv). (author)

  9. Role of trophallaxis in the dispersal of radioactive I131 and of bacterial infections in the termite, Bifiditermes beesoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.I.; Jafri, R.H.; Ahmad, M.

    1981-01-01

    Dispersal and localisation of radioactive iodine (I 131 ) through trophallaxis was studied in various organs of healthy or bacteria-infected pseudergates of Bifiditermes beesoni. The breakdown of the defence system by bacterial pathogens was also studied by means of I 131 . Individual groups of pseudergates of B. beesoni were infected by various bacterial pathogens, i.e. Thuricide-HP (commercial preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis), B. thuringiensis 11-toumanoffi, B. thuringiensis serotype 3a, 3b, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens, respectively. Healthy pseudergates retained more radioactivity in their guts and less in their exoskeletons. However, bacteria-infected 'donor' and 'recipient' pseudergates and soldiers retained less radioactivity in their guts and more in their exoskeletons. The flow of radioactivity from gut towards exoskeleton or other parts of B. beesoni pseudergates occurred after destruction and breakdown of the inestinal defence system of the host. (orig.) [de

  10. Recurrent/metastatic thyroid carcinomas false negative for serum thyroglobulin but positive by posttherapy I-131 whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Chung, June-Key; Lim, Il Han; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn

    2009-01-01

    Serum Tg and I-131 WBS have been used to detect recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancers postoperatively. Tg is known to be more sensitive than I-131 WBS, and therefore, false-negative WBS cases with elevated Tg levels are frequently found. However, the clinical characteristics of false-negative Tg cases with positive WBS have not been clarified. The authors evaluated 824 postoperative patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent post-ablation/therapy I-131 WBS. Tg negativity was defined as a Tg level of ≤2 ng/mL without TgAb under thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation. Remission, recurrence, and metastasis were confirmed using pathologic or clinically findings. Fifty-two patients (6.3%) with functioning metastasis and negativity for TgAb were Tg-negative and posttherapy I-131 WBS-positive (TgN group), and 128 patients with functioning metastases were Tg positive and WBS positive (TgP group). The TgN group consisted of 45 cases of cervical/mediastinal lymph node metastases (86.5%) and seven cases of distant metastasis to lung or bone by follow-up WBS. The TgN group demonstrated significantly higher profiles of regional involvement than the TgP group (P < 0.029). In 47 patients in the TgN group, metastatic uptake disappeared in 33, ameliorated in four, and persisted in ten during follow-up. A significant number of differentiated thyroid cancer patients were Tg-/TgAb-negative despite a positive WBS finding. Cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes were predominant sites of metastasis in the TgN group. WBS should be undertaken routinely as a complementary modality to detect functioning recurrence and metastasis regardless of serum Tg results. (orig.)

  11. Maximal safe dose of I-131 after failure of standard fixed dose therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Jin; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kang, Won-Jun; Park, Do-Joon; Lee, Dong-Soo; Cho, Bo-Youn; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2008-01-01

    The maximal safe dose (MSD) on the basis of bone marrow irradiation levels allows the delivery of a large amount of I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue. The efficacy of MSD therapy in differentiated metastatic thyroid cancers that persisted after conventional fixed dose therapy is investigated. Forty-seven differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with non-responsive residual disease despite repetitive fixed dose I-131 therapy were enrolled in this study. Their postoperative pathologies were 43 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas. The MSD was calculated with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center protocol using serial blood samples. The MSDs were administered at intervals of 6 months. Treatment responses were evaluated using I-131 whole-body scans and serum thyroglobulin measurements. The mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq (339.6±57.5 mCi). Of the 46 patients, 7 (14.9%) showed complete remission, 15 (31.9%) partial remission, 19 (40.4%) stable disease, and 6 (12.8%) disease progression. Of the patients who showed complete or partial remission, 15 (65%) showed response after the first MSD session and 6 (26%) showed response after the second session. Twenty-nine patients (62%) experienced transient cytopenia after therapy, but three did not recover to the baseline level. The maximal safe dose provides an effective means of treatment in patients who failed to respond adequately to conventional fixed dose therapy. I-131 MSD therapy can be considered in patients who fail fixed dose therapy. (author)

  12. Off-shore contamination by I-131 and Cs-137 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent; Miyashita, Erika; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011 the biggest earthquake ever registered in Japan severed off-site power supply to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Backup diesel generators began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the reactors, but were knocked out by a large tsunami and the nuclear site lost the ability to maintain proper reactor cooling. This was the beginning of a huge nuclear accident that was assigned an INES maximum rating of 7. On March 21, Japanese authorities reported that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) had detected radioactive materials in seawater. Radioactivity started to be measured by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency every two days in sea water from eight locations, 30km from the coastline. I-131 and Cs-137 were analyzed among other radionuclides. It is the aim of this paper to gather all this information and to discuss the evolution of the radioactive marine contamination during the first month of the accident. Results indicate for surface seawater concentrations ranging from 24.9 to 161.0 Bq/L for I-131 and 11.2 to 186.0 Bq/L for Cs-137, and for deep waters of 1.59-15.0 Bq/L (I-131) and 0.0-11.4 Bq/L (Cs-137). The I-131 concentrations in superficial waters were at or above Japanese regulatory limits in the first days, then lowered during one week to increase again above limits when TEPCO released contaminated water into the ocean, to finally reach not detectable values the last week of April. With the exception of point 4, on April 15, the Cs-137 levels were always well below regulatory limits. (author)

  13. Guide for the putting int practice the control of internal contamination due to I-131 in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The generalized use of radioactive installations in different branches of the Economy and Medicine makes essential the existence of a radiological surveillance systems that guarantees that exposure are kept within the limits established. Nuclear medicine workers in hospitals that handle I-131 constitutes a professional group that can be internally contaminated the aim of this guide is to give the entity the general instructions and the necessary methodology to fulfill the control of the internal contamination by this radionuclide

  14. Iodine capsules in thyroid therapy: An individually controlled study of I-131 uptake kinetics as compared to liquid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Seelentag, W.W.; Pfeiffer, G.; Blauenstein, P.; Bekier, A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by parts of the patients gastric mucosa when given I-131 therapy in capsular rather than liquid form, and thus to establish the safety of this procedure. 16 patients with benign thyroid disease were studied by measuring serum radioactivity at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min. after administration of the capsule (120-200 MBq I131). These serum uptake values were compared to the uptake after administration of a liquid diagnostic dose of I-131 (2 MBq). From the resulting uptake curves the delay due to capsular dissolution was determined. The average dissolution time was found to be 12 min. with a large standard deviation of 7 min. Also, a theoretical curve was computed to indicate the dose rate as a function of the distance from the surface of the capsule. Based on this information the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa is of the order of 250 cGy for a therapeutic activity of 185 MBq, which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to outpatients in Switzerland. By having the patient swallow some liquid during the first ten minutes, the capsule can be made to move around, and hence, the local radiation dose can be reduced substantially. The authors conclude, that I-131 in capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. When large doses are given, administration of the dose in several capsules may be advisable

  15. A False Positive I-131 Metastatic Survey Caused by Radioactive Iodine Uptake by a Benign Thymic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avneet K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy in the United States with increasing incidence and diagnosis but stable mortality. Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely presents with distant metastases and is associated with a low risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, current protocols recommend remnant ablation with radioactive iodine and evaluation for local and distant metastasis in some patients with higher risk disease. There are several case reports of false positive results of metastatic surveys that are either normal physiologic variants or other pathological findings. Most false positive findings are associated with tissue that has physiologic increased uptake of I-131, such as breast tissue or lung tissue; pathological findings such as thymic cysts are also known to have increased uptake. Our case describes a rare finding of a thymic cyst found on a false positive I-131 metastatic survey. The patient was taken for surgical excision and the final pathology was a benign thymic cyst. Given that pulmonary metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are rare, thymic cysts, though also rare, must be part of the differential diagnosis for false positive findings on an I-131 survey.

  16. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131 therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

  17. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m 2 in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m 2 , March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  18. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  19. Thymic uptake after high dose I131 treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: interpretation and therapeutical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbon Arce, M.; Cambil Molina, T.; Martin Hernandez, T.; La Cinta Calvo Moron, M. de; La Riva Perez, P. de; Hernandez Herrero, C.; Castro Montano, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: I 131 is a very important for initial staging, treatment and monitoring of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after a total thyroidectomy. Doubtful uptake foci may appear due to physiological tracer distribution or true concomitant pathology. Increased functional activity of the thymus may be physiological in children and adolescents. In adults is associated with thymic hyperplasia, primary neoplasms, metastases, inflammatory processes or even in normal parenchyma. Thymic uptake after high dose radioiodine treatment is frequent in young adults and deciding the need of additional therapy is difficult in some cases. Materials and methods: we present 5 cases of female patients with a mean age of 36.6 years(24-43), which were treated with a mean dose of 106 mCi of I 131 (100-150 mCi) that showed tracer uptake in the thymic area. A blind therapeutic dose of I 131 was administered to 3 patients due to high Tg levels. In the remaining two, one corresponds to a 131 I-WBS (Whole Body Scan) after remnants ablation treatment and the remaining one to a 131 I-WBS after a treatment dose given for lymph node metastases. The 131 I-WBS was performed 7 days after treatment. Conventional anterior and posterior planar images and SPECT / CT of head, neck and upper mediastinum were performed in all patients. Tg levels were measured with and without hormone replacement therapy in all cases. In every case thymic samples were sent to pathology for analysis. Results: in one patient an elective total thymectomy was performed due to the macroscopic appearance and the prominent tracer uptake. In a second one also a total thymectomy was decided due to the intense tracer uptake and because the patient was catalogued as high risk and had history of several bilateral lung metastases on a previous 131 I-WBS which disappeared. In the remaining three, non additional invasive procedure was considered due to the normal previous pathology reports of the thymus

  20. Our first experience in the application of I-131 MIBG in a patient with neuroblastoma (A case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarina, G.; Poksi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Neuroblastomas (NB) belong to a group of neuroendocrine tumors that are thought to arise from cells in the neural crest from the pelvis to neck, produce high levels of the urinary catecholamines vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) or homovanillic acid (HVA) in more than 90% of cases, and often metastasize to bones, bone marrow (BM), lymph nodes, and the liver. I-123 MIBG and I-131 MIBG are clinically important radiopharmaceuticals, which are routinely used for diagnostic imaging and treatment of NB. 90% percent of NB takes up the MIBG. If, however, the MIBG cannot successfully attach to a patient's tumor, it cannot be used to find or treat it. A 20-month-old girl presented with a 6-month history of a rapidly growing tumor mass 3.5 cm in diameter in the left orbital region. The first CT scan revealed a soft tissue tumor 22 x 28 mm, extending from the inferolateral wall of the left orbit and destroying the surrounding bone (os zygomaticus). CT scans of the chest and abdomen were negative. Histopathology showed high malignancy (G3) of NB (immunohistochemical reactions: NSE positive, CgA positive, SY positive, Ki-67 70% of tumor cells positive). First BM histological examination revealed no pathological findings. Urinary VMA and HVA levels were within the normal range. Tc-99m MDP scans showed increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical in the bones around the left orbital region but no evidence of skeletal metastases. 123 I-MIBG studies revealed a hypermetabolic focus in the left orbital region, concordance with the CT and bone scans. The child was treated with preoperative chemotherapy, but without any results: the CT-scan performed four months later showed that the tumor had grown to 45 x 37 x 40 mm. The clinical test demonstrated the progress of the disease and the tumor at that stage was inoperable. Clinicians decided to change the chemotherapy regimen and a CT study carried out three months later showed that the tumor had decreased to 26 x 10 x 30 mm. The patient

  1. Evaluation of absorbed dosis during studies of renal function due AI 123I / 131I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DPTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, Marcial V.V.; Diestra, Carlos E.C.; Villanueva, Raul A.S.; Alegria, Roberto R.; Salvatierra, Carlos C.; Rosales, Jorge M.; Gonzalez, Denis A.; Cruz, Carlos A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the MIRD methodology and Cristy-Eckerman representation for for adult kidneys, it proves that the dosimetric contributions of bodies of the biokinetics of 123 I / 131 I (Hippuran) and 111 In (DTPA) are significant, in the estimated of dose, during studies of renal function. Dosimetric contributions (whole body and urinary bladder, kidney excluding) are given by 11.90% (for 123 I), 4.97% (for 131 I) and 28.32% (for 111 In). In all cases, the dosimetric contributions are mainly due to photons emitted by the entire body

  2. Rituximab and Other New Anti-CD20 MAbs for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Polito

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs are a heterogeneous group of different haematological cancers with a wide range of aggressiveness. NHLs represent >80% of lymphomas and the majority of NHLs involve B cells. CD20 represents a good target for NHL immunotherapy because it is largely expressed on B cell NHL and not on B cell precursors and plasma cells. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb rituximab (RTX was the first antibody approved by the FDA for lymphoma therapy and has revolutionised B cell lymphoma treatment. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the high efficacy of RTX, resulting in a significant improvement in overall response rates and in NHL patient survival. However, RTX, both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy, induces several side-effects and resistance mechanisms. Remarkable efforts have been made to improve RTX efficacy, including conjugation to an active moiety (radionuclide, toxin, enzyme, or drug and the development of new anti-CD20 mAbs. This review summarises the characteristics of RTX and other anti-CD20 mAbs for NHL treatment; the results of the main clinical trials are reported.

  3. Monocytes mediate shaving of B-cell-bound anti-CD20 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Jungersen, Mette B; Pedersen, Charlotte D

    2011-01-01

    complex from the B-cell surface. Here, we confirm, that in vitro co-culture of human monocytes and RTX-labelled syngeneic B cells results in reduced expression of CD20/RTX complex on the B cell surface. This shaving mechanism was the result of active protease activity because EDTA and PMSF were able...

  4. Evaluation of detectors for blood bioanalysis in Lu-177 and I-131 therapies for bone marrow dosimetry; Avaliacao de detectores para bioanalise de sangue em terapias com Lu-177 and I-131 para dosimetria de medula ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Amilie Louize

    2016-10-01

    The measures traceability is mandatory for minimizing uncertainties in internal dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals clinical studies and ensures the quality of the standard. Equipment should have resolution and efficiency compatible with radionuclides energies and, additionally, be able to quantify variations in human bodies' activities samples since the initial administration near the minimum residual activities. For testing three equipment (ionization chamber Capintec 25R, sodium iodine scintillator LTI Genesys Gamma-1 and high hyperpure germanium detector Canberra), they were prepared Lu-177 and I-131 radiation sources simulating patient's blood samples activities by adopting the following hypothesis: (1) initial activities according the Brazilian protocols; (2) blood volume in the whole body (5.3 L for adult men and 1.4 L for 5 years-old children); (3) effective half-lives (1.61 h and 42.9 h for Lu-177 bi-exponential adjustment and 15.7 h for I-131 mono-exponential adjustment); (4) sampling between 30 min and 168 h; (v) blood density adjustments. The standard sources were measured in the secondary standard ionization chamber Centronics IG11 at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes. The Capintec ionization chamber efficiencies ranged, respectively for I-131 and Lu-177, between (111.58±0.02)% and (102.27±0.01)% and HPGe semiconductor detector efficiencies ranged, respectively, between (89.40±0.03)% and (87.80±0.04)%. For the NaI detector, when the Lu-177 sources were positioned inside the detector the efficiencies ranged between (12.66±0.01)% and (11.54± 0.07)% and when the sources were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector the efficiencies decreased to less than 5%. For I-131 sources positioned inside the detector, the efficiencies ranged between (29.76±0.21)% and (30.20±0.04)% and they decreased to less than 5% when they were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector (deviation greater than 95

  5. Veterans health administration hepatitis B testing and treatment with anti-CD20 antibody administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Christine M; Beste, Lauren A; Lowy, Elliott; Suzuki, Ayako; Moylan, Cynthia A; Tillmann, Hans L; Ioannou, George N; Lim, Joseph K; Kelley, Michael J; Provenzale, Dawn

    2016-05-21

    To evaluate pretreatment hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing, vaccination, and antiviral treatment rates in Veterans Affairs patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab for quality improvement. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a national repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health record data. We identified all patients receiving anti-CD20 Ab treatment (2002-2014). We ascertained patient demographics, laboratory results, HBV vaccination status (from vaccination records), pharmacy data, and vital status. The high risk period for HBV reactivation is during anti-CD20 Ab treatment and 12 mo follow up. Therefore, we analyzed those who were followed to death or for at least 12 mo after completing anti-CD20 Ab. Pretreatment serologic tests were used to categorize chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen positive or HBsAg+), past HBV (HBsAg-, hepatitis B core antibody positive or HBcAb+), resolved HBV (HBsAg-, HBcAb+, hepatitis B surface antibody positive or HBsAb+), likely prior vaccination (isolated HBsAb+), HBV negative (HBsAg-, HBcAb-), or unknown. Acute hepatitis B was defined by the appearance of HBsAg+ in the high risk period in patients who were pretreatment HBV negative. We assessed HBV antiviral treatment and the incidence of hepatitis, liver failure, and death during the high risk period. Cumulative hepatitis, liver failure, and death after anti-CD20 Ab initiation were compared by HBV disease categories and differences compared using the χ(2) test. Mean time to hepatitis peak alanine aminotransferase, liver failure, and death relative to anti-CD20 Ab administration and follow-up were also compared by HBV disease group. Among 19304 VHA patients who received anti-CD20 Ab, 10224 (53%) had pretreatment HBsAg testing during the study period, with 49% and 43% tested for HBsAg and HBcAb, respectively within 6 mo pretreatment in 2014. Of those tested, 2% (167/10224) had chronic HBV, 4% (326/7903) past HBV, 5% (427/8110) resolved HBV, 8% (628

  6. Tetravalent anti-CD20/CD3 bispecific antibody for the treatment of B cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chia-Yen; Chen, Gregory J.; Tai, Pei-Han; Yang, Yu-Chen [Institute of Biologics, Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yu-Shen, E-mail: yshsu@advagene.com.tw [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, Advagene Biopharma, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Mingi, E-mail: mingi.chang@advagene.com.tw [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, Advagene Biopharma, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chuan-Lung, E-mail: fabio@dcb.org.tw [Institute of Biologics, Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-13

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are second generation antibodies for therapeutic application in immunotherapy. One of the major strategies of the bsAb platform is the recruitment of immune effector T cells by incorporating an anti-CD3 domain. A bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE), with one end having an affinity for CD3 and the other end with affinity for CD19, has been approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, due to their small size and lack of Fc region, these single-chain variable fragment (scFv) bsAbs have short half-lives in vivo. Additionally, poor solubility, structural instability, and low production yields have also become major challenges in the bulk production process. To overcome these challenges, we have engineered a tetravalent bsAb with bivalent binding specificity for the CD20 and CD3 antigen in an immunoglobulin G (IgG) format. The fusion of the anti-CD3 scFvs to the CD20 antibody via a linker-hinge domain (LHD) results in improved antibody stabilization and properties. Here we demonstrate this antibody's highly efficient cancer cell elimination in a dose-dependent manner in a CD20-expressing B lymphoblastoid cell line in vitro. Our data suggest the potential clinical application of this bsAb for the treatment of CD20-expressing B cell malignancies. - Highlights: • A bispecific antibody (bsAb) can increase immunotherapeutic efficacy. • A tetravalent bsAb with binding specificity for the CD20 and CD3 antigens is proposed. • A linker-hinge domain (LHD) within the bsAb results in improved antibody properties.

  7. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. 177 Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  8. Compartmental and dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labelled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Graciela Barrio

    2016-01-01

    The radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses MAbs conjugated to radionuclides α or β - emitters, both for therapy. Your treatment is based on the irradiation and tumor destruction, preserving the normal organs as the excess radiation. Radionuclides β - emitters as 131 I, 90 Y, 188 Re 177 Lu and are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and, when coupled with MAb and Anti-CD20 it is important mainly for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). 188 Re (E β = 2.12 MeV; E γ = 155 keV; t1/2 = 16.9 h) is an attractive radionuclide for RIT. However, 188 Re can be obtained from a radionuclide generator of 188 W/ 188 Re, commercially available, making it convenient for use in research and for clinical routine. The CR of IPEN has a project aimed at the production of radiopharmaceutical 188 Re-Anti-CD20, where the radionuclide can be obtained from a generator system 188 W/ 188 Re. With this proposed a study to assess the efficiency of this labeling technique for treatment in accordance compartmental and dosimetry. The objective of this study was to compare the marking of anti-CD20 MAb with 188 Re with the marking of the antibody with 90 Y, 131 I, 177 Lu and 99m Tc (for their similar chemical characteristics) and 211 At, 213 Bi, 223 Ra and 225 Ac); through the study of labeling techniques reported in literature, the proposal of a compartmental model to evaluate its pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies, high interest for therapy. The result of the study shows a favorable kinetics for 188 Re, by their physical and chemical characteristics compared to the other evaluated radionuclides. The compartment proposed study describes the metabolism of 188 Reanti- CD20 through a compartment mammillary model, which by their pharmacokinetic analysis, performed compared to products emitters β -131 I-labeled anti CD20, 177 Luanti- CD20, the γ emitter 99m Tc-Anti-CD20 and α emitter 211 At-Anti-CD20 presented a elimination constant of approximately 0.05 hours

  9. High CD20+ background cells predict a favorable outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma and antagonize CD68+ macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Luigi; Tenneriello, Valentina; Ronconi, Fioravante; Lepore, Marianna; Cantore, Nicola; Dell'Angelo, Antonietta Carmela; Ferbo, Ludovica; Ferrara, Felicetto

    2015-06-01

    We studied by immunohistochemistry the background CD20 + cells in 131 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). High CD20 + dispersed cells (CD20BG) showed a significant correlation with longer overall survival (OS) and a trend toward improved progression-free survival (PFS). At multivariate analysis high CD20BG was also an independent prognostic factor of improved PFS and OS. The prognostic role of CD20BG seems to be opposite with respect to tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) we studied previously in most cases of the series. We scored patients on the basis of the respective CD20BG and TAM count and found that the combination of low CD20BG and high TAMs was related to a significantly reduced PFS and OS at univariate and multivariate analysis. Microenvironment CD20 + cells seem to play a favorable prognostic role in cHL. Depletion of CD20 + cells together with an increase of TAMs identifies a group of patients with high-risk disease.

  10. Evaluation of detectors for blood bioanalysis in Lu-177 and I-131 therapies for bone marrow dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhardt, Amilie Louize

    2016-01-01

    The measures traceability is mandatory for minimizing uncertainties in internal dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals clinical studies and ensures the quality of the standard. Equipment should have resolution and efficiency compatible with radionuclides energies and, additionally, be able to quantify variations in human bodies' activities samples since the initial administration near the minimum residual activities. For testing three equipment (ionization chamber Capintec 25R, sodium iodine scintillator LTI Genesys Gamma-1 and high hyperpure germanium detector Canberra), they were prepared Lu-177 and I-131 radiation sources simulating patient's blood samples activities by adopting the following hypothesis: (1) initial activities according the Brazilian protocols; (2) blood volume in the whole body (5.3 L for adult men and 1.4 L for 5 years-old children); (3) effective half-lives (1.61 h and 42.9 h for Lu-177 bi-exponential adjustment and 15.7 h for I-131 mono-exponential adjustment); (4) sampling between 30 min and 168 h; (v) blood density adjustments. The standard sources were measured in the secondary standard ionization chamber Centronics IG11 at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes. The Capintec ionization chamber efficiencies ranged, respectively for I-131 and Lu-177, between (111.58±0.02)% and (102.27±0.01)% and HPGe semiconductor detector efficiencies ranged, respectively, between (89.40±0.03)% and (87.80±0.04)%. For the NaI detector, when the Lu-177 sources were positioned inside the detector the efficiencies ranged between (12.66±0.01)% and (11.54± 0.07)% and when the sources were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector the efficiencies decreased to less than 5%. For I-131 sources positioned inside the detector, the efficiencies ranged between (29.76±0.21)% and (30.20±0.04)% and they decreased to less than 5% when they were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector (deviation greater than 95

  11. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 131I-Anti-CD20 for the treatment of lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja H, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    At the present time they are considered to the lymphomas like a problem of first magnitude since has happened it is necessary to be the fifth cancer cause in the world. Different treatments focused to the lymphoma like the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy, have been employees to counteract the No-Hodgkin lymphoma, without these they don't exclude the healthy tissue of the toxicity. It is for it that is taking a new direction with the employment of the directed radioimmunotherapy since this it allows to kill wicked cells selectively with radiation dose joined to the apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by the own one bio molecule. The radioimmunotherapy with radiolabelled antibodies directed to the surface antigen CD20 represents a new modality for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma and potentially other illnesses. In this work the parameters of optimization are presented for the preparation, control of quality and evaluation of the stability in vitro and in vivo of the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 labelled with 131 I for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma. The anti-CD20 labelled by the chloramine-T method with high radiochemical purity (>98%), it is stable in solution for but of a half life of the radionuclide (8.04 days) The 131 I-anti-CD20 doesn't present dehalogenation in vitro (human serum) during 24 h of incubation at 37 C. According to the tests carried out to establish the immunoreactivity, a percentage of union to cells was obtained (B lymphocytes) bigger to 30%. The biodistribution in mice balb/c one hour after their administration, it shows that there is not high reception in mucous neither kidneys, what indicates that the complex is stable in vivo. In conclusion, the radiopharmaceutical 131 I-anti-CD20 was obtained in sterile injectable solution and free of pyrogens with a radiochemical purity bigger to 98% and a specific activity of 296 MBq. The radiolabelled molecule maintains its biological recognition for the receiving CD20 highly expressed in

  12. Study on the change of hepatic fibrosis indicators in serum before and after I-131 treatment in Graves' Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To explore the change of hepatic fibrosis indicators, i.e., PC-III (type III procollagen), IV-C (type IV collagen), HA (hyaluronic acid), LN (laminin) levels in serum of Graves' patients before and after I-131 treatment. Methods: Control group were 40 healthy cases (female 25, male 15, aged 18-60 years) with normal serum levels of those indicators by medical examination in our hospital. Fifty-five Graves' patients (female 32, male 23, aged 17-58) were diagnosed by thyroid function indicators (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, TSH) tests, thyroid iodine intake and clinical symptoms and signs, with normal hepatic function indicators and without combined history of hepatic disease, cardiac disease, diabetes, and rheumatic disease. Three to six months after I-131 treatment these were completely recovered (back to normal thyroid function, shrunken thyroid gland volume from swelling, and disappeared clinical symptoms and signs). In both controls and Graves' patients, 2 ml venous blood was taken at early morning from each case with limosis respectively before and after I- 131 treatment. RIA method was adopted for detection of each serum indicator with reagents kit. Data were analyzed by t test in the SPSS statistical software pack. Results: 1. In Graves' patients, before treatment PC- III (type III procollagen) levels were statistically higher than that in controls (p 0.05). 2. In Graves' patients, PC-III significantly decreased to a lower level after treatment than before (p 05). 3. In Graves' patients, after treatment there is no significant difference of indicator levels when compared with controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Graves' patients had certain degree of hyperplasia of hepatic connective tissue, and this pathogenesis recovered with healing of Graves' disease. PC-III positive rate and thyroid function indicator positive rate may be better in accordance with the disease process than IV-C, Ha and LN indicators. These data showed that of four serum hepatic

  13. The influence of single low dose of recombinant human thyrotropin on I-131 treatment of large multi-nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojsak, M.N.; Abdelrazek, S.; Rogowski, F.; Szunowski, P.; Mysliwiec, J.; Kociura-Sawicka, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is a substance that after single intramuscular injection can increase thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and improve the results of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in patients with nontoxic multi-nodular goitre (MNG). These effects are very important especially in cases of large MNG with relatively low RAIU or contraindications to surgery. The aim of the study: the evaluation of the influence of the single low dose of rhTSH to RAIU and the effects of RIT in patients with benign large nontoxic MNG. Material and methods: 40 patients (14 male, 26 female, age 41-80 yr) with large MNG > 100 grams and with baseline RAIU < 40% (33,37±7,96%) were included to the study and divided into two groups. First group received the single intramuscular injection of 0,03 mg rhTSH and the second received placebo. The RAIU were measured again 48 hours after the rhTSH (24 hours after diagnostic dose of I-131). After this, all the patients were administered the therapeutic doses of I-131 recalculated according to new RAIU. The patients follow up was continued for minimum 12 months. Results: the mean RAIU after rhTSH increased more than twice, to 75% from 33%. One year after RIT the mean volume goitre reduction were significantly greater in group with rhTSH than in patients with placebo (48±16% vs. 37±18%). Decrease of compression symptoms has taken place earlier and was more important in patients after rhTSH. 12 months after RIT two patients stay in hypothyroid state (from the group with rhTSH), other patients are euthyroid. Conclusions: even the single very low dose of rhTSH increases the values of RAIU in significant way. Efficacy of rhTSH-augmented RIT in patients with large nontoxic MNG is greater than standard RIT. It allows to reduce administered doses of I-131, decreases the need of repeating RIT, makes the radiation adsorbed doses for whole body lower and the RIT shorter. (authors)

  14. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Taja, M.R.; Radl, A.; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana Maria; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluorochromes and dyes such as chromomycin A3 (CMA3). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. (authors)

  15. Reproductive function and biological dosimetry prospective study of young thyroid differentiated cancer patients treated with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Radl, Analia; Chebel, Graciela; Fadel, Ana M.; Gutierrez, Silvia; Normandi, Eduardo; Levalle, Oscar; Kundt, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The administration of I-131 in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a well established practice. As the spermatogonia is highly sensitive to radiation, large doses of internal radiation could result in adverse effects on reproductive function such as oligo/azoospermia and infertility. During spermiogenesis, mammalian chromatin undergoes replacement of nuclear histones by protamines, which yields a DNA sixfold more highly condensed in spermatozoa than in mitotic chromosomes. The structure of this highly packaged chromatin shows a low binding capacity for several fluoro chromes and dyes such as chromo mycin A 3 (CMA 3 ). The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between reproductive function (endocrine and exocrine testicular function, and levels of CMA 3 stainability) and biological dosimetry in a prospective study of 4 young DTC patients treated with I-131. In this context, a background level of CMA 3 binding in mature human sperm was established. It revealed a variable accessibility of CMA 3 to the DNA that is dependant on packaging quality and thus, indicative of protamine deficiency. The identification of altered stainability suggests DNA damage as well as epigenetic effects, which may be indicators of male infertility. Transient impairment of spermatogenesis associated with an increase in FSH, an altered spermiogram and even azoospermia was observed after the administration of cumulative activities. Overall, testosterone levels were preserved, except in one case, which presented a drastically diminished value associated with an increase in LH level. As peripheral blood lymphocytes and spermatogonia have equivalent radiosensitivity (interphase death) we hypothesize that the knowledge of DNA damage recovery in peripheral lymphocytes could correlate with spermatogonia recovery and with FSH evolution. Therefore, a prospective study on the decline of unstable chromosome aberrations is being conducted, considering the damage

  16. Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohlfeld Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM. Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and

  17. High-dose I-131 MIBG treatment for young children with high-risk neuroblastoma, and its practical problem. From the experience of the youngest case in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Raita; Nishimura, Ryosei; Mase, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    High-dose I-131 MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) therapy combined with auto- or allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is becoming a potential treatment for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma worldwide. However, only older children, who can perform personal care, had been given high-dose I-131 MIBG treatment to avoid the needless radiation exposure to caregivers and medical staff in Japan. In this case report, we have used the high dose MIBG therapy followed by autologous PBSCT (peripheral blood stem cell transplantation) for a 1-year-old boy with a newly diagnosed high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplifications. The total radiation exposure to all parties involved was very limited, even in the youngest case in Japan, probably due to adequate preparations. This encouraging experience may remove the age limit for high-dose I-131 MIBG treatment for the patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in Japan. (author)

  18. RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ chromosomal rearrangements in post-Chernobyl thyroid cancer and their association with I-131 radiation dose and other characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Brenner, Alina V.; Little, Mark P.; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Hatch, Maureen; Zurnadzy, Liudmyla Y.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Tronko, Mykola D.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood exposure to I-131 from the 1986 Chernobyl accident led to a sharp increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in regions surrounding the reactor. Data concerning the association between genetic mutations in PTCs and individual radiation doses are limited. Methods We performed mutational analysis of 62 PTCs diagnosed in a Ukrainian cohort of patients who were Chernobyl tumors and show different associations for point mutations and chromosomal rearrangements with I-131 dose and other factors. These data support the relationship between chromosomal rearrangements, but not point mutations, and I-131 exposure and point to a possible role of iodine deficiency in generation of RET/PTC rearrangements in these patients. PMID:23436219

  19. Rate of thyroglossal duct remnant visualization after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its impact on clinical outcome of radioactive iodine (I-131) ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Sayed, Mohamed Hosny; Saleh Farghaly, Hussein Rabie; Fadl, Fahd Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The rate and impact of thyroglossal duct remnant (TGDR) visualization in patients with hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) have not yet been fully determined. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of TGDR visualization in post total thyroidectomy whole body scan (WBS) for DTC and to evaluate its impact on the outcome of I-131 ablation. A total of 60 consecutive DTC patients (51 papillary thyroid Ca., and 9 Follicular thyroid Ca.), underwent total thyroidectomy, followed by WBS (using I-131 in 28 patients and I-123 in 32 patients), neck ultrasound (US), thyroglobulin (Tg) and Tg anti-bodies (TgAb) assay after 40 days and subsequent I-131 ablation. At 6 months later follow-up I-131 WBS, neck U/S, Tg and TgAb were performed following suspension of L-thyroxine for 1-month (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] >30 μIU/ml) in 53 patients and following recombinant human TSH stimulation in seven patients. Of the studied 60 patients, 19/60 (31.7%) had a linear or focal radioactivity at the superior midline of the neck, suggesting TGDR (Group 1), and 41/60 (68.3%) had no uptake to suggest TGDR (Group 2). No significant difference regarding age, gender and histopathology between both groups. Neck US showed no evidence of thyroid tissue in the superior midline of the neck in both groups, and only a small or no residual thyroid tissue in patients of Group 1. There was a significant successful I-131 ablation rate among patients of group 1 compared to group 2 (79% in Group 1 vs. 41.5% in Group 2) (P = 0.007). Thyroglossal duct remnant visualization on WBS of hypothyroid subjects after total thyroidectomy suggests presence of only a small or no residual functioning thyroid tissue at the thyroid bed and can predict a good response to I-131 ablation

  20. Estimation of parameters biokinetics from the resolution of a model compartment for I-131. Application to a patient with thyroid carcinoma hemodialysis; Estimacion de parametros bioceniticos a partir de la resolucion de un modelo compartimental para I-131. Aplicacion a un paciente hemodializado con carcinoma de torioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Jimenez Feltstrom, D.; Luis dimon, F. J.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to define a biokinetic model for the I-131, and solve it for different conditions of the patient or person affected (normal, with cancer of the thyroid or hyperthyroid). Solve the model in the case of a patient treated with I-131 for ablation of thyroid remnants with undergoing renal insufficiency and hemodialysis . Get the parameters Biokinetic this model for different situations. (Author)

  1. Subcutaneous veltuzumab, a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, in the treatment of refractory pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Choi, Eun J; Allman, David M; Tsai, Donald E; Wegener, William A; Goldenberg, David M; Payne, Aimee S

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE B-cell depletion with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab is highly effective for pemphigus vulgaris (PV) treatment. However,most patients experience relapse, and intravenous rituximab infusions are expensive. Therefore, cost-effective anti-CD20 therapies are desirable.OBSERVATIONS A compassionate-use investigational new drug protocol was approved to administer veltuzumab, a second-generation humanized anti-CD20 antibody, to a patient with refractory PV. Veltuzumab was administered as two 320-mg (188mg/m2) subcutaneous doses 2 weeks apart, resulting in complete remission of disease off therapy. The disease relapsed 2 years after treatment. A second cycle of subcutaneous veltuzumab, using the same dosage regimen, again induced complete remission off therapy, which remained at9 months. No serious adverse events occurred during 35 months of follow-up. Serum veltuzumab levels were 22 and 29 μg/mL 2 weeks after the first dose of each cycle, and the drug remained detectable in the serum for longer than 3 months. Relapse and response to veltuzumab generally correlated with desmoglein 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay index values. Shortly after a relapse that occurred after a long-term remission, the patient demonstrated an elevated naive (CD19+CD27−) to memory (CD19+CD27+) B-cell ratio of 19.5 and transitional (CD19+CD24+CD38+) B-cell frequency of 12.5%.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Subcutaneous veltuzumab may be a safe, effective, and more economical alternative to intravenous rituximab for PV therapy. Clinical trials of subcutaneous veltuzumab for PV are warranted.

  2. Labeling an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera Pintado, Alejandro; Leyva Montaña, René; Prats Capote, Anaís; Góngora Bravo, Magdiel; Alberti Ramírez, Alejandro; León, Mariela; Hernández González, Ignacio; Dorvignit, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are among the 10 leading causes of death, both in Cuba and in the world, with an increasing incidence in recent years. Follicular lymphoma low-grade (indolent) is one of the most common in the Western world, representing 1/3 of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). More than 90% of patients present with disseminated disease at diagnosis and generally have a slow evolution and good response to conventional treatment; but radically changed its forecast to relapse, resistance to therapeutic and histologic transformation can occur. The monoclonal antibody therapy has been a promising therapeutic. In this respect CD20 antigen it has been considered one of the most attractive targets in the therapy of follicular B cell lymphoma This is expressed in more than 90% of cases, while not present in stem cells and lines progenitors. Despite the success of immunotherapy, the relapse rate is still considerable. In order to increase the cytotoxic potential of immunotherapy, marked with beta emitting radionuclides alpha particles or monoclonal antibodies are used today. Despite encouraging results in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphomas refractory to other treatments, the extremely high costs of these commercial radiopharmaceuticals have greatly limited its application, even in the first world. A sustainable alternative is the marking of other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, so researchers from several countries have concentrated their efforts on rituximaby other similar antibodies labeled with therapeutic radionuclides, as a possible cost-effectively to more problem. Today in Cuba it has an electrolytic generator 90 Sr- 90 Y Isotope Center, which ensures the availability of the radionuclide. In addition, the chimeric MAb rituximab is applied as part of the therapy of NHL in its health system and, recently, the Center for Molecular Immunology has obtained a chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody biosimilar rituximab, which is in phase clinical trial; which opens prospects for

  3. Comparison of internal dosimetry factors for three classes of adult computational phantoms with emphasis on I-131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Lee, Choonsik; Bouville, Andre; Eckerman, Keith F; Melo, Dunstana

    2011-01-01

    The S values for 11 major target organs for I-131 in the thyroid were compared for three classes of adult computational human phantoms: stylized, voxel and hybrid phantoms. In addition, we compared specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) with the thyroid as a source region over a broader photon energy range than the x- and gamma-rays of I-131. The S and SAF values were calculated for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms and the University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms by using the Monte Carlo transport method, while the S and SAF values for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) stylized phantoms were obtained from earlier publications. Phantoms in our calculations were for adults of both genders. The 11 target organs and tissues that were selected for the comparison of S values are brain, breast, stomach wall, small intestine wall, colon wall, heart wall, pancreas, salivary glands, thyroid, lungs and active marrow for I-131 and thyroid as a source region. The comparisons showed, in general, an underestimation of S values reported for the stylized phantoms compared to the values based on the ICRP voxel and UF hybrid phantoms and relatively good agreement between the S values obtained for the ICRP and UF phantoms. Substantial differences were observed for some organs between the three types of phantoms. For example, the small intestine wall of ICRP male phantom and heart wall of ICRP female phantom showed up to eightfold and fourfold greater S values, respectively, compared to the reported values for the ORNL phantoms. UF male and female phantoms also showed significant differences compared to the ORNL phantom, 4.0-fold greater for the small intestine wall and 3.3-fold greater for the heart wall. In our method, we directly calculated the S values without using the SAFs as commonly done. Hence, we sought to confirm the differences observed in our S values by comparing the SAFs among the phantoms with the thyroid as a

  4. Radiation exposure from liquid discharges from I-131 therapy rooms into the piping system of a hospital building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuntawiroon, M.; Sritongkul, N.; Pusuwan, P.; Chaudakshetrin, P.

    2008-01-01

    Over 80% of the activity from patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer is eliminated during the first three days. In our I-131 therapy unit, the number of hospitalized patients has increased from less than 200 in 2004 to more than 300 in 2006. The total amount of radio activity used is about 1,800 GBq per year, and the estimated amount excreted is calculated to be about 1,500 GBq. This results in significant volume of contaminated liquid discharges into the piping system. In this study, we monitored external dose rates in non-radiation use areas adjacent to pipeline connections in the building to ensure that the dose to non-occupational workers who reside in offices below the unit does not exceed 1 mSv per year. Exposure rates in areas adjacent to the pipeline junction connections were measured periodically from April 2006 to February 2007 five floors below the therapy unit. The measurements were made inside the wall at contact with the junction, outside the wall and in hallways at 1 meter from the wall, using a GM detector or an ionization chamber. The results were recorded in μSv/h and the dose received was estimated for members of the public. Significant increases in dose rates were detected in three floors below the unit. They were 20--30, 10--30 and 5--15 μSv/h at contact with the pipeline connections, 9--15, 10--15 and 3--5 μSv/h outside the wall, and 3--6, 4--6 and 2--5 μSv/h in hallways on floors 1, 2 and 3 respectively. After appropriate wall shielding has been provided, dose rate outside the wall was reduced to 1.4 μSv/h, and to 0.5.3 μSv/h in hallways. By using an occupancy factor 1/4 for hallways, the calculated dose now meets the public dose limits of 1 mSv per year. Therapeutic application of I-131 for the treatment of thyroid cancer generates a significant amount of contaminated liquid waste into the sewers. These wastes originate mainly from toilets, showers, wash basins and floor drains. Although waste discharges can be

  5. Click Dehydrogenation of Carbon-Substituted nido-5,6-C2B8H12 Carboranes: A General Route to closo-1,2-C2B8H10 Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tok, Oleg L.; Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Hnyk, Drahomír; Holub, Josef; Padělková, Z.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 17 (2016), s. 8839-8843 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01618S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy * structural-characterization * monocarbaborane chemistry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  6. Comparison of a new Tc-99m renal function agent, Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, with I-131 OIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Taylor, A.

    1985-05-01

    The search for a Tc-99m replacement for I-131 hippurate (OIH) has led to the synthesis of (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/, a N/sub 3/S derivative with a single stereochemical form, amenable to it formulation. Mouse biodistribution studies in control and probenecid treated animals indicated that renal excretion of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was superior to OIH in both groups of animals. Protein binding studies, constant infusion clearance studies and extraction efficiencies were performed in rats to determine the potential of this agent for evaluation of renal function. In rat plasma TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ was 78% protein bound while OIH was 34% bound. The constant infusion clearance values for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH were 2.70 and 2.11 ml/min/ 100 gm body weight respectively. Clearance values were determined in the presence of IV administered competitive inhibitors, probenecid and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). Extraction efficiency studies were performed in rats by arterio-venous differences for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH. Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was found to have an extraction efficiency of 84.8% while 69.4% was found for OIH. In summary, TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ is cleared more rapidly than OIH in normal rodents with high specificity. Its clearance, in the presence of tubular transport inhibitors, was similar to OIH when corrected for GFR.

  7. Radionuclide I-131 Labeled Albumin-Paclitaxel Nanoparticles for Synergistic Combined Chemo-radioisotope Therapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Longlong; Chen, Qian; Yi, Xuan; Wang, Guanglin; Chen, Jie; Ning, Ping; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Development of biocompatible/biodegradable materials with multiple functionalities via simple methods for cancer combination therapy has attracted great attention in recent years. Herein, paclitaxel (PTX), a popular anti-tumor chemotherapeutic drug, is used to induce the self-assembly of human serum albumin (HSA) pre-labeled with radionuclide I-131, obtaining 131 I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and radioisotope therapy (RIT) of cancer. Such 131 I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles show prolonged blood circulation time, high tumor specific uptake and excellent intra-tumor penetration ability. Interestingly, as revealed by in vivo photoacoustic imaging and ex vivo immunofluorescence staining, PTX delivered into the tumor by HSA-nanoparticle transportation can remarkably enhance the tumor local oxygen level and suppress the expression of HIF-1α, leading to greatly relieved tumor hypoxia. As the results, the combined in vivo chemotherapy & RIT with 131 I-HSA-PTX nanoparticles in the animal tumor model offers excellent synergistic therapeutic efficacy, likely owing to the greatly modulated tumor microenvironment associated with PTX-based chemotherapy. Therefore, in this work, a simple yet effective therapeutic agent is developed for synergistic chemo-RIT of cancer, promising for future clinic translations in cancer treatment.

  8. False Positive Findings on I-131 WBS and SPECT/CT in Patients with History of Thyroid Cancer: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina C. Hannoush

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although whole body scan (WBS with I-131 is a highly sensitive tool for detecting normal thyroid tissue and metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, it is not specific. Additional information, provided by single photon emission computed tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT and by the serum thyroglobulin level, is extremely useful for the interpretation of findings. Case Presentation. We report four cases of false positive WBS in patients with DTC: ovarian uptake corresponding to an endometrioma, scrotal uptake due to a spermatocele, rib-cage uptake due to an old fracture, and hepatic and renal uptake secondary to a granuloma and simple cyst, respectively. Conclusions. Trapping, organification, and storage of iodine are more prominent in thyroid tissue but not specific. Physiologic sodium-iodine symporter expression in other tissues explains some, but not all, of the WBS false positive cases. Other proposed etiologies are accumulation of radioiodine in inflamed organs, metabolism of radiodinated thyroid hormone, presence of radioiodine in body fluids, and contamination. In our cases nonthyroidal pathologies were suspected since the imaging findings were not corroborated by an elevated thyroglobulin level, which is considered a reliable tumor marker for most well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Clinicians should be aware of the potential pitfalls of WBS in DTC to avoid incorrect management.

  9. Type i CD20 antibodies recruit the B cell receptor for complement-dependent lysis of malignant B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelberts, P. J.; Voorhorst, M.; Schuurman, J.

    2016-01-01

    . We hypothesized that CD20 Ab-induced clustering of the IgM or IgG BCR was involved in accessory CDC. Indeed, accessory CDC was consistently observed in B cell lines expressing an IgM BCR and in some cell lines expressing an IgG BCR, but it was absent in BCR- B cell lines. A direct relationship...... between BCR expression and accessory CDC was established by transfecting the BCR into CD20+ cells: OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC in the CD20+BCR+ cell population, but not in the CD20+BCR- population. Importantly, OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC ex vivo in malignant B cells...... isolated from patients with mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. In summary, accessory CDC represents a novel effector mechanism that is dependent on type I CD20 Ab-induced BCR clustering. Accessory CDC may contribute to the excellent capacity of type I CD20 Abs to induce CDC...

  10. Preoperative F-18-FDG PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Urn, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Youn Sang

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 scan. All patients had total thyroidectomy and following I-131 ablation therapy. In the follow-up period, FDG-PET showed suspected cervical lymph nodes metastases and neck dissection was performed within 3 months after FDG-PET. It had shown for all patients the negative I-131 scan within 3 months before FDG-PET or negative I-131 scan during the period of cervical lymph nodes metastases suspected on the basis of FDG-PET, CT, or ultrasonography until the latest FDG-PET. Preoperative FDG-PET results were compared with the pathologic findings of lymph nodes specimens of 19 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. Serum Tg, TSH, and Tg antibody levels at the time of latest I-131 scan were reviewed. The size of lymph node was measured by preoperative CT or ultrasonography. In 45 cervical lymph node groups dissected, 31 lymph node groups revealed metastasis. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for metastasis were 74.2% (23 of 31) and 50.0% (7 of 14), respectively. Except for patients with elevated Tg antibody levels, all patients showed the elevated serum Tg levels than normal limits at the TSH of =30uIU/ml. 8 lesions without suspected metastatic findings on FDG-PET revealed metastasis (false negative), and none of them exceeded 8mm in size (4 to 8mm, median= 6mm). On the other hand, 23 true positive lesions on FDG-PET were variable in size (6 to 17mm, median=9mm). FDG-PET is suitable for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, false positive or false negative should be considered according to the size of lymph node

  11. Absorbed dose in the fetus of a pregnant patient when I131 (iodide/Tc99m (pertechnetate) is administered during thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, V.; Arbayza F, J.; Sanchez S, P.; Cabrera S, C.

    2016-10-01

    The radiation absorbed dose in the fetus of a pregnant woman during thyroid studies is estimated through the analysis of the bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing I 131 (iodide) or Tc 99m (pertechnetate). MIRD formalism and its representation Cristy-Eckerman are used. The results indicate that the absorbed dose by the fetus of a woman of 3, 6 and 9 months of gestation due to Tc 99m emissions is lower than that obtained by I 131 ; represent 34.7%, 6% and 3.5% of the dose generate by the iodide. The auto-dose in the fetus of a pregnant woman is mainly due to the local energy deposition of the beta and gamma emissions of I 131 , being greater than the one reported by the gamma emissions and conversion electrons of the Tc 99m , for fetuses of 6 and 9 months. The dose incorporated to the fetus due to the organs of the maternal tissues, which are part of the bio-kinetics, are basically due to the emission of its gamma photons and correspond to 38.50% /60.52% in fetuses of 3 months, 64.71% /12.43% in fetuses of 6 months and 69.79% /10.97% in fetuses of 9 months for the radiopharmaceuticals Tc 99m (pertechnetate) / I 131 (iodide). The organs of bio-kinetics that contribute to the fetus dose are mainly due to the bladder, followed by the rest, and small intestine (fetuses of 3 months); of the rest, followed by the small intestine and bladder (fetuses of 6 months); of the bladder, followed by the small intestine and stomach (fetuses of 9 months) when using I 131 ; while for the Tc 99m the bladder and rest contribute (fetuses of 3 months); of the placenta, followed by the rest and bladder (fetuses of 6 and 9 months). (Author)

  12. Sequential Camouflage of the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 Cage by Substituents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Holub, Josef; Tok, Oleg L.; Švec, Petr; Růžičková, Z.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 14 (2016), s. 7068-7074 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01618S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * derivatives * magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  13. Comparison of radiolabeling efficiency of peptides containing the RGD domain using the Tc-99M and I-131 radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Danielle V.; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Malavolta, Luciana [Santa Casa de São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Médicas; Durante, Ana C. Ranucci; Miranda, Ana C. Camargo; Barbosa, Marycel R. F.Figols de [Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Radiolabeled peptides have become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in recent years mainly because they represent the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and radiopharmaceutical therapy with high specificity and affinity for over expressed receptors in tumors (Thno 2(5):481-501, 2012 / Drug Discov. Today. 7:1224-1232, 2012). In this context, peptides containing the RGD domain which possess high affinity for the αvβ3 integrin receptor have become an important tool in a wide variety tumor, including glioblastoma (Exp. Opin. Drug Deliv. 8:1041- 1056, 2011). Objective: The goal of this work was to compare the radiolabeling efficiency of the GRGDYV and GRGDHV peptides when radiolabeled with the {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc radioisotopes, respectively, as well as, to evaluate the features of synthesized complexes. Methods: The GRGDYV and GRGDHV fragments were manually synthesized by peptide synthesis in solid phase accordingly to the Fmoc protocol and purified by preparative HPLC. The GRGDYV and GRGDHV peptides were radiolabeled with the I-131 and Tc-99m radioisotopes respectively, through of the direct method of radiolabeling. The radioiodination was evaluated and optimized using the methodology of Chloramine-T and for the peptide containing the histidine aminoacid the tricarbonyl method was used. Radiochemical yield analyses of [{sup 131}I]-GRGDYV and [{sup 99m}Tc]-GRGDHV peptides were performed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel TLC-SG (Al) in ACN 95%. The radiolabeled peptides were purified by using solid phase extraction (Sep-Pak C18 filter). The stability studies were realized at 2, 24, 48 and 72 hours in room temperature and refrigerate (4 deg C) for [{sup 131}I]-GRGDYV and up to 6 hours for the fragment [{sup 99m}Tc]-GRGDHV. Partition coefficient was determinate for both radiopeptides. Results: The peptides [{sup 131}I]-GRGDYV and [{sup 99m}Tc]-GRGDHV were efficiently synthesized, radiolabeled and showed

  14. Automated Manufacturing of Potent CD20-Directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Dominik; Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine; Drechsel, Katharina; Barth, Carola; Mauer, Daniela; Schaser, Thomas; Kolbe, Carolin; Al Rawashdeh, Wael; Brauner, Janina; Hardt, Olaf; Pflug, Natali; Holtick, Udo; Borchmann, Peter; Assenmacher, Mario; Kaiser, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    The clinical success of gene-engineered T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), as manifested in several clinical trials for the treatment of B cell malignancies, warrants the development of a simple and robust manufacturing procedure capable of reducing to a minimum the challenges associated with its complexity. Conventional protocols comprise many open handling steps, are labor intensive, and are difficult to upscale for large numbers of patients. Furthermore, extensive training of personnel is required to avoid operator variations. An automated current Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant process has therefore been developed for the generation of gene-engineered T cells. Upon installation of the closed, single-use tubing set on the CliniMACS Prodigy™, sterile welding of the starting cell product, and sterile connection of the required reagents, T cells are magnetically enriched, stimulated, transduced using lentiviral vectors, expanded, and formulated. Starting from healthy donor (HD) or lymphoma or melanoma patient material (PM), the robustness and reproducibility of the manufacturing of anti-CD20 specific CAR T cells were verified. Independent of the starting material, operator, or device, the process consistently yielded a therapeutic dose of highly viable CAR T cells. Interestingly, the formulated product obtained with PM was comparable to that of HD with respect to cell composition, phenotype, and function, even though the starting material differed significantly. Potent antitumor reactivity of the produced anti-CD20 CAR T cells was shown in vitro as well as in vivo. In summary, the automated T cell transduction process meets the requirements for clinical manufacturing that the authors intend to use in two separate clinical trials for the treatment of melanoma and B cell lymphoma.

  15. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  16. Immunoscintigraphy of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice with I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Maul, F.D.; Wenisch, H.J.C.; Kriegel, H.; Hor, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the present study radioiodinated F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments of CA19-9 and antibody that reacts specifically with human gastrointestinal cancer were examined for their ability to detect human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice received 80μCi of I-131-F(ab')/sub 2/ with a specific activity of 1.8μCi/μg. All mice were imaged after the injection and every 24hr up to 6 days. The retained radioactivity was also registered with a whole-body counter immediately after imaging. As a control F(ab's)/sub 2/ of a nonspecific antibody were administered in parallel to another group of animals bearing the same tumor. Three animals of each group were killed at 1,2,4 and 8 days for determination of the distribution of both labeled antibody-fragments. On scintigraphic images obtained with the CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/ the tumors could be visualized 24hr after injection, the best dilineation however was achieved 96hr p.i.. The biodistribution data exhibited a more rapid blood clearance for the specific fragments compared to that for the unspecific ones. Tumors showed an increase in uptake up to 48hr reaching 1.7% of the injected dose per gram, declining to values of 0.08%/g at day 6 p.i.. The highest tumor-to-blood ratios were found after 96h. They were 7 for the CA19-9-fragments compared to 1.5 for the unspecific fragments. The whole body counting revealed a more rapid excretion for the fragments of the specific monoclonal antibodies than for the unspecific ones. In summary the authors were able to show that CA19-9-F(ab')/sub 2/-fragments can be used for immunodetection of human pancreatic carcinoma hosted in nude mice

  17. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  18. Loss of Intra-Islet CD20 Expression May Complicate Efficacy of B-Cell–Directed Type 1 Diabetes Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, David V.; Chapman, Harold D.; Niens, Marijke; Dunn, Robert; Kehry, Marilyn R.; Driver, John P.; Haller, Michael; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Consistent with studies in NOD mice, early clinical trials addressing whether depletion of B cells by the Rituximab CD20-specific antibody provides an effective means for type 1 diabetes reversal have produced promising results. However, to improve therapeutic efficacy, additional B-cell–depleting agents, as well as attempts seeking diabetes prevention, are being considered. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Autoantibodies, including those against insulin (IAAs), are used to identify at-risk subjects for inclusion in diabetes prevention trials. Therefore, we tested the ability of anti-CD20 to prevent diabetes in NOD mice when administered either before or after IAA onset. RESULTS The murine CD20-specific 18B12 antibody that like Rituximab, depletes the follicular (FO) but not marginal zone subset of B cells, efficiently inhibited diabetes development in NOD mice in a likely regulatory T-cell–dependent manner only when treatment was initiated before IAA detection. One implication of these results is that the FO subset of B cells preferentially contributes to early diabetes initiation events. However, most important, the inefficient ability of anti-CD20 treatment to exert late-stage diabetes prevention was found to be attributable to downregulation of CD20 expression upon B cell entry into pancreatic islets. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide important guidance for designing strategies targeting B cells as a potential means of diabetes intervention. PMID:21926271

  19. Multivalent system for therapy of non-Hod king lymphomas based on Anti-CD20 conjugated to gold nanoparticles; Sistema multivalente para terapia de linfomas no-Hodking basado en Anti-CD20 conjugado a nanoparticulas de oro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda O, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    In recent publications has been reported that gold nanoparticles have an effect in reducing the expression of the oncogene Bcl -2 and have a high biocompatibility , this is the importance for using gold nanoparticles for this work. The antibody CD20 is an antibody that specifically binds to that over expressed CD20 antigen on the cell membrane of B lymphoma cell non- Hodgkin (cell line Raji) behold the importance of combining this bio molecule to gold nanoparticles since they have a high specificity with CD20 positive cells , also to carry out the antigen- antibody immunological reactions triggered mediating cell lysis, possibly by cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Therefore, this system must have characteristics of both components to eliminate B cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma.In this work it was studied a multivalent system composed of gold nanoparticles and anti-CD20 antibody, the term multi valency refers to the number of biomolecules attached to the surface of the gold nanoparticle. The synthesis and characterization of the gold nanoparticles and the multivalent system was performed and the effect of the multivalent system on the expression of oncogene Bcl-2 (group of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway) was evaluated. Characterization of raw materials and the multivalent system was performed using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, this to verify structural changes in raw materials and thus confirm the formation of CD20 binding to the surface of the nanoparticle gold by the bond between gold and sulfur in the cysteines of CD20. Taking advantage that the metal nanoparticles have the optical property of surface plasmon resonance, the absorption of gold nanoparticles was measured on the UV-Vis as it is affected by the surface molecules bind to it, showing a bathochromic displacement effected. The hydrodynamic diameter of the gold nanoparticles was measured to verify that the antibody is bound to the surface; this evidence was complemented by micrographs

  20. Preliminary report of a fetal-thyroid overexposure case due to the administration of I-131 during the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Gutierrez, S.; Alcaraz, G.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty to eighty percent of patients with Graves's disease have antibodies directed against thyroglobulin or against thyroid microsomes. A contemporary interpretation is that thyroid stimulatory inmunoglobuline TSI mimics the action of TSH and stimulate the synthesis and release of thyroid hormone. In patient whose thyroids are capable of responding to such a trophic stimulus, TSI may be the mediator of hyperthyroxinemia. TSI cross the placenta and cause transient hyperthyroidism in some neonates (0,5-1 %) born to mothers who have high circulating levels of the antibodies. As regards adults aged 25 and up, administering I-131 radioactive iodine seems to be a satisfactory treatment for Graves' disease. Such a treatment, however, is to be avoided when treating either pregnant or breast-feeding women due to the effects that irradiation is likely to cause to the fetus or the suckling child. Even though such effects depend on the intrauterine developmental stage, the principal effects are as follows: (a) The embryo may be lethally affected; (b) Malformations and structure changes, or changes in the child's development are likely to occur; (3) The child may be mentally retarded; (4) An induction to cancer and leukemia is possible, and (e) Hereditary effect, may be expected. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the fetal thyroid is able to capture and integrate iodine as of the 10th/12th gestation week. Thus, administering I-131 according to prescribed doses may define or suppress the thyroid function. Therefore, the highest precautions must be taken in order not to carelessly administer I-131 therapeutic doses to pregnant women. Any woman within the reproductive capacity range should be strongly advised that the pregnancy test is to be performed to avoid her fetus being irradiated. Precisely, the present paper deals with the inadvertent administering an I-131 therapeutic dose to pregnant woman with Graves disease whose child -unexpectedly enough- turned out to be

  1. A simple low-cost of liquid I-131 dispenser for routine radiopharmaceutical dispensing at nuclear medicine department, Institut Kanser Negara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, M. A.; Suhaimi, N. E. F. [Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Ashhar, Z. N., E-mail: aminhpj@gmail.com [Institut Kanser Negara, No 4, Jalan P7, Presint 7, 62250 Putrajaya (Malaysia); Zainon, R. [Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In routine radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) dispensing, the amount of radiation dose received by the personnel depends on the distance between the personnel and the source, the time spent manipulating the source and the amount of shielding used to reduce the dose rate from the source. The novel iRAD-I131 dispenser using recycle {sup 131}I liquid lead pot will lead into low cost production, less maintenance and low dose received by the personnel that prepared the {sup 131}I. The new fabricated of low cost {sup 131}I dispenser was tested and the dose received by personnel were evaluated. The body of lead material is made from 2.5 cm lead shielded coated with epoxy paint to absorb the radiation dose up to 7.4 GBq of {sup 131} I. The lead pot was supported with two stainless steel rod. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) nanodot was used in this study to measure the dose rate at both extremities for every personnel who prepared the {sup 131}I. Each OSL nanodot was attached at the fingertip. Three different personnel (experienced between one to ten years above in preparing the radiopharmaceuticals) were participated in this study. The average equivalent dose at right and left hand were 122.694 ± 121.637 µSv/GBq and 77.281 ± 62.146 µSv/GBq respectively. This study found that the dose exposure received using iRAD-I131 was less up to seven times compared to the conventional method. The comparison of experimental data using iRAD-I131 and established radiopharmaceutical dispenser was also discussed. The innovation of {sup 131}I dispenser is highly recommended in a small radiopharmaceutical facility with limited budget. The novel iRAD-I131 enables implementation of higher output liquid dispensing with low radiation dose to the personnel.

  2. Comparative studies of antibody anti-CD20 labeled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is an unique and important modality in oncology and the development of new tumor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnosis and therapy is an area of interest for researchers. Rituximab (RTX) is a quimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) (IgG 1) that specifically binds to CD20 antigen with high affinity and has been successfully used for the treatment of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) of cell B. The CD20 antigen is expressed over more than 90% of cell B NHL. Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and rhenium-188 ( 188 Re) are an attractive radionuclide pair for clinical use due to their favorable decay properties for diagnosis ( 99m Tc: T 1/2 = 6 h, γ radiation = 140 keV) and therapy ( 188 Re: T 1/2 = 17 h, maximum β energy = 2.12 MeV) and to their availability in the form of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc and 188 W/ 188 Re generators. The radionuclides can be conjugated to mAb using similar chemical procedures. The aim of this work was to study the labeling of anti-CD20 mAb (RTX) with 188 Re using two techniques: the direct labeling method [ 188 Re(V)] and the labeling method via the carbonyl nucleus [ 188 Re(I)]. Besides the quality control, the radiolabeled mAb was submitted to in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo biological studies. For the direct labeling, RTX was reducing by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol for generating sulphydryl groups (-SH) and further labeled with 188 Re(V), in a study of several parameters in order to reach an optimized formulation. The labeling via the carbonyl nucleus both 99 mTc and 188 Re were employed through 2 different procedures: (1) labeling of intact RTX with 99 mTc(I) and (2) reduced RTX (RTX red ) labeled with 99 mTc(I)/ 188 Re(I). Also a parameter study was performed to obtain an optimized formulation. The quality control method for evaluating the radiochemical purity showed a good labeling yield (93%) for the direct method. The labeling method via carbonyl group, the results showed that the - SH groups of RTX red are a possible way of labeling

  3. The outcome of I-131 ablation therapy for intermediate and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer using a strict definition of successful ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2017-09-01

    This article examines the outcome of radioactive iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer in high-risk patients and investigates background factors influencing ablation failure. We included 91 patients in this retrospective analysis and evaluated the ablation success rate. Successful ablation was defined as the absence of visible iodine-131 (I-131) accumulation in the thyroid bed after whole-body scans and thyroglobulin levels sex, I-131 dose, pathology, resection stump findings, tumor T category and thyroglobulin levels, which could affect ablation outcome. Successful ablation was achieved in only 14 patients (15.4%). Pre-ablation serum thyroglobulin levels were significantly higher in the ablation failure group than in the success group (P 10 ng/ml were significantly related to ablation failure after multivariate analysis (odds ratio 27.2; 95% confidence interval 2.469-299.7; P = 0.007). The ablation success rate was very low because of high thyroglobulin levels, even with high-dose I-131. High-risk patients, especially those with high thyroglobulin levels (>10 ng/ml), are unlikely to reach levels low enough to meet successful ablation criteria.

  4. The outcome of I-131 ablation therapy for intermediate and high-risk differentiated thyroid cancer using a strict definition of successful ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the outcome of radioactive iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer in nigh-risk patients and investigates background factors influencing ablation failure. We included 91 patients in this retrospective analysis and evaluated the ablation success rate. Successful ablation was defined as the absence of visible iodine-131 (I-131) accumulation in the thyroid bed after whole-body scans and thyroglobulin levels <2 ng/ml in a TSH-stimulated state after ablation. We extracted data on patients' age, sex, I-131 dose, pathology, resection stump findings, tumor T category and thyroglobulin levels, which could affect ablation outcome. Successful ablation was achieved in only 14 patients (15.4%). Pre-ablation serum thyroglobulin levels were significantly higher in the ablation failure group than in the success group (P < 0.001), while no significant differences were found for other factors between the groups. Furthermore, thyroglobulin levels >10 ng/ml were significantly related to ablation failure after multivariate analysis (odds ratio 27.2; 95% confidence interval 2.469-299.7; P = 0.007). The ablation success rate was very low because of high thyroglobulin levels, even with high-dose I-131. High-risk patients, especially those with high thyroglobulin levels (>10 ng/ml), are unlikely to reach levels low enough to meet successful ablation criteria. (author)

  5. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Teles, Veronica Goes

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  6. Multivalent system for therapy of non-Hod king lymphomas based on Anti-CD20 conjugated to gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda O, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent publications has been reported that gold nanoparticles have an effect in reducing the expression of the oncogene Bcl -2 and have a high biocompatibility , this is the importance for using gold nanoparticles for this work. The antibody CD20 is an antibody that specifically binds to that over expressed CD20 antigen on the cell membrane of B lymphoma cell non- Hodgkin (cell line Raji) behold the importance of combining this bio molecule to gold nanoparticles since they have a high specificity with CD20 positive cells , also to carry out the antigen- antibody immunological reactions triggered mediating cell lysis, possibly by cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Therefore, this system must have characteristics of both components to eliminate B cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma.In this work it was studied a multivalent system composed of gold nanoparticles and anti-CD20 antibody, the term multi valency refers to the number of biomolecules attached to the surface of the gold nanoparticle. The synthesis and characterization of the gold nanoparticles and the multivalent system was performed and the effect of the multivalent system on the expression of oncogene Bcl-2 (group of proteins associated with the apoptotic pathway) was evaluated. Characterization of raw materials and the multivalent system was performed using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, this to verify structural changes in raw materials and thus confirm the formation of CD20 binding to the surface of the nanoparticle gold by the bond between gold and sulfur in the cysteines of CD20. Taking advantage that the metal nanoparticles have the optical property of surface plasmon resonance, the absorption of gold nanoparticles was measured on the UV-Vis as it is affected by the surface molecules bind to it, showing a bathochromic displacement effected. The hydrodynamic diameter of the gold nanoparticles was measured to verify that the antibody is bound to the surface; this evidence was complemented by micrographs

  7. The prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT following I131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, T.W.; Cherk, M.H.; Yap, K.S.K.; Kalff, V.; Topliss, D.J.; Serpell, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: the aims of this study are first to determine the prevalence of thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract on SPECT/CT and secondly to assess the contribution of this tissue to total neck I-131 activity in patients treated with I-131 ablation therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Materials and methods: a total of 63 consecutive patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer treated with total thyroidectomy underwent whole body planar imaging and SPECT/CT of the neck 48 hours following ablative I-131 therapy. On SPECT/CT, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as radioiodine activity in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid bed in close proximity to the midline without evidence of localisation to lymph nodes. On planar imaging, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was defined as linear radioiodine activity in the midline of the neck superior to the thyroid bed. SPECT/CT and planar images were classified by two independent reviewers as positive, negative or equivocal with interobserver agreement quantified using a Kappa score. Disagreement was resolved using a third reviewer. Quantitation of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue and total neck I-131 activity was performed using region of interest analysis on planar imaging following localisation on SPECT/CT. Results: thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue was present in 31/63 (49%; 95% CI: 37-61%) patients on SPECT/CT. In these 31 patients, thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue contributed to an average of 49% of total neck activity. Interobserver agreement was substantial on SPECT/CT (Kappa = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91) and fair on planar imaging (Kappa = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: thyroid tissue along the thyroglossal tract was present in one half of patients in our study population and can contribute to a significant amount of total neck I-131 activity. Given the high prevalence of thyroglossal tract thyroid tissue, our results suggest that total neck

  8. Anti-CD20 treatment of giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Massimiliano; Patey, Natacha; Bass, Lee M; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (GCH-AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease of infancy characterized by severe liver disease associated with Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. We recently showed that GCH-AHA is probably caused by a humoral immune mechanism. Such data support the use of rituximab, an anti-CD-20 monoclonal antibody specifically targeting B lymphocytes, as a treatment for GCH-AHA. We describe here the detailed clinical evolution of 4 children with GCH-AHA who showed a complete response to rituximab. All patients shared a severe course of the disease with poor control on standard and aggressive immunosuppression. Rituximab was well tolerated, and no side effects or infections were registered. Several doses were needed to induce remission, and 5 to 11 additional maintenance injections were necessary in the 2 more severe cases. Weaning from corticosteroids was achieved in all subjects. A steroid-sparing effect was noted in the 3 children who started rituximab early in the course of the disease. Overall, we show here that there is a strong rationale for treating GCH-AHA with rituximab. Early treatment could reduce the use of corticosteroids. Nevertheless, short-term steroids should be initially associated with rituximab to account for autoantibodies' half-life. Repeated injections are needed to treat and prevent relapses, but the best frequency and duration of treatment remain to be defined. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of anti-CD20 labelled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has the potential to deliver lethal radiation energy directly to malignant cells via targeting of radioisotope-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to specific antigens. B-cell lymphoma is a particularly good candidate for radioimmunotherapy because the disease is inherently radiosensitive, malignant cells in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lymphonodes are accessible, and MAbs have been developed to B-cell surface antigens that do not shed or modulate. Rituximab (RTX), the human IgG1-type chimeric form of the parent murine antibody ibritumomab, is specifically targeted against CD20, a surface antigen expressed by pre-B and mature human B lymphocytes. The use of rhenium-188 from a 188 W/ 188 Re generator system represents an attractive alternative radionuclide for therapy. 188 Re is produced from beta decay of the 188 W parent. In addition to the emission of high-energy electrons (Eβ= 2118 keV), 188 Re also decays with emission of a gamma photon with an energy of 155 keV in 15% abundance. Besides the therapeutic usefulness of 188 Re, the emission of gamma photon is an added advantage since the biodistribution of 188 Re-labeled antibodies can be evaluated in vivo with a gamma camera. Also, rhenium has chemical properties similar to technetium. Thus, both can be conjugated to antibodies using similar chemistry methods. The objective of this work is to prove the usefulness of this radiopharmaceutical based on dosimetric studies, that are also required by the Brazilian Regulatory Agency (ANVISA). (author)

  10. Patient-specific dosimetry of I-123-mibg in diagnosis for improvement of dose estimation in I-131-Mibg adrenal tumours therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, M.; Phinou, P.; Papanikolos, G.; Jordanou, J.; Limouris, G.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we present a patient-specific dosimetric approach using scintigraphic data from children undergoing diagnostic examinations with I-123-MIBG in order to estimate the adsorbed dose in a therapeutic treatment with I-131-MIBG and to administer the optimum dosage to each patient specifically. I-123-MIBG and I-131-MIBG scintigraphy has been established as a primary method for localization of lesions in patients with neuroblastoma. Dosimetric considerations (long physical halftime of 8.04 d and beta emission) limit the amount of I-131-MIBG administered for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, the gamma camera efficiency of detection of the 364 keV photon of I-131 is significantly low. This makes I-123-MIBG (with a short half-time of 13.2 h and a useful gamma energy of 159 keV), the diagnostic adrenomedullary scintigraphic agent of choice, with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 98.5%. Adult biokinetic data used for absorbed dose estimates in children, introduce another inaccuracy parameter for dosimetry. In a series of 16 children, examined diagnostically by I-123-MIBG for neuroblastoma, the calculation of tumour doses was achieved by accurate quantification of planar scintigraphy, repeated twice for each patient, before therapy decision was made. The biodistribution of the compound was also studied in the children with neuroblastoma undergoing a diagnostic administration of I-123-MIBG. Our methodology was to administer to the patient a diagnostic dose of I-123-MIBG of known activity and measured in counts by g-camera under a standard geometry- , for scanning imaging. Thyroid uptake of liberated radioiodine was also restricted by blocking it with stable iodide. Using scans we recorded the individual patient's biokinetics und uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, calculate tumour and critical tissues' dose and extrapolate the results to therapeutic administered activities of I-131-MIBG that was predicted to deliver a predefined whole body dose

  11. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 177}-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. {sup 177}Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  12. Effect of anti-CD 20 antibody rituximab in patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertel, SHK; Verschuuren, E; Reinke, P; Zeidler, K; Papp-Vary, M; Babel, N; Trappe, RU; Jonas, S; Hummel, M; Anagnostopoulos, [No Value; Dorken, B; Riess, HB

    2005-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Treatment with rituximab, a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has proved to be a promising approach and shown a low toxicity profile. Between February 1999 and April

  13. Immune Modulatory Cell Therapy for Hemophilia B Based on CD20-Targeted Lentiviral Gene Transfer to Primary B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene-modified B cells expressing immunoglobulin G (IgG fusion proteins have been shown to induce tolerance in several autoimmune and other disease models. However, lack of a vector suitable for gene transfer to human B cells has been an obstacle for translation of this approach. To overcome this hurdle, we developed an IgG-human factor IX (hFIX lentiviral fusion construct that was targeted to specifically transduce cells expressing human CD20 (hCD20. Receptor-specific retargeting by mutating envelope glycoproteins of measles virus (MV-lentiviral vector (LV and addition of a single-chain variable fragment specific for hCD20 resulted in gene delivery into primary human and transgenic hCD20 mouse B cells with high specificity. Notably, this protocol neither required nor induced activation of the B cells, as confirmed by minimal activation of inflammatory cytokines. Using this strategy, we were able to demonstrate induction of humoral tolerance, resulting in suppression of antibody formation against hFIX in a mouse model of hemophilia B (HB. In conclusion, transduction of receptor-specific retargeted LV into resting B cells is a promising method to develop B cell therapies for antigen-specific tolerance induction in human disease.

  14. Radiolabeling and Preclinical Evaluation of 131I-anti-CD20 for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullaprawittaya, Usa; Khongpetch, Pranom; Ngamprayad, Tippanan; Nuanchuen, Suphatphong

    2007-08-01

    Full text: In this study, a monoclonal anti-CD20 was developed for radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma by reacting anti-CD20 with iodine-131 using iodogen procedure. It was found that radiochemical yield was > 95 % independently of incubation time and the antibody could be conjugated with iodine-131 up to 10 mCi/mg. The radiolabeled antibody exhibited excellent retention of immunoreactivity with radio incorporations >95% for 6 hr at 4 o C. In vitro stability tests showed minimal loss of iodine-131 from the conjugate in the presence of cysteine and in human serum at 37 o C. Biodistribution study in normal ICR mice showed higher uptake by the liver, kidney and intestines but lower thyroid uptake compared to 131 I -MIBG. Biodistribution studies confirmed the in vitro stability of 131 I -anti-CD20. In particular, excellent in vivo retention of iodine-131 was demonstrated by lower thyroid accumulation over 48 hr. A favorable biological distribution of 131 I -anti-CD20 suggests this radiopharmaceutical may be effectively used in the therapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

  15. Radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with Re-188 for treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: radiochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, C.R.; Osso Junior, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses target-specific monoclonal antibodies or fragments labeled with a radioactive isotope to combine humoral and radiolytic functions and has the advantage of targeting not only the cell to which the antibody is bound but also the surrounding tumor cells and microenvironment. The most successful clinical studies of RIT in patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) have targeted CD20+ Bcell tumors. Antibody therapy directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of B-cells is considered one of the first successful target-specific therapies in oncology. The radionuclide rhenium-188 ( 188 Re) is currently produced from the father nuclide 188 W through a transportable generator system. Because of its easy availability and suitable nuclear properties (E βMAX = 2.1 MeV, t1/2 = 16.9 h, E γ = 155 keV), this radionuclide is considered an attractive candidate for application as therapeutic agent and could be conveniently utilized for imaging and dosimetric purposes. The objective of this work is the optimization of direct radiolabeling method of anti-CD20 with 188 Re using a liquid formulation. Anti-CD20 was reduced by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol at room temperature. The number of resulting free sulphydryl groups was assayed with Ellman's reagent. Optimization of radiolabeling was achieved by varying parameters: antibody mass, reducing agent mass, tartrate mass, stability and reaction time, 188 Re volume and activity. Radiochemical purity of 188 Re-anti-CD20 was evaluated using instant thin layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG). Quality control methods for evaluation of radiochemical purity showed good labeling yield of the antibody but further studies will be carried out in order to improve the labeling yields and consequently the specific activity of the product. (author)

  16. Optimization of 90 Y-antiCD20 preparation for radioimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Gholipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The advent of monoclonal antibodies such as Rituximab, in recent years, has brought about decisive progress in the treatment of aggressive and indolent non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. Aims: A further tried and tested improvement to the unmodified antibody has been its coupling to the beta-emitters Y-90. The optimization of 90 Y-antiCD20 radioimmunoconjugate production and quality control methods for future clinical studies in the country was targeted in this work. Materials and Methods: The antibody was labeled with 90 Y-yttrium chloride (185 MBq after conjugation with freshly prepared ccDTPA. Y-90 chloride was obtained by thermal neutron flux (4 × 10 13 n/cm 2 /s of a natural Y 2 O 3 sample, dissolved in acidic media. Radiolabeling was completed in 24 h by the addition of DTPA-Rituximab conjugate at room temperature. Statistical Analysis Used: All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD, and the data were compared using Student′s t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results: Radiochemical purity of 96% was obtained by using ITLC method for the final radioimmunoconjugate (specific activity = 440-480 MBq/mg. The final isotonic 90 Y-Rituximab complex was checked by gel electrophoresis for protein integrity retention. Biodistribution studies in normal rats were carried out to determine the radioimmunoconjugate distribution up to 72 h. Conclusion: The results showed that 90 Y-DTPA-Rituximab could be considered for further evaluation in animals and possibly in humans as a radiopharmaceutical for use in radioimmunotherapy against non-Hodgkin′s lymphomas. Because of the importance of developing anti-lymphoma B agents in nuclear medicine for country use, an optimized radiolabeling method has been introduced.

  17. Development of 177Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Yousefnia; Amir Reza Jalilian; Ali Bahrami-Samani; Simindokht Shirvani-Arani; Mohammad Ghannadi-Maragheh; Azim Arbabi; Edalat Radfar

    2011-01-01

    Rituximab was successively labeled with 177 Lu-lutetium chloride. 177 Lu chloride was obtained by thermal neutron flux (4 x 1013 n cm -2 s -1 ) of natural Lu 2 O 3 sample with a specific activity of 2.6-3 GBq/mg. The macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agent, N-succinimidyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-NHS) was prepared at 25 deg C using DOTA, N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) in CH 2 Cl 2 . DOTA-rituximab was obtained by the addition of 1 mL of a rituximab pharmaceutical solution (5 mg/mL, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.8) to a glass tube pre-coated with DOTA-NHS (0.01-0.1 mg) at 25 deg C with continuous mild stirring for 15 h. Radiolabeling was performed at 37 deg C in 24 h. Radio-thin layer chromatography showed an overall radiochemical purity of >98% at optimized conditions (specific activity = 444 MBq/mg, labeling efficacy; 82%). The final isotonic 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab complex was checked by gel electrophoresis for structure integrity control. Radio-TLC was performed to ensure that only one species was present after filtration through a 0.22 μm filter. Preliminary biodistribution studies in normal rats were carried out to determine complex distribution of the radioimmunoconjugate up to 168 h. The biodistribution data were in accordance with other antiCD20 radioimmunoconjugates already reported. (author)

  18. Preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 131}I-Anti-CD20 for the treatment of lymphomas; Preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 131}I-Anti-CD20 para el tratamiento de linfomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantoja H, I.E

    2004-07-01

    At the present time they are considered to the lymphomas like a problem of first magnitude since has happened it is necessary to be the fifth cancer cause in the world. Different treatments focused to the lymphoma like the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy, have been employees to counteract the No-Hodgkin lymphoma, without these they don't exclude the healthy tissue of the toxicity. It is for it that is taking a new direction with the employment of the directed radioimmunotherapy since this it allows to kill wicked cells selectively with radiation dose joined to the apoptosis and cytotoxicity induced by the own one bio molecule. The radioimmunotherapy with radiolabelled antibodies directed to the surface antigen CD20 represents a new modality for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma and potentially other illnesses. In this work the parameters of optimization are presented for the preparation, control of quality and evaluation of the stability in vitro and in vivo of the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 labelled with {sup 131} I for the treatment of No-Hodgkin lymphoma. The anti-CD20 labelled by the chloramine-T method with high radiochemical purity (>98%), it is stable in solution for but of a half life of the radionuclide (8.04 days) The {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 doesn't present dehalogenation in vitro (human serum) during 24 h of incubation at 37 C. According to the tests carried out to establish the immunoreactivity, a percentage of union to cells was obtained (B lymphocytes) bigger to 30%. The biodistribution in mice balb/c one hour after their administration, it shows that there is not high reception in mucous neither kidneys, what indicates that the complex is stable in vivo. In conclusion, the radiopharmaceutical {sup 131} I-anti-CD20 was obtained in sterile injectable solution and free of pyrogens with a radiochemical purity bigger to 98% and a specific activity of 296 MBq. The radiolabelled molecule maintains its biological recognition for the receiving

  19. F-18 FDG-PET/CT evaluation of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer with negative I-131 total body scan and high thyroglobulin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagna, Francesco; Bosio, Giovanni; Biasiotto, Giorgio; Rodella, Carlo; Puta, Erinda; Gabanelli, Sara; Lucchini, Silvia; Merli, Giuseppe; Savelli, Giordano; Giubbini, Raffaele; Rosenbaum, Joshua; Alavi, Abass

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the incremental diagnostic rate of F-18 fluoro-fluorodeoxygulose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) in patients with negative I-131 whole body scans and high Tg levels. The secondary end points were correlations between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results and Tg levels and comparison between F-18 FDG-PET/CT accuracy in patients "on-therapy" with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and those with high TSH levels. We studied 52 patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation; they had high Tg levels (average = 156 ng/mL; SD +/- 274) after 3 weeks of levothyroxine withdrawal and negative I-131 total body scans after therapeutic doses. We noted a statistically significant positive correlation between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results and Tg levels, irrespective of levothyroxine therapy regimen. Tg levels between F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive/negative groups were significantly different and we did not note any statistically significant correlation between F-18 FDG-PET/CT results and TSH levels, tumor size, and combination of Tg/TSH levels. Our results indicate that F-18 FDG-PET/CT is a useful diagnostic tool in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and with negative I-131 total body scans and high Tg levels. The levothyroxine therapy regimen does not influence F-18 FDG-PET/CT results and the rate of F-18 FDG-PET/CT positive results appears to correlate with the Tg levels. The highest accuracy is reached when the study is performed for patients with Tg levels higher than 21 ng/mL.

  20. Doses to the hand during the administration of radiolabeled antibodies containing Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.E. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Public Health; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Exposure of the hands of medical personnel administering radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) was evaluated on the basis of (a) observing and photo-documenting administration techniques, and (b) experimental data on doses to thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on fingers of phantom hands holding syringes, and on syringes, with radionuclides in the syringes in each case. Actual exposure data for I-131 and Lu-177 were obtained in field studies. Variations in handling and administration techniques were identified. Dose rates measured using TLDs on the surface of loaded syringes were adjusted for differences in electronic stopping power, absorption coefficients, and attenuation between dosimeters and tissue to estimate dose-to-skin averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 7 mg cm{sup {minus}2} depth for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177. Dose rate coefficients to the skin, if in contact with the syringe wall, were 89, 1.9, 3.8, and 0.41 {micro}Sv s{sup {minus}1} per 37 MBq (1 mCi) for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177, respectively. For dose reduction, when using Y-90 the importance was clearly indicated of (a) avoiding direct contact with syringes containing RABs, if practical, and (b) using a beta-particle shield on the syringe. In using a syringe for injection, doses can best be approximated for the geometry studied by (a) wearing a finger dosimeter on the middle finger, toward the outside of the hand, on the hand operating the plunger, and (b) wearing finger dosimeters on the inner (palm) side of the finger on the hand that supports the syringe for energetic beta-particle emitters, such as Y-90 and Re-188.

  1. Doses to the hand during the administration of radiolabeled antibodies containing Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Exposure of the hands of medical personnel administering radiolabeled antibodies (RABs) was evaluated on the basis of (a) observing and photo-documenting administration techniques, and (b) experimental data on doses to thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) on fingers of phantom hands holding syringes, and on syringes, with radionuclides in the syringes in each case. Actual exposure data for I-131 and Lu-177 were obtained in field studies. Variations in handling and administration techniques were identified. Dose rates measured using TLDs on the surface of loaded syringes were adjusted for differences in electronic stopping power, absorption coefficients, and attenuation between dosimeters and tissue to estimate dose-to-skin averaged over 1 cm 2 at 7 mg cm -2 depth for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177. Dose rate coefficients to the skin, if in contact with the syringe wall, were 89, 1.9, 3.8, and 0.41 microSv s -1 per 37 MBq (1 mCi) for Y-90, Tc-99m, I-131, and Lu-177, respectively. For dose reduction, when using Y-90 the importance was clearly indicated of (a) avoiding direct contact with syringes containing RABs, if practical, and (b) using a beta-particle shield on the syringe. In using a syringe for injection, doses can best be approximated for the geometry studied by (a) wearing a finger dosimeter on the middle finger, toward the outside of the hand, on the hand operating the plunger, and (b) wearing finger dosimeters on the inner (palm) side of the finger on the hand that supports the syringe for energetic beta-particle emitters, such as Y-90 and Re-188

  2. Influence of radiolysis and gas-liquid partition of I-131 in accumulated water on late phase source terms at Fukushima NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Akihide

    2014-01-01

    In the process of core cooling at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants accident, large amount of contaminated water was accumulated in the basements of the reactor buildings at Units 1 to 4. The present study estimated the quantities of I-131 and Cs-137 in the water as of late March based on the press-opened data. The estimated ratios of I-131 and Cs-137 quantities to the core inventories are 0.51%, 0.85% at Unit 1, 74%, 38% at Unit 2 and 26%, 18% at Unit 3, respectively. According to the Henry's law, certain fraction of iodine in water could be released to atmosphere due to gas-liquid partition and contribute to increase in the release to environment. A lot of evaluations for I-131 release have been performed so far by severe accident codes such as MELCOR or the reverse estimation with atmospheric dispersion code such as SPEEDI using the monitoring data. The SPEEDI reverse predicted significant release until March 26 while no prediction in MELCOR after March 17. The present study showed that iodine release from accumulated water due to radiolytic conversion from I - to I 2 and gas-liquid partition of I 2 may explain the release between March 17 and 26. This strongly suggests a need for improvement of current MELCOR approach which treats the release only from containment breaks for several days after the core melt. The study also indicates that the release of radioactive iodine from accumulated water in the basements of reactor buildings could become a great concern for the consequence of Fukushima accident. (author)

  3. Multiple model testing using Chernobyl fallout data of I-131 in forage and milk and Cs-137 in forage, milk, beef and grain. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.; Peterson, S.R.; Owen Hoffman, F.

    1991-03-01

    Comprehensive measurements of I-131 and Cs-137 in the environment after the Chernobyl accident provided a unique opportunity for the collection of environmental transfer data sets. These come from 13 locations in the northern hemisphere which experienced levels of contamination that spanned approximately three orders of magnitude. Data have been compiled for radionuclide concentrations in air, rain, pasture vegetation, milk, beef and grain. In addition background information has been collated for factors such as prevailing meteorological conditions, location description, and local agricultural practices. Participants were asked to predict radionuclide concentrations in forage, milk, beef and grain from radionuclide concentrations in air, the daily amounts of precipitation and other pertinent information. This was a blind test in that the locations to which the input data referred were not revealed to the participants until after they had submitted their predictions. Twenty-three models were involved in the study. This report compares observations and predictions for deposition, time- integrated concentrations in forage, milk, beef and grain, to help assess understanding of individual processes, time-dependent concentrations in forage, milk and beef. In general, predictions of time-integrated concentration of I-131 and Cs-137 in forage, milk (normalized for forage) and beef are within a factor of 10 of the observations. About 50% of the predictions of I-131 and Cs-137 in forage and just over 30% of the predictions of those nuclides in milk (normalized for forage) fall within a factor of 2 of the observations. Documentation of the measurements, models, methods of analysis and model results is presented in the appendices. (au) (75 refs.)

  4. Dosimetric contribution of the organs of the I123, I124 and I131 bio-kinetics in the dose estimate for euthyroid adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Rojas, A. R.; Castillo, D. C.; Idrogo, C. J.; Flores, U. H.

    2011-10-01

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Crysty-Eckerman for the thyroid adult, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contributions of source organs of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceuticals I 123 , I 124 and I 131 (iodine) are not significant in the dose estimate. Therefore, the total absorbed dose by the gland is its auto-dose. Equally, the reported results do not present significant differences to the results found by the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for the thyroid represented by a sphere of 20 grams. (Author)

  5. Software for dosimetry hypothyroid patients treated with I131 pick up and using probe gamma camera; Software para la dosimetria de pacientes hipertiroideos tratados con 131I utilizando sonda de captacion y gammacamara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Felstrom, D.; Luis simon, J.; Reyes Garcia, R.; Derecho Torres, P.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this communication the process recently implemented in our hospital for pre and post treatment of patients treated with I-131 in benign diseases of the thyroid gland internal dosimetry is described. We have developed a proprietary software that facilitates the process of dosimetry. Through scans Planar or pictures Spect be determines the mass of the gland thyroid. In function of the mass, is calculated by Monte Carlo the media power absorbed by disintegration of the I-131 in said gland endocrine. (Author)

  6. Association between Volumetric Analysis of Lung Metastases on F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Short-term Progression after I-131 Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Baba, Shingo; Isoda, Takuro; Kitamura, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Lung metastases (LMs) and their radioiodine uptake affect prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We herein investigate the value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in LMs on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG PET/CT) in predicting short-term progression after initial I-131 therapy in DTC patients. We retrospectively evaluated 111 DTC patients with LMs. Diagnostic CT and I-131 scintigraphy were performed within 1 week of I-131 therapy. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total MTV (MTVtotal) were compared between patients with I-131-positive and I-131-negative LMs and between patients with and without short-term progression. Correlation analyses were performed between F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters and thyroglobulin (TG) level, and predictive factors for short-term progression were analyzed by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with short-term progression had significantly higher SUVmax and MTVtotal than those without. TG levels were significantly correlated with SUVmax ( r = 0.21) and MTVtotal ( r = 0.51) after I-131 therapy. MTVtotal showed significant association (χ 2 = 16.5, odds ratio = 0.02) with short-term progression after initial I-131 therapy and had the highest predictive value of all the putative risk factors. MTVtotal in LMs on F-18 FDG PET/CT is an independent predictive factor with a high predictive value for short-term progression of DTC after initial I-131 therapy. It is recommended that F-18 FDG PET/CT be performed before planning therapy during the evaluation of DTC patients with LM.

  7. Evaluation of cell cycle changes activated by the administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-antiCD20; Evaluacion de cambios en el ciclo celular activados por la administracion de {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-antiCD20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos B, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    In the present project, cytometric evaluation of cell cycle changes induced by the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 thermostatic radiopharmaceutical was performed, in which a cell culture of Raji cells from Burkitts lymphoma were used, which are CD20+; for flow cytometry different parameters were measured in which the cells were synchronized in G0/G1 and G2/M, to calculate the dose to nucleus that were given to the cells the Monte Carlo method was used at a dose interval from 1 to 5 Gy. The purpose of this work is to be able to observe by flow cytometry the arrest in the cell cycle with a lower dose interval than the one applied in other papers. (Author)

  8. Distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Diagnosis by 131 iodine and treatment; Metastases a distance des cancers thyroidiens differencies. Diagnostic par l`iode 131 (I 131) et traitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, A.F. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    Distant metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer involve mainly lung and bone. Lung metastases were found in 5% of papillary forms and 10% of follicular forms respectively. I 131 uptake was found in 55% of the cases irrespective of histology. Bone metastases were found in 20% of follicular and 3.5% of papillary forms, respectively. Ablation of post-operative thyroid remnants is obtained by administering 3.7 GBq I 131; I 131 (.2 to .4 GBq) is then used to localize distant metastases and a further 3.7 to 7.4 GBq is administered for therapy. Results are good in lung metastases, with a survival of 72% at 5 years. Bone metastases cannot be cured with I 131 alone. Surgery is indicated as a first line therapy if possible. In order to reduce the vascularization of the metastases a pre-operative embolization should be attempted. After bone surgery a therapeutic dose of I 131 is given if a post-operative I 131 uptake is found. Others treatments of bone metastases are palliative surgery, external radiotherapy, cementing of the metastases. (author). 6 refs.

  9. Estudo comparativo da marcação do anticorpo anti-CD20 com 188Re

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues Dias

    2010-01-01

    A Medicina Nuclear é uma modalidade de particular importância em oncologia e a investigação de novos radiofármacos direcionados a tumores, seja para diagnóstico e/ou terapia, é uma área de interesse para os pesquisadores. Rituximab (RTX) é um anticorpo monoclonal (AcM) quimérico (IgG 1) que se liga especificamente ao antígeno CD20 com alta afinidade e tem sido usado com sucesso para tratar Linfoma Não-Hodgkin (LNH) de células-B. O antígeno CD20 é expresso sobre mais de 90% dos LNH de células-...

  10. Evaluation of cell cycle changes activated by the administration of 177Lu-DOTA-antiCD20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos B, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the present project, cytometric evaluation of cell cycle changes induced by the 177 Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 thermostatic radiopharmaceutical was performed, in which a cell culture of Raji cells from Burkitts lymphoma were used, which are CD20+; for flow cytometry different parameters were measured in which the cells were synchronized in G0/G1 and G2/M, to calculate the dose to nucleus that were given to the cells the Monte Carlo method was used at a dose interval from 1 to 5 Gy. The purpose of this work is to be able to observe by flow cytometry the arrest in the cell cycle with a lower dose interval than the one applied in other papers. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the absorbed dose during studies of the renal function due to I123 / I131 (hippuran) and In111 (DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, M.; Castillo, C.; Sarachaga, R.; Rojas, R.; Zelada, L.; Melendez, J.; Gomez, M.; Diaz, E.

    2014-08-01

    Using the methodology MIRD and representation Cristy-Eckerman for kidneys, bladder, and whole body as organs of the bio-kinetics of I 123 / I 131 (hippuran) and the In 111 (D PTA), the absorbed dose for studies of the renal function of adults due to the I 123 is 0,0071 mGy/MBq where 88.16% corresponds to its auto-dose and 11,96% to the organs of their bio-kinetics; while for the I 131 their dose is 0,032 mGy/MBq where 95,03% corresponds to its auto-dose and 4,97% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. For the In 111 their dose is 0,0168 mGy/MBq where 71,68% corresponds to their auto-dose and 28,32% to the organs of their bio-kinetics. In all the cases the dosimetric contributions of the organs of the bio-kinetics (whole body and urinary bladder) are very significant, and this fundamentally is due to the photons of the whole body. (Author)

  12. Construction and characterization of a fusion protein of single-chain anti-CD20 antibody and human beta-glucuronidase for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, HJ; Sernee, MF; Hooijberg, E; Brakenhoff, RH; van den Meulen-Mulleman, IH; Pinedo, HM; Boven, E

    1998-01-01

    The CD20 antigen is an attractive target for specific treatment of B-cell lymphoma. Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) aims at the specific activation of a nontoxic prodrug at the tumor site by an enzyme targeted by a tumor-specific antibody such as anti-CD20. We constructed a fusion

  13. Mass-Production and Characterization of Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody in Peritoneum of Balb/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Aghebati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are important tools are used in basic research as well as, in diagnosis, imaging and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, infections and cancers. The purpose of this study was to produce large scale of monoclonal antibody against CD20 in order to diagnostic application in leukemia and lymphomas disorders. Methods: Hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibody against human CD20 were administered into the peritoneum of the Balb/c mice which have previously been primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After twelve days, approximately 7 ml ascetic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. Evaluation of mAb titration was assessed by ELISA method. In the present study, we describe a protocol for large scale production of MAbs. Results: We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs with high specificity and sensitivity against human CD20 by hybridoma method and characterized them by ELISA. The subclass of antibody was IgG2a and its light chain was kappa. Ascetic fluid was purified by Protein-A Sepharose affinity chromatography and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with FITC and Immunofluorescence was done for confirming the specific binding. Conclusion: The conjugated monoclonal antibody could have application in diagnosis B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and melanoma cancer stem cells.

  14. Our experience of high dose I-131 therapy in 75 patients with well differentiated carcinoma thyroid followed up over 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougall, P.; Kumar, A.; Ashok, P.; Chinwan, B.P.; Khan, B.; Pandey, D.; Joshi, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The epidemiology of thyroid cancer is variable, depending on the geographic location of the patient population. Well differentiated thyroid cancer (WTC), is responsive to high dose I-131 treatment, and is the most accepted form of therapy, even though the dose administered for ablation of residual thyroid tissue maybe controversial. At our centre, 75 patients of WTC, mean age 42.4 years, 22 males and 53 females (M:F 1:2.4), were treated with high dose oral I-131 therapy with a Total Mean Dose (TMD) of 263.6 mCi, 4 - 6 weeks post thyroidectomy. They were followed up over a period of 6 years. Twenty ( 26.7%) patients had follicular cancer (FC), 47 (62.7%) papillary cancer (PC) and 8 (10.7%) were mixed (MC), on histopathology, at presentation. 38 (50.7%) patients had only residual thyroid tissue (RTT) on I-131 whole body bone scan (WBS) and 37 (49.3%) presented with metastatic disease (MD) at the time of therapy. Of the 37 patients with MD, 21 (56.8%) had metastases to the lymph nodes, 6 (16.2%) to the lungs, 4 (10.8%) to bone, 3 (8.1%) to bone and lung, and 4 (10.8%) to lung plus lymph nodes. Twenty-three patients (7 FC , 13 - PC and 3 MC; 6 RTT, 17 - MD) , received more than one dose of I-131 with a TMD of 422.7 mCi (Range 88 1590 mCi ). 52 patients (13 FC, 34 PC, 5 MC; 20 MD and 32 RTT) received a single TMD of 104.4 (Range 39.5 219 mCi). On follow-up, 3 patients of FC with MD (2 lung metastasis and 1 with extensive lymph node metastasis), died within 3 months 2 years of therapy. 3 patients of MD (2 FC, 1-MC; 2 bone metastasis and 1 bone with lung metastasis) died after 5 .5 years, Of the 6 patients who died, 5 were FC and only 1 was MC. 2 patients with MD to lungs and bone had received a single dose and were lost to follow up. All patients with PC and FC with only RTT, were surviving at the end of 5 years. None of the patients with MD to lymph nodes died at the end of 5 years, either receiving single or

  15. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report; Normalizacao da contagem de linfocitos apos dose ablativa de I-131 em um paciente com leucemia linfoide cronica e carcinoma papilifero da tireoide: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: afthom@einstein.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teles, Veronica Goes [Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  16. Intravital imaging reveals improved Kupffer cell-mediated phagocytosis as a mode of action of glycoengineered anti-CD20 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Capucine L; Montalvao, Fabricio; Celli, Susanna; Michonneau, David; Breart, Beatrice; Garcia, Zacarias; Perro, Mario; Freytag, Olivier; Gerdes, Christian A; Bousso, Philippe

    2016-10-04

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an effective treatment for a number of B cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Glycoengineering of anti-CD20mAb may contribute to increased anti-tumor efficacy through enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADP) as reported by in vitro studies. However, where and how glycoengineered Ab may potentiate therapeutic responses in vivo is yet to be elucidated. Here, we have performed mouse liver transplants to demonstrate that the liver is sufficient to mediate systemic B cells depletion after anti-CD20 treatment. Relying on intravital two-photon imaging of human CD20-expressing mice, we provide evidence that ADP by Kupffer cells (KC) is a major mechanism for rituximab-mediated B cell depletion. Notably, a glycoengineered anti-mouse CD20 Ab but not its wild-type counterpart triggered potent KC-mediated B cell depletion at low doses. Finally, distinct thresholds for KC phagocytosis were also observed for GA101 (obinutuzumab), a humanized glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 Ab and rituximab. Thus, we propose that enhanced phagocytosis of circulating B cells by KC represents an important in vivo mechanism underlying the improved activity of glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAbs.

  17. Selection and Characterization of Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers Binding Human B-Cell Surface Protein CD20 by Cell-SELEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Haghighi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The B-lymphocyte antigen (CD20 is a suitable target for single-stranded (ss nucleic acid oligomer (aptamers. The aim of study was selection and characterization of a ssDNA aptamer against CD20 using Cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (Cell-SELEX. The cDNA clone of CD20 (pcDNA-CD20 was transfected to human embryonic kidney (HEK293T cells. Ten rounds of Cell-SELEX was performed on recombinant HEK-CD20 cells. The final eluted ssDNA pool was amplified and ligated in T/A vector for cloning. The plasmids of positive clones were extracted, sequenced and the secondary structures of the aptamers predicted using DNAMAN® software. The sequencing results revealed 10 different types; three of them had the highest thermodynamic stability, named AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3. The AP-1 aptamer was the most thermodynamically stable one (ΔGAP-1 = −10.87 kcal/mol with the highest binding affinity to CD20 (96.91 ± 4.5 nM. Since, the CD20 is a suitable target for recognition of B-Cell. The selected aptamers could be comparable to antibodies with many advantages. The AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 could be candidate instead of antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in immune deficiency, autoimmune diseases, leukemia and lymphoma.

  18. Evaluation of radiation exposure of workers caring for the patient after administration of radionuclide I-131 based on the Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudzietzova, J.; Sabol, J.; Fueloep, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper using the Monte Carlo method ( code MCNPX) were calculated absorbed doses in organs caregivers, from which thereafter was set the value of the equivalent dose in these organs by appropriate formulas and then effective doses in selected geometries using protective shielding devices. The results show that using of shielding aprons equivalent of 1 mm of lead will reduce the exposure of workers caring for patients after administration of the radionuclide I-131 by about 30%. If the caregiver without protective shielding aprons is located between two patients, the gamma rays will be reduced by about 18% due to averted body of caregiver, while the worker's personal dosimeter located at the chest will register approximately 40% lower value of personal dose equivalent. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of radiation exposure of the worker caring for a patient after application of radionuclide I-131 based on the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudzietzova, J.; Sabol, J.; Fueloep, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper using the Monte Carlo method ( code MCNPX) were calculated absorbed doses in organs caregivers, from which thereafter was set the value of the equivalent dose in these organs by appropriate formulas and then effective doses in selected geometries using protective shielding devices. The results show that using of shielding aprons equivalent of 1 mm of lead will reduce the exposure of workers caring for patients after administration of the radionuclide I-131 by about 30%. If the caregiver without protective shielding aprons is located between two patients, the gamma rays will be reduced by about 18% due to averted body of caregiver, while the worker's personal dosimeter located at the chest will register approximately 40% lower value of personal dose equivalent. (author)

  20. In vitro characterization of 177Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrer, Flavio; Mueller-Brand, Jan; Chen, Jianhua; Fani, Melpomeni; Powell, Pia; Maecke, Helmut R.; Lohri, Andreas; Moldenhauer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    131 I- and 90 Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time ( 177 Lu or 90 Y. Immunoconjugates with different numbers of DOTA molecules per rituximab were prepared using p-SCN-Bz-DOTA. In vitro immunoreactivity and stability were tested and preliminary dosimetric results were acquired in two patients. The immunological binding properties of DOTA-rituximab to the CD20 antigen were found to be retained after conjugation with up to four chelators. The labelled product was stable against a 10 5 times excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 37 C, 7 days). Two patients with relapsed NHL were treated with 740 MBq/m 2 body surface 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab. Scintigraphic images showed specific uptake at tumour sites and acceptable dosimetric results. The mean whole-body dose was found to be 314 mGy. The administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab was tolerated well. Our results show that DOTA-rituximab (4:1) can be labelled with 177 Lu with sufficient stability while the immunoconjugate retains its immunoreactivity. 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. (orig.)

  1. Targeted tumor imaging of anti-CD20-polymeric nanoparticles developed for the diagnosis of B-cell malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capolla S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara Capolla,1 Chiara Garrovo,2 Sonia Zorzet,1 Andrea Lorenzon,3 Enrico Rampazzo,4 Ruben Spretz,5 Gabriele Pozzato,6 Luis Núñez,7 Claudio Tripodo,8 Paolo Macor,1,9 Stefania Biffi2 1Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, 2Institute for Maternal and Child Health – IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo”, Trieste, 3Animal Care Unit, Cluster in Biomedicine (CBM scrl, Trieste, Italy; 4Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 5LNK Chemsolutions LLC, Lincoln, NE, USA; 6Department of Medical, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; 7Bio-Target, Inc., University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 8Department of Human Pathology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 9Callerio Foundation Onlus, Institutes of Biological Researches, Trieste, Italy Abstract: The expectations of nanoparticle (NP-based targeted drug delivery systems in cancer, when compared with convectional therapeutic methods, are greater efficacy and reduced drug side effects due to specific cellular-level interactions. However, there are conflicting literature reports on enhanced tumor accumulation of targeted NPs, which is essential for translating their applications as improved drug-delivery systems and contrast agents in cancer imaging. In this study, we characterized biodegradable NPs conjugated with an anti-CD20 antibody for in vivo imaging and drug delivery onto tumor cells. NPs’ binding specificity mediated by anti-CD20 antibody was evaluated on MEC1 cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients’ cells. The whole-body distribution of untargeted NPs and anti-CD20 NPs were compared by time-domain optical imaging in a localized human/mouse model of B-cell malignancy. These studies provided evidence that NPs’ functionalization by an anti-CD20 antibody improves tumor pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo after systemic administration and increases in vivo imaging of tumor mass compared to non-targeted NPs. Together

  2. Positron Emission Tomography of (64)Cu-DOTA-Rituximab in a Transgenic Mouse Model Expressing Human CD20 for Clinical Translation to Image NHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen

    2012-01-01

    TM, n¿=¿6) PETRIT alone received 7.4 MBq/dose. Small animal PET was used to image mice at various time points (0, 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h). The OLINDA/EXM software was used to determine the human equivalent dose for individual organs. RESULTS: PETRIT was obtained with a specific activity of 545....... The human CD20 antigen was expressed in B cells of transgenic mice (CD20TM). The mice groups studied were: (a) control (nude mice, n¿=¿3) that received 7.4 MBq/dose, (b) with pre-dose (CD20TM, n¿=¿6) received 2 mg/kg pre-dose of cold rituximab prior to PETRIT of 7.4 MBq/dose, and (c) without pre-dose (CD20...

  3. Antigenic modulation limits the effector cell mechanisms employed by type I anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Thomas R W; Roghanian, Ali; Oldham, Robert J; Carter, Matthew J; Cox, Kerry L; Mockridge, C Ian; French, Ruth R; Dahal, Lekh N; Duriez, Patrick J; Hargreaves, Philip G; Cragg, Mark S; Beers, Stephen A

    2015-03-19

    Following the success of rituximab, 2 other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), ofatumumab and obinutuzumab, have entered clinical use. Ofatumumab has enhanced capacity for complement-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas obinutuzumab, a type II mAb, lacks the ability to redistribute into lipid rafts and is glycoengineered for augmented antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We previously showed that type I mAbs such as rituximab have a propensity to undergo enhanced antigenic modulation compared with type II. Here we assessed the key effector mechanisms affected, comparing type I and II antibodies of various isotypes in ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular-phagocytosis (ADCP) assays. Rituximab and ofatumumab depleted both normal and leukemic human CD20-expressing B cells in the mouse less effectively than glycoengineered and wild-type forms of obinutuzumab, particularly when human immunoglobulin G1 (hIgG1) mAbs were compared. In contrast to mouse IgG2a, hIgG1 mAbs were ineffective in ADCC assays with murine natural killer cells as effectors, whereas ADCP was equivalent for mouse IgG2a and hIgG1. However, rituximab's ability to elicit both ADCC and ADCP was reduced by antigenic modulation, whereas type II antibodies remained unaffected. These data demonstrate that ADCP and ADCC are impaired by antigenic modulation and that ADCP is the main effector function employed in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Morbidity risk for thyroid gland carcinoma after treatment with I-131; Morbiditaetsrisiko fuer Schilddruesen-Karzinome nach Behandlung mit J-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, F. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koeln (Germany); Oberhausen, E. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1993-12-31

    For a long period the radionuclid I-131 was used in the nuclear medicine in connection with diseases of the thyroid gland carcinoma for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university of Homburg/Saar about 25000 persons were treated with I-131 for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes in the years 1960 to 1977. From all those 25000 persons a number of 11775 persons who were living at the time of first treatment in the Saarland and whose diagnosis was not `thyroid gland carcinoma` at that time are extracted. With the help of the incidence rates of thyroid gland carcinoma of the population of the Saarland - that population is regarded as comparative population - an expectation value of thyroid gland carcinoma is calculated for the regarded patient collektive. A comparison - anonymized with respect to the data of particulars - of the patient collective with that persons registered in the Cancer Registry of the Saarland yields to observed values of thyroid gland carcinoma which can be compared with the expectation values. The observed value is - regarding a latent period of 10 years - by a factor of 4-3,3 in case of men and by a factor of 1,8-1,6 in case of women higher than the expectation value. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Radionuklid J-131 wurde ueber lange Jahre in der Medizin zur Diagnostik und Therapie von Erkrankungen der Schilddruese verwendet. In der nuklear-medizinischen Abteilung der Uniklinik Homburg wurden zwischen 1960 und 1977 etwa 25000 Personen aus diagnistischen und therapeutischen Gruenden mit J-131 behandelt. Aus dieser Personengruppe werden diejenigen betrachtet, die zum Zeitpunkt der 1. Untersuchung im Saarland lebten, und deren Erstdiagnose nicht `Schilddruesen-Karzinom` lautete: 11775 Personen. Mit Hilfe der Inzidenzraten fuer Schilddruesen-Karzinom in der saarlaendischen Bevoelkerung, die als Referenzpopulation herangezogen wird, wird ein Erwartungswert fuer Schilddruesen-Karzinom im betrachteten

  5. A practical guideline for the release of patients treated by I-131 based on Monte Carlo dose calculations for family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Bolch, Wesley E

    2014-01-01

    We recently published effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv MBq −1  s −1 ) for paediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult patient released from hospital following I-131 therapy. In the present study, we intend to provide medical physicists with a methodology to estimate family member effective dose in daily clinical practice because the duration of post-radiation precautions for the patient–family member exposure scenario has not been explicitly delineated based on the effective dose. Four different exposure scenarios are considered in this study including (1) a patient and a family member standing face to face, (2) a patient and a family member lying side by side, (3) an adult female patient holding a newborn child to her chest and (4) a one-year-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient following her I-131 therapy. The results of this study suggest that an adult female hyperthyroidism (HT) patient who was administered with 740 MBq should keep a distance of 100 cm from a 15-year-old child for six days and the same distance from other adults for seven days. The HT female patient should avoid holding a newborn against her chest for at least 16 days following hospital discharge, and a female patient treated with 5550 MBq for differentiated thyroid cancer should not hold her newborn child for at least 15 days following hospital discharge. This study also gives dose coefficients allowing one to predict age-specific effective doses to family members given the measured dose rate (mSv h −1 ) of the patient. In conclusion, effective dose-based patient release criteria with a modified NRC two-component model provide a site medical physicist with less restrictive and age-specific radiation precaution guidance as they fully consider a patient’s iodine biokinetics and photon attenuation within both the patient and the exposed family members. (note)

  6. Activatory and Inhibitory Fcγ Receptors Augment Rituximab-mediated Internalization of CD20 Independent of Signaling via the Cytoplasmic Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T.; Chan, Claude H. T.; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J.; Beers, Stephen A.; Cragg, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes. PMID:25568316

  7. Prediction of Therapy Tumor-Absorbed Dose Estimates in I-131 Radioimmunotherapy Using Tracer Data Via a Mixed-Model Fit to Time Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koral, Kenneth F.; Avram, Anca M.; Kaminski, Mark S.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background For individualized treatment planning in radioimmunotherapy (RIT), correlations must be established between tracer-predicted and therapy-delivered absorbed doses. The focus of this work was to investigate this correlation for tumors. Methods The study analyzed 57 tumors in 19 follicular lymphoma patients treated with I-131 tositumomab and imaged with SPECT/CT multiple times after tracer and therapy administrations. Instead of the typical least-squares fit to a single tumor's measured time-activity data, estimation was accomplished via a biexponential mixed model in which the curves from multiple subjects were jointly estimated. The tumor-absorbed dose estimates were determined by patient-specific Monte Carlo calculation. Results The mixed model gave realistic tumor time-activity fits that showed the expected uptake and clearance phases even with noisy data or missing time points. Correlation between tracer and therapy tumor-residence times (r=0.98; ptracer-predicted and therapy-delivered mean tumor-absorbed doses (r=0.86; ptracer study for tumor dosimetry-based treatment planning in RIT. PMID:22947086

  8. Individual monitoring of internal I-131 exposure. Efficiency calibration of a thyroid counting system and conformity assessment of the calibration regarding the estimated possible trueness; I-131-Inkorporationsueberwachung. Kalibrierung eines Schilddruesen-Messplatzes und Pruefung der Kalibrierung hinsichtlich der erzielbaren Richtigkeit im Rahmen einer externen messtechnischen Kontrolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmannhofer, J. [Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, Universitaetsklinikum der Paracelsus Medizinischen Privatuniv. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin und Endokrinolgoie

    2009-07-01

    A possible method of measurement for the monitoring of workers concerning internal I-131 radiation exposure is the in vivo measurement of the I-131 activity in the thyroid gland by means of a thyroid uptake system. For this method of measurement and for a maximum time interval between measurements of 14 days the Austrian standard ON S 5220 part 2 defines a lower limit of detection (LLD) of 84 Bq or less. This standard also requires the trueness Br to be in the following range: -0,25 < Br < +0,5. The trueness Br is externally checked every second year within the framework of a so called 'messtechnische Kontrolle' (conformity assessment). This conformity assessment can also cover the aspect of the calculation of the committed effective dose according to part 3 of the Austrian standard ON S 5220. In Salzburg we use a thyroid uptake system with a 3-inch NaI detector and a suitable collimated shield. The personnel is positioned as close as possible to the detector. The efficiency calibration is done according to the manufacturers' instructions. The calibration source is positioned in a neck phantom with an eccentric insert. The efficiency calibration showed the following results: FKal = 0,446 cpm/BqI-131, LLD = 65 Bq and the decision limit DL = 31 Bq (counting time: 2 min, background counting time: 30 min, background counting rate: 129 cpm). Thus the required LLD of 84 Bq is easily achieved with a pleasantly short counting time. Part 2 of the Austrian standard ON S 5220 requires that the (internal) verification or (external) conformity assessment of the efficiency calibration factor has to be done with an activity in the range between the 10- to 1000-fold of the LLD. When doing the verification the exact source position within the neck phantom is well known. This exact source position might not be known when an (external) conformity assessment is performed. With every measurement (personnel measurement or conformity assessment) a distance correction for

  9. Prospective randomized trial for the evaluation of the efficacy of low vs. high dose I-131 for post operative remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Laureta, E.G.; Gaston, J.C.; Al-Nahhas, A.; Padhy, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    The study was done under the auspices of the IAEA to evaluate the efficacy of low dose (50-60mCi) vs. High dose (100 mCi) for the post-operative remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer and to determine other factors associated with successful ablation. There were eighty-six patients included in the study with a diagnosis of papillary, follicular or mixed type of thyroid cancer. They all have undergone near total thyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy and without any evidence of metastatic disease. Four to six weeks after the surgery and without thyroid hormone maintenance as well as iodine free diet and drugs, they underwent a total body scan and uptake using 1-3 mci of I-131. Serum TSH and thyroglobulin were also taken. Randomization was made thru the IAEA and the patients either got a low dose or a high dose depending on such randomization. Of the 86 patients included, there were a total of 76 evaluable cases. There were three dropouts because of other medical conditions as upper GI bleeding, lung cancer and leg fracture. The 7 other patients have not completed their follow-up body scan. Among these patients were 67 females and 19 males whose age range was 19 to 84 years old. There were 65 cases with histologic type of papillary cancer, 15 follicular and 6 mixed varieties. Forty-one patients were randomized to the high dose group while 35 patients were assigned to the low dose therapy group. These patients were confined till their radiation activity was below 2mR/hr. Monitoring of the patients were done during their hospital stay. Post-therapy body scan was done but not with all patients. Most of the side effects noted were sialitis, mild neck pains, nausea and occasional vomiting as well as ageusia. These patients were maintained on thyroid hormone depending on their sensitivity but almost all were given 200-300mgs per day. The older patients tolerated only around 150mcgs/day. After four to six months, serum TSH, thyroglobulin and total body scan were

  10. Impact of CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front of primary tumors on distant metastasis development in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Tumors are infiltrated by macrophages, T and B-lymphocytes, which may favor tumor development by promoting angiogenesis, growth and invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of the relative amount of macrophages (CD68⁺, T-cells (CD3⁺ and B-cells (CD20⁺ at the invasive front of breast carcinomas, and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs either at the invasive front or at the tumor center. We performed an immunohistochemical study counting CD3, CD20 and CD68 positive cells at the invasive front, in 102 breast carcinomas. Also, tissue sections were stained with MMP-2, -9, -11, -14 and TIMP-2 antibodies, and immunoreactivity location, percentage of reactive area and intensity were determined at the invasive front and at the tumor center. The results showed that an increased CD68 count and CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio were directly associated with both MMP-11 and TIMP-2 expression by mononuclear inflammatory cells at the tumor center (p = 0.041 and p = 0.025 for CD68 count and p = 0.001 and p = 0.045 for ratio, respectively for MMP-11 and TIMP-2. In addition, a high CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio (>0.05 was directly associated with a higher probability of shortened relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio was an independent factor associated with distant relapse-free survival (RR: 2.54, CI: (1.23-5.24, p<0.01. Therefore, CD68/(CD3+CD20 ratio at the invasive front could be used as an important prognostic marker.

  11. A new and simple test for the exocrinic function of the pancreas: Analysis of the urine after oral application of a I-131 labeled triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Schmidt, S.; Wunderlich, G.; Schendtke, K.U.; Breidert, M.; McPherson, D.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: A simple non-invasive test for the exocrine function of the pancreas would be attractive to diagnose various diseases of this organ. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-[I-131]-iodophenyl)pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol (MIPPAG) has been evaluated for this purpose. Materials and Methods: After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and subsequent metabolism. Radioiodinated phenylpropenoic acid as the final metabolite of IPPA is then conjugated and excreted into the urine. We investigated 7 normal volunteers, 13 patients without signs of pancreatic disease and 23 patients with pancreatic insufficiency (PI). About 1 MBq Iodine-131-MIPPAG were administered orally with subsequent urine collection for two 24 h periods. Blood samples were withdrawn after 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. TLC analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. As a reference method for PI measurement of the elastase concentration in the feces was used. Results: Healthy subjects excreted 44.9% (SD: 7.5%) of the administered dose in the first 24 h and after 48 h this value cumulated to 61.9 % (SD: 8.1%) whereas patients with PI excreted 27.5% (SD: 15.4%) and 35.0% (SD: 18.7%), respectively. These values were statistically highly significant (p<0.00001) compared to normals. The TLC's showed two major peaks which corresponded to the standards iodine benzoic acid (IBA) and tripalmitin (TP). The IBA/TP ratio increased with time. The sensitivity and specificity of this new test was 78.3% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity of the elastase test was only 54%. Conclusion: MIPPAG showed the expected physiologic behavior and a pancreatic insufficiency might be diagnosed by a simple urine analysis after oral application of this new tracer

  12. Carbon Insertion into arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 via Acyl Chlorides. Skeletal Alkylcarbonation (SAC) Reactions: A New Route for Tricarbollides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Holub, Josef; Padělková, Z.; Růžička, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 15 (2013), s. 9087-9093 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-SPECTROSCOPY * STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATIONS * 12-VERTEX FERRATRICARBOLLIDES Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.794, year: 2013

  13. Tratamiento de la Enfermedad de Graves con I131: Primeros casos en la Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Perú: Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ernesto SÁNCHEZ POVIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la respuesta al tratamiento con I131 y sus complicaciones, en niños y adolescentes con enfermedad de Graves. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Graves y que recibieron tratamiento con I131 atendidos hasta 1999 en la Unidad de Endocrinología Pediátrica del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Se registraron datos demográficos, peso tiroideo, captación de yodo, dosis de I131 recibida y evolución clínica y de función tiroidea. Resultados: Se incluyeron 13 pacientes: 1 varón y 12 mujeres. El peso glandular promedio obtenido fue 47,56 +10,70 gramos. La dosis inicial calculada fue 3,92 + 0,95 mCi, con un total de 4,47 + 1,66 mCi y tiempo medio de seguimiento de 2,76 años. Diez pacientes recibieron 1 sola dosis, 2 pacientes dos dosis y un paciente tres dosis, remitiendo el 100%. Los pacientes que recibieron una sola dosis, mostraron remisión del cuadro en 13,13 semanas y el tiempo promedio de remisión de toda la muestra fue 24,62 semanas. La prevalencia de hipotiroidismo a los 6 meses de iniciado el tratamiento fue 66,66%, y 83,33% a las 257 semanas. Conclusión: I131 fue 100% eficaz en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Graves de los niños y adolescentes en esta pequeña serie de casos. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:8-14.

  14. Identification of relevant drugable targets in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using a genome-wide unbiased CD20 guilt-by association approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Mathilde R. W.; Visser, Lydia; Huls, Gerwin; Diepstra, Arjan; van Vugt, Marcel; Ammatuna, Emanuele; van Rijn, Rozemarijn S.; Vellenga, Edo; van den Berg, Anke; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; van Meerten, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Forty percent of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) show resistant disease to standard chemotherapy (CHOP) in combination with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (R). Although many new anti-cancer drugs were developed in the last years, it is unclear which of these drugs

  15. Inflammation in disseminated lesions: an analysis of CD4+, CD20+, CD68+, CD31+ and vW+ cells in non-ulcerated lesions of disseminated leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Santos Mendes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics. Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.

  16. Randomized Phase II Trial Comparing Obinutuzumab (GA101) With Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed CD20(+) Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehn, L. H.; Goy, A.; Offner, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obinutuzumab (GA101), a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated responses in single-arm studies of patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first prospective, randomized study comparing safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab with r...

  17. Sensitive Detection of the Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity of Anti-CD20 Antibodies and Its Impairment by B-Cell Receptor Pathway Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd Hassenrück

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs rituximab and obinutuzumab against the cell line Raji and isolated CLL cells and its potential impairment by kinase inhibitors (KI was determined via lactate dehydrogenase release or calcein retention, respectively, using genetically modified NK92 cells expressing CD16-176V as effector cells. Compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, recombinant effector cell lines showed substantial alloreactivity-related cytotoxicity without addition of mAbs but afforded determination of ADCC with reduced interassay variability. The cytotoxicity owing to alloreactivity was less susceptible to interference by KI than the ADCC of anti-CD20 mAbs, which was markedly diminished by ibrutinib, but not by idelalisib. Compared to rituximab, the ADCC of obinutuzumab against primary CLL cells showed approximately 30% higher efficacy and less interference with KI. Irreversible BTK inhibitors at a clinically relevant concentration of 1 μM only weakly impaired the ADCC of anti-CD20 mAbs, with less influence in combinations with obinutuzumab than with rituximab and by acalabrutinib than by ibrutinib or tirabrutinib. In summary, NK cell line-based assays permitted the sensitive detection of ADCC of therapeutic anti-CD20 mAbs against CLL cells and of the interference of KI with this important killing mechanism.

  18. Activatory and inhibitory Fcγ receptors augment rituximab-mediated internalization of CD20 independent of signaling via the cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Chan, Claude H T; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-02-27

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Anti-CD20 Immunoglobulin G Radiolabeling with a 99mTc-Tricarbonyl Core: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carpenet

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes have shown significant progress. Immunoglobulin (Ig appears to be a promising tracer, particularly due to its ability to target selected antigens. The main objective of this study is to optimize and assess an Ig radiolabeling method with Technetium 99m (99mTc, an attractive radioelement used widely for diagnostic imaging. Monoclonal anti-CD20 IgG was retained to study in vitro and in vivo radiolabeling impact. After IgG derivatization with 2-iminothiolane, IgG-SH was radiolabeled by an indirect method, using a 99mTc-tricarbonyl core. Radiolabeling stability was evaluated over 24h by thin-layer chromatography. IgG integrity was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with Western blot and autoradiography. The radiolabeled Ig's immunoaffinity was assessed in vitro by a radioimmunoassay method and binding experiments with cells (EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal BALB/c mice. Tumor uptake was assessed in mice bearing EL4-hCD20 and EL4-WT subcutaneous xenografts. With optimized method, high radiolabeling yields were obtained (95.9 ± 3.5%. 99mTc-IgG-SH was stable in phosphate-buffered saline (4°C and 25°C and in serum (37°C, even if important sensitivity to transchelation was observed. IgG was not degraded by derivatization and radiolabeling, as shown by Western blot and autoradiography results. 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH immunoaffinity was estimated with Kd = 35 nM by both methods. In vivo biodistribution studies for 48h showed significant accumulation of radioactivity in plasma, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys. Planar scintigraphy of mice bearing tumors showed a significant uptake of 99mTc-anti-CD20 IgG-SH in CD20+ tumor versus CD20- tumor. Radiolabeling of derivatized IgG with 99mTc-tricarbonyl was effective, stable and required few antibody amounts. This attractive radiolabeling method is "antibody safe

  20. Preclinical activity of the type II CD20 antibody GA101 (obinutuzumab) compared with rituximab and ofatumumab in vitro and in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Herting, Frank; Mundigl, Olaf; Waldhauer, Inja; Weinzierl, Tina; Fauti, Tanja; Muth, Gunter; Ziegler-Landesberger, Doris; Van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Lang, Sabine; Duong, Minh Ngoc; Reslan, Lina; Gerdes, Christian A; Friess, Thomas; Baer, Ute; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidner, Michael; Dumontet, Charles; Umana, Pablo; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We report the first preclinical in vitro and in vivo comparison of GA101 (obinutuzumab), a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 monoclonal antibody, with rituximab and ofatumumab, the two currently approved type I CD20 antibodies. The three antibodies were compared in assays measuring direct cell death (AnnexinV/PI staining and time-lapse microscopy), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and internalization. The models used for the comparison of their activity in vivo were SU-DHL4 and RL xenografts. GA101 was found to be superior to rituximab and ofatumumab in the induction of direct cell death (independent of mechanical manipulation required for cell aggregate disruption formed by antibody treatment), whereas it was 10 to 1,000 times less potent in mediating CDC. GA101 showed superior activity to rituximab and ofatumumab in ADCC and whole-blood B-cell depletion assays, and was comparable with these two in ADCP. GA101 also showed slower internalization rate upon binding to CD20 than rituximab and ofatumumab. In vivo, GA101 induced a strong antitumor effect, including complete tumor remission in the SU-DHL4 model and overall superior efficacy compared with both rituximab and ofatumumab. When rituximab-pretreated animals were used, second-line treatment with GA101 was still able to control tumor progression, whereas tumors escaped rituximab treatment. Taken together, the preclinical data show that the glyoengineered type II CD20 antibody GA101 is differentiated from the two approved type I CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab by its overall preclinical activity, further supporting its clinical investigation. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Evaluation of the cell death mechanisms activated by the radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, E.P.; Rojas C, E. L.; Martinez V, B. E.; Ramos B, J. C.; Jimenez M, N. P.; Ferro F, G.

    2016-10-01

    The radio immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the remission rate of patients with B-cell lymphomas over expressing the CD20. The radiolabeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. The anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The 177 Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum reach on soft tissue of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45 m Ci/m 2 ) for 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of action by synergistic effect of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work was evaluated; by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 in non-Hodgkin (Raji) lymphoma cells. The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20, are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation, activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio sensitivity) causes the acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation, which leads to cell

  2. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Young [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 (United States); Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20852 (United States); Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y. [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 (United States); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to

  3. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of 131 I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to the

  4. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Romidepsin alone or in combination with anti-CD20 chimeric antigen receptor expanded natural killer cells targeting Burkitt lymphomain vitroand in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaya; Yahr, Ashlin; Huang, Brian; Ayello, Janet; Barth, Matthew; S Cairo, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating the development of alternative targeted therapeutic strategies is urgently required to improve outcome or circumvent chemotherapy resistance in children, adolescents, and adults with recurrent/refractory de novo mature B-cell (CD20) non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has been used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We have demonstrated the significant anti-tumor effect of anti-CD20 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified expanded peripheral blood natural killer (exPBNK) against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL. This study examined the anti-tumor activity of romidepsin alone and in combination with anti-CD20 CAR exPBNKs against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL in vitro and in vivo . We found that romidepsin significantly inhibited both rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL cell proliferation in vitro (P cell death in rituximab-sensitive Raji (P cell cycle arrest in rituximab-resistant Raji-2R and Raji-4RH (P NSG mice. We also demonstrated that romidpesin significantly induced the expression of Natural Killer Group 2, Member D (NKG2D) ligands MICA/B in both rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL cells (P cell death in BL cells in vitro , reduced tumor burden and enhanced survival in humanized BL xenografted NSG mice (p < 0.05). Our data suggests that romidepsin is an active HDAC inhibitor that also potentiates expanded NK and anti-CD20 CAR exPBNK activity against rituximab-sensitive and -resistant BL.

  6. Human B1 cells in umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood express the novel phenotype CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70−

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel O.; Holodick, Nichol E.

    2011-01-01

    B1 cells differ in many ways from conventional B cells, most prominently in the production of natural immunoglobulin, which is vitally important for protection against pathogens. B1 cells have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune dyscrasias and malignant diseases. It has been impossible to accurately study B1 cells during health and illness because the nature of human B1 cells has not been successfully defined. This has produced controversy regarding the existence of human B1 cells. Here, we determined the phenotype of human B1 cells by testing sort-purified B cell fractions for three fundamental B1 cell functions based on mouse studies: spontaneous IgM secretion, efficient T cell stimulation, and tonic intracellular signaling. We found that a small population of CD20+CD27+CD43+ cells present in both umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood fulfilled these criteria and expressed a skewed B cell receptor repertoire. These B cells express little or no surface CD69 and CD70, both of which are markedly up-regulated after activation of CD20+CD27−CD43− (naive) and CD20+CD27+CD43− (memory) B cells. This work identifies human B1 cells as CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70−. We determined that the proportion of B1 cells declines with age, which may contribute to disease susceptibility. Identification of human B1 cells provides a foundation for future studies on the nature and role of these cells in human disease. PMID:21220451

  7. Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating T cells are associated with survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, but their functional status is poorly understood, especially relative to the different risk categories and histological subtypes of EOC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tissue microarrays containing high-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages, MHC class I and II, and various markers of activation and inflammation. In high-grade serous tumors from optimally debulked patients, positive associations were seen between intraepithelial cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD25, TIA-1, Granzyme B, FoxP3, CD20, and CD68, as well as expression of MHC class I and II by tumor cells. Disease-specific survival was positively associated with the markers CD8, CD3, FoxP3, TIA-1, CD20, MHC class I and class II. In other histological subtypes, immune infiltrates were less prevalent, and the only markers associated with survival were MHC class II (positive association in endometrioid cases and myeloperoxidase (negative association in clear cell cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological subtype and the extent of residual disease. TIA-1, FoxP3 and CD20 emerge as new positive prognostic factors in high-grade serous EOC from optimally debulked patients.

  8. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.

  9. In vitro characterization of {sup 177}Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study

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    Forrer, Flavio; Mueller-Brand, Jan [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Chen, Jianhua; Fani, Melpomeni; Powell, Pia; Maecke, Helmut R. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Lohri, Andreas [Basel University Medical Clinic, Liestal (Switzerland); Moldenhauer, Gerhard [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Molecular Immunology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    {sup 131}I- and {sup 90}Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time (<20 min) with either {sup 177}Lu or {sup 90}Y. Immunoconjugates with different numbers of DOTA molecules per rituximab were prepared using p-SCN-Bz-DOTA. In vitro immunoreactivity and stability were tested and preliminary dosimetric results were acquired in two patients. The immunological binding properties of DOTA-rituximab to the CD20 antigen were found to be retained after conjugation with up to four chelators. The labelled product was stable against a 10{sup 5} times excess of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, 37 C, 7 days). Two patients with relapsed NHL were treated with 740 MBq/m{sup 2} body surface {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab. Scintigraphic images showed specific uptake at tumour sites and acceptable dosimetric results. The mean whole-body dose was found to be 314 mGy. The administration of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab was tolerated well. Our results show that DOTA-rituximab (4:1) can be labelled with {sup 177}Lu with sufficient stability while the immunoconjugate retains its immunoreactivity. {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab is an interesting, well-tolerated radiolabelled antibody with clinical activity in a low dose range, and provides an approach to the efficient treatment with few side effects for patients with relapsed NHL. (orig.)

  10. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 antibody) are safe and active in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, George O; Elstrom, Rebecca; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; Abbasi, Rashid M; Farber, Charles M; Teoh, Nick; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A; Goldenberg, David M

    2011-04-01

    Subcutaneous injections of anti-CD20 antibodies may offer benefits to both patients and the healthcare system for treatment of B-cell malignancies. A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for subcutaneous dosing with 2(nd) generation anti-CD20 antibody veltuzumab in patients with CD20(+) indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients with previously untreated or relapsed disease received 4 doses of 80, 160, or 320 mg veltuzumab injected subcutaneously every two weeks. Responses were assessed by computed tomography scans, with other evaluations including adverse events, safety laboratories, B-cell blood levels, serum veltuzumab levels, and human anti-veltuzumab antibody (HAHA) titers. Seventeen patients (14 follicular lymphoma; 13 stage III or IV disease; 5 treatment-naive) completed treatment with only occasional, mild-moderate, transient injection reactions and no other safety issues. Subcutaneous veltuzumab demonstrated a slow release pattern over several days, achieving a mean Cmax of 19, 25 and 63 μg/mL at 80, 160, and 320 mg doses for a total of 4 administrations, respectively. Depletion of circulating B cells occurred after the first injection. The objective response rate (partial responses plus complete responses plus complete responses unconfirmed) was 47% (8/17) with a complete response/complete response unconfirmed rate of 24% (4/17); 4 of 8 objective responses continued for 60 weeks or more. All serum samples evaluated for human anti-veltuzumab antibody were negative. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab are convenient, well tolerated, and capable of achieving sustained serum levels, B-cell depletion, and durable objective responses in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00546793).

  11. Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab (humanized anti-CD20 antibody) are safe and active in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, George O.; Elstrom, Rebecca; Allen, Steven L.; Rai, Kanti R.; Abbasi, Rashid M.; Farber, Charles M.; Teoh, Nick; Horne, Heather; Wegener, William A.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous injections of anti-CD20 antibodies may offer benefits to both patients and the healthcare system for treatment of B-cell malignancies. Design and Methods A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for subcutaneous dosing with 2nd generation anti-CD20 antibody veltuzumab in patients with CD20+ indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients with previously untreated or relapsed disease received 4 doses of 80, 160, or 320 mg veltuzumab injected subcutaneously every two weeks. Responses were assessed by computed tomography scans, with other evaluations including adverse events, safety laboratories, B-cell blood levels, serum veltuzumab levels, and human anti-veltuzumab antibody (HAHA) titers. Results Seventeen patients (14 follicular lymphoma; 13 stage III or IV disease; 5 treatment-naive) completed treatment with only occasional, mild-moderate, transient injection reactions and no other safety issues. Subcutaneous veltuzumab demonstrated a slow release pattern over several days, achieving a mean Cmax of 19, 25 and 63 μg/mL at 80, 160, and 320 mg doses for a total of 4 administrations, respectively. Depletion of circulating B cells occurred after the first injection. The objective response rate (partial responses plus complete responses plus complete responses unconfirmed) was 47% (8/17) with a complete response/complete response unconfirmed rate of 24% (4/17); 4 of 8 objective responses continued for 60 weeks or more. All serum samples evaluated for human anti-veltuzumab antibody were negative. Conclusions Subcutaneous injections of low-dose veltuzumab are convenient, well tolerated, and capable of achieving sustained serum levels, B-cell depletion, and durable objective responses in indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00546793) PMID:21173095

  12. MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, inhibits T cell propagation by modulation of cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available MS4a4B, a CD20 homologue in T cells, is a novel member of the MS4A gene family in mice. The MS4A family includes CD20, FcεRIβ, HTm4 and at least 26 novel members that are characterized by their structural features: with four membrane-spanning domains, two extracellular domains and two cytoplasmic regions. CD20, FcεRIβ and HTm4 have been found to function in B cells, mast cells and hematopoietic cells respectively. However, little is known about the function of MS4a4B in T cell regulation. We demonstrate here that MS4a4B negatively regulates mouse T cell proliferation. MS4a4B is highly expressed in primary T cells, natural killer cells (NK and some T cell lines. But its expression in all malignant T cells, including thymoma and T hybridoma tested, was silenced. Interestingly, its expression was regulated during T cell activation. Viral vector-driven overexpression of MS4a4B in primary T cells and EL4 thymoma cells reduced cell proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of MS4a4B accelerated T cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that MS4a4B regulated T cell proliferation by inhibiting entry of the cells into S-G2/M phase. MS4a4B-mediated inhibition of cell cycle was correlated with upregulation of Cdk inhibitory proteins and decreased levels of Cdk2 activity, subsequently leading to inhibition of cell cycle progression. Our data indicate that MS4a4B negatively regulates T cell proliferation. MS4a4B, therefore, may serve as a modulator in the negative-feedback regulatory loop of activated T cells.

  13. Evaluation of cell death mechanisms activated by the administration of the theranostics radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1-5 Gy; Evaluacion de los mecanismos de muerte celular activados por la administracion del radiofarmaco teranostico {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 en un rango de dosis de 1-5 Gy

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    Martinez V, B. E.

    2016-07-01

    Radio-immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the rate of remission in patients with CD20 over expressing B-cell lymphomas. Radio-labeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. Anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The {sup 177}Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum soft tissue reach of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45m Ci/m{sup 2}) for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of synergistic activation of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work we evaluated by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 from non-Hod king lymphoma cells (Raji). The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio-sensitivity) causes acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation, which leads to cell arrest

  14. Evaluation of the cell death mechanisms activated by the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy; Evaluacion de los mecanismos de muerte celular activados por el radiofarmaco {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 en un intervalo de dosis de 1 a 5 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, E.P.; Rojas C, E. L.; Martinez V, B. E.; Ramos B, J. C.; Jimenez M, N. P.; Ferro F, G., E-mail: erica.azorin@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The radio immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the remission rate of patients with B-cell lymphomas over expressing the CD20. The radiolabeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. The anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The {sup 177}Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum reach on soft tissue of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45 m Ci/m{sup 2}) for {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of action by synergistic effect of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work was evaluated; by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 in non-Hodgkin (Raji) lymphoma cells. The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20, are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation, activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio sensitivity) causes the acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation

  15. Preliminary Experience with Yttrium-90-labelled Rituximab (Chimeric Anti CD-20 Antibody) in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Parul; Singla, Suhas; Vashist, Atul; Yadav, Madhav P; Gupta, Santosh K; Tyagi, Jaya S; Sharma, Atul; Bal, Chandra S; Snehlata, EmptyYN Y; Malhotra, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Yttrium- 90 radiolabelled chimeric anti CD20 antibody-Rituximab in the treatment of patients with relapsed/ refractory B cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL). Twenty patients with relapsed/refractory CD20+ NHL in progressive state were included in the study. These patients had undergone a median of 2 (range 2-5) prior standard chemotherapy ± immunotherapy regimens. All the patients received rituximab 250 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, and either 14 MBq/kg (0.4 mCi/kg) or 11 MBq/kg (0.3 mCi/kg) of Y-90 Rituximab on day 8 (maximum dose, 32 mCi) depending upon their platelet count. The patients were observed for systemic toxicity and response for at least 12 weeks after therapy. No acute adverse effects were observed after the administration of 90Y-Rituximab. Overall response rate (ORR) was 45% of which complete response (CR) was observed in 2 patients, stable disease in 1 patient and partial response in 6 patients. The therapy was well tolerated with grade IV thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and anemia observed in 3, 4 and 2 patients respectively. 90Y-Rituximab therapy is safe and well tolerated in high risk extensively pretreated NHL patients. Toxicity is primarily hematologic, transient and reversible.

  16. Bendamustine/Mitoxantrone/Rituximab (BMR): a very effective, well tolerated outpatient chemoimmunotherapy for relapsed and refractory CD20-positive indolent malignancies. Final results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Rudolf; Pandorf, Annette; Heymanns, Jochen; Köppler, Hubert

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a new chemoimmunotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory CD20-positive indolent lymphomas and CLL by combining the chemotherapeutic agents Bendamustine (B) and Mitoxantrone (M) with the monoclonal antibody Rituximab. Treatment consisted of (B): 90 mg/m2 (80 mg/m2 in CLL) day 1 + 2, (M): 10 mg/m2 day 1 and (R): 375 mg/m2 day 8,15,22 and 29. BM was repeated 3 times starting on day 36, thereafter every 4 weeks. The maximal therapy consisted of 1 x BMR followed by 5 x BM. We have treated 54 patients with BMR. Median age was 68 years (36-82). Disease distribution was as follows: 21 B-CLL, 1 B-PLL, 8 lymphoplasmacytic, 14 follicular, 2 mantle cell, 2 marginal zone, 6 secondary high grade. Median number of previous treatments was 2 (1-7). ORR was 96% with 41% CR and 55% PR. Median time to progression is 17 months in CLL and has not been reached in indolent lymphomas with a median observation time of 27 months (3-60+). The time to next antilymphoma treatment is prolonged significantly by BMR. No therapy associated death or hospitalization occurred within the study period. BMR is a well tolerated very effective outpatient treatment for relapsed and refractory CD20-positive indolent lymphomas and CLL.

  17. Influência do CD 20 na refratariedade do linfoma de Hodgkin clássico ao tratamento inicial com o esquema ABVD, no Ceará, Brasil Influence of CD 20 antigen expression in the refractoriness of classical Hodgkin lymphoma in the first line treatment with ABVD protocol in Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pinto Giesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A significância prognóstica do marcador imunológico CD 20 no linfoma de Hodgkin clássico (LHc ainda é incerta, particularmente no que se refere à refratariedade ao tratamento inicial. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a influência da positividade do marcador CD 20 na refratariedade do LHc ao tratamento poliquimioterápico inicial, com o esquema doxorubicina 25 mg/m², bleomicina 10 mg/m², vinblastina 6 mg/m² e dacarbazina 375 mg/m² (ABVD, no Ceará, Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico incluindo 97 pacientes com diagnóstico de LHc firmado entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2004. A análise foi realizada avaliando variáveis demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma positividade do CD 20 em 38,1% dos pacientes. Na análise bivariada, CD 20 positivo (razão de chance [RC] = 4,02; intervalo de confiança [IC] = 1,09 - 8,54; p = 0,02, a presença de sintomas B (RC = 4,02; IC = 1,18-17,51; p = 0,01 e a elevação da desidrogenase lática (mediana não-refratários 248,5 [200,5 - 389,5]; mediana refratários 356 [208,5 - 545]; p = 0,03 apresentaram relação de pior prognóstico quanto à refratariedade. Na regressão logística, o CD 20 positivo (RC ajustada = 3,6; IC = 0,99 - 13,09; p = 0,05 e a presença de sintomas B (RC ajustada = 5,41; IC = 1,16 - 25,34; p = 0,03 continuaram apresentando pior prognóstico. DISCUSSÃO: Esses dados coincidem com a literatura, em que a positividade do marcador CD 20 está relacionada com pior resposta ao tratamento com ABVD. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos dados indicam que o tratamento com ABVD não é completamente adequado para a abordagem terapêutica inicial deste subgrupo de pacientes e novas pesquisas precisam ser realizadas no sentido de aperfeiçoar o tratamento destes pacientes.INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of CD20 antigen expression in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL is uncertain, particularly regarding the refractoriness to first-line treatment. OBJECTIVES

  18. Randomised Phase I/II trial assessing the safety and efficacy of radiolabelled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen I131 KAb201 antibodies given intra-arterially or intravenously in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Asma; Garvey, Conall; Sutton, Robert; Neoptolemos, John P; Ghaneh, Paula; Shore, Susannah; Raraty, Michael GT; Vinjamuri, Sobhan; Evans, Jonathan E; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Lane, Steven; Chauhan, Seema; Bosonnet, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Advanced pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, and the current standard of care (gemcitabine based chemotherapy) provides a small survival advantage. However the drawback is the accompanying systemic toxicity, which targeted treatments may overcome. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of KAb201, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody, labelled with I 131 in pancreatic cancer (ISRCTN 16857581). Patients with histological/cytological proven inoperable adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas were randomised to receive KAb 201 via either the intra-arterial or intravenous delivery route. The dose limiting toxicities within each group were determined. Patients were assessed for safety and efficacy and followed up until death. Between February 2003 and July 2005, 25 patients were enrolled. Nineteen patients were randomised, 9 to the intravenous and 10 to the intra-arterial arms. In the intra-arterial arm, dose limiting toxicity was seen in 2/6 (33%) patients at 50 mCi whereas in the intravenous arm, dose limiting toxicity was noted in 1/6 patients at 50 mCi, but did not occur at 75 mCi (0/3). The overall response rate was 6% (1/18). Median overall survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval = 3.3 to 9 months), with no significant difference between the intravenous and intra-arterial arms (log rank test p = 0.79). One patient was still alive at the time of this analysis. Dose limiting toxicity for KAb201 with I 131 by the intra-arterial route was 50 mCi, while dose limiting toxicity was not reached in the intravenous arm

  19. Randomised Phase I/II trial assessing the safety and efficacy of radiolabelled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen I131 KAb201 antibodies given intra-arterially or intravenously in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosonnet Lorraine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, and the current standard of care (gemcitabine based chemotherapy provides a small survival advantage. However the drawback is the accompanying systemic toxicity, which targeted treatments may overcome. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of KAb201, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody, labelled with I131 in pancreatic cancer (ISRCTN 16857581. Methods Patients with histological/cytological proven inoperable adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas were randomised to receive KAb 201 via either the intra-arterial or intravenous delivery route. The dose limiting toxicities within each group were determined. Patients were assessed for safety and efficacy and followed up until death. Results Between February 2003 and July 2005, 25 patients were enrolled. Nineteen patients were randomised, 9 to the intravenous and 10 to the intra-arterial arms. In the intra-arterial arm, dose limiting toxicity was seen in 2/6 (33% patients at 50 mCi whereas in the intravenous arm, dose limiting toxicity was noted in 1/6 patients at 50 mCi, but did not occur at 75 mCi (0/3. The overall response rate was 6% (1/18. Median overall survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval = 3.3 to 9 months, with no significant difference between the intravenous and intra-arterial arms (log rank test p = 0.79. One patient was still alive at the time of this analysis. Conclusion Dose limiting toxicity for KAb201 with I131 by the intra-arterial route was 50 mCi, while dose limiting toxicity was not reached in the intravenous arm.

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in adults with hematologic malignancies receiving treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Janie; McNeil, Shelly A; Lawrence, Steven J; Kimby, Eva; Pagnoni, Marco F; Stek, Jon E; Zhao, Yanli; Chan, Ivan S F; Kaplan, Susan S

    2017-03-27

    Immunocompromised patients can experience significant morbidity and occasional mortality from complications associated with herpes zoster (HZ), but live attenuated HZ vaccine is contraindicated for these patients. Inactivated zoster vaccine (ZV IN ) is in development for prevention of HZ in immunocompromised patients. However, there are limited data in the literature regarding the effect of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies on vaccine-related cell-mediated immune response. This study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of ZV IN in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (alone or in combination chemotherapy regimens) and not likely to undergo hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n=80). This was an open-label, single-arm, multicenter Phase I study (NCT01460719) of a 4-dose ZV IN regimen (∼30days between doses) in patients ⩾18years old. Blood samples were collected prior to dose 1 and 28days Postdose 4 to measure varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific T-cell responses using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT). The primary hypothesis was that ZV IN would elicit significant VZV-specific immune responses at ∼28days Postdose 4, with a geometric fold rise (GMFR) >1.0. All vaccinated patients were evaluated for adverse events (AE) through 28days Postdose 4. ZV IN elicited a statistically significant VZV-specific immune response measured by IFN-γ ELISPOT at 28days Postdose 4 (GMFR=4.34 [90% CI:3.01, 6.24], p-valuevaccination by the investigator. Frequencies of AEs did not increase with subsequent doses of vaccine. No recipient of ZV IN had rash polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for VZV vaccine strain. In adults with HM receiving anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, ZV IN was well-tolerated and elicited statistically significant VZV-specific T-cell responses ∼28days Postdose 4. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV identifier: NCT01460719. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The study of labeling with Iodine-131 of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies of the lymphatic system, described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1932. Traditionally, lymphomas are classified in two basic groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL were earlier treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche). However, Radioimmunotherapy is a new modality of treatment for patients with NHL, in which cytotoxic radiation from therapeutic radioisotopes is delivered to tumors through monoclonal antibodies. This study focused on labeling conditions of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche) with iodine-131, by direct radioiodination method using Chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Labeling parameters investigated were: Radiochemical purity (RP), method of purification, incubation time, antibody mass, oxidative agent mass, stability in vitro, stability in vivo, immunoreactivity and biological distribution performed in normal Swiss mouse. Product of high radiochemical purity was obtained with no notable difference between the methods applied. No clear evidence of direct influence of incubation time on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed. Whereas, a clear evidence of direct influence of activity on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed when antibody mass was varied. After purification, the labeled product presented radiochemical purity of approximately 100 %. Product of superior radiochemical yield was observed when standard condition of labeling was used. The labeled product presented variation in radiochemical purity using five different stabilizer conditions. The condition in which gentisic acid was combined with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with high therapeutic activity of iodine-131. The labeled product presented low immunoreactivity when compared to the literature. Biological distribution in

  2. The study of labeling with iodine-131 of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies of the lymphatic system, described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1932. Traditionally, lymphomas are classified in two basic groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL were earlier treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche). However, Radioimmunotherapy is a new modality of treatment for patients with NHL, in which cytotoxic radiation from therapeutic radioisotopes is delivered to tumors through monoclonal antibodies. This study focused on labeling conditions of monoclonal anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche) with iodine-131, by direct radioiodination method using Chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Labeling parameters investigated were: Radiochemical purity (RP), method of purification, incubation time, antibody mass, oxidative agent mass, stability in vitro, immunoreactivity and biological distribution performed in normal Swiss mouse. Product of high radiochemical purity was obtained with no notable difference between the methods applied. No clear evidence of direct influence of incubation time on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed. Whereas, a clear evidence of direct influence of activity on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was varied. After purification the labeled product presented radiochemical purity of approximately 100 %. Product of superior radiochemical yield was observed when standard condition of labeling was used. The labeled product presented variation in radiochemical purity using five different stabilizer conditions. The condition in which gentisic acid combined with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with high therapeutic activity of iodine-131. The labeled product presented low immunoreactivity when compared to the

  3. Rapid response to and long-term effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibody in conventional therapy resistant Graves' orbitopathy: A five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Annamaria; Paragh, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Peter; Karanyi, Zsolt; Berenyi, Ervin; Galuska, Laszlo; Lenkey, Agota; Szabados, Lajos; Gyory, Ferenc; Ujhelyi, Bernadett; Berta, Andras; Boda, Judit; Berta, Eszter; Bodor, Miklos; Gazdag, Annamaria; Nagy, Endre V

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aim of this investigations was to study the effectiveness of anti-CD20 antibody therapy in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) resistant to glucocorticoids. Five patients were entered in the study. The protocol required no improvement of orbital status after a recent course of glucocorticoids. Activity of GO was confirmed by three independent techniques: clinical activity score (CAS), (99m)Tc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc DTPA) single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Rituximab (RTX) was given as weekly infusions of 375 mg/m(2) body surface area for four weeks. The mean follow-up period was 67 (range 58-81) months. Improvement of GO has been observed in all patients: CAS before therapy was 6.5 ± 1.7 and decreased to 3.4 ± 1.6 by one month (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged (3.2 ± 1.7) at 12 months. No further CAS change, in either direction, was detected during the yearly follow-up visits. The mean DTPA uptake before therapy was 16.52 ± 4.51 MBq/cm(3) and decreased to 11.97 ± 2.36 MBq/cm(3) at one year (p < 0.002). The mean of T2 relaxation times before and one year after therapy were 96.91 ± 17.61 ms and 84.29 ± 9.41 ms, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean serum TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels before therapy, at the one month and one year control visits were 7.4 ± 3.4 U/L, 5.6 ± 4.5 U/L and 1.7 ± 1.5 U/L, respectively (p < 0.004). No correlation between changes of TRAb and activity parameters has been found. Anti-CD20 treatment seems to influence positively the clinical course of GO, and this effect seems to be stable for five years. To our knowledge, this is the longest published follow-up of RTX treatment in GO.

  4. TLR9 ligand (CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces CLL B-cells to differentiate into CD20+ antibody-secreting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein eGhamlouch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent adult leukemia in the Western world. It is a heterogeneous disease characterized by clonal proliferation and the accumulation of CD5+ mature B lymphocytes. However, the normal counterpart from which the latter cells arise has not yet been identified. CD27 expression and gene expression profiling data suggest that CLL cells are related to memory B-cells. In vitro, memory B-cells differentiate into plasma cells when stimulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG. The objective of the present study was therefore to investigate the ability of CpG, in the context of CD40 ligation, to induce the differentiation of CLL B-cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs. CD20+CD38− CLL B-cells were stimulated with a combination of CpG, CD40 ligand and cytokines (CpG/CD40L/c in a two-step, seven-day culture system. We found that the CpG/CD40L/c culture system prompted CLL B-cells to differentiate into CD19+CD20+CD27+CD38- ASCs. These cells secreted large amounts of IgM and had the same shape as plasma cells. However, only IgMs secreted by ASCs that had differentiated from unmutated CLL B-cells were poly/autoreactive. Class-switch recombination to IgG and IgA was detected in cells expressing the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene (AICDA. Although these ASCs expressed high levels of the transcription factors PRDM1 (BLIMP1, IRF4 and XBP1s, they did not downregulate expression of PAX5. Our results suggest that CLL B-cells can differentiate into ASCs, undergo class-switch recombination and produce poly/autoreactive antibodies. Furthermore, our findings may be relevant for (i identifying the normal counterpart of CLL B-cells and (ii developing novel treatment strategies in CLL.

  5. Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. The thyroid is a gland in the ... Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid ...

  6. Department of Homeland Security (DHS I-131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This identifies resident aliens who should have their Supplemental Security Income benefit payment suspended because they have voluntarily left the United States for...

  7. Determination of I-131 in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.; Rodriguez C, G.; Quevedo A, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    In our country, in the near future, an isotope center will be in operation, and due to its characteristics, it is possible the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere during its normal exploitation, as well as in case of accident. Considering the kind and the concentration of the radioactive material released to the atmosphere, the possible ways of contamination were determined, playing the milk the most significant role, because the Iodine-131 is in the radionuclide inventory of this center, being possible to pass to the food-chain soil-grass-milk, due to the fact that the center is located in a cattle zone. Owing to these facts, it is necessary to rely on a method for determining Iodine-131 that allows to control its presence in milk samples, when the isotope center start to operate. The direct absorption of Iodine-131 in an anionic exchange resin and the subsequent analysis of this resin for gamma spectrometry with a Nal (Tl) detector is a cheap, simple and fast method with a recovery average greater than the 95%. (authors). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  8. The challenge of treating hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis in the era of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and direct antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, Dario; Sciascia, Savino; Rossi, Daniela; Solfietti, Laura; Fenoglio, Roberta; Menegatti, Elisa; Baldovino, Simone

    2017-06-20

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MC) is a systemic vasculitis involving kidneys, joints, skin, and peripheral nerves. While many autoimmune, lymphoproliferative, and neoplastic disorders have been associated with this disorder, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be the etiologic agent in the majority of patients. Therefore, clinical research has focused on anti-viral drugs and, more recently, on the new, highly potent Direct-acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs). These drugs assure sustained virologic response (SVR) rates >90%. Nevertheless, data on their efficacy in patients with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis are disappointing, possibly due to the inability of the drugs to suppress the immune-mediated process once it has been triggered.Despite the potential risk of exacerbation of the infection, immunosuppression has traditionally been regarded as the first-line intervention in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, especially if renal involvement is severe. Biologic agents have raised hopes for more manageable therapeutic approaches, and Rituximab (RTX), an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, is the most widely used biologic drug. It has proved to be safer than conventional immunosuppressants, thus substantially changing the natural history of HCV-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis by providing long-term remission, especially with intensive regimens.The present review focuses on the new therapeutic opportunities offered by the combination of biological drugs, mainly Rituximab, with DAAs.

  9. Safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1-2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coiffier, Bertrand; Lepretre, Stéphane; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Gadeberg, Ole; Fredriksen, Henrik; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Wooldridge, James; Kloczko, Janusz; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Hellmann, Andrzej; Walewski, Jan; Flensburg, Mimi; Petersen, Jørgen; Robak, Tadeusz

    2008-01-01

    Safety and efficacy of the fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, ofatumumab, was analyzed in a multicenter dose-escalating study including 33 patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Three cohorts of 3 (A), 3 (B), and 27 (C) patients received 4, once weekly, infusions

  10. The study of labeling with Iodine-131 of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 used for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Estudo de marcacao com Iodo-131 de anticorpo monoclonal anti-CD20 na terapia de linfoma nao-Hodgkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2006-07-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies of the lymphatic system, described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1932. Traditionally, lymphomas are classified in two basic groups: Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients with NHL were earlier treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (ex., Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche). However, Radioimmunotherapy is a new modality of treatment for patients with NHL, in which cytotoxic radiation from therapeutic radioisotopes is delivered to tumors through monoclonal antibodies. This study focused on labeling conditions of monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (Rituximab-Mabthera, Roche) with iodine-131, by direct radioiodination method using Chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Labeling parameters investigated were: Radiochemical purity (RP), method of purification, incubation time, antibody mass, oxidative agent mass, stability in vitro, stability in vivo, immunoreactivity and biological distribution performed in normal Swiss mouse. Product of high radiochemical purity was obtained with no notable difference between the methods applied. No clear evidence of direct influence of incubation time on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed. Whereas, a clear evidence of direct influence of activity on radiochemical purity of the labeled antibody was observed when antibody mass was varied. After purification, the labeled product presented radiochemical purity of approximately 100 %. Product of superior radiochemical yield was observed when standard condition of labeling was used. The labeled product presented variation in radiochemical purity using five different stabilizer conditions. The condition in which gentisic acid was combined with freeze appears more suitable and capable of minimizing autoradiolysis of the antibody labeled with high therapeutic activity of iodine-131. The labeled product presented low immunoreactivity when compared to the literature. Biological distribution in

  11. Follow-up of relapsed B-cell lymphoma patients treated with iodine-131-labeled anti-CD20 antibody and autologous stem-cell rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S Y.; Eary, Janet F.; Petersdorf, S H.; Martin, P J.; Maloney, D G.; Applebaum, F. R.; Matthews, D. C.; Bush, S A.; Durack, L. D.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, T A.; Bernstein, I. D.; Press, O. W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for B-cell lymphomas. This is our first opportunity to report long-term follow-up data and late toxicities in 29 patients treated with myeloablative doses of iodine-131-anti-CD20 antibody (anti-B1) and autologous stem-cell rescue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trace-labeled biodistribution studies first determined the ability to deliver higher absorbed radiation doses to tumor sites than to lung, liver, or kidney at varying amounts of anti-B1 protein (0.35, 1.7, or 7 mg/kg). Twenty- nine patients received therapeutic infusions of single-agent (131)I- anti-B1, given at the protein dose found optimal in the biodistribution study, labeled with amounts of (131)I (280 to 785 mCi[10.4 to 29.0 GBq]) calculated to deliver specific absorbed radiation doses to the normal organs, followed by autologous stem-cell support. RESULTS: Major responses occurred in 25 patients (86%), with 23 complete responses (CRs; 79%). The nonhematopoietic do se-limiting toxicity was reversible cardiopulmonary insufficiency, which occurred in two patients at RIT doses that delivered > or = 27 Gy to the lungs. With a median follow-up time of 42 months, the estimated overall and progression-free survival rates are 68% and 42%, respectively. Currently, 14 of 29 patients remain in unmaintained remissions that range from 27+ to 87+ months after RIT. Late toxicities have been uncommon except for elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels found in approximately 60% of the subjects. Two patients developed second malignancies, but none have developed myelodysplasia (MDS). CONCLUSION: Myeloablative (131)I-anti- B1 RIT is relatively well tolerated when given with autologous stem- cell support and often results in prolonged remission durations with few late toxicities

  12. Evaluation of cell death mechanisms activated by the administration of the theranostics radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 in a dose range of 1-5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez V, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Radio-immunotherapy with anti-CD20 antibodies significantly increases the rate of remission in patients with CD20 over expressing B-cell lymphomas. Radio-labeled antibodies directed to surface antigens allow delivering scaled doses of radiation to specific targets thus limiting the dose to healthy tissue. Anti-CD20 causes cell death by two major pathways; activating the immune system to destroy malignant cells and inducing the activation of cell death pathways. The 177 Lu is a beta particle emitter (max. 0.497 MeV) with a maximum soft tissue reach of 0.7 mm and a half-life of 6.7 days. Several clinical studies have established a maximum tolerated dose (45m Ci/m 2 ) for 177 Lu-DOTA-rituximab, which shows a favorable clinical response without hematological toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of synergistic activation of anti-CD20 and radionuclide have not been studied. In this work we evaluated by flow cytometry, the activation kinetics of the cell death mechanisms induced by the treatment with 177 Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 from non-Hod king lymphoma cells (Raji). The absorbed radiation dose delivered to the cell nucleus was calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the contribution of the beta emissions of the radiopharmaceutical present in the cell membrane and surrounding environment, as well as crossfire. This work shows that the application of radiation doses of 1 to 5 Gy of the radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTA-anti-CD20 are sufficient to induce cell death by apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle. The combination of these factors (continuous delivery of radiation activation of repair mechanisms and increased radio-sensitivity) causes acute activation of the apoptotic program resulting in significant cell death after 96 h of treatment. The temporal analysis of cell death suggests the early activation of apoptosis that is counteracted by the activation of repair processes caused by sustained irradiation, which leads to cell arrest and increases

  13. Benefit from B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in chronic fatigue syndrome. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Fluge

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disease of unknown aetiology. Major CFS symptom relief during cancer chemotherapy in a patient with synchronous CFS and lymphoma spurred a pilot study of B-lymphocyte depletion using the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab, which demonstrated significant clinical response in three CFS patients.In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study (NCT00848692, 30 CFS patients were randomised to either Rituximab 500 mg/m(2 or saline, given twice two weeks apart, with follow-up for 12 months. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was not detected in any of the patients. The responses generally affected all CFS symptoms. Major or moderate overall response, defined as lasting improvements in self-reported Fatigue score during follow-up, was seen in 10 out of 15 patients (67% in the Rituximab group and in two out of 15 patients (13% in the Placebo group (p = 0.003. Mean response duration within the follow-up period for the 10 responders to Rituximab was 25 weeks (range 8-44. Four Rituximab patients had clinical response durations past the study period. General linear models for repeated measures of Fatigue scores during follow-up showed a significant interaction between time and intervention group (p = 0.018 for self-reported, and p = 0.024 for physician-assessed, with differences between the Rituximab and Placebo groups between 6-10 months after intervention. The primary end-point, defined as effect on self-reported Fatigue score 3 months after intervention, was negative. There were no serious adverse events. Two patients in the Rituximab group with pre-existing psoriasis experienced moderate psoriasis worsening.The delayed responses starting from 2-7 months after Rituximab treatment, in spite of rapid B-cell depletion, suggests that CFS is an autoimmune disease and may be consistent with the gradual elimination of autoantibodies preceding clinical responses. The present findings will impact

  14. Intraläsionale Therapie niedrig maligner primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome mit Anti-CD20-Antikörper: Nebenwirkungen korrelieren mit gutem klinischen Ansprechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Franziska C; Holstein, Julia; Scheu, Alexander; Fend, Falko; Yazdi, Amir S

    2017-03-01

    Die intraläsionale Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörpern (Rituximab) wurde als effektive Therapieoption für Patienten mit niedrig malignen primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphomen beschrieben. Bis heute wurden allerdings keine Parameter identifiziert, welche reproduzierbar ein gutes klinisches Ansprechen dieser Therapie vorhersagen. Ziel dieser Studie ist, sowohl das klinische Ansprechen und die unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen als auch die Patientenwahrnehmung hinsichtlich intraläsionaler Injektionen von anti-CD20-Antikörpern zur Behandlung indolenter primär kutaner B-Zell-Lymphome im Vergleich mit anderen Therapien zu evaluieren. Elf Patienten mit einem primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphom, namentlich primär kutanes Keimzentrumslymphom (n = 9) und primär kutanes Marginalzonenlymphom (n = 2), welche mittels intraläsionalem Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurden, wurden retrospektiv evaluiert hinsichtlich der Ansprechrate und unerwünschter Nebenwirkungen sowie in Bezug auf deren Selbsteinschätzung dieser und anderer Therapien des primär kutanen B-Zell-Lymphoms. Patienten, deren primär kutanes B-Zell-Lymphom mittels intraläsionaler Gabe von Anti-CD20-Antikörper behandelt wurde, zeigten ein komplettes oder partielles Ansprechen in 45 % beziehungsweise 27 % aller Patienten. Speziell Patienten mit grippeähnlichen Symptomen nach erfolgter Injektion zeigten ein gutes Ansprechen. Die Mehrheit der Patienten empfand die Therapie mit Rituximab als die beste Therapie im Vergleich zu anderen Therapien wie beispielsweise chirurgische Exzision oder Radiotherapie. Intraläsionales Rituximab ist eine effektive Therapie mit hoher Patientenzufriedenheit. Starke therapiebedingte Nebenwirkungen wie Fieber, Schüttelfrost und Kopfschmerzen nach Gabe von Rituximab könnten als Indikator für gute Wirksamkeit dienen. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prototropic mu-H-8,H-9 and mu-H-9,H-10 Tautomers Derived from the [nido-5,6-C2B8H11](-) Anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tok, Oleg L.; Růžičková, Z.; Růžička, A.; Hnyk, Drahomír; Štíbr, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 20 (2016), s. 10122-10124 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01618S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : tautomers Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  16. Molecular structures of arachno-decaborane derivatives 6,9-X2B8H10 (X = CH2, NH, Se) including a gas-phase electron-diffraction study of 6,9-C2B8H14

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnyk, Drahomír; Bühl, M.; Holub, Josef; Hayes, S. A.; Wann, D. A.; Mackie, I.D.; Borisenko, K.B.; Robertson, H. E.; Rankin, D. W. H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 15 (2006), s. 6014-6019 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/R17768; EPSRC(GB) EP/C513649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nuclear-magnetic-resonance * chemical-shift calculation * density-functional theory Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.911, year: 2006

  17. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  18. Chemoimmunotherapy for Relapsed/Refractory and Progressive 17p13 Deleted Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Combining Pentostatin, Alemtuzumab, and Low Dose Rituximab is Effective and Tolerable and Limits Loss of CD20 Expression by Circulating CLL Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Lindorfer, Margaret A.; Beum, Paul V.; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G.; Bowen, Deborah A.; Conte, Michael J.; Frederick, Lori A.; Link, Brian K.; Blackwell, Sue E.; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A.; Viswanatha, David S.; Weiner, George J.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analogue refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low dose high frequency rituximab (PAR) designed to decrease the risk of treatment associated infections and limit loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n=36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-)(n=3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional and eight patients had purine analogue refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy with only five (13%) patients having treatment limiting toxicity, and no treatment related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment 9.1 months, and overall survival 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease including transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=6). Correlative studies showed that low dose rituximab activates complement and NK cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that PAR is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. PMID:24723493

  19. Chemoimmunotherapy for relapsed/refractory and progressive 17p13-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose rituximab is effective and tolerable and limits loss of CD20 expression by circulating CLL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S; Taylor, Ronald P; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Beum, Paul V; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G; Bowen, Deborah A; Conte, Michael J; Frederick, Lori A; Link, Brian K; Blackwell, Sue E; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A; Viswanatha, David S; Weiner, George J; Witzig, Thomas E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analog refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab-containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a Phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short-duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab designed to decrease the risk of treatment-associated infections and to limit the loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n = 36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-) (n = 3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional, and eight patients had purine analog refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy, with only five (13%) patients having treatment-limiting toxicity and no treatment-related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment, with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression-free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment was 9.1 months, and overall survival was 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease, including transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 6). Correlative studies showed that low-dose rituximab activates complement and natural killer cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low-dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a fully human monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a phase 1-2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coiffier, B.; Lepretre, S.; Pedersen, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety and efficacy of the fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, ofatumumab, was analyzed in a multicenter dose-escalating study including 33 patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Three cohorts of 3 (A), 3 (B), and 27 (C) patients received 4, once weekly, infusions...... rate of cohort C was 50% (13/26), one patient having a nodular partial remission and 12 patients partial remission. In conclusion, ofatumumab was found to be well tolerated in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in doses up to 2000 mg. Preliminary data on safety and objective response...

  1. Effectiveness and side effects of anti-CD20 therapy for autoantibody-mediated blistering skin diseases: A comprehensive survey of 71 consecutive patients from the Initial use to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Peterson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer D Peterson1, Lawrence S Chan2,3,41Department of Dermatology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at Lubbock, Lubbock, TX, USA; 2Department of Dermatology; 3Department of Microbiology/Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Medicine Service, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: In order to examine the efficacy and side effects of the monoclonal antibody anti-CD20 (rituximab on autoimmune blistering skin diseases, we performed a comprehensive survey of 71 consecutive patients from initial use up to 2007, using the PubMed database. A heterogeneous group of patients, including 51 patients with pemphigus vulgaris, one with pemphigus vegetans, nine with pemphigus foliaceus, five with paraneoplastic pemphigus, four with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, and one with both bullous pemphigoid and graft vs host disease was included in this survey. Overall the monoclonal antibody seems to be effective in that 69% of patients showed complete response, 25% of patients showed partial response, whereas 6% of patients showed progressive disease. Six deaths occurred in association with the treatment, with four of these deaths in patients with paraneoplastic pemphigus, a disease characteristically resistant to conventional medication and with a high mortality rate. Of note, 11 patients who received combined rituximab and intravenous immune globulin treatments had the best outcome: complete response without any serious side effects. Therefore further investigation on rituximab with controlled clinical trial is a worthy pursuit.Keywords: blistering diseases, skin, anti-CD20, pemphigus, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

  2. Ofatumumab, a human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to one or more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I/II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Baslund, Bo; Rigby, William

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a novel human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose disease did not respond to > or = 1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.......To investigate the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a novel human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose disease did not respond to > or = 1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug....

  3. Closed-system manufacturing of CD19 and dual-targeted CD20/19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells using the CliniMACS Prodigy device at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenlu; Shah, Nirav; Xu, Huiqing; Schneider, Dina; Orentas, Rimas; Dropulic, Boro; Hari, Parameswaran; Keever-Taylor, Carolyn A

    2018-03-01

    Multiple steps are required to produce chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells, involving subset enrichment or depletion, activation, gene transduction and expansion. Open processing steps that increase risk of contamination and production failure are required. This complex process requires skilled personnel and costly clean-room facilities and infrastructure. Simplified, reproducible CAR-T-cell manufacturing with reduced labor intensity within a closed-system is highly desirable for increased availability for patients. The CliniMACS Prodigy with TCT process software and the TS520 tubing set that allows closed-system processing for cell enrichment, transduction, washing and expansion was used. We used MACS-CD4 and CD8-MicroBeads for enrichment, TransAct CD3/CD28 reagent for activation, lentiviral CD8 TM-41BB-CD3 ζ-cfrag vectors expressing scFv for CD19 or CD20/CD19 antigens for transduction, TexMACS medium-3%-HS-IL2 for culture and phosphate-buffered saline/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer for washing. Processing time was 13 days. Enrichment (N = 7) resulted in CD4/CD8 purity of 98 ± 4.0%, 55 ± 6% recovery and CD3 + T-cell purity of 89 ± 10%. Vectors at multiplicity of infection 5-10 resulted in transduction averaging 37%. An average 30-fold expansion of 10 8 CD4/CD8-enriched cells resulted in sufficient transduced T cells for clinical use. CAR-T cells were 82-100% CD3 + with a mix of CD4 + and CD8 + cells that primarily expressed an effector-memory or central-memory phenotype. Functional testing demonstrated recognition of B-cells and for the CAR-20/19 T cells, CD19 and CD20 single transfectants were recognized in cytotoxic T lymphocyte and interferon-γ production assays. The CliniMACS Prodigy device, tubing set TS520 and TCT software allow CAR-T cells to be manufactured in a closed system at the treatment site without need for clean-room facilities and related infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy

  4. Przeciwciało monoklonalne przeciw CD20 w terapii postaci rzutowej i pierwotnie postępującej stwardnienia rozsianego – wyniki badań klinicznych III fazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Maciejowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stwardnienie rozsiane to zapalno-demielinizacyjna choroba ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, w której patogenezie istotną rolę odgrywają zaburzenia odpowiedzi immunologicznej komórkowej i humoralnej. Rola limfocytów B jest istotna w prezentacji własnych antygenów komórkom T, produkcji prozapalnych cytokin i autoprzeciwciał. W postaci pierwotnie postępującej stwardnienia rozsianego dominuje odczyn zwyrodnieniowy z aksonopatią i uszkodzeniem neuronalnym. Przeciwciało monoklonalne przeciw limfocytom B CD20 zostało zastosowane w badaniach klinicznych dotyczących postaci rzutowej (OPERA I, II i pierwotnie postępującej (ORATORIO. W postaci rzutowej wykazano istotną statystycznie redukcję rocznego wskaźnika rzutów, klinicznie potwierdzonej progresji, zmian wzmacniających się po podaniu kontrastu i zmian w sekwencji T2 w obrazowaniu metodą rezonansu magnetycznego w grupie chorych leczonych okrelizumabem w porównaniu z grupą pacjentów otrzymujących interferon beta-1a. W postaci pierwotnie postępującej stwierdzono istotną statystycznie redukcję klinicznie potwierdzonej progresji, zmian w sekwencji T2 i objętości mózgu w badaniu rezonansu magnetycznego w  grupie leczonych okrelizumabem w  stosunku do placebo. Profil bezpieczeństwa okrelizumabu był zadowalający i nie różnił się znacząco od profilu w grupach kontrolnych. Wydaje się, że wpływ leku na limfocyty B CD20 przynosi korzyść kliniczną oraz że wyniki badań III fazy mogą być podstawą do rejestracji i szerokiego stosowania okrelizumabu w praktyce klinicznej.

  5. Distribution of immune cells in head and neck cancer: CD8+ T-cells and CD20+ B-cells in metastatic lymph nodes are associated with favourable outcome in patients with oro- and hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretscher, Dominik; Distel, Luitpold V; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G; Wittlinger, Michael; Buettner, Maike; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are generally considered to represent a host immune response directed against tumour antigens. TIL are also increasingly recognised as possible prognostic parameters. However, the effects observed are variable indicating that results cannot be extrapolated from type of tumour to another. Moreover, it has been suggested that primary solid tumours may be ignored by the immune system and that a meaningful immune response is only mounted in regional lymph nodes. We have examined the local distribution of immune cells in tumour-related compartments in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). In a second step, the prognostic impact of these cells on disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed. A total of 198 tissue cores from 33 patients were evaluated using tissue mircroarray technique and immunohistochemistry. Tumour-infiltrating immune cells were identified using antibodies specific for CD3, CD8, GranzymeB, FoxP3, CD20 and CD68 and quantified using an image analysis system. We demonstrate a relative expansion of FoxP3 + regulatory T-cells (Treg) and of cytotoxic T-cells among tumour infitrating T-cells. We also show that intratumoural CD20 + B-cells are significantly more frequent in metastatic deposits than in primary tumours. Furthermore, we observed a reduced number of peritumoural CD8 + T-cells in metastatic lymph nodes as compared to univolved regional nodes suggesting a local down-modulation of cellular immunity. All other immune cells did not show significant alterations in distribution. We did not observe an association of tumour infiltrating immune cells at the primary site with outcome. However, increased numbers of intraepithelial CD8 + TIL in metastatic tumours as well as large numbers of peritumoural B-cells in lymph node metastases were associated with favourable outcome. Unexpectedly, no effect on patient outcome was observed for Treg in any compartment. Our results suggest that alterations in lymphocyte

  6. Absorbed dose rate produced by patients with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Vila, V.; Luis-Simon, J.; Gomez-Puerto, A.; Rodriguez, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the values of absorbed dose rates per unit of activity produced by patients treated with Iodine 131 due to Thyroid cancer. Average values related to disease extension, age and sex are established according to out current schedule of Radiological Protection Measures. From this data we have obtained a more accurate calculation for the value used in clinical emergency : 1471 nGy/>MBq over the relevant tissue. 40 treatment performed during 14 months are studied and comments are made on the Iodine retention by thyroideal tissue related to patient's clinical conditions as well size and site of thyroideal tissue and/or TSH simulation. (author)

  7. Get the Facts About Exposure to I-131 Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nations elsewhere in the world (mainly in the 1950s and 1960s) Nuclear power plant accidents (such as ... Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute USA.gov NIH ... Turning Discovery Into Health ® TOP

  8. Preparation of Labelled I131 Rose-Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayani, Mbutyabo; Chabouri, Galaal.

    1978-01-01

    Rose bengal purified on a Sephadex G-25 column has been labelled with iodine-131. The exchange reaction has been undertaken in an ether - alcohol medium. The influence of different factors (iodine concentration, Psup(h), purity and chemical form of the substratum, reaction rate) on the labelling yield has been studied. Radiochemical yield of 90% have been obtained in some conditions instead of the normal 80% reported in the literature

  9. Methodology to administer therapeutic dose of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment of the thyroid cancer with Iodine-131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the post-dose administration of liquids to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit is included. (Author)

  10. Efficacy of different I-131 doses for thyroid remnant ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, X.C.; Thiep, T.V.; Hung, N.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive iodine 131 I has been widely used as a treatment modality of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The need for high dose radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnant is still in question. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of 131 I different single and fractionated doses in ablation of post-operative thyroid remnant. Patients and methods: One hundred-twelve patients were included in this study. Sixty-one patients with TSH≥30 μU/ml were treated 30 mCi in group 1 (36 patients) or 100 mCi in group 2 (25 patients). Fifty one patients with TSH 131 I high dose of 100 mCi and no severe adverse effect in the other groups. Conclusion: Single high dose (100 mCi) may be more efficient than single low dose (30 mCi) for post-operative remnant ablation with serum TSH≥30 μU/ml and the efficacy of low fractionated doses (30+30 mCi) was comparable with high-fractionated dose (30+100 mCi) for post-operative remnant ablation with low serum TSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  11. Iodine Symporter Targeting with 124I/131I Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajah, James; Janssen, Marcel; Hetkamp, Philipp; Jentzen, Walter

    2017-09-01

    Theranostics, a modern approach combining therapeutics and diagnostics, is among the most promising concepts in nuclear medicine for optimizing and individualizing treatments for many cancer entities. Theranostics has been used in clinical routines in nuclear medicine for more than 60 y-as 131 I for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in thyroid diseases. In this minireview, we provide a survey of the use of 2 different radioiodine isotopes for targeting the sodium-iodine symporter in thyroid cancer and nonthyroidal neoplasms as well as a brief summary of theranostics for neuroendocrine neoplasms and metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer. In particular, we discuss the role of 124 I-based dosimetry in targeting of the sodium-iodine symporter and describe the clinical application of 124 I dosimetry in a patient who had radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer and who underwent a redifferentiation treatment with the mitogen-activated extracellular signal-related kinase kinase inhibitor trametinib. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  12. On-line monitoring system for I-131 manufacturing labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osovizky, A.; Malamud, Y.; Paran, Y.; Tal, N.; Turgeman, S.; Weinstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    An on-line monitoring and safety system has been installed in a lab for manufacturing 1-131 capsules for nuclear medicine use. Production of up to 100mCi batches is performed in shielded glove boxes. The safety system is based on a unique, 'Medi SMARTS' system (Medical Survey Mapping Automatic Radiation Tracing System), that collects continuously the radiation measurements for processing, display, and storage for future retrieval. Radiation is measured by GM tubes, data is transferred to a data processing unit, and then via a RS-485 communication line to a computer. In addition to the operational advantages and radiation levels storage, the system is being evaluated for the purpose of identifying risky stages in the process. (authors)

  13. The non-conventional therapeutical indications of I 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, M.J.; Schvartz, C.; Maes, B.; Vaudrey, C.; Pochart, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In our therapeutic activity the non-conventional indications represent 5-10% relative to the indisputable indications which the hyperthyroidism in the second half of the life and the differential thyroid cancers are. In this paper our experience since 1966 is revised and confronted with the data of international literature. In the last almost 40 years we have treated 178 hyperthyroidism of which 17 were youngsters between 16 and 20 years old, 17 multi-nodular euthyroid goiters (MEG), 85 advanced cardiopathies and 8 Cordarone cardiopathies. The indications are precise: relapses after ATS or surgery in young subjects, counter-indications or surgery refusal for the MEGs and cardiologic indications. The long term surveillance was managed by an adequate code. Immediate morbidity is null. The efficiency is high in the hyperthyroidism treatment. The hypothyroidism is diagnosed and early treated. The reduction of the MEG mass is significant. An objective amelioration of the heart state was obtained (23%). The evaluation of the preventive effect of induced hyperthyroidism by Cordarone is underway. In conclusion, the enlargement of indications concerns mainly the hyperthyroidism in young subjects. In order to avoid carcinogenic risks we excluded the children under 16 years, excepting for special situations. This extension to the procreation age imposes a rigorous application of contraception and radiation protection instructions and needs a prolonged evaluation of results

  14. Methodology for management of therapeutic dose of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment previously described with a therapeutic dose bigger than ablative of Iodine 131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the administration of liquid post-dose is included to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit. (Author)

  15. The non-conventional therapeutical indications of I 131; Les indications therapeutiques non conventionnelles de l`I 131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delisle, M.J.; Schvartz, C.; Maes, B.; Vaudrey, C.; Pochart, J.M. [I.J.G. BP 171, 51056 Reims (France)

    1997-12-31

    In our therapeutic activity the non-conventional indications represent 5-10% relative to the indisputable indications which the hyperthyroidism in the second half of the life and the differential thyroid cancers are. In this paper our experience since 1966 is revised and confronted with the data of international literature. In the last almost 40 years we have treated 178 hyperthyroidism of which 17 were youngsters between 16 and 20 years old, 17 multi-nodular euthyroid goiters (MEG), 85 advanced cardiopathies and 8 Cordarone cardiopathies. The indications are precise: relapses after ATS or surgery in young subjects, counter-indications or surgery refusal for the MEGs and cardiologic indications. The long term surveillance was managed by an adequate code. Immediate morbidity is null. The efficiency is high in the hyperthyroidism treatment. The hypothyroidism is diagnosed and early treated. The reduction of the MEG mass is significant. An objective amelioration of the heart state was obtained (23%). The evaluation of the preventive effect of induced hyperthyroidism by Cordarone is underway. In conclusion, the enlargement of indications concerns mainly the hyperthyroidism in young subjects. In order to avoid carcinogenic risks we excluded the children under 16 years, excepting for special situations. This extension to the procreation age imposes a rigorous application of contraception and radiation protection instructions and needs a prolonged evaluation of results

  16. Methodology for management of therapeutic dose of I-131; Metodologia para administrar dosis terapeutica de I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The present work suggests the use of measures guided to eliminate the resulting chronic sialoadenitis of the treatment previously described with a therapeutic dose bigger than ablative of Iodine 131, as well as the use of citric fruits to stimulate the salivation, the administration of liquid post-dose is included to accelerate the gastric emptying avoiding the secondary effects as the vomit. (Author)

  17. Serum BAFF and APRIL Levels, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, and Immunoglobulins after B-Cell Depletion Using the Monoclonal Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Sigrid; Kristoffersen, Einar K.; Sapkota, Dipak; Risa, Kristin; Dahl, Olav; Bruland, Ove; Mella, Olav; Fluge, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalopathy/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease of unknown etiology. We have previously suggested clinical benefit from B-cell depletion using the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in a randomized and placebo-controlled study. Prolonged responses were then demonstrated in an open-label phase-II study with maintenance rituximab treatment. Using blood samples from patients in the previous two clinical trials, we investigated quantitative changes in T-lymphocyte subsets, in immunoglobulins, and in serum levels of two B-cell regulating cytokines during follow-up. B-lymphocyte activating factor of the tumor necrosis family (BAFF) in baseline serum samples was elevated in 70 ME/CFS patients as compared to 56 healthy controls (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences in baseline serum BAFF levels between patients with mild, moderate, or severe ME/CFS, or between responders and non-responders to rituximab. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) serum levels were not significantly different in ME/CFS patients compared to healthy controls at baseline, and no changes in serum levels were seen during follow-up. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets and T-cell activation markers at multiple time points during follow-up showed no significant differences over time, between rituximab and placebo groups, or between responders and non-responders to rituximab. Baseline serum IgG levels were significantly lower in patients with subsequent response after rituximab therapy compared to non-responders (p = 0.03). In the maintenance study, slight but significant reductions in mean serum immunoglobulin levels were observed at 24 months compared to baseline; IgG 10.6–9.5 g/L, IgA 1.8–1.5 g/L, and IgM 0.97–0.70 g/L. Although no functional assays were performed, the lack of significant associations of T- and NK-cell subset numbers with B-cell depletion, as well as the lack of associations to clinical responses, suggest that B

  18. Anti CD20 (Rituximab therapy in refractory pediatric rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Reis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aim to report the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX in patients diagnosed with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA refractory to conventional treatment. Methods: A retrospective review was made of all medical records of patients with JSLE or JIA treated with RTX between January 2009 and January 2015 in the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of a central hospital. Results: Five patients, 4 with JSLE and 1 with extended oligoarticular JIA, received 10 cycles of RTX (23 infusions. The scheme of RTX frequently used was 750 mg/m2 two weeks apart. The median follow-up time after receiving the first cycle of RTX was 24 months (12 – 70. The four patients with JSLE were female (three caucasian and one black. The patient with JIA was a caucasian male. The median age at diagnosis was 10 years (16 months – 17years. The median evolution time until receiving RTX was 6 years (5 months – 15 years. Refractory class IV lupus nephritis was the most common indication for receiving RTX. Previous treatment to RTX included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids in all patients and anti-TNFα (etanercept in the patient with JIA. It was possible to reduce the mean oral corticosteroid dose after RTX, ranging from 23 mg/day (20-25mg/day before RTX to 11 mg/day (0–20 mg/day at the last evaluation. Disease activity before RTX and at last evaluation also improved. The SLEDAI score, for JSLE, decreased from a median of 15, 5 (11 – 18 to 3 (0 – 6, and the JADAS-27 score, for JIA, also diminished from 40.4 to 3.5. Adverse events occurred in 2 patients, including delayed second dose after the diagnosis of cryptococcosis and respiratory tract infection with concomitant hypogammaglobulinemia needing of immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Rituximab might have a role in the treatment of JSLE and JIA. However controlled studies and long term follow-up are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy.

  19. Aplicaciones clínicas del radioyodo 131 (I131 en las enfermedades del tiroides Clinical applications of radioiodine 131 (I131 in the thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi González Rivero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El radioyodo 131 es un isótopo radioactivo que se emplea exitosamente en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades benignas y malignas del tiroides. Su propiedad de integrarse selectivamente al metabolismo del tiroides y emitir una señal, le permite describir el funcionamiento glandular mediante estudios de captación, y delimitar la morfología y localización de los tejidos que capten yodo, a través de la gammagrafía. Es además una radioterapia sencilla, segura y coste-efectiva, usada como primera línea terapéutica en el control del hipertiroidismo, cuya dosis y momento de aplicación debería individualizarse según la etiología y la clínica de cada paciente. El radioyodo 131 ofrece una alternativa eficaz para reducir el tamaño del bocio no tóxico; además, respalda el tratamiento quirúrgico del carcinoma diferenciado del tiroides, y destruye a dosis ablativa los restos tisulares y las lesiones metastásicas que puede identificar durante el seguimiento gammagráfico. El empleo de radioyodo 131 está sujeto al cumplimiento de regulaciones de protección contra la radioactividad.Radioiodine 131 is a radioactive isotope that is successfully used for the diagnosis and the treatment of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Its quality of selectively integrating to the thyroid metabolism and emitting a signal allows it to describe the gland functioning through capture studies, and to delimit the morphology and location of the tissues that capture iodine by means of gammagraphy. It is also a simple, safe and cost-effective radiotherapy used as first-line therapeutics in the control of hyperthyroidism. The dose and right time of application should be individualized according to the etiology and the clinic of each patient. Radioiodine 131 offers an efficient alternative to reduce the size of non-toxic goiter in addition to supporting the surgical treatment of the differentiated thyroid carcinoma and destroying with ablative doses the tissular remains and the metastatic lesions that can be detected during the gammagraphic follow-up. Radioiodine 131 depends on the fulfillment of safety regulations against radioactivity.

  20. Thyroid dose of I-131 absorbed by the internal organs of a pregnant woman; Dosis tiroidea de I-131 absorbida por los organos internos de una embarazada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Leon, C.L. de [Cuerpo Academico de Radiobiologia de la Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: emanz_44@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    The use of nuclear techniques, for diagnosis or treatment, generates stress in the patient and its relatives. During the pregnancy some sufferings related with the thyroid gland can be presented. If the patient is pregnant, OEP or NOEP, the stress comes from the fear to that the product can it turns affected. The dose is calculated that the Iodine 131, captured by the thyroid of a woman with three months of pregnancy, it deposits in the brain, stomach, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas, thymus, spleen and in the uterus. The thymus is the organ that receives the biggest dose. (Author)

  1. A study on the preparation and application of I131 bound serum albumin for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, L.C.; Sison, B.

    1974-01-01

    The study on the preparation of macro-aggregates of serum albumin labelled 131 I is presented. Aggregates produced were further analyzed with regard to its protein content, radioactivity count and particle size. Results showed that protein tends to denaturize upon agitation forming a floc and settling down as a precipitate. Comparing between a shaken and unshaken sample, results showed no change in the amount of radioactivity absorbed by the protein. Heating the protein aggregates of 40-49 mu for 4 minutes with shaking gave the best size particle for pulmonary scanning

  2. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the 131 I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the 131 INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons, the dosimetric information obtained, adjusted to each concrete case, it contributes to improve the radiological protection of the patient. (Author)

  3. Does vitamin E protect salivary glands from I-131 radiation damage in patients with thyroid cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Abedi, Seyed M; Saghari, Mohsen; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Akhzari, Fariba; Mokarami, Bahareh; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Salivary gland impairment after high-dose radioiodine (¹³¹I) treatment is well recognized. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of vitamin E on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in patients undergoing ¹³¹I treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer. Thirty-six patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups before postsurgical ablation therapy with 3700-5550 MBq ¹³¹I: the control group, comprising 17 patients, and the vitamin E group, comprising 19 patients. All 19 patients in the experimental group received vitamin E at a dose of 800 IU/day for a duration of 1 week before to 4 weeks after I therapy and the 17 patients in the control group received a placebo for the same duration. Salivary gland function was assessed using salivary gland scintigraphy with intravenous injection of 370 MBq Tc-pertechnetate in two phases, one immediately before and the other 6 months after ¹³¹I ablative therapy. First-minute uptake ratio, maximum uptake ratio, maximum secretion percentage, and excretion fraction (EF) of each salivary gland were measured and compared between the study phases for the two groups. There was no significant difference between preablative and postablative salivary scintigraphic indices in the experimental vitamin E group, whereas maximum secretion percentage and EF of the right submandibular gland and EF of the left parotid gland were significantly decreased in the control group. There was also a higher significant decrease in the EF of the left parotid gland in the control group compared with the vitamin E group. Vitamin E consumption may be associated with a significant protective effect against radiation-induced dysfunction in salivary glands following single-dose ¹³¹I therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  4. Use of Br-82 and I-131 radionuclides in studies of goitrogenic effects of exogenous bromide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 2 (2012), s. 379-383 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bromide * goitrogenic effect * iodine radionuclides * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2012

  5. Hepatic absorbed radiation dosimetry during I-131 metaiodobenzylguanadine (MIBG) therapy for refractory neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koral, Kenneth F.; Regan, Denise; Huberty, John P.; Frame, Bill; Matthay, Katherine K.; Maris, John M.; Normolle, Daniel; Yanik, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the prediction of therapeutic hepatic radiation-absorbed dose rates from tracer imaging plus a linearity assumption to estimation based on intra-therapy imaging in 131 I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy of refractory neuroblastoma. Conjugate-view images of the liver were obtained before therapy for seven patients at seven times after a tracer infusion of 131 I MIBG and at three times after the therapy infusion. Measured liver activities were converted to dose-rate estimates. Three statistical models of the rates assuming double exponential dependences on time were examined. One of the three models allowed for a multiplicative correction to the therapeutic late-phase dose-rate amplitude. Results from that model: (1) the tracer prediction of the late-phase absorbed-dose-rate amplitude was a factor of 1.75 times the intra-therapy-estimated value, and (2) the difference between tracer prediction of the radiation-absorbed dose and intra-therapy estimation of it was statistically significant, and (3) the liver radiation-absorbed dose did not reach 30 Gy. A statistical modeling analysis finds that the radiation-absorbed dose after therapy appears to be lower than that which is predicted from the linear scaling with administered activity of the tracer radiation-absorbed dose. Hepatocyte toxicity is the most likely reason but it is not high enough to produce clinically observable results. (orig.)

  6. Exhalation of I-131 after radioiodine therapy: time dependence and chemical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomaecker, K.; Fischer, T.; Eschner, W.; Gaidouk, M.I.; Schicha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The change of both amount and chemical forms of radioiodine exhaled in the air of rooms with patients on the therapy ward should be investigated depending on radioactivity applied, time after application, and kind of thyroid disease. Methods: The air of ward-rooms of 62 patients with thyroid carcinoma, Graves' Disease, and autonomy which received different therapy doses, was investigated with an portable constant air flow sampler. Different chemical iodine species (organic, elemental, aerosol bound) were collected during 8 hr in various filters until 3 days after application of the radioiodine capsule, according to their chemical form. The radioactivity in the filters was measured with a well counter on defined time points after application. Results: The radioactivity exhaled was between 0,008 and 0,03% related to activity of radioiodine applied. The percentage of radioiodine exhaled related to the activity applied, differed significantly depending on disease and changed as follows: Grave's disease > autonomy > carcinoma. The exhalation of radioiodine became stronger with increasing applied activities and showed an exponential decrease with time. The most part of radioiodine was present in organic bound form. This organic portion decreased with time in favour of the other iodine species. Conclusion: The degree of accumulation of radioiodine orally applied within thyroid seems to be in direct proportion to the extend of its exhalation. Further measurements directly in the breathing air of RIT-patients are necessary, in order to clarify the relationship between degree of thyroid uptake and quantity as well as chemical form of radioiodine exhaled. (orig.) [de

  7. An experiment to use medical I-131 as tracer in a city sewer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Susanne; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    City sewer systems have to reliably carry residential and industrial wastewater to treatment plants, often mixed with rainwater. Transport in the sewer system is regularly modelled in order to predict sewerage levels, transport velocities and volume discharges. Radioisotopes would be interesting tracers, as they can be detected quickly and without the need of applying wet chemistry. Medical isotopes are released in large quantities (many MBq) by excretion from patients either at the location of administration or from elsewhere, most probably the patient's home. Depending on diagnostic or treatment modality, isotopes of different physical characteristics are used, often bound to compounds of specific metabolic behaviour. Routine environmental surveillance regularly detects the most common diagnostic ({sup 99m}Tc) and therapeutic ({sup 131}I) isotopes in city wastewater samples. Except for {sup 131}I in the case of a nuclear emergency, no contributions from sources other than medical are expected. Medical isotopes therefore might be used for tracing purposes, provided individual inputs can be identified and separated. A field experiment has been designed involving {sup 131}I releases from a single patient who had undergone radioiodine thyroid ablation therapy. This modality is applied after thyroid cancer surgery in order to destroy residual thyroid tissue. Activities up to 5 GBq of {sup 131}I are used which are excreted within few days, as no iodine-retaining thyroid tissue remains. In Germany, about 20,000 of these treatments are performed yearly. For a sewer system of 500,000 inhabitants, about 150 cases would be expected per year, making it quite improbable to have interference between individual patient releases in the same region of the city sewer system. Practically, the radiometric laboratory was informed of the expected release of an (anonymous) patient from the collaborating radiotherapy unit several days in advance, plus the approximate location of the patient's home. Together with the sewage system authority, automated sampling (mostly in 6 h intervals) over one week at four locations between the patient's home quarter and the sewage plant inlet was planned and successfully conducted, delivering a total of 84 samples. Sampling started before the assumed arrival of the patient at his home, to account for 'background' signal due to releases from other patients. The samples were investigated for {sup 131}I by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, with a detection threshold of down to ca. 0.1 Bq/l, depending on the allocated measurement time. Data time series plots show clearly distinguishable peaks in {sup 131}I activity, with peak amplitude decreasing from over 1 kBq/l to below 1 Bq/l with distance from the patient's home quarter (due to dilution) and peak time being retarded (due to transport time). At the two most distant sampling points, the peak appears on a variable background, attributed to {sup 131}I releases of other patients. Modelling with specific sewer system software is still under way, but the data already show that under suitable conditions medical isotopes can successfully be used as sewage tracers. (authors)

  8. Medical evaluations of ionizing radiation effects during I131 therapy in patients after thyroid carcinoma surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermida, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This study shows the para-clinical studies on a 39 years old patient who was operated on of a thyroid carcinoma and who, under the beirwaltes medical record (in use in our country), received in the post surgical stage, a Iodine-131 dose of about 2960 MBq (80 mCi) for ablation, having been noted subsequently her pregnancy condition. (author). 6 refs

  9. Thyroid dose of I-131 absorbed by the internal organs of a pregnant woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos P, A.; Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Leon, C.L. de

    2007-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques, for diagnosis or treatment, generates stress in the patient and its relatives. During the pregnancy some sufferings related with the thyroid gland can be presented. If the patient is pregnant, OEP or NOEP, the stress comes from the fear to that the product can it turns affected. The dose is calculated that the Iodine 131, captured by the thyroid of a woman with three months of pregnancy, it deposits in the brain, stomach, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, ovaries, pancreas, thymus, spleen and in the uterus. The thymus is the organ that receives the biggest dose. (Author)

  10. Exposure rate measurements and radiation control in post therapy with I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez A, M.; Castillo D, C.; Flores U, H.; Cespedes C, L.; Morgan N, C.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Marin R, K.

    2015-10-01

    During hyperthyroidism treatment, 131 I activities from 111 MBq up to 296 MBq are used. In the aim to determine if the 131 I uptake by the patient is a radiological risk to family members and public around the patient exposure rate measurements were carried out, using a limit 1.8 m R/h. Measurements were carried out in the Nuclear Medicine department of Almenara hospital in Lima, Peru. The exposure rate was measured to 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 m from the patient from 0 to 11 days after post-administrated dose (Pda). In this study measurements were carried out in 21 hyperthyroid patients. Measurements to 1 meter, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate the dose rate around 100% of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R /h. Measurements to 0.6 meters along 2-4 (16/16), 5 -7 (15/15), and 8-11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that the dose rate around 44% (7/16), 93% (14/15), and 100% (14/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R h. On the other hand, dose rate measurements to 0.3 meters, along 2-4 (16/16), 5-7 (15/15), and 8 -11 (14/14) days after Pda, indicate that de dose rate is 13% (2/16), 6% (1/15), and 43% (6/14) of patients is ≤ 1.8 m R/h. Measured exposure rates are alike to values reported in the literature, and were used to define radiation control recommendations. (Author)

  11. Tests of some methods to remove I-131 from contaminated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 Bq L -1 were reported by several local governments in the Kanto Plain in March 2011. To remove iodine-131 from tap water, five methods were tested in this study, that is, (1) boiling, (2) adding charcoals from oak or bamboo, (3) activated charcoals, (4) water purifiers, and (5) reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. Boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process. Adding charcoals and activated charcoal treatment could not remove iodine-131, because no reduction of iodine-131 was observed in tap water samples after these treatments. Only limited effect was found with water purifiers with first several portions; no effect was expected with further water treatment. On the other hand, the RO showed high iodine-131 removal percentage of more than 95%, although the method needs about 5-10 L water to obtain 1 L of RO treated water. (author)

  12. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  13. Description of and link to the I-131 dose/risk calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This calculator estimates radiation dose received by the thyroid from radionuclides in fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and sites outside of the United States (global fallout); estimates risk of developing thyroid cancer from that exposure; and provides an estimate of probability of causation, sometimes called assigned share (PC/AS), for individuals who have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer.

  14. Fixed dose of I-131 therapy for the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short-term (6 month) efficacy of fixed-dose (555 MBq, 15 mCi) approach in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism and analyze the relationship between clinical outcome (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroidism) and variances (patient age, thyroid weight, absorbed activity per gram of thyroid tissue, and radioactive iodine uptake value). Methods: 38 patients of Graves' hyperthyroidism were treated with 555MBq of radioactive iodine (in the form of capsule). Follow-up was done 3 and 6 months post therapy and the following clinical outcome was monitored: persistent hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and euthyroidism. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software (version 11.5). P<0.05 was taken as indicating a statistically significant effect. Results: Of the 38 subjects, 14 (36.8%) were identified as euthyroidism, 18 (47.4%) hypothyroidism, and 6 (15.8%) hyperthyroidism. Cure rate (euthyroidism+hypothyroidism) was 84.2%. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant difference of absorbed activity per gram of thyroid tissue and thyroid weight (F=17.639, P=0.000; F=28.453, P=0.000), but there is no statistically significant difference in terms of patient age and RAIU (F=1.375, P-0.266; F=2.453, P=0.101) among euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism patients. Conclusion: We concluded that fixed-dose approach is very effective in the quickly restoration of thyroid function. There is a statistically significant difference of absorbed activity per gram of thyroid tissue and thyroid weight, but there is no statistically significant difference in terms of patient age and RAIU among euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism patients. (authors)

  15. I-131 Therapy in patients with hyperthyroidism 11- year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Radioiodine therapy is a well-established method for the treatment of patients with various forms of hyperthyroidism and is preferred in many countries as the first line therapy. Traditionally, it has been applied in Bulgaria in low doses, mainly in elderly patients with contraindications for surgery or after long-term antithyroid drug therapy. No systematic follow up of these patients has ever been done in the country. Materials and Methods: 571 subjects aged 34 to 79 years (mean 64, 7), 108 males with mean age of 68.61 years (54 to 76 yrs) and 463 females with mean age of 68.89 years (34 to 84 yrs). Mean disease duration was 73±5 months. The study included 296 patients with toxic nodular goiter, 220 patients with Graves- Basedow disease and Hashitoxicosis and 55 patients with adenoma toxicum. 256 females and 40 males with toxic nodular goiter, 158 females and 62 males with Graves- Basedow disease and Hashitoxicosis, 49 females and 6 males with adenoma toxicum. The disease duration is 48.19 months in females and 22.5 months in males. Methods: 131-iodine scan and uptake before the treatment and on follow-up visits at months 6,12,18 and 24 with a dose of 1.48 MBq 131-I for the both tests, given orally as a water solution. Uptake was measured at hours 2, 4 and 24; thyroid scan -at hour 24, thyroid ultrasound, FNB cytology if suspicious of malignancy, thyroid hormones -TSH (normal range 0.3-4.0 mU/l), FT4 (normal range 8-17 pmol/l) Results: 131-iodine therapy was administered to subjects with 131-I uptake over 25% at hour 24. Doses between 148- 370MBq were given depending on diagnosis and thyroid volume. A single radioiodine dose, mean value 189.07 MBq is applied in 246 (87, 85%) patients, second dose, mean value 183, 5 MBq is required in 30 (10, 72%) and third dose, mean value 148 MBq received 4 (1, 43%) patients. Effect of 131-iodine therapy-the change in radioiodine uptake is a marker for complex assessment of the result of the 131-iodine therapy. In subjects with successful treatment the uptake at the various follow-up intervals drops by 38.0%-62.0%, 57,41% of patients are euthyroid, 12,96% are hypothyroid and 29,63% are hyperthyroid. The hypothyroid status is accepted as effective treatment results. Definitive treatment is determined in 70.37% at 6 month. The second control performed 12 months later presents 67,57% euthyroid patients, 13,5% hypothyroid patients and 18,91% hyperthyroid patients. Definitive treatment is determined in 81.07% at 12 months.The control measurements after 18 months showed 58,33% euthyroid patients, 25,0% hypothyroid patients and 16,67% hyperthyroid patients. Definitive treatment is determined in 83.33% at 18 month and this trend is observed in follow-up tests. Significant reduction in the uptake at observed for all measurements (all p<0,001).The change in estimated thyroid mass in subjects treated for hyperthyroidism with radioiodine was 32-48% and this correlates with moderate to severe thyroid atrophy caused by the applies activity 185-222 MBq. There is a significant reduction in the mean estimated mass at months 6 and 12. Conclusions: 1.131-I therapy is a useful, economical and effective treatment and is more successful therapy than surgery. A euthyroid condition of the patient is required in definitive radioiodine treatment. 2. For the assessment of the treatment effect and or establishment of disease relapse, the follow- up period for 24 months after treatment is required. 3. Hypothyroid status after radioiodine treatment is an indicator for successful treatment. 4. The change in estimated thyroid mass in subjects treated for hyperthyroidism with radioiodine varies 32- 48% and this correlates with moderate to severe thyroid atrophy caused by the given activity 148- 370 MBq. 5. The variety of the radioiodine uptake and the thyroid weight are indicators for assessment of therapy effectiveness. 6. The absorbed radioiodine dose in the thyroid gland is 55-220 Gy. This causes moderate to considerable atrophy with reduced metabolic activity and tissue weight and blocks the gr owth potential which results in decreased thyroid hormone production. (author)

  16. Differences in the dry deposition of gaseous elemental I-131 to several leafy vegetable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinonaga, T.; Heuberger, H.; Tschiersch, J.

    2004-01-01

    The height of the dry deposition of gaseous elemental 131 I to leafy vegetable is quite uncertain because of the different habit, surface texture and leaf uptake of the different plant species. There is no comparative data on the deposition to various species, but leafy vegetables are taken as reference plants for the estimation of the height of contamination of vegetable foods after a nuclear accident. Therefore new chamber experiments were performed to determine under homogeneous and controlled conditions the dry deposition of gaseous elemental 131 I on mature leafy vegetable. The simultaneous exposition of endive, head lettuce, red oak leaf lettuce and spinach (spring leafy vegetable) rsp. curly kale, white cabbage and spinach (summer leafy vegetable) was arranged. The sample collective of each species was such large that for the expected variation of the results a statistically firm analysis was possible. Significant differences were observed for the 131 I deposition on spring vegetable: the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times that on leaf lettuce, 4 times that on endive and 9 times that on head lettuce. All summer vegetables showed differences in deposition. For Iodine, the deposition on spinach was roughly 3 times (6 times) that on curly kale and 35 times (100 times) that on white cabbage in the 2 experiments. Washing by deionised water could reduce the contamination only by about 10% for 131 I. (author)

  17. External dose measurements for patients receiving therapeutic I-131 for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molfetas, M.; Kottou, S.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine-131 is a well established and effective treatment, supplementing surgery, in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Iodine-131 except from its β-emission, that generates a cell-killing effect in a small area, has also a γ-emission irradiating distant tissues and even people who are close enough with the treated patient. The International Commission on Radiation Protection, ICRP has estimated the probability of a radiation-induced fatal cancer for the whole population at 5.0 % per sievert for low doses and at low dose rates and at 1.3 % for serious genetic diseases. For elderly people the probability seems to be 3 to 10 times lower, whereas for children up to the age of 10 years, 2-3 times higher. These findings led the ICRP to recommend new dose limits, lower than the previous ones. The European Union has endorsed the ICRP recommendations and the Council issued two directives, with which the Greek legislation complied recently. The current annual public dose limit is 1 mSv, while in the new Greek legislation the concept of dose constrains (0.5 m Sv in Greece) has also been proposed as a goal to reach whenever possible

  18. Technical solution for radioactive waste management resulting from the I-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, P.; Lopez F, Y.; Quevedo G, J.; Betancourt H, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses a system designed for the collection and storage of biological wastes arising from the therapy with l-131. This system is based on the use of either retention or septic tanks, in which the waste is stored or delayed until the activity decays to acceptable levels, in order to comply with authorized limits established by the Regulatory Authority for discharge to environment. A method for estimating waste activity concentration as a function of the number of patients, the activity delivered to each one of them, as well as other parameter related to the system design are discussed. The general requirements to be met by the system are also included. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs

  19. Use of I-131- CRTX for targeting malignant adenocarcinoma in mice: biodistribution and radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Santos, Marcos Antonio da Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumour cells but also in the processes of tumour cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. We have shown that 125 I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a protein derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (Cdt), specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic death. This study reports the biokinetic profile of 99m Tc-Cdt and 125/131 I-Crtx in Swiss mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumor and MIRD formulation was applied to calculate the absorbed radiation doses for various organs and tumor site. Biokinetic evaluations were performed up to 24 h after intravenous (i.v) or intratumor (i.tu.) injection of 99m Tc-Cdt or 125/131 I-Crtx. Time-activity curves were generated for the main organs by fitting the organ specific mass mean counts. The radiation dose from 131 I-Crtx was calculated based on non penetrating radiation in the mouse model. Biokinetics data from 99m Tc-Cdt after i.v. injection in mice tumor model showed rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 = 36.1 ± 2.4 min.), slow tumor clearance (T 1/2 : 108.3 ± 19.5 min.) and indicated the kidneys as the main excretion pathway. Interaction studies in vitro demonstrated that 125 I-Crtx recognize specific sites on Erlich tumor cell membrane. Upon intravenous and intratumor administration of 131 I-Crtx in mice bearing Erlich tumor, it was observed high uptake in tumor site in vivo (Ã =72kBq x h/g) resulting in a high absorbed dose radiation to tumor site. Distributions of 125/131 I-Crtx i.v. were only significant in tumor, stomach, liver and kidneys, reflecting non-specific uptake of Crtx in normal excretion tissues in vivo. Intratumoral administration reduced significantly the radiation dose to the kidneys (42-fold lower) and increased the uptake by the tumor site (128- fold higher). 131 I control was run in a parallel experiment and showed no significant tumor uptake. In conclusion, 131 I-Crtx had a high concentration in tumor and low concentration in normal organs in mice bearing Erlich tumor. Tumor-to-normal tissue radiation dose ratio, for intratumor injected 131 I-Crtx, were more than 60-fold higher depending on the organ. Our results indicate that Cdt components may provide interesting templates for development of a tool for targeted radiotherapy against adenocarcinoma. (author)

  20. Analysis of the evaluation results of therapeutic use of I-131 within international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trano, Jose Luis di; Rojo, Ana Maria; Kunst, Juan Jose

    2001-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of the radiological parameters involved in radiological protection of the public, during 131 I therapy in the treatment of thyroid cancer is presented in this paper. Because of large amount of activity which is excreted after the radioiodine administration contamination hazard was analysed. External exposures were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters, exposure rate was registered from direct measurement, activity levels were measured in room air, from room surfaces, the toilet, skin and urine. The international regulations regarding the criteria of hospitalization of the patients were reviewed. (author)

  1. THE MANAGEMENT OF THYROID CARCINOMA--THE ROLE OF RADIO-IODINE (I-131)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Workman, James B.

    1963-06-15

    Experience from the management of 156 patients with proven thyroid cancer, followed from 1 to 11 years, is reported. Although no sweeping conclusions can be drawn, it appears that radioiodine continues to have a place in the overall management of most cases of this malignant disease. (auth)

  2. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    Metastatic Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  3. Method of conjugate gamma camera image to determine tumor uptake in other thyroid treatments with I-131; Metodo de la imagen conjugada en Gammacamara para determinar la captacion en resto tumoral tiroideo en tratamientos con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Sainz, A.; Tortosa, R.; Mari, A.

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of ablation of thyroid remnants with 1-131 in the treatment of CDT depends on the activity captured in these remains, the optimal method for quantifying this activity is based on the gamma camera imaging with in the course of treatment. However, due to saturation of the image with high activities and time-cost optimization of machine, not usually get those images, except in a post-treatment scan. In our service MN tracking each patient is between 6 and 9 after administration. A method of quantification of the activity captured in other thyroid screening using this image.

  4. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131; Dosimetria interna para la proteccion radiologica del paciente en la terapia con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: gdeluca@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the {sup 131}I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the {sup 131}INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons, the dosimetric information obtained, adjusted to each concrete case, it contributes to improve the radiological protection of the patient. (Author)

  5. Dosimetric calculation of I-131 activity for the treatment to patients having differentiated thyroid cancer. Benefits and limitations; Calculo dosimetrico de la actividad de I-131 para tratamiento de pacientes con cancer diferenciado de tiroides (CADT). Beneficios y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, R. C.; Chebel, G. M.; Fadel, A. M.; Rojo, A. M.; Deluca, G.; Degross, O. J.; Valdivieso, C. M.; Carbejas, M. L.

    2006-07-01

    Maximum safe activity calculation, that has to be administered for treatment to patients having Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (CADT). No important side effects should be produced. Post treatment evolution was analysed. 23 Dosimetric studies were performed determining blood and whole body uptake curves (CE)during 5 days. Using the MIRDOSE software, the maximum safe activity in the whole body (CE)was calculated. The retained activity in the body (AR), 48 hs. post tracer dose. Should have been less than 2.96 GBq so as to avoid lung fibrosis. 17 patients that received activities<11.1 GBq, had no side effects. Three patients presents special situations: high AR, users in the mouth, and plaque to and leucopenia. This methodology has benefits because AT can be estimated. This was possible for 85% of the patients. When AR was high at 48 hr, AT was diminished to avoid pulmonary lesions. Tumor absorbed dose estimation, will allow the administration of AT>11.1 GBq in the future. (Author)

  6. Dosimetric comparison fixed-individualized activity in the treatment of serious disease with I -131; Comparacion dosimetrica actividad fija-actividad individualizada en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de graves con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar Perez, J.; Orellana Salas, A.; Santaella, Y.; Arrocha Acevedo, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    The iodine-131 therapy has become the treatment with radiopharmaceuticals more frequent in our country, as well as the largest source of exposure to ionizing radiation for members who surround the patient. The aim of this article is to analyse the recommendations of radiological protection which are delivered to the patient receiving radiation discharge, in terms of the duration of the same time, taking into account the radiopharmaceutical dose, the time of entry, the dose rate measured at one meter and the family environment among others. (Author)

  7. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos pacientes se presentó hipotiroidismo desde los dos primeros años del período de seguimiento, a pesar de que el tejido tiroideo circundante estaba suprimido y de la administración oral de triyodotironina simultáneamente con el yodo radioactivo. En 13 pacientes se logró hacer seguimiento; en 9 de ellos (69.2% hubo disminución del tamaño del nódulo (promedio de 45%; en dos desapareció y en otros dos no se modificó la lesión. Se sugiere que el tratamiento de los adenomas tiroideos autónomos no tóxicos con I131 es el más apropiado, especialmente si el tejido extranodular está suprimido; ello en vista de la Infrecuencia del hipotiroldismo postratamiento y de la inocultad y facilidad de su administración. Sin embargo, cuando se desea la desaparición total del adenoma y no existen contraindicaciones, debe recurrirse a la cirugía

  8. Radiation exposure from liquid discharges from I-131 therapy rooms into a piping system in the building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuntawiroon, M.; Sritongkul, N.; Pusuwan, P.; Chaudakshetrin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Over 80% of the activity from patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer is eliminated during the first three days. In our iodine therapy unit, numbers of hospitalized patients have increased from less than 200 in 2004 to more than 300 patients in 2006. The total amount of activity used is about 1,900 MBq, and the estimated amount excreted would then be about 1,800 MBq. This results in significant volume of liquid discharges into the piping system. In this study, we monitored external dose rates in non-radiation areas adjacent to pipeline connections in the building to ensure that the dose to any individual in these areas does not exceed 1 mSv per year. Materials and Methods: Exposure rates in areas adjacent to the pipeline junction connections were measured periodically from April 2006 to February 2007, five floors below the therapy unit. The measurements were made inside the wall in contact with the junction, behind the wall and in hallways 1 meter from the wall, using a GM detector or an ionization chamber. The results were recorded in μSv/h and the dose received was estimated for members of the public. Results: Significant increases in dose rates were detected in three floors below the unit. They were 2030, 1025 and 515 Sv/h at contact with the pipeline connections, 915, 1015 and 35 μSv/h behind the wall, and 36, 56 and 25 μSv/h in hallways on floors 1, 2 and 3 respectively. After appropriate wall shielding had been provided, dose rate behind the wall reduced to 23 μSv/h, and to 0.52 μSv/h in hallways. By using an occupancy factor 1/4 for hallways, the calculated dose meets the public dose limits of 1 mSv per year. Conclusions: Therapeutic application of 131 I for the treatment of thyroid cancer generates a significant amount of liquid waste into the sewers. These low activity wastes originate mainly from toilets, showers, wash basins and floor drains. Although waste discharges can be handled without exceeding the permissible limits, there is possible exposure to the sewer workers if repairs become necessary. Appropriate precautions should be taken and radiation levels should be measured as the drain or sewer pipeline is opened up. (author)

  9. Diet low in iodine as well as goitrogens (LILGD) enhanced radioiodine (I-131) uptake in treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaro, Erik; Gebre-Medhin, Mehari; Lindahl, Sten-AAke

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Low iodine diet (LID) is accepted as an adjuvant to post-thyroidectomy radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer since it is held to enhance radioiodine uptake in thyroid remnants and thyroid cancer tissue. However, in the few clinical investigations performed only an indirect and weak evidence of a positive effect of the LID has been demonstrated. Also we had discouraging experience in the application of a strict LID using the same design as in the present study. We therefore decided to investigate the effect of a diet low in iodine as well as in goitrogens (LILGD). Methods: Six patients with differentiated thyroid cancer entered the study and they were their own control. After thyroid hormone withdrawal (TSH > 30 m U/L) and on regular diet a diagnostic whole body scan was performed 24 h after administration of 50 MBq (1,4 mCi) 123 I. The day following diagnostic scan the patients were put on LILGD for 4 days prior and two days after radioiodine therapy. In LILGD beverages, fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids, glucosinolates, cyanides and thiocyanates were avoided and spices and smoking prohibited. Therapeutic radioiodine was administered one week after diagnostic procedures and in the morning after over-night fasting with an activity range of 3,7-5,4 GBq (100 -150 mCi) 131 I. A 24-h therapeutic whole body scan and calculations of percentage uptake U(24) were performed. Diagnostic (basal) D U(24)% and subsequent therapeutic T U(24)% uptake were compared and expressed as therapeutic/diagnostic uptake ratios T/D U(24). Results: A significant increase in therapeutic versus diagnostic uptake T/D U(24) was observed (mean 2,53, median 2,30, range 1,40 - 4,46, p 131 I uptake in radio-ablation of normal and thyroid cancer tissue. (author)

  10. 10 CFR 35.394 - Training for the oral administration of sodium iodide I-131 requiring a written directive in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....394 Section 35.394 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Unsealed... pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (iv) Chemistry of byproduct material for medical use...) Performing quality control procedures on instruments used to determine the activity of dosages and performing...

  11. Analysis of influence of dosimetric factors on the outcome of I-131 therapy in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapska-Kucharska, M.; Oszukowska, L.; Makarewicz, J. [Department of Nuclear Medecine and Oncological Endocrinology, Province Hospital, Zgierz (Poland); Lewinski, A. [Chair and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University, Lodz (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    The influence of dosimetric factors on the outcome of {sup 131}I therapy has been examined in hyperthyroid patients submitted to {sup 131}I treatment. The following factors - which could have influence on the effects of therapy with radioiodine - were analysed: the goitre volume, the thyroid radioiodine uptake after 24 h, and the effective half-life time of {sup 131}I (EHL). Five hundred (500) randomly selected patients with hyperthyroidism, treated with {sup 131}I, were studied. They were divided into three groups (based on clinical examination, hormonal and immunological tests, thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging). The study shows that the effectiveness of {sup 131}I therapy depends on the thyroid volume and absorbed dose in all the groups of patients and on the thyroid radioiodine uptake and EHL in patients with a single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. We have failed to determine the borderline D, distinguishing between effective and ineffective therapy. The treatment outcome can be predicted with approximately 70% accuracy, based on minimal absorbed dose

  12. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the l...

  13. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for thyroid blocking. (orig.)

  14. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  15. Two courses of rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) for recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. The response to therapy varies greatly amongst patients and treatment may be challenging. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that selectively targets cell surface antigen...

  16. [Guideline for radioimmunotherapy of CD20+ follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Grünwald, F; Knapp, W H; Trümper, L; von Schilling, C; Dreyling, M

    2009-01-01

    This guideline is a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of non-Hodgkon-lymphomas in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma after rituximab therapy and as consolidation therapy after first remission following CHOP like treatment using radioimmunotherapy. It is based on an interdisciplinary consensus and contains background information and definitions as well as specified indications and detailed contraindications of treatment. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy. For instance, presence of an expert for medical physics, intense cooperation with all colleagues committed to treatment of lymphomas, and a certificate of instruction in radiochemical labelling and quality control are required. Furthermore, it is specified which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy and how treatment has to be carried out technically. Here, quality control and documentation of labelling are of great importance. After treatment, clinical quality control is mandatory (work-up of therapy data and follow-up of patients). Essential elements of follow-up are specified in detail. The complete treatment inclusive after-care has to be realised in close cooperation with those colleagues (hemato-oncologists) who propose, in general, radioimmunotherapy under consideration of the development of the disease.

  17. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab reduces the Th17 cell response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Lauwerys, B.; Marijnissen, R.J.; Timmermans, K.; Padova, F.E. Di; Koenders, M.M.J.F.; Gutierrez-Roelens, I.; Durez, P.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W. van der; Berg, W.B. van den; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rituximab has been shown to be successful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and this unexpected finding indicates that B cells have an important role in this disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of action of rituximab in RA. METHODS: Twelve

  18. Rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for adult refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Bjerrum, Ole W; Nielsen, Ove J

    2005-01-01

    , 25 patients had been treated with high-dose IgG, and in 16 patients a splenectomy had been performed. Sixteen patients had been treated with azathioprine. Other treatments included, e.g., cyclosporine, danazol, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, interferon, and dexamethasone. The patients were treated...

  19. The study of conjugation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for labeling with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides; Estudo de conjugacao do anticorpo anti-CD20 para marcacao com radionuclideos metalicos ou lantanideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2012-07-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies or cancers that start from the malign transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. Generally, lymphomas start from the lymph nodes or from the agglomeration of the lymphatic tissues, organs like stomach, intestines, in some cases it can involve the bone marrow and the blood, it can also disseminate to other organs. Lymphomas are divided in two major categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patient with NHL are generally treated with radiotherapy alone or combined with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody rituximab (MabThera Registered-Sign ). Currently, monoclonal antibodies (Acm) conjugated with bifunctional chelate agents and radiolabeled with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides are a treatment reality for patients with NHL by the principle of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study focused on the conditions of conjugation of Acm rituximab (MabThera Registered-Sign ) with bifunctional chelating agents DOTA and DTPA. Various parameters were studied: method of Acm purification, conditions of Acm conjugation, the method for determination of number of chelate agent coupled to the Acm, method for purification of the conjugated antibody Acm, conditions of labeling of the conjugated antibody with lutetium-177, method of purification of the radiolabeled immuno conjugate, method of radiochemical purity (RP), specific binding in vitro Raji cells (Human Burkitt) and biological distribution performed in normal Balb-c mouse. The three methodologies employed in pre-purification of Acm (dialysis, size exclusion chromatograph and dial filtration) demonstrated to be efficient; they provided sample recovery exceeding 90%. However, the methodology of dial filtration presents minimal sample loss, and gave the final recovery of the sample in micro liters; thereby facilitating sample use in subsequent experiments. Numbers of chelators attached to the Acm molecule was proportional to the molar ratio studied. When we evaluated the influence of different conditions of conjugation in the number of chelators bounded to the Acm, no notable differences were observed. The RP < 80% was observed in all the methods applied. Purification of the conjugated antibody by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography demonstrated to be efficient, but deficient in terms of high sample volume recovered. The dial filtration was efficient and practical besides it provided sample recovery in micro liters. The optimized conditions for purification of the conjugated antibody preserved the protein integrity. When the conjugated Acm was labeled with lutetium-177 a product with low RP was observed in all molar ratios studied. The methodology used in the control of RP of the radiolabeled antibody was efficient in the discrimination of radiochemical species presented in the reaction mixture. The method of purification of the conjugated antibody applied, proved to be efficient in separating the labeled antibody from free lutetium. The results of specific cell binding studies performed with the conjugated Acm showed high percentage of nonspecific binding. Biological distribution in normal Balb-c mice demonstrated higher uptake of the labeled antibody by kidney and liver. The relatively high uptake observed by bone tissue may indicate some in vivo instability. However, results obtained in this study showed to be close related in literature. Thus, these data confirm the potential of antibody conjugated to DOTA and DTPA labeled with lutetium-177 for radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (author)

  20. Efficacy and safety of anti-CD20 antibody rituximab for patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, S; Saito, K; Hirata, S; Ohkubo, N; Nakayamada, S; Nakano, K; Hanami, K; Kubo, S; Miyagawa, I; Yoshikawa, M; Miyazaki, Y; Yoshinari, H; Tanaka, Y

    2018-04-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study enrolled 63 SLE patients who were treated with rituximab between 2002 and 2015. The participants underwent a battery of tests before treatment and at one year. Treatment ranged from two to four times at 500 or 1000 mg. Results Baseline characteristics were males:females = 6:57, age 33.9 years, and disease duration 87.2 months. The primary endpoint: The rate of major clinical response (MCR) was 60% while the partial clinical response (PCR) was 25%. Thirty of 36 (83%) patients with lupus nephritis (WHO II: 2, III: 5, IV: 22, V: 4, IV+V: 2, not assessed: 1) and 22 of 24 patients (92%) with neuropsychiatric SLE, who could be followed at one year, showed changes from BILAG A or B score to C or D score at one year. Multivariate analysis identified high anti-dsDNA antibody and shorter disease duration as significant determinants of MCR at one year. Repeat examination was conducted at five years. Primary failure was recorded in 8.8% and secondary failure in 32.4% (time to relapse: 24.4 months). Rituximab was well tolerated although 65 adverse events, mostly infections, were recorded within one year. Conclusion Rituximab is potentially efficacious for the treatment of patients with refractory SLE.

  1. The study of conjugation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for labeling with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanji, Akinkunmi Ganiyu

    2012-01-01

    Lymphomas are malignancies or cancers that start from the malign transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. Generally, lymphomas start from the lymph nodes or from the agglomeration of the lymphatic tissues, organs like stomach, intestines, in some cases it can involve the bone marrow and the blood, it can also disseminate to other organs. Lymphomas are divided in two major categories: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patient with NHL are generally treated with radiotherapy alone or combined with immunotherapy using monoclonal antibody rituximab (MabThera®). Currently, monoclonal antibodies (Acm) conjugated with bifunctional chelate agents and radiolabeled with metallic or lanthanides radionuclides are a treatment reality for patients with NHL by the principle of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). This study focused on the conditions of conjugation of Acm rituximab (MabThera®) with bifunctional chelating agents DOTA and DTPA. Various parameters were studied: method of Acm purification, conditions of Acm conjugation, the method for determination of number of chelate agent coupled to the Acm, method for purification of the conjugated antibody Acm, conditions of labeling of the conjugated antibody with lutetium-177, method of purification of the radiolabeled immuno conjugate, method of radiochemical purity (RP), specific binding in vitro Raji cells (Human Burkitt) and biological distribution performed in normal Balb-c mouse. The three methodologies employed in pre-purification of Acm (dialysis, size exclusion chromatograph and dial filtration) demonstrated to be efficient; they provided sample recovery exceeding 90%. However, the methodology of dial filtration presents minimal sample loss, and gave the final recovery of the sample in micro liters; thereby facilitating sample use in subsequent experiments. Numbers of chelators attached to the Acm molecule was proportional to the molar ratio studied. When we evaluated the influence of different conditions of conjugation in the number of chelators bounded to the Acm, no notable differences were observed. The RP < 80% was observed in all the methods applied. Purification of the conjugated antibody by dialysis and size exclusion chromatography demonstrated to be efficient, but deficient in terms of high sample volume recovered. The dial filtration was efficient and practical besides it provided sample recovery in micro liters. The optimized conditions for purification of the conjugated antibody preserved the protein integrity. When the conjugated Acm was labeled with lutetium-177 a product with low RP was observed in all molar ratios studied. The methodology used in the control of RP of the radiolabeled antibody was efficient in the discrimination of radiochemical species presented in the reaction mixture. The method of purification of the conjugated antibody applied, proved to be efficient in separating the labeled antibody from free lutetium. The results of specific cell binding studies performed with the conjugated Acm showed high percentage of nonspecific binding. Biological distribution in normal Balb-c mice demonstrated higher uptake of the labeled antibody by kidney and liver. The relatively high uptake observed by bone tissue may indicate some in vivo instability. However, results obtained in this study showed to be close related in literature. Thus, these data confirm the potential of antibody conjugated to DOTA and DTPA labeled with lutetium-177 for radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (author)

  2. Guideline for radioimmunotherapy of rituximab relapsed or refractory CD20+ follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Behr, T.; Gruenwald, F.; Knapp, W.H.; Truemper, L.; Schilling, C. von

    2004-01-01

    This guideline is a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of non-Hodgkin-lymphomas using radioimmunotherapy. It is based on an interdisciplinary consensus and contains background information and definitions as well as specified indications and detailed contraindications of treatment. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy. For instance, presence of an expert for medical physics, intense cooperation with all colleagues committed to treatment of lymphomas, and a certificate of instruction in radiochemical labelling and quality control are required. Furthermore, it is specified which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy and how the treatment has to be carried out technically. Here, quality control and documentation of labelling are of greatest importance. After treatment, clinical quality control is mandatory (work-up of therapy data and follow-up of patients). Essential elements of follow-up are specified in detail. The complete treatment inclusive after-care has to be realised in close cooperation with those colleagues (haematology-oncology) who propose, in general, radioimmunotherapy under consideration of the development of the disease. (orig.)

  3. [Guideline for radioimmunotherapy of rituximab relapsed or refractory CD20(+) follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Behr, T; Grünwald, F; Knapp, W H; Trümper, L; von Schilling, C

    2004-10-01

    This guideline is a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of non-Hodgkin-lymphomas using radioimmunotherapy. It is based on an interdisciplinary consensus and contains background information and definitions as well as specified indications and detailed contraindications of treatment. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy. For instance, presence of an expert for medical physics, intense cooperation with all colleagues committed to treatment of lymphomas, and a certificate of instruction in radiochemical labelling and quality control are required. Furthermore, it is specified which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy and how the treatment has to be carried out technically. Here, quality control and documentation of labelling are of greatest importance. After treatment, clinical quality control is mandatory (work-up of therapy data and follow-up of patients). Essential elements of follow-up are specified in detail. The complete treatment inclusive after-care has to be realised in close cooperation with those colleagues (haematology-oncology) who propose, in general, radioimmunotherapy under consideration of the development of the disease.

  4. CD20-Specific Immunoligands Engaging NKG2D Enhance γδ T Cell-Mediated Lysis of Lymphoma Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peipp, M.; Wesch, D.; Oberg, H. H.

    2017-01-01

    Human γδ T cells are innate-like T cells which are able to kill a broad range of tumour cells and thus may have potential for cancer immunotherapy. The activating receptor natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) plays a key role in regulating immune responses driven by γδ T cells. Here, we explor...

  5. Comparison between a commercial solid-phase extraction cartridge and a home-made silver containing charcoal column: purification of Mo-99 from I-131 and Te-121

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla Roberta; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Osso Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Among the radioisotopes used for medical application in Nuclear Medicine, 99m Tc, readily available from the elution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, is the most used, responsible for more than eighty percent of the total applications. These generators use the 99 Mo radioisotope that is produced in nuclear reactors and IPEN imports all the 99 Mo used in Brazil, mainly from Canada (Nordion). Due to the increasing needs of the Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and the world shortage of 99 Mo observed since 2008, IPEN decided to construct a new research reactor named Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) as well as to develop the production of 99 Mo through the route of 235 U fission using a CINTICHEM modified separation process. The 99 Mo obtained from this process contains some contaminants and need to be purified. The aim of this work is to compare the preliminary results of the purification step of the solution containing 99 Mo and the contaminants, 131 I and 121 Te in the silver containing charcoal column and a solid-phase extraction cartridge. The purification process of 99 Mo coming from fission LEU foils was performed by adsorption chromatography using a home-made activated charcoal containing silver column (AC-Ag) and a commercial solid-phase extraction cartridge (OnGuard II Ag). High yields of 99 Mo elution and high retention of 131 I were achieved in the AC-Ag column and silver cartridge but 121 Te was more retained in the cartridge than in the AC-Ag column. (author)

  6. A comparison between the secretion of Tc-99m pertechnetate and I-131 iodide through the stomach of the chacma monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellmann, A.

    1985-03-01

    The way in which pertechnetate is excreted by the stomach is a continuing controversy in the nuclear medicine literature. The question arises: Does the stomach, unlike the thyroid handle pertechnetate and iodide by different mechanisms? The excretion of pertechnetate and iodide by the stomach in the Chacma baboon was compared. In this way an attempt was made to obtain more information on the way in which the stomach handles pertechnetate. The study was performed on young adult Chacma baboons. Pertechnetate and iodide were administeed simultaneously via the intravenous route. 6 Baboons were studied after pharmacological interventions, namely the administration of pentagastrin, cimetidine and perchlorate. Nine other baboons were studied after surgical interventions. Three groups of 3 each were studied after selective vagotomy, Billroth I gastrectomy and proximal gastrectomy respectively. In the surgical group post-operative studies were also done before and after pentagastrin stimulation. Tissue samples of the stomachs of 4 baboons were studied. The various types of surgery all resulted in a decrease in the volume of gastric juice. The excretion of pertechnetate and iodide was related to the volume of gastric juice except after the administration of perchlorate. In spite of marked changes of up to 60 times in the amount of pertechnetate and iodide excretion after the pharmacological and surgical interventions, the Tc : I - ratio remained almost constant. The Tc : I - ratio in the blood samples showed a gradual increase as could be expected. The Tc : I - ratios in the tissue samples were similar to those in the blood samples. It is indicated that, like iodide, pertechnetrat is probably excreted by the mucus cells of the stomach and not by the parietal cells. 28 figs., 164 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Low Dose I-131 MIBG therapy as an adjunct for bone pain palliation in pediatric patients with end-stage neuroblastoma: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Thomas; Herbert, Anthony; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Objective: This study describes the initial experience in the use of low-dose 1-131 MIBG in patients with metastaticl refractory Neuroblastoma given at 18.5 Mbql Kg (0.5 mCi/Kg )to (1) achieve disease palliation (i.e., pain I symptom control) and improvement in the quality of life, through subjective response from patient/carers and (2) allow day-admission to minimize hospital stay providing more quality time between the patients and carers. Methods: Patients with refractory and metastatic Neuroblastoma whose primary treatment goal at that particular stage is pain palliation were given low-dose 1-131 M IBG at a dose of 18.5 Mbql Kg ( 0.5 mCil Kg)l. Assessment of subjective pain relief following 1-131 MIBG was done through interviews from hospital visits of the patient and home visits by the team. Results: Four patients underwent Low-Dose 1-131 MIBG Therapy for pain palliation between May 2007- March 2008. Median age was 5.75 years old and median total dose given was 539 Mbql patient (14.5 mCil patient). All patients at a cenain time had relief from disease pain allowing them to communicate with family and participate in physical activities not priyiledged before. Observations gathered from carersl parents revealed that the overall quality-of-life improved after the 1-131 MIBG therapy with concurrent pain medication protocol. Conclusion: This initial I pilot study described achievement of disease palliation (i.e., pain and symptom control) and improvement in the quality of life of Stage IV Neuroblastoma patients and allows day-admissions providing more quality time between the patient and the family and reduces patient anxiety.

  8. Efficacy in the use of recombinant TSH (thyrogen ) in the ablative treatment of compressive goiters with low uptake of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Alvaro L; Padrao, Eduardo L; Rezende, Leonardo; Assis, Rodrigo S; Leite, Paulo H. D; Faria, Mauro L

    2001-01-01

    This study tries to demonstrate the usefulness of recombinant human TSH (Thyrogen in radioiodine therapy for compressive goiters with low radioiodine uptake. Three female patients were studied, their average age was 70, presenting with large goiters. Two patients had upper airway obstruction symptoms and all of them had aVersion or high risk for surgical treatment. The 24 h radioiodine uptake was low in all cases. Two to three doses of 0,9 mg of Thyrogen were given to each patient aiming to maximize the effectiveness of the radioiodine therapeutic doses (estimated in 30, 50 and 100 mCi). The 24 h radioiodine uptake of 6, 13 and 21% reached 59, 50 and 75% respectively with Thyrogen After radioiodine therapy mediastinal masses reduced 1,5 cm in average in the greater transverse diameter, in an average tomographic evolution time of 6,6 months. The patients previously suffering from obstructive airway symptons improved until they were completely cured with the treatment. Thyrogen administration was a fundamental step for the success of the ablative therapy to the goiters with low radioiodine uptake. Without it, it would not be possible to reach satisfactory levels of radioactive uptake without exogenous stimulus (Au)

  9. Measurement of the dose to the family members taking care of thyroid cancer patients undergoing I-131 therapy in nuclear medicine using TLD-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehtabian, M.; Dehghan, N.; Danaei Ghazanfarkhani, M.; Haghighatafshar, M.; Sina, S.

    2017-01-01

    The family members or friends of the patients undergoing treatment using radioiodine in nuclear medicine are inevitably exposed to ionization radiation. The purpose of this study is measurement of the dose received by the people taking care of the thyroid cancer patients treated by 131 I. For this purpose, the dose amounts received by 29 people accompanying patients were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A badge containing three TLD-100 chips was given to each caregiver. The people were asked to wear the badges for 24 days, when they are taking care of the patients. Finally the dose to each person was estimated by averaging the readings of the three TLDs. The measured dose amounts to the people were compared with the recommendations of international commissions. According to the results obtained in this study, the amounts of dose received by the caregivers were between 0.03 and 0.38 mSv, with the average of 0.12 mSv. By comparison of the results of this study with the recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), it can be observed that the dose to family members of the patients is less than the dose constraints. However, it is recommended that the caregivers be aware of the radiation protection principles in order to reduce their dose. (authors)

  10. Bilateral renal metastasis of 261-265huerthle cell thyroid cancer with discordant uptake between I-131 sodium iodide and F-18 FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Suh, Min Seok; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by {sup 131}I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC. The patient received two sessions of 200 mCi {sup 131}I therapy within 6 months duration. There was complete treatment response as evaluated by the second post-therapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT/CT and serum thyroglobulin. To our knowledge, renal metastasis from HCTC with positive {sup 131}I but negative {sup 18}F-FDG uptake has not been reported in the literature. This case suggests that {sup 131}I SPECT/CT is useful for lesion localization and prediction of {sup 131}I therapy response.

  11. Post-surgical use of radioiodine (I-131) in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid cancer and the issue of remnant ablation : A consensus report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, F; Schlumberger, M; Harmer, C; Berg, GG; Cohen, O; Duntas, L; Jamar, F; Jarzab, B; Limbert, E; Lind, P; Reiners, C; Franco, FS; Smit, J; Wiersinga, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine, based on published literature and expert clinical experience. current indications for the post-surgical administration of a large radioiodine activity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Design and methods: A literature review was performed and was then analyzed

  12. The Chernobyl I-131 Release: Model Validation and Assessment of the Countermeasure Effectiveness. Report of the Chernobyl 131I Release Working Group of EMRAS Theme 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Chernobyl 131 I Release Working Group (IWG) which was established within the framework of the EMRAS Programme continues some of the more traditional work of previous international programmes that were aimed at increasing confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to the environmental releases. There is still very little information regarding the quantitative relationship between radiation dose to the thyroid from Chernobyl and the risk of thyroid cancer. The uncertainty combined with individual estimates of radiation dose constitutes a crucial point in establishing this relationship, since, any release of radioiodine into environment creates wide range of uncertainty for internal dose assessments. The 131 I scenarios provide an excellent opportunity to compare a number of modelling approaches to a single assessment problem, in a dose reconstruction context. Nine experts in environmental modelling participated in the Plavsk Scenario dealing with areas of assessment modelling for which the capabilities are not yet well established. One could observes the remarkably improvement in models performance comparing with previous radioiodine scenarios. Predictions of the various models were within a factor of three of the observations, discrepancies between the estimates of average doses to thyroid produced by most participant not exceeded a factor of ten. The process of testing independent model calculations against independent data set also provided useful information to the originators of the test data.

  13. Evaluation of S-values and dose distributions for Y-90, I-131, Ho-166, and Re-188 in seven lobes of the rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Liu, Qian; Zaidi, Habib

    Purpose: Rats have been widely used in radionuclide therapy research for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This has created the need to assess rat liver absorbed radiation dose. In most dose estimation studies, the rat liver is considered as a homogeneous integrated target organ with

  14. The study of transit time measurement for flow through the central and southern canals of MADA using I-131 radioisotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Mohd Ali; Md Shahid Ayub; Zainuddin Othman; Juhari Yusof; Mohd Asri Ramli; Eow Boon Tiak

    1996-01-01

    The measurement of breakthrough and transit time through the central and southern canals of Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Muda (MADA) by using radiotracer technique is discussed An estimated of 1700 cusec water was released from Pelubang regulator through central canal. The water is then distributed through several regulators down stream and finally ended through the SCD1 and SCD1a secondary canals. Radiotracer 1-131 with the activity of 250 mCi and 500 mCi were injected at several identified injection points by using glass breaker technique. The measurement of breakthrough and transit time were observed respectively at several measurement station. Results of the study indicated that the time travel from Pelubang regulator to SCD1a secondary canal would take about 3 days during normal operation. Detail of breakthrough and transit time at every regulators and other measurement stations were also presented

  15. Investigation of anticancer activity of platinum(II)-[125I/I131I]histamine complexes on murine model of mammary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnuszek, P.; Licinska, I.

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of in vivo anti-cancer activity of the new radioactive platinum(II)-[*I]histamine complexes was carried out the transplantable model of mammary model adenocarcinoma in C 3 H/W mice. A low dose treatment protocol (ca. 1/5 MTD) and the fractionated dose schedule were applied. All of the there studied preparation, i.e. PtCl 2 histamine, PtCl 2 [ 125I ]histamine and PtCl 2 [ 131I ]histamine, revealed inhibiting activity on tumour growth and size, in comparison to the control group treated with solution of 15% DMF in saline. However, the most intensive and significant activity was observed for 125I -labelled complex, e.g. relative tumour volume of treated animals to that for control group T/C 0.42 (P = 0.017), growth delay factor GDF = 1.00. Therefore, the significant intensification of anti-cancer activity by concomitant combination of the two therapeutic factors i.e. cytostatic activity of the platinum(II) core and the ionising radiation (Auger electrons mainly) has been found. Based on encouraging results of performed experiment, the further in vivo studies, with the protocol of higher treatment dose, are planned to prove the tumour sensitivity and response to the treatment by platinum(II)-[*I] histamine complexes

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-03: Dosimetric Comparison of the Hypoxia Agent Iodoazomycin Arabinoside (IAZA) Labeled with the Radioisotopes I-123, I-131 and I-124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, H-S [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Dept. of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stypinski, D [Celerion Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Mcquarrie, S; Kumar, P; Mercer, J; McEwan, S [Dept. of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wiebe, L [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose to normal organs from the radio-iodinated, hypoxia-binding radiosensitizer iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) for three different isotopes of iodine. Methods: Dosimety studies with normal volunteers had been carried out with [{sup 123}I]IAZA, a drug binding selectively to hypoxic sites. Two other isotopes of iodine, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, offer the opportunity to use IAZA as an agent for radioisotope therapy and as an imaging tracer for Positron Emission Tomography. Radioisotope dosimetry for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I was performed by first deriving from the [{sup 123}I]IAZA studies biological uptake and excretion data. The cumulated activities for {sup 131}I or {sup 124}I where obtained by including their half-lives when integrating the biological data and then extrapolating to infinite time points considering a) physical decay only or b) physical and biological excretion. Doses were calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema (OLINDA1.1 code, Vanderbilt 2007). Results: Compared to {sup 123}I, organ doses were elevated on average by a factor 6 and 9 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if both physical decay and biological excretion were modeled. If only physical decay is considered, doses increase by a factor 18 ({sup 131}I) and 19 ({sup 124}I). Highest organ doses were observed in intestinal walls, urinary bladder and thyroid. Effective doses increased by a factor 11 and 14 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if biological and physical decay are present. Purely physical decay yields a 23-fold increase over {sup 123}I for both, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I. Conclusion: Owing to the significant dose increase, caused by their longer half life and the approximately 10 times larger electronic dose deposited in tissue per nuclear decay, normal tissue doses of IAZA labeled with {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I need to be carefully considered when designing imaging and therapy protocols for clinical trials. Effective blocking of iodine uptake in the thyroid is essential. Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions (AIHS) and Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)

  17. Iterative stimulation of endogenous TSH for ablation. Followup and/or treatment with I-131 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, Osvaldo J.; Garcia del Rio, Hernan; Alvarez, L.; Pena, M.; Faure, E.

    2006-01-01

    In patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma it is indispensable to raise the values of TSH to determine thyroglobulin and to effect the total tracking with radioiodine. Traditionally to raise the endogenous TSH it is necessary to suspend the opotherapy during a prolonged time with the consistent hypothyroidism. The objective of this work is to increase the endogenous TSH, shortening the time of abstinence of opotherapy [es

  18. Radiolabeled antibody therapy in non-Hodgkins lymphoma: radiation protection, isotope comparisons and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Daniel H; Delpassand, Ebrahim S; Torabi, Farzad; Goy, Andre; McLaughlin, Peter; Murray, James L

    2004-04-01

    Anti-CD20 antibodies radiolabeled with I-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) or Y-90-Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), are similarly efficacious in treating chemotherapy-refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The relative merits of both radioimmunoconjugates with respect to practical issues, including radiation exposure risk, the advantages and disadvantages of the respective isotopes and other parameters that could affect a patient's quality of life are also important. I-131-labeled antibody treatment often requires inpatient hospitalization due to the inherent risk of exposure from gamma emissions, and patients and families should follow detailed instructions to prevent undue exposure. Other issues relevant to patients and medical staff include: (1) the need for dosimetry to calculate effective therapeutic doses of I-131-labeled anti-B1 (Bexxar) compared with the lack of correlation of dosimetry with marrow toxicity for IDEC-Y2B8 (Zevalin), (2) determining the acute and long-term toxic effects of each agent, (3) time commitments for nuclear medicine staff and patients along with the relative ease of administration, and (4) cost considerations. A more challenging future issue will be to determine the optimal use of Bexxar and Zevalin alone and in combination in ways that will significantly affect patient outcome without compromising quality of life. The recent demonstration of significant response rates in patients having chemotherapy-refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) using both on I-131- and Y-90-labeled anti-CD20 antibodies with minimal toxicity has stimulated comparison of I-131 tositumomab (Bexxar) and Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) in terms of radiation safety requirements, the advantages and disadvantages of both radionuclides, and quality-of-life (QOL) issues. Therefore, in this review, we attempt to compare the relative merits of (Bexxar and Zevalin) and address important practical considerations that may influence patient and physician choices regarding treatment

  19. Radioimmunotherapy with tositumomab and iodine-131 tositumomab for non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Andemariam, Biree; Leonard, John P

    2007-01-01

    With the success of targeted monoclonal antibody therapy in non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma, attempts were made to further improve efficacy through the addition of a radioisotope. A goal of radioimmunotherapy is to utilize the monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation to a tumor bed with relatively limited toxicity to the surrounding normal tissues. I-131 Tositumomab is an iodine-131 labeled anti-CD20 murine IgG2a monoclonal antibody and is one of two FDA-approved radioimmunotherapeutic drugs for patie...

  20. Bone marrow dosimetry using blood-based models for 131i-anti-cd20 rituximab radioimmunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Choi, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimations of radiation absorbed dose are essential part of evaluating the risks and benefits associated with radiotherapy. Determination of red marrow dose is important because myelotoxicity is often dose limiting in radioimmunotherapy. The aim of this study is to set up the procedures of dosimetry with activities in the blood and whole-body and to estimate the dose of patients according to MIRD schema. Therapy activities of 131I (136, 185, 200 mCi) were administrated to patients (n=3). Blood activity concentrations and whole-body images by gamma camera were collected from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (5min, 6h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 2week). Two kinds of patient specific approaches based on Sgouros bone marrow dosimetry methodology were considered to estimate bone marrow dose. The mean effective half-life in blood and whole-body were 25.2h and 27.1h respectively and the mean absorbed dose to bone marrow was 0.48Gy (0.22∼0.93Gy). The dominant contribution of dose was found to be from bone marrow self-dose (over 60%). The procedures of dosimetry with blood and gamma camera image were established. These enable to estimate the radioimmunotherapy patient's dose retrospectively. Some parts of the procedures need to be elaborated to obtain more accurate dose in the near future

  1. Development of [{sup 62}Zn/{sup 62}Cu]-DOTA-rituximab as a possible novel in vivo PET generator for anti-CD20 antigen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Nazila [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiopharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Moradkhani, Sedigheh; Bolourinovin, Fateme [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzevari, Omid [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Toxicology and Pharmacology; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medical Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    In this study, zinc-62 was prepared at radiopharmaceutical grade (for {sup 62}Zn/{sup 62}Cu generator production) using {sup nat}Cu(p, xn) reaction with the production yield of 5.9 mCi/μAh at 30 MeV proton energy (radiochemical separation yield >95%, radionuclidic purity >99% and radiochemical purity >99%). In the next step, rituximab was successively labeled with [{sup 62}Zn]-ZnCl{sub 2} after conjugation with p-SCN-Bz-DOTA followed by molecular filtration and determination of the average number of DOTA conjugated per mAb (6:1) by spectrophotometric method. Radiochemical purity (>97%, measured by ITLC and HPLC), integrity of protein after radiolabeling (gel electrophoresis) and stability of [{sup 62}Zn]-DOTA-rituximab (in final formulation, and human serum) were determined 1-8 h as well as biodistribution studies in wild-type rats followed by coincidence imaging for 6 h. However, the accumulation of the radiolabeled antibody was not consistent with the former reported rituximab conjugates. [{sup 62}Zn]-labeled monoclonal antibodies and fragments can be prepared as potential in vivo PET generators for molecular imaging however, the search for application of stable zinc complexes must be continued.

  2. The rationale for B lymphocyte depletion in Graves' disease. Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy as a novel treatment option

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fassi, Daniel; Nielsen, Claus H; Hasselbalch, Hans K

    2006-01-01

    We have reviewed the immunology of thyroid autoimmunity with special reference to the importance of B lymphocytes (B cells) in thyroidal and extrathyroidal Graves' disease (GD), thus providing a framework for the hypothesis that B cell depletion may be beneficial in GD. Additionally, after...

  3. Anti-lymphoma efficacy comparison of anti-Cd20 monoclonal antibody-targeted and non-targeted star-shaped polymer-prodrug conjugates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lidický, Ondřej; Janoušková, Olga; Strohalm, Jiří; Alam, M.; Klener, P.; Etrych, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2015), s. 19849-19864 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymers * drug delivery systems * doxorubicin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  4. Tratamiento, mediante bloqueo de moléculas CD20 con Rituximab, en miopatías Inflamatorias Idiopáticas refractarias a tratamiento convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla Palomares, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Las miopatías inflamatorias idiopáticas (MII) constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades adquiridas, de probable mecanismo inflamatorio autoinmune, que se caracterizan por debilidad muscular e infiltrado inflamatorio local o difuso, junto con necrosis de las fibras musculares, en la biopsia muscular. Afectan preferentemente a la musculatura estriada. Dentro de este grupo se incluyen tres variantes principales: la dermatomiositis (DM), la polimiositis (PM) y la miositis con cuerpos de in...

  5. Target Antigen Density Governs the Efficacy of Anti-CD20-CD28-CD3 zeta Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified Effector CD8(+) T Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, Keisuke; Terakura, Seitaro; Martens, Anton C.; van Meerten, Tom; Uchiyama, Susumu; Imai, Misa; Sakemura, Reona; Goto, Tatsunori; Hanajiri, Ryo; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Tomita, Akihiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Naoe, Tomoki; Murata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)-transduced T (CAR-T) cells has been attributed to supraphysiological signaling through CARs. Second-and later-generation CARs simultaneously transmit costimulatory signals with CD3 zeta signals upon ligation, but may lead to severe adverse effects

  6. Summary report: BIOMOVS Chernobyl scenarios A4 (multiple model testing using Chernobyl fallout data of I-131 in forage and milk and Cs-137 in forage, milk, beef and grain) and A5 (dynamics within lake ecosystems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1993-05-01

    To assess dose, many data on the concentrations of radionuclides (particularly 131I and 137C s) in various foods were collected world-wide in the days, months and years following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. These data, combined with measurements of air concentrations taken during the passage of the plume, and with other measurements of radioactivity in the environment, have been used to test time-integrated and time-dependent predictions of agricultural and aquatic food-chain models. This report reviews two such model validation exercises, one of which examined the air-forage (or grain)-milk/beef pathways, while the other modelled the deposition-water-sediment/fish pathways. Time-dependent results were studied to determine which processes were important. In the aquatic exercise an initial fast transfer to the sediments was identified that had not been accounted for in the models. Parameter values used commonly in models were reassessed in the light of model performance. It was recommended that the transfer factor from feed to milk (F m ) for 131I be reduced based on new information. Uncertainties about the model predictions were considered. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Need to monitoring the particulate components and gaseous components of the I-131 in air, on Radiological monitoring networks. impact of the accident of Fukushima Dai-chi in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza Espasa, A.; Caballero Andrada, M.; Corbacho Merino, J. A.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Rodriguez Perulero, A.; Valencia Corrales, D.; Vasco Vargas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident with significant overseas evacuations, it should be accurately determined concentration radio iodines into the atmosphere, given its important contribution to the radiological impact produced. Automatic networks radiation monitoring aim to provide as quickly as possible, reliable information on these radiological changes, to take necessary countermeasures. (Author)

  8. Strategies for labelling branched polypeptides with a poly(l-lysine) backbone with radioiodines (123I, 125I, 131I) and radiometals (111In, 51Cr) for biodistribution studies and radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J.; Mezo, G.; Hudecz, F.

    1995-01-01

    Methods have been developed for radiolabelling synthetic branched polypeptides, these being based on a poly(L-lysine) backbone with short side chains of three DL-alanine residues and one other amino acid at the end of the branches (MW - 45-100 kDa). Labelling has been carried out with gamma emitting radionuclides suitable for use in biodistribution studies or for gamma scintigraphy. Labelling with 125 I was achieved by reaction of the polypeptides' terminal amino groups with pre-iodinated Bolton and Hunter Reagent (N-Succinimidyl 3-(4-hydroxy-5-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)propionate). Alternatively, polypeptides were reacted with non-labelled Bolton and Hunter reagent, which could subsequently be iodinated with 123 I, 125 I or 131 I by oxidative incorporation from [ 123 I)NaI, [ 125 I)NaI or [ 131 I]NAI. For labelling with radiometals, the polypeptides' terminal amino groups were reacted with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) anhydride, and the conjugated DTPA subsequently labelled with 111 In or 51 Cr by chelation. An amphoteric polypeptide, having terminal glutamic acid residues on its side chains (EAK), and a polycationic polypeptide, with terminal D-lysine (D-KAK) were labelled in these ways. In addition EAK previously conjugated to the cis-aconityl derivative of daunomycin (EAK-cAD) was similarly labelled. Gel permeation chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, which was possible with labelled EAK and its cAD conjugate. Biodistribution studies in mice showed prolonged blood survival of the radionuclide of 125 I, 111 In or 51 Cr labelled EAK and EAK-cAD. There were, however, differences in organ levels of the radionuclides. Generally kidney, spleen and liver levels of radiometals were higher than those of radioiodine, while levels in the gastrointestinal tract were higher with radioiodine. D-KAK labelled with any of the three radionuclides was cleared rapidly from the blood, high levels of all tracers being found in spleen, liver, kidney and lung. (Author)

  9. Improvement of dosimetry for I-131 therapy of lung metastases with special regard to children with thyroid cancer from Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. Final report 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, M.; Reiners, C.; Allen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The main problem in treating disseminated pulmonary metastases in children with papillary thyroid cancer is to find a balance between an insufficient dose for the ablation of metastatic tissue and unnecessary high radiation exposure to the lungs and the bone marrow. This can hardly be achieved without quantitative dosimetry for the more or less inhomogeneously distributed 1-131 in high dosed radioiodine therapy. The major goal of this project is to improve the concept for treating patients with lung metastases induced by thyroid carcinoma. Almost all of the patients with lung metastases are treated in more than one therapy course. After each course the knowledge of the doses to the tumor tissue, the lung, and the bone marrow is of crucial importance for a well funded decision about further treatment. In the cases of either the tumor doses being inefficient for ablation or substantial impairment of residuing pulmonary metastases or the cumulated doses to lung and bone marrow exceeds empirically defined ''critical'' limits the fractionated radioiodine treatment has to be stopped to avoid side effects such as lung fibrosis or leukemia in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The decision which has to be taken must consider that prognosis with respect to mortality and quality of life even in the case of persisting lung metastases may be better than after the induction of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Up to now, patients are treated more or less empirically until complete remission is achieved and no tumor uptake is visible in post-therapeutic scans with a gamma camera or the cumulative activity of 1-131 taken up by the lungs exceeds 3 GBq (80 mCi) according to recommendations given by Benua and Leaper in 1962. This project combines empirical approaches with theoretical research at cellular level to optimize the dose to the tumor cells with protection of healthy lung tissue. (orig.)

  10. [Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes-the present and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) has been used for the ablation of residual thyroid remnants and cancer cells in well-differentiated thyroid cancers. It has also been used for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancers, especially lung and bone metastases. For small lung metastases, I-131 treatment has curative potential, particularly in young patients. Suppression of the thyroid stimulating hormone is also important for prolonging the survival of thyroid cancer patients. Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride has a mechanism similar to calcium, and it has been used for the treatment of bone metastases, especially osteoblastic metastases. It has been reported to have analgesic effects in an average of 76% of cases, and it is more effective if used in the early bone metastatic phase. Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) is an anti-CD20 mouse monoclonal antibody labeled with Yttrium-90 (Y-90). It is used for treatment-resistant low grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and mantle lymphomas. Recently, radium-223 (Ra-223) has been used for bone metastases from castration resistant prostate cancers, and in a phase III trial, it has been proven to prolong survival of these patients. Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes has been thought to be promising because it exhibits more targeted therapy than external beam irradiation. Therefore, if many more ideal targeting agents are developed in the future, this treatment might be used more commonly. As many agents such as I-131, Sr-89, and Ra-223 are available for treating bone metastasis, the combined use of other treatments such as high precision radiotherapy, bisphosphonates, hormonal agents, and molecular targeted agents should be investigated.

  11. Success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody treatment for severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reactive immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin M autoantibodies in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmi, Houda; Mabrouk, Sameh; Hassayoun, Saida; Regaieg, Haifa; Tfifha, Minyar; Jalel, Chemli; Skouri, Hadef; Zouari, Noura; Abroug, Saoussan

    2017-11-14

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in children. First-line therapies for this disease consist of corticosteroids and intravenously administered immunoglobulin that are effective in most patients. However, a small proportion of cases (5 to 10%) is refractory to these therapies and may represent a medical emergency, especially when hemolysis is due to warm immunoglobulin M. Recently, reports of the use of rituximab in adult autoimmune diseases have shown promising results. In children, there are few studies on the use of rituximab in the treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, especially on its long-term efficacy and adverse effects. Here, we report the case of a 10-year-old Tunisian girl with refractory acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reactive immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, and C3d autoantibodies. First-line treatments using corticosteroids and intravenously administered immunoglobulin were ineffective in controlling her severe disease. On the other hand, she was successfully treated with rituximab. In fact, her hemolytic anemia improved rapidly and no adverse effects were observed. The case that we report in this paper shows that rituximab could be an alternative therapeutic option in severe acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia with profound hemolysis refractory to conventional treatment. Moreover, it may preclude the use of plasmapheresis in such an urgent situation with a sustained remission.

  12. B-cell inhibition by cross-linking CD79b is superior to B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 antibodies in treating murine collagen-induced arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruhl, H.; Cihak, J.; Talke, Y.; Rodriguez-Gomez, M.; Hermann, F.; Goebel, N.; Renner, K.; Plachý, Jiří; Stangassinger, M.; Archemann, S.; Nimmerjahn, F.; Mack, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 705-715 ISSN 0014-2980 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Arthritis * B cells * B-cell depletion * B-cell inhibition * CD79b * Humoral immune response Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2015

  13. Need to monitoring the particulate components and gaseous components of the I-131 in air, on Radiological monitoring networks. impact of the accident of Fukushima Dai-chi in Spain; Necesidad de monitorizar las componentes particulada y gaseosa del {sup 1}31I en aire, en redes de vigilancia radiologica. Impacto en Espana del accidente de Fukushima DAI-ICHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza Espasa, A.; Caballero Andrada, M.; Corbacho Merino, J. A.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Rodriguez Perulero, A.; Valencia Corrales, D.; Vasco Vargas, J.

    2013-07-01

    Following a nuclear accident with significant overseas evacuations, it should be accurately determined concentration radio iodines into the atmosphere, given its important contribution to the radiological impact produced. Automatic networks radiation monitoring aim to provide as quickly as possible, reliable information on these radiological changes, to take necessary countermeasures. (Author)

  14. Treatment by iodine 131 and thyroid pathologies 14 Nfs iatrogenic 'Around France of that particular medical treatment'; Traitement par l'I 131 et pathologies thyroidies 14 NFS iatrogenes ''Tour de France, de cette mication particuliere''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldet, L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Sce des Maladies Endocriniennes, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-01-01

    In the case of hyperthyroidism bound to amiodarone, the iodine 131 prescription appears able to curethis disease in 84% of cases; the use of iodine 131 before amiodarone to prevent a hyperthyroidism, in case of goiter or thyroid nodules is little used (17% of practitioners) when it is more used in case of past history of induced hyperthyroidism (34% of physicians). This prescription is nevertheless efficient in the both cases. The use of iodine 131 is little used in the case of hyperthyroidism appeared during the use of cytokines (22% of physicians). The induction of hypothyroidism by iodine 131 in the case of severe cardiopathies is becoming little frequent (9% of physicians). (N.C.)

  15. The Combination of Pixantrone, Etoposide, Bendamustine and, in CD20+ Tumors, Rituximab (PREBEN) Shows Promising Feasibility/Efficacy in Heavily Pre-Treated Aggressive Lymphomas of B- and T-Cell Phenotype - Results of the Pre-Trial Experience Leading to a Nordic Phase 1/2 Study (the PREBEN Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Michael Roost; Leppa, Sirpa; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL) relapsing after high-dose therapy or, in not transplant-eligible patients, after 1st-line chemotherapy represents an unmet clinical need. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating a salvage combination regimen based on pixantrone, an aza-anthracenadione ......Background: Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (aNHL) relapsing after high-dose therapy or, in not transplant-eligible patients, after 1st-line chemotherapy represents an unmet clinical need. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating a salvage combination regimen based on pixantrone, an aza......IND developed acute myeloid leukemia with therapy-related cytogenetic features.Conclusions: The PREBEN/PEBEN salvage regimen was feasible in a heavily pre-treated cohort of elderly patients with high-risk aNHL. In individual patients it elicited substantial and durable responses early in the course of therapy...

  16. Hiatal hernia uptake of iodine-131 mimicking mediastinal metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Khajehrahimi, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    There are a few case reports of hiatal hernia demonstrating thoracic uptake on I-131 scintigraphy. In this case, high thyroglobulin levels in combination with misinterpretation of I-131 uptake in the mediastinum, leaded to mismanagement of the patient. Here we present a case of focal I-131 uptake within a hiatal hernia initially mimicking an isolated mediastinal metastasis. There are many potential causes of false-positive I-131 scan result. In this case, adjunctive chest computed tomography and gastroesophageal barium study helped to elucidate the true nature of this I-131 uptake. False-positive findings may be caused by a wide variety of nonthyroidal carcinomas, which can concentrate radioiodine or from skin contamination. Several organs, such as the gastric, salivary glands, renal cyst, pericardial effusion, and ovarian can accumulate I-131. It should be borne in mind as a potential source of false-positive whole-body I-131 imaging

  17. Assessment of iodine-131 transfer to cow's milk and to man resulting from the Nevada weapons tests of the 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.; Dreicer, M.; Beck, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The main pathway to man from fallout I-131 is, for most individuals, via the grass-cow-milk chain. In order to assess I-131 exposures for persons in each county of the contiguous U.S. the following estimates must be made : the activities of I-131 deposited on soil and pasture grass, the resulting I-131 concentrations in cow's milk, and the quantity of I-131 ingested by man. The most significant atmospheric weapons tests with respect to fallout occurred in the 1950's, during which time most of the monitoring of environmental radioactivity consisted of gross beta or gamma measurements. Assessments of exposures due to I-131 can be inferred from the original measurements of gross beta or gamma activity, from current or past measurements of radionuclides other than I-131, or from mathematical models

  18. Sialolithiasis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Bom, Hee Seung; Song, Ho Cheon; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Ji Yeul [Chonnam Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    We report a false positive case of I-131 scan due to a sialolithiasis in right submandibular gland. I-131 images showed not only remnant thyroid tissues and functional metastases in the anterior neck but also a hot uptake near right submandibular gland. We confirmed the sialolithiasis by radiologic studies. Sialolithiasis should be regarded as a false positive cause when I-131 scan shows a hot spot near salivary bed.

  19. Clinical interest of planar immunoscintigraphy or spect imaging using radioiodinated monoclonal antibodies in the detection of tumor recurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Saccavini, J.C.; Douillard, J.Y.; Kremer, M.; Curtet, C.; Aubry, J.; Le Mevel, B.; Office des rayonnements ionisants, Saclay, France)

    1986-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to assess the clinical value of radioimmunoscintigraphy with the use of a mixture of I-131 ant-CEA and I-131 19-9. 71 per cent of all tumor sites were visualized. Improvement of the results is expected when using tomoscintigraphy

  20. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R. (Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture.

  1. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture

  2. Radioiodine uptake following iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease: an early indicator of need for retreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, W.R.; Gilliland, P.F.; Piziak, V.K.; Petty, F.C.; McConnell, B.G.; Verdonk, C.A.; Ibarra, J.D.; Thompson, J.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Graves' disease were studied prospectively to determine if 24-hour I-131 uptake measurements alone or in combination with serum thyroid hormone levels at six weeks would determine the necessity for retreatment of the thyrotoxicosis. All patients with an I-131 uptake greater than 30% at six weeks required retreatment. No patient with an I-131 uptake of less than 15% required retreatment. Patients with uptakes between 15% and 30% were variable. An elevated free thyroxin index at 6 weeks is not helpful to determine which patients will remain thyrotoxic. Patients with a free thyroxin index within the normal range at six weeks can be predicted to be euthyroid by 12 weeks if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is between 15% and 30% and to be hypothyroid if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is below 15%. There was no difference between patient groups treated initially with antithyroid medication and those who were not

  3. Radioiodine uptake following iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease: an early indicator of need for retreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, W.R.; Gilliland, P.F.; Piziak, V.K.; Petty, F.C.; McConnell, B.G.; Verdonk, C.A.; Ibarra, J.D.; Thompson, J.Q.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-five patients with Graves' disease were studied prospectively to determine if 24-hour I-131 uptake measurements alone or in combination with serum thyroid hormone levels at six weeks would determine the necessity for retreatment of the thyrotoxicosis. All patients with an I-131 uptake greater than 30% at six weeks required retreatment. No patient with an I-131 uptake of less than 15% required retreatment. Patients with uptakes between 15% and 30% were variable. An elevated free thyroxin index at 6 weeks is not helpful to determine which patients will remain thyrotoxic. Patients with a free thyroxin index within the normal range at six weeks can be predicted to be euthyroid by 12 weeks if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is between 15% and 30% and to be hypothyroid if their 24-hour I-131 uptake is below 15%. There was no difference between patient groups treated initially with antithyroid medication and those who were not.

  4. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Measurement of radioiodine content in thyroid of occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, G.; Krajewski, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The I-131 content in the thyroid of staff members working with radioiodine has been measured in some Departments of Nuclear Medicine performing therapy and diagnosis of thyroid disease in Poland. The measurements were performed with mobile detection unit for 'in situ' measurements of I-131 and I-125 (Canberra-Packard prod.) in selected as low as possible background places. The measured personnel can be divided into some categories according to internal contamination risk to unsealed sources of I-131: technical staff mainly performing routine diagnostic investigation; nuclear medicine staff (physician, nurse) working with in vivo administration of I-131 to patients; hospital services staff (orderlies, cleaners) performing auxiliary activities to the patients. All individuals actively working with iodine show measurable amounts of the radioiodine in their thyroids. The average measured activity in the thyroid of the nuclear medicine staff was found to be equal at average 400 Bq within the range from 30 Bq to 3500 Bq. There is no apparent correlation between the measured I-131 levels and risk categories. The average and range of I-131 activity measured in thyroids for all medical units were: 590 Bq, (30 Bq - 3000 Bq), 300 Bq, (30 Bq - 3000 Bq), 140 Bq, (30 Bq - 700 Bq) for categories 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Nevertheless the 1 and 2 categories show higher I-131 thyroid level comparing to category 3. Based on results of measurements, the Effective Dose Equivalent for particular person due to inhalation of I-131 was calculated with somewhat a conservative assumption that I-131 thyroid content remains constant during the whole year. For the occupational exposure limit of 20 mSv it gives the reference I-131 thyroid level is equal to 7 kBq. Calculated average Effective Dose Equivalent for particular medical is below 25 per cent of 20 mSv/year. (author)

  6. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  7. Limited ability of humoral immune responses in control of viremia during infection with SIVsmmD215 strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribiero, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the impact of humoral immunity on SIV replication, 11 rhesus macaques (RMs) were inoculated with the neutralization-sensitive strain SIVsmmD215. Seven RMs were treated every three weeks, with 50 mglkg of an anti-CD20 antibody (Rituxan, gift from Genentech) starting from day -7 p.i., as follows: four RMs were treated for two months, and three were treated for five months. The remaining four RMs were used as controls. Three RMs were completely depleted of CD20 cells. Four RMs only partially depleted CD20 cells in the LNs and intestine. The efficacy of tissue CD20 depletion predicted the ablation of antibody production, with SIVsmm seroconversion being delayed in the animals with complete tissue CD20 depletion, and neutralizing antibody production being significantly delayed and at low levels in all CD20-depleted RMs. There was no significant difference in acute or chronic VLs between CD20-depleted RMs and control monkeys, with a tendency for lower set-point VLs in CD20-depleted RMs. At 6 weeks p.i., cellular immune responses were significantly stronger in CD20 depleted RMs than in controls. After two years p.i., there was no significant difference in survival between CD20-depleted and control RMs. We concluded that CD20 depletion plays no significant role in the control of SIV replication or disease progression in SIVsmmD215-infected RMs.

  8. Thyroid emergencies following radioiodine therapy - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasmine, Sufia; Haque, Fatema Sultana; Karim, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis and well differentiated thyroid carcinomas are the two most common pathological conditions where radioiodine is used. Patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinomas are the candidates for post operative radio iodine therapy. It is currently the most popular and frequently used method of treatment. Its use is safe and cost effective. The results are usually eventless but in some exceptional cases emergencies that occurred after administration of I-131. One emergency occurred after I-131 administration for Graves' disease and the second case happened after therapeutic application of I-131 for treatment of local recurrences of thyroid cancer.(author)

  9. Detection of experimentally produced acute pulmonary arterial occlusion by methyl iodide-131 inhalation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.; Subramanian, G.

    1981-01-01

    Methyl iodide-131 (CH 3 I-131) is described as an agent for detection of acute experimentally produced pulmonary arterial occlusion in dogs. When gaseous CH 3 I-131 is inhaled, radioactivity passes instantaneously from the alveoli to the lung capillary bed. Where pulmonary blood flow exists, activity is washed out into the systemic circulation, but in areas of blood stasis, a transient pulmonary hot spot remains. CH 3 I-131 is easily produced and inexpensive, but administration is awkward and strict radiation safety precautions are mandatory

  10. Incidence of hypothyroidism occurring long after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.; Lundell, G.; Israelsson, A.; Dahlgvist, I.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the long-term incidence of hypothyroidism in 4,473 formerly hyperthyroid patients given I-131 therapy between 1951 and 1975. The mean age at the first I-131 treatment was 56 yr. Six percent developed hypothyroidism within one year of therapy, and 72% within 26 yr. Prior antithyroid medication did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Patients cured with one dose of I-131 had a lower cumulative long-term incidence of hypothyroidism than those requiring more than one dose

  11. Synergistic tumor-cidal effect of combination of hMUC1 vaccination and hNIS radioiodine gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yong Hyun; Choi, Yun; Kim, Chul Woo; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key

    2007-01-01

    We developed the combination therapy of hMUC1 vaccination and hNlS radioiodine gene therapy in tumor bearing mice and visualized the anti-tumor effect using molecular imaging. A stable colon cancer cell line (CT26/hMUC1-hNlS-Fluc: CMNF) expressing the hMUC1, hNlS, and Flue genes was established. The in vitro survival rates of CMNF were determined using clonogenic assay after I-131 treatment. Five groups of 28 Balb/c (7mice/group) mice were made after subcutaneously injection of CMNF cells according to treatments (pcDNA3.1+PBS, phMUC1+PBS, pcDNA3.1+I-131, and phMUC1+I-131 groups). After development of xenografted tumor, PBS, MUC1 vaccine, I-131, and MUC1 vaccine + I-131 were administered to the mice. Tumor progression was monitored by using a bioluminescent image and caliper. Thirty-two days after tumor transplantation, we re-challenged CMNF to pcDNA3.1+I-131, and phMUC1 +I-131 groups. We investigated the number of hMUC1-associated CD8+IFN-+ T cells and of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) activity using splenocytes in treated mice. The in vitro survival rate of CMNF was significantly reduced to 15.31.1 % after I-131 treatment compared with the survival rates of parental cells (p<0.001). Complete tumor growth inhibition was shown in phMUC1+ I-131 group at 48 days post challenge, but not in any monotherapy group (p<0.05). In cases of tumor rechallenging, complete rejection of the tumor occurred in phMUC1 + I-131 group, but not in pcDNA3.1 + I-131 group. The number of hMUC1-associated CD8+ IFN-+ T cells was significantly more increased in phMUC1 +I-131 group compared mono-therapy group (P<0.001). The activity of hMUC1-associated CTLs in was higher than those of monotherapy groups (P<0.005). We found that this combination therapy induced the complete remission, and rejected rechallenged tumor cells in murine colon cancer model. This novel combination therapy strategy has a possibility to be applied in clinical oncology

  12. Recombinant human TSH and ablation of post-surgical thyroid remnants in differentiated thyroid cancer: the effect of pre-treatment with furosemide and furosemide plus lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, Daniele; Lapi, Paola; Pasquini, Cristina; Orsini, Paola; Turco, Anna [General Hospital of Livorno, Endocrinology Unit, Livorno (Italy); Grosso, Mariano; Boni, Giuseppe; Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa Medical School, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Meucci, Giuseppe [General Hospital of Livorno, Division of General Surgery, Livorno (Italy); Marzola, Maria Cristina; Rubello, Domenico [' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Berti, Piero; Miccoli, Paolo [University of Pisa Medical School, Department of Surgery, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) can be used for post-surgical radioiodine (I-131) thyroid remnants ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients after surgery. Debate exists in literature about the optimal amount of I-131 that should be given for obtaining an effective ablation and about the role of iodine pool during treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether I-131 ablation during rhTSH stimulus can be improved by reducing the circulating iodine pool and by increasing thyroid cell uptake and retention of I-131 obtained by administering furosemide and lithium. A total of 201 consecutive DTC patients were entered in the study: they were treated by total thyroidectomy and I-131 therapy during rhTSH stimulus to ablate thyroid remnants. Patients were divided into two groups according to the TNM stage: group 1 included patients in stage I-II who were treated with a low 30-mCi I-131 dose, while group 2 included patients in stage III-IV who were treated by a high 100-mCi I-131 dose. Moreover, both groups were further subdivided into three subgroups. Subgroup (a) included 45 patients from group 1 and 22 from group 2: they were treated with I-131 under rhTSH stimulus, following a short 4-day withdrawal of L-thyroxine (LT4). Subgroup (b) included 45 patients from group 1 and 22 from group 2: they were treated with I-131 under rhTSH stimulus, following a short 4-day withdrawal of L-T4, and after furosemide administration (25 mg/day orally) during the 3 days before I-131. Subgroup (c) included 45 patients from group 1 and 22 from group 2: they were treated with I-131 under rhTSH stimulus, following a short 4-day L-T4 withdrawal, and after administration of furosemide (25 mg/day orally) during the 3 days prior I-131 and lithium (450 mg/day orally) during the 3 days following I-131. Another group (group 3) of 20 patients characterized by a very low-risk cancer (unifocal tumor <1.0 cm in diameter, without extra-capsular extension, N0) was

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, ...

  16. Dgroup: DG01147 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01147 Chemical ... DGroup Rose bengal sodium ... D05762 ... Rose bengal sodium I 125 (US...AN) D05763 ... Rose bengal sodium I 131 (USP) ... ATC code: S01JA02 Ophthalmic diagnostic agents ...

  17. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  18. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2000-01-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90 Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  19. The risk for cancer and genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.

    1997-01-01

    According to recent studies, the risk for thyroid cancer is not increased after radioiodine treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Only the risk of cancer of the stomach seems to be increased slightly in patents treated with I-131 because of functional autonomy. However, the risk for gastric cancer is not increased after higher activities of I-131 because of thyroid cancer. There is no increased risk for genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  20. The radio-iodine therapy of the functional autonomy. Indications, findings, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.

    1990-01-01

    The functional autonomy of the thyroid is a disorder, which appears in connection with iodine deficit and befalls the complete organ. An absolute indication for a radio-iodine-therapy is given in case of hyperthyreoidism (these are 25 % of all at the functional autonomy). Contrary to the operation method the advantage of the I-131-therapy is, that all of the functional autonome-cells can be reached. The risk at the I-131-therapy is low. (Botek)

  1. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma through whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenario, H.S.; Pascacio, F.M.; Cruz, Benjamin de la; Anden, A.B.

    Whole body counters are not only used in measuring radioactivity in the body for radiation protection purposes but also in the measurement of iron absorption, body potassium and cesium, chronic blood loss, and also in the determination of the effectiveness of surgery, thyroid hormone and radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid carcinoma. This report deals with our experience in the use of a shadow-shield whole body counter in the determination of I-131 uptake by metastatic lesions of cancer of thyroid after total thyroidectomy and ablation therapy with I-131. This study was undertaken jointly by the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans Memorial Hospital and the Biomedical Research Division of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Preliminary results indicate that the 22 patients who underwent whole body counting after total thyroidectomy I-131 ablation therapy, 9 patients had elevated percentage retention of I-131, 10 patients with normal values and 3 patients with rising values. Foci of I-131 concentration in those with elevated and rising percentage concentration values were seen in the thyroidal bed scintiscans, while the 10 patients with normal values had negative scintiscans. The results of our observations confirm the results obtained by other workers abroad. Our preliminary results indicate that with the use of whole body counters a sensitive method of assessing whether functioning metastatic lesion of cancer of the thyroid still exist after total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy can be provided. (author)

  2. Measurements of the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene of radioiodine in air, precipitation and fresh milk after the Chinese nuclear bomb test of Sept. 17, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, H.; Bretschneider, J.; Gesewsky, P.

    1977-11-01

    Following the nuclear bomb test the activity concentration of I 131 in air could be measured over a period of 11 days. The maximum concentration were 2.4 x 10 -13 Ci/m 3 in air and 2.7 x 10 -10 Ci/l in precipitation. The aerosolbound I 131 fraction was 80%, the rest was measured as gaseous compounds. Due to dry- and wet deposition on pastureland and uptake by grazing cows I 131 in milk from a central dairy could be measured over a period of 40 days. About 35% of the milk contamination was caused by wet deposition. I 131 in milk from this dairy was 1.2 x 10 -11 Ci/l at the time of delivery. Regarding the decay from milking to the delivery and the fraction of the cows that were not fed by fresh fodder, the above value corresponds to a maximum I 131 concentration of 1.7 x 10 -11 Ci/l. The I 131 concentration in milk when deposition hat ended shows an effective half-life of 6 days. The theoretical calculation of the milk concentration from air and precipitation values by using the actual recommended transfer data gave a 6 time higher concentration in milk than was really measured. Over the whole period of detectable I 131 concentrations in milk there could be calculated a total air to mil transfer factor of 325 Ci/l : Ci/m 3 . The radiation exposure to the thyroid was calculated to about 1 mrem for an infant and about 0,1 mrem for an adult. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radionuclide therapy of diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Keigo

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has a long history of more than 50 years. Radioiodine (I-131) is specifically taken up by the thyroid and has been still used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancer. In the western country, I-131 is the first choice of the therapy of Graves' disease and it is well known that Mr. Geroge Bush, the former president of the United States, was suffered from Graves' disease and treated with I-131. I-131 therapy is cheap, safe, effective, but little adverse effects. On the contrary, in Japan I-131 therapy is less frequently used than the anti-thyroid drugs due to the national sentiments of allergy to radionuclides, and the strict regulation by the government. Bone pain is commonly seen in patients with bone metastasis, which occurs in prostate, breast and lung cancers. Strontium-89 is an effective treatment of bone pain palliation and widely used in the western countries. In Japan clinical use of strontium-89 is planned to be approved by this coming summer on the out-patients basis. Still we have many problems for the radionuclide therapy of diseases, although it is very useful method of treatment. (author)

  4. The role of Tl-201 total body scintigraphy in follow up of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Delprat, C.C.; Marcuse, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of the procedure T1-201 total body scintigraphy was performed in 294 patients (449 studies) after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. Results were correlated with I-131-scintigraphy and tumor-marker levels (Tgb or Calcitonin/CEA). T1-201 total body scintigraphy was negative in 196 patients with no evidence of disease. T1-201-scintigraphy correctly detected tumor localizations in 24 of 30 patients with I-131-positive metastases. In 28 patients T2-201 total body scintigraphy revealed metastases which did not concentrate I-131. Histology/cytology confirmed thyroid carcinoma metastases in 16 patients and other pathology in 5 cases. 9 of 18 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (I-131-negative) had elevated Calcitonin/CEA-levels. The T1-201 scintigram was positive in 8 of these patients. Comparison of T1-201, I-131 and tumor markers showed that only combined use of these parameters provide complete reliability. The authors conclude that T1-201 total body scintigraphy is useful in follow up of thyroid carcinoma, especially when a discrepancy of the other parameters exists and particularly in medullary carcinoma. In long term follow up of patients who are unsuspected of disease after successful therapy for thyroid carcinoma one can rely on T1-201 total body scintigraphy in combination with tumor marker assays

  5. Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kayano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131 MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents.

  6. Three-dimensional noninvasive monitoring iodine-131 uptake in the thyroid using a modified Cerenkov luminescence tomography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Ma, Xiaowei; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Weidong; Liang, Jimin; Wang, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) provides the three-dimensional (3D) radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in small living animals, which is vital to biomedical imaging. However, existing single-spectral and multispectral methods are not very efficient and effective at reconstructing the distribution of the radionuclide tracer. In this paper, we present a semi-quantitative Cerenkov radiation spectral characteristic-based source reconstruction method named the hybrid spectral CLT, to efficiently reconstruct the radionuclide tracer with both encouraging reconstruction results and less acquisition and image reconstruction time. We constructed the implantation mouse model implanted with a 400 µCi Na(131)I radioactive source and the physiological mouse model received an intravenous tail injection of 400 µCi radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 (I-131) to validate the performance of the hybrid spectral CLT and compared the reconstruction results, acquisition, and image reconstruction time with that of single-spectral and multispectral CLT. Furthermore, we performed 3D noninvasive monitoring of I-131 uptake in the thyroid and quantified I-131 uptake in vivo using hybrid spectral CLT. Results showed that the reconstruction based on the hybrid spectral CLT was more accurate in localization and quantification than using single-spectral CLT, and was more efficient in the in vivo experiment compared with multispectral CLT. Additionally, 3D visualization of longitudinal observations suggested that the reconstructed energy of I-131 uptake in the thyroid increased with acquisition time and there was a robust correlation between the reconstructed energy versus the gamma ray counts of I-131 (r(2) = 0.8240). The ex vivo biodistribution experiment further confirmed the I-131 uptake in the thyroid for hybrid spectral CLT. Results indicated that hybrid spectral CLT could be potentially used for thyroid imaging to evaluate its function and monitor its treatment for thyroid cancer.

  7. The uptake of radioactive iodine in rat intact Graafian follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Lieberman, G.L.; Lieberman, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The concentration of iodine-131 in the ovaries of mammals has important implications in the use of I-131 for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease in women. The authors studied the I-131 uptake in whole ovaries and in isolated Graafian follicles of sexually mature rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, in groups of 5-6 animals, were injected IP with 10-50 μCi of I-131, at 3, 12, and 24 hrs prior to the day of proestrus and killed on the day of proestrus. The thyroid gland and ovaries were removed intact and these organs, as well as eight other tissue specimens, were weighed. The large preovulatory follicles (6-9/ovary) were then isolated under a dissecting microscope and the remaining ovary weighed. All samples were counted in a gamma well counter and the % dose/g estimated. The thyroid gland showed 23.7% dose/organ at 24 hrs. Blood decreased from 1.6% dose/g at 3 hrs to 0.5% dose/g at 24 hrs with the uterus showing 1.1% dose/g and 0.4% dose/g at the same times. Ovarian tissue was 0.5, 0.1, and 0.1% dose/g at 3,12, and 24 hrs respectively, while the intact Graafian follicles had from one-tenth to one-third the concentration of the ovary at the same times. (0.05, 0.03, and 0.03% dose/g). The authors found that the intact Graafian follicle concentrates approximately one-thirtieth to one-sixteenth of the I-131 in the blood and one-tenth to one-third of the I-131 in the ovary. This suggests that there is no active uptake of I-131 in the follicle or follicular fluid

  8. 14. International Thyroid Congress (ITC2010) - Selection of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This international thyroid congress is organized every 5 years in a different country and gathers a large community of experts in the field of oncology, endocrinology, nuclear medicine, surgery, cytology and biology. A series of abstracts from this congress has been selected on the basis of the availability and on topics linked to nuclear medicine or radiation damage such as the use of I 131 in thyroidectomy, the impact of radiation in thyroid cells, the optimization of the dose for remnant thyroid ablation, side effect of radiotherapy with I 131 or the health hazards of Chernobyl radioactive fallout

  9. Start up of the whole body detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Angeles C, A.; Cuapio O, A.; Tejera R, A.

    1991-12-01

    The management of Radiological Safety of the Nuclear Center of Mexico has a whole body detection system Trade mark Canberra, manufactured by Bio-nuclear Measurements Inc. Ipswich Massachusetts. These systems are used to detect contamination of I-131 in thyroid and other nuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, etc.) in thorax. In this work the procedure that was continued for the setting in march of the thyroid detector is presented. A description of this system and an analysis of the uncertainties involved in the measures of activity of I-131 in thyroid of people occupationally exposed is made. (Author)

  10. Start up of the whole body detection system; Puesta en marcha del sistema de deteccion de cuerpo entero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Angeles C, A.; Cuapio O, A.; Tejera R, A

    1991-12-15

    The management of Radiological Safety of the Nuclear Center of Mexico has a whole body detection system Trade mark Canberra, manufactured by Bio-nuclear Measurements Inc. Ipswich Massachusetts. These systems are used to detect contamination of I-131 in thyroid and other nuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, etc.) in thorax. In this work the procedure that was continued for the setting in march of the thyroid detector is presented. A description of this system and an analysis of the uncertainties involved in the measures of activity of I-131 in thyroid of people occupationally exposed is made. (Author)

  11. Transfer of iodine-131 from deposition-to-milk : estimation of pasture intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    In assessments of radiological transport of I-131 from fallout deposition to cow's milk, knowledge of the fraction of the dairy cow's diet that is due to fresh pasture is essential because it is the only portion of the feed that may be contaminated to a substantial extent. For studies involving past fallout events covering large geographic areas, such as the current effort by the National Cancer Institute to assess the exposure to I-131 received by the American people during the Nevada Test Site atmospheric weapons tests conducted during the 1950's, it is necessary to derive this estimate of pasture consumption from past records

  12. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies: Experience at a single university referral hospital centre in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of I-131 therapy in patients suffering from various types of functional autonomies of the thyroid gland. The efficacy and adverse effects of radioiodine therapy are presented. Seven hundred ninety-nine patients (age range= 33 to 86 years; average age= 58.7 years; Male: Female = 7.4:1) with unifocal, multifocal and disseminated functional autonomies of thyroid gland were treated with at least one therapeutic dose of I-131. Baseline Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scans, radioactive iodine uptake studies and ultrasonography were performed in all cases prior to radio iodine therapy. Baseline serum total and free thyroxine (T-T4 and F-T4), total triiodothyronine (T-T3) and TSH levels were estimated in all cases. Effective half life of radio iodine in the thyroids was also determined in all patients prior to therapy and a few patients were subjected to TRH stimulation tests. Following treatment all patients were evaluated after a period of 4-6 months. Further follow up evaluations were done at one year in 545 patients and at two years in 254 patients. Complete elimination of functional autonomy was achieved in 733 (91.74%) patients with a single therapeutic dose of I-131, while 62 (7.76%) patients required two doses of I-131 and only 4 (0.5%) patients required three therapeutic doses of I-131. Following I-131 therapy, the suppression of TSH levels in serum disappeared in 607 (76%) of treated patients. An average volume reduction of 38% was noted in the thyroid gland following I-131. Side effects were minimal and only a few patients complained of transient neck pressure, pain and neck swelling. Postradiation hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 36 patients (4.5%). We conclude that radio iodine treatment is the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the thyroid functional autonomies. The results of our approach show that the radioiodine therapy of the thyroid functional autonomies is safe, with low incidence of adverse effects

  13. Increasing incidence of hypothyroidism within one year after radioiodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiter. [/sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Hofe, S.E.; Dorfman, S.G.; Carrette, R.F.; Young, R.L.

    1978-02-01

    Patients treated with 10 mCi of I-131 for toxic diffuse goiter in the period January 1974--June 1976 were evaluated for development of hypothyroidism. Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 months and 69 percent within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of I-131 in the 1970s as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The pathophysiology of this increased incidence is not known with certainty; however, infrequent use of thionamide medication, together with recent increases in dietary iodine, may render the gland more radiosensitive.

  14. Thyrotoxicosis caused by functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. A rare and elusive cause of hyperthyroidism with low radioactive iodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, K.P.; Cowan, R.J.; Sevier, R.E.; Poole, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with progressively worsening thyrotoxicosis, refractory to medical therapy, is described. Repeated measurements of thyroidal RAI uptake over a 13 month period were low consistently and could not be explained by iodine ingestion, thyroiditis, or administration of exogenous thyroid hormone. An I-131 scan ultimately revealed striking activity at the base of the skull, reflecting ectopic excessive production of thyroid hormone by a solitary functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. The thyrotoxic state resolved after large doses of therapeutic I-131. Typical features of this rare cause of hyperthyroidism are discussed

  15. The radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1987-01-01

    The situation in the area around the town of Kiel in a given period of time is taken as the example to explain the radioactive contamination of milk and milk products due to the Chernobyl fallout. The measured data reported refer to the nuclides I-131 and Cs-137 in milk, and are compared with data on the I-131 and Cs-137 activity measured in raw milk collected in southern Bavaria, and in other Lands of the F.R.G. (DG) [de

  16. Increasing incidence of hypothyroidism within one year after radioiodine therapy for toxic diffuse goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hofe, S.E.; Dorfman, S.G.; Carrette, R.F.; Young, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Patients treated with 10 mCi of I-131 for toxic diffuse goiter in the period January 1974--June 1976 were evaluated for development of hypothyroidism. Fifty percent were hypothyroid within 3 months and 69 percent within 1 year of treatment. Our data suggest that there is a higher incidence of hypothyroidism after standard doses of I-131 in the 1970s as contrasted with treatment groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The pathophysiology of this increased incidence is not known with certainty; however, infrequent use of thionamide medication, together with recent increases in dietary iodine, may render the gland more radiosensitive

  17. Monte Carlo modeling for realizing optimized management of failed fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Nakasuji, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cladding is one of the key components in a fission reactor to keep confining radioactive materials inside a fuel tube. During reactor operation, the cladding is however sometimes breached and radioactive materials leak from the fuel ceramic pellet into the coolant water through the breach. The primary coolant water is therefore monitored so that any leak is quickly detected, where the coolant water is periodically sampled and the concentration of, for example the radioactive iodine 131 (I-131), is measured. Depending on the measured concentration, the faulty fuel assembly with leaking rod is removed from the reactor and replaced by new one immediately or at the next refueling. In the present study, an effort has been made to develop a methodology to optimize the management for replacement of failed fuels due to cladding failures using the I-131 concentration measured in the sampled coolant water. A model numerical equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of I-131 concentration due to fuel leaks, and is then solved using the Monte-Carlo method as a function of sampling rate. Our results have indicated that, in order to achieve the rationalized management of failed fuels, higher resolution to detect a small amount of I-131 is not necessarily required but more frequent sampling is favorable. (author)

  18. Occurrence of osteoporosis & factors determining bone mineral loss in young adults with Graves′ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Osteoporosis at hip or spine is not a major problem in GD and more commonly involves forearm. Diagnostic criterion developed from Caucasians tends to overdiagnose osteoporosis in Indians. T 3 elevation and phosphate are important predictors of BMD. Baseline I 131 uptake may have some role in predicting BMD.

  19. Page 1 Supplement to the “Proceedings of the Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marantaceae: Schumannianthus virgatus (Roxb.) Rolfe, 250. Studies in mutagenesis in sugarcane, I, 131. Embryo culture of maize and sugarcane hybrids,. 308,. Hrishi, N., Krishnamurthy,. T. N. and Marimuthammal,. S. Kamble, N. P. . See Subramanyam and Kamble. 321. Studies in mutagenesis in sugarcane, II, l8l. Assists.

  20. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress is reported for the period 1982 to 1983 in the following areas: (1) monitoring of animal thyroids for 129 I, 125 I, 131 I, 226 Ra, and 228 Ra; and (2) neonatal hypo-l thyroidism in laboratory rats

  1. Radioiodine enrichment of large-volume water samples in order to increase the sensitivity of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, H.

    1981-01-01

    The method can be employed in the decontamination of water and waste water, separating the I from acid solution at silvered activated carbon. It was tested as an enrichment method in radioecological investigations of the I-131 contents in surface and ground water. (DG) [de

  2. Efficacy of therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (i) 131 I therapy of thyrotoxicosis; (ii) 131 I therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma; (iii) 32 P therapy of myeloproliferative disease; (iv) 131 MIBG therapy of neural crest tumors; (v) radiolabelled peptides in neuroendocrine tumors; (vi) radioimmunotherapy; (vii) palliative bone therapy of painful skeletal metastases; (viii) radiosynoviorthesis; (ix) alternative approaches; (x) side effects and long-term effects

  3. Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 1986, other dangerous radioactive isotopes, such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and plutonium-239, may also be released. Human exposure to I-131 released from nuclear power plant accidents comes mainly from consuming contaminated water, milk, or foods. People may also be exposed ...

  4. Estudos da função tireóidea em crianças com síndrome de Down Studies of the thyroid function in children with Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Schmidt

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram a função tireóidea (T-3, triiodotironina; T-4, tetraiodotironina e captação do I131 pela tireóide com 2 e 24 horas após a ingestão do radioisótopo em pacientes com síndrome de Down, e compararam os resultados com os obtidos nos seus respectivos irmãos, todos clinicamente normais. Os resultados comparativos não apresentaram diferenças significativas, exceto na captação de 2 horas do I131 pela tireóide (P The thyroid function (T-3 triiodothyronine; T-4 tetraiodothyronine and the captation of the I131 through the thyroid, in 2 and 24 hours after the intake of isotope radium, was studied in patients with Down's syndrome and the results being compared to those obtained from the respective siblings, all clinically normal. The comparative results showed no significant differences, except in the 2 hours captation of the I131 through the thyroid (P < 0.01. The findings suggest that the hypothalamus-hypophysary or the response of the thyroid gland would be slow, but compensated when analyzed after 24 hours.

  5. Effect of prolonged hypokinesia on tissue blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levites, Z. P.; Fedotova, V. F.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of hypokinesia on the blood flow in the tissues of rabbits was studied. Motor activity of animals was restricted during 90 days and blood flow recorded through resorption rate of NaI-131. Perfusion of tissues under the influence of hypokinesia was found to be reduced.

  6. A retrospective analysis of thyroid disease in pregnancy at Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 58 pregnant women (66%) were hyperthyroid, 23 (26%) hypothyroid and 7 (8%) had euthyroid colloid goitres. Fortyeight (83%) hyperthyroid patients had Graves' disease, while 9 (16%) had gestational hyperthyroidism. Regarding the hypothyroid patients, more than half followed I-131 ablation for Graves' disease.

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  8. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : nuclear medicine studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Ronald B.T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or

  9. Metingen in buitenlucht op het RIVM-terrein te Bilthoven na het Fukushima kernongeval in maart 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overwater R; Kwakman P; Twenhofel CJW; Knetsch GJ; Scheele MP; van Velthoven PFJ; le Sager P; Kroonenberg FC; Smetsers RCGM; LSO; mev

    2011-01-01

    De in Nederland gemeten radioactiviteit uit Japan ligt duizenden keren lager dan tijdens Tsjernobyl en vormt geen risico voor de Nederlandse bevolking. De berekende stralingsdosis door inhalatie van I-131 over de gehele meetperiode bedraagt minder dan 0,00001 millisievert. De stralingsdosis van

  10. The significance of 1-131 scan dose in patients with thyroid cancer: determination of ablation: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.; Ramanna, L.; Chapman, N.; Chapman, D.; Brachman, M.; Tanasescu, D.; Berman, D.; Catz, B.; Braunstein, G.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were studied with diagnostic I-131 neck chest scans after having undergone bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy and initial I-131 therapy with either 30- or 100-mCi doses. With an endogenous stimulation protocol, follow-up studies were performed with neck and chest scans using 2 and 10 mCi I-131. A 400% increase in sensitivity was found with a 10-mCi dose relative to a 2-mCi dose. Comparison with therapeutic doses of 30 and 100 mCi resulted in further increases in the detection of residual iodine-avid tissue. We conclude that a 2-mCi or lower dose of I-131 is inadequate in evaluating residual iodine-avid tissue visually in patients with thyroid cancer. The study does not answer the critical question of whether it is necessary to treat a patient presenting a negative 2-mCi but a positive 10-mCi scan. It may be appropriate to define ablation visually as well as clinically, with further studies directed toward determining a treatment rationale in this patient population

  11. Thyroid neoplasia risk is increased nearly 30 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina V; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Shpak, Victor; Oliynyk, Valeriy; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Little, Mark P; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Terekhova, Galyna; Zurnadzhi, Lyudmila; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate risk of thyroid neoplasia nearly 30 years following exposure to radioactive iodine (I-131) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident, we conducted a fifth cycle of thyroid screening of the Ukrainian-American cohort during 2012-2015, following four previous screening cycles started in 1998. We identified 47 thyroid cancers (TC) and 33 follicular adenomas (FA) among 10,073 individuals who were <18 years at the time of the accident and had a mean I-131 dose of 0.62 Gy. We found a significant I-131 dose response for both TC and FA, with an excess odd ratio per Gy of 1.36 (95% CI: 0.39-4.15) and 2.03 (95% CI: 0.55-6.69), respectively. The excess risk of malignant and benign thyroid neoplasia persists nearly three decades after exposure and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of this cohort to characterize long-term pattern of I-131 risk. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Manual on therapeutic uses of iodine-131. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet contains information about procedures to protect hospital staff and visitors and families of patients treated with iodine 131 from exposure to radiation from I-131. It also includes a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry

  13. Operational tests and irradiation programming proposal for the industrial production of {sup 131} I in the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Centre (ININ); Pruebas operacionales y propuesta de programacion de irradiacion para la produccion industrial de {sup 131} I en el reactor TRIGA Mark III del Centro Nuclear (ININ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J.; Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research it was recently finished the project for the production of I-131 at industrial level, the one which can divide basically in: (a) Preparation of the raw materials (TeO{sub 2}), (b) Sintering, (c) Neutron irradiation and (d) Separation of the I-131. With the end of starting the industrial production of this process, in this work it is presented the operational tests and an irradiation proposal of the TeO{sub 2} to obtain quantities of I-131 that cover, if not totally, partially the national market. For this, they were carried out irradiation tests of 6 samples to different flows of neutrons. The result of these tests settles down that irradiating a mass of 240 g TeO{sub 2} to a neutron flow of 6.53 x 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}s in 4 cycles of 30 h per week approximately 2.54 Ci/week of I-131 distilled are obtained, which represents 35% of the demand of the Plant of Radioisotopes production of the ININ. (Author)

  14. Operational tests and irradiation programming proposal for the industrial production of 131 I in the TRIGA Mark III reactor of the Nuclear Centre (ININ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.; Reyes J, J.L.; Ruiz C, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research it was recently finished the project for the production of I-131 at industrial level, the one which can divide basically in: (a) Preparation of the raw materials (TeO 2 ), (b) Sintering, (c) Neutron irradiation and (d) Separation of the I-131. With the end of starting the industrial production of this process, in this work it is presented the operational tests and an irradiation proposal of the TeO 2 to obtain quantities of I-131 that cover, if not totally, partially the national market. For this, they were carried out irradiation tests of 6 samples to different flows of neutrons. The result of these tests settles down that irradiating a mass of 240 g TeO 2 to a neutron flow of 6.53 x 10 12 n/cm 2 s in 4 cycles of 30 h per week approximately 2.54 Ci/week of I-131 distilled are obtained, which represents 35% of the demand of the Plant of Radioisotopes production of the ININ. (Author)

  15. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Guhlke, S.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Mokler, F.

    1996-10-01

    Biodistribution studies with the radioiodinated 3(R)- and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers in rats have shown that 3(R)-BMIPP has 20-25% higher heart uptake (15-180 min) than 3(S)-BMIPP, while uptake in other tissues examined is similar. To evaluate the possible differences in metabolic fate of the two isomers, a mixture of [I-125]-3(R)/[I-131]- 3(S)-BMIPP was administered to fasted female Fisher rats. Groups (n=3 rats per group) were sacrificed after 15, 60 and 180 min, and urine and feces collected from another group. Samples of blood, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, and urine were Folch-extracted. The distribution of I-125 and I-131 in the organic, aqueous, and pellet samples were determined. Organic samples were then analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relative distribution of I-125/I-131 in the lipid, aqueous, and pellet samples was similar for both isomers. Distribution of I-125/I-131 in the various components of the lipid extracts observed by TLC was similar, with principal incorporation into the free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) pools. HPLC analyses (Cl8) of the FFA fraction showed similar I-125/I-131 profiles, corresponding to BMIPP, and the {alpha}-methyl-C,4 (PIPA) and C12, Cl0 and C6 carbon chain-length catabolites. By TLC, urine I-125/I-131 chromatographed with hippuric acid. HPLC analyses (Cl 8) of acid-hydrolyzed urine gave a single I-125/I-131 component with the same RRT as 2-({beta}-iodophenyl)acetic acid, the final {alpha}/{beta}-oxidative BMIPP catabolite. Unexpectedly, HPLC of lipids from base hydrolyzed TG from the heart tissue, showed I-125/I-125 co-chromatographing with short-chain fatty acids, with only levels in BMIPP. These unexpected results demonstrate that the 3(R)-BMIPP and 3(S)-BMIPP isomers are metabolized similarly in rat tissues, and that the higher myocardial extraction observed for the 3(R)-BMIPP may reflect differences in the relative membrane transport of the two isomers.

  16. In Utero Exposure to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout and Anthropometric Characteristics in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V.; Tereschenko, Valery P.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Brenner, Alina V.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m2 per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However

  17. Nab-paclitaxel/Rituximab-coated Nanoparticle AR160 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; CD20 Positive; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  18. A Screening Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases among Individuals Exposed in Utero to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M.; Brenner, A.; Bogdanova, T.; Derevyanko, A.; Kuptsova, N.; Likhtarev, I.; Bouville, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Kovgan, L.; Shpak, V.; Ostroumova, E.; Greenebaum, E.; Zablotska, L.; Ron, E.; Tronko, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Like stable iodine, radioiodines concentrate in the thyroid gland, increasing thyroid cancer risk in exposed children. Data on exposure to the embryonic/fetal thyroid are rare, raising questions about use of iodine 131 (I-131) in pregnant women. We present here estimated risks of thyroid disease from exposure in utero to I-131 fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional thyroid screening study (palpation, ultrasound, thyroid hormones, and, if indicated, fine needle aspiration) from 2003 to 2006. Participants were 2582 mother-child pairs from Ukraine in which the mother had been pregnant at the time of the accident on April 26, 1986, or 2 months after the time during which I-131 fallout was still present (1494 from contaminated areas, 1088 in the comparison group). Individual cumulative in utero thyroid dose estimates were derived from estimated I-131 activity in the mother’s thyroid (mean 72 mGy; range 0–3230 mGy). Results: There were seven cases of thyroid carcinoma and one case of Hurthle cell neoplasm identified as a result of the screening. Whereas the estimated excess odds ratio per gray for thyroid carcinoma was elevated (excess odds ratio per gray 11.66), it was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). No radiation risks were identified for other thyroid diseases. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in utero exposure to radioiodines may have increased the risk of thyroid carcinoma approximately 20 yr after the Chernobyl accident, supporting a conservative approach to medical uses of I-131 during pregnancy. PMID:19106267

  19. Radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice using monoclonal antibodies to osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have developed several monoclonal antibodies against human osteogenic sarcoma, one of which; OST7 (IgGl) selectively localized in osteogenic sarcoma xenografts in nude mice. In the present study, F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment was compared with whole IgG and those labeled with In-111 as well as I-131 were used as a radiotracer for the scintigraphic imaging of tumors. IgC and F(ab')/sub 2/ were labeled with I-131 using chloramine-T method and injected into nude mice bearing human osteogenic sarcoma. Scintigrams at day 2 clearly delineated the site of tumors with almost no radioactivity in other organs with F(ab')/sub 2/, which yielded much better images than whole IgG. Tumor-to-blood ratio of 6.09-27.87 was obtained at day 2 using F(ab')/sub 2/, whereas it was 0.76-1.12 at day 2 and 2.05-3.27 at day 7 with IgG. I-131 labeled nonspecific F(ab')/sub 2/ or IgG resulted in no or very low tumor uptake with tumor-to-blood ratio of 0.94-1.18 at day 2 for F(ab')/sub 2/ and 0.67-0.76 at day 7 for IgG, respectively. In-111 labeled F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7, which was prepared using DTPA as a bifunctional chelate, also showed a high tumor accumulation with tumor-to-blood ratio of 11.67-17.54 at day 2, but higher background activity in the liver and kidney was observed than I-131 labeled one. These results indicate that F(ab')/sub 2/ fragment of OST7 labeled with either I-131 or In-111, has a great potential for the radioimmunoimaging of osteogenic sarcoma

  20. Clinical usefulness of SPECT/CT in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magboo, V.P.C.; Goco, G.F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid Cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system with the well-differentiated tumors (papillary or follicular) being predominant. In the Philippines, it is the 7th leading cancer, three times more common in females than in males. Precise localization of the foci of I-131 uptake for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma is made difficult due to lack of anatomical landmarks in the whole body scan. Hybrid systems are opening up a new era in SPECT imaging. A tertiary hospital in the Philippines has recently acquired the country's first hybrid imaging device combining a dual-detector, variable angle gamma camera with a low dose X-ray tube attached to the same gantry. The objective of the study is to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of I-131 SPECT/CT fusion imaging in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The data from whole body I-131 planar images were first interpreted alone and then re-assessed with the addition of SPECT/CT co-registered images. A total number of 42 patients were studied. Pathologic sites in 26 out 42 (62 %) patients were identified in both planar and co-registered images. SPECT/CT also provided precise anatomical localization in 10 (24 %) patients not clearly evident in planar images alone. It also enabled exclusion of the disease sites of physiologic tracer deposition in 12 (26 %) patients found suspicious in planar studies alone. Introduction of SPECT/CT imaging altered the therapeutic option, particularly with the administered therapeutic dose of I- 131 in 7 (16 %) of patients. Based on our limited experience in this field we concluded that SPECT/CT allows more precise interpretation of I-131 whole body scan thereby improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding therapeutic options. (author)

  1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, dermoid cyst and polycystic ovary syndrome: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaizier, M.A.B.D.; Pieters, J.J.P.M.; Hamming, J.F.; Heul, C. van der; Misere, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Total body scintigraphy after the I-131 treatment for thyroid carcinoma is a routine procedure in staging. For smaller tumors uptake outside the neck is seldomly seen, usually benign and without clinical significance. However, a conscientious analysis of there accumulations can be relevant. A 33 year-old female presented in December 1998 with a T2N1M0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroidectomy, neck dissection and 50 mCi 1-131 treated her. The post-therapy scan was negative except for a small spot in the neck (thyroidremnant: 3.0 %). In September 1999 150 mCi was administered and the scan afterwards showed a focus median in the neck (thyroid remnant: 0.3 %) and a persistent hotspot in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen (figure). The thyreoglobuline was 3.8 μg/l (unchanged to the first I-131 therapy) during maximal TSH Stimulation (174 mu/l). Transvaginal ultrasound revealed an enlarged left ovary which was laparoscopical removed and appeared to be a dermoid cyst with hair- and skincomponents, respiratory epithelia and bone. Only after staining on thyreoglobuline thyroid tissue was demonstrated; there were no signs of malignancy. Six months later a 10 mCi I-131 scintigraphy was negative; thyreoglobuline was < 0.5 μg/l and TSH 161 mg/l suggesting no thyroid tissue was present in the Body. Her medical history showed a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). She received treatment for ovulation induction including clomiphene, HCG, FSH and LH. Her thyroid function was normal. After two miscarriages She gave birth to a daughter. Germ cells must been present since birth to form a dermoid cyst during life. In our patient, the dermoid cyst with benign thyroid cells was visualized only after the second I-131 therapy. We assume that the sensitivity of a scan after 50 mCi and 150 mCi I-131 is equal. Therefore, probably not the ovulation induction medication but the TSH stimulation for the I-131 therapy is the reason for the development of the dermoid cyst. That only

  2. Difference of Clinical and Radiological Characteristics According to Radioiodine Avidity in Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohoon; Jung, Jihoon; Song, Seung Hyun; Kim, Choonyoung; Hong, Chae Moon; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sangwoo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeongcheol [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate differences in clinical, radiological and laboratory findings between pulmonary metastasis with and without radioiodine avidity in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with pulmonary metastasis who underwent high-dose I-131 treatment. A total of 105 DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis (age, 48.7±16.8 years; women/men, 78/27) were included. Clinical characteristics, chest computed tomography (CT), F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) level were compared between patients with and without radioiodine uptake in metastatic lung lesions. The response to I-131 treatment was evaluated with follow-up study. Eighty-nine patients (84.8 %, whole-body scan positive [WBSP] group) showed radioiodine uptake at pulmonary metastasis on post I-131 treatment whole-body scan (WBS) and 16 patients (15.2 %, WBS negative [WBSN] group) did not show uptake at pulmonary lesions on the WBS. Ninety percent and 87 % of the WBSP group had visible metastatic lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT; however, all of the patients in the WBSN group showed lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT. In seven (6.7 %) of 105 patients, CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT could not detect pulmonary lesions, which were diagnosed by post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete disease remission was achieved in six (5.7 %) patients and all of them were in the WBSP group. Metastatic lesion was not visualized on chest CT or F-18 FDG PET/CT in 6.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the lesion was visualized only on post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete remission was achieved in 5.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the cured metastases were non-visualizing or micronodular lesions on chest CT and demonstrated radioiodine avidity on post I-131 treatment WBS.

  3. An estimation of Iodine 131 intakes for occupational workers of nuclear medicine group at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, Nelcy Yasmin; Lagares, Luis Carlos; Veloza, Luz Stella; Martinez, Maria Cristina; Reyes, Amelia de los

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In nuclear medicine, unsealed radioactive substances are administered to patients for diagnosis, treatment or research. The manipulation of these radionuclides, particularly those volatile, like iodine 131 (I-131), generates a risk of internal contamination by ingestion and inhalation. The inhaled radioactive particles are retained in the lungs or uptake by the thyroid tissue and could produce health effects. The IAEA provides regulatory practices in handling radioactive material to reduce internal contamination in the staff, based on the radiation protection principle to achieve occupational doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A quality assurance program in radioprotection should include the monitoring of occupational intakes. This paper describes a pilot study which determined quantitative methods to monitoring the nuclear medicine staff. The estimates of intakes and doses of I-131 were derived from the review and interpretation of urine monitoring data, using a Ludlum model 203 Shielded Well Scintillator (2 inches diameter x 1.8 inches thick), with a ratemeter model 2200. This study included workers occupationally exposed to I-131: physicians, technicians, radio pharmacists and physicists. The initial tests of the activity levels of I-131 in urine showed an average MPBB (Maximum Permissible Body Burden) of 0.035%, i.e. 0.025 μCi. Comparing with the maximum value of whole body 0.7μCi, the percentages of I-131 MPBB indicate the presence of small activities of I-131 in the urine, suggesting low-level chronic exposures from occupational workers in Nuclear Medicine. The higher values are the medical personnel who perform treatments for thyroid disorders. Conclusion: To do statistically significant the sampling and to protect individuals in each area it should be considered the daily urinary excretion, which is due to implement a protocol for regular assessment of the levels of incorporation of iodine 131 for jobs and activities, personnel in

  4. Determination of intake and internal radiation dose for occupationally exposed workers to iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.; Sadyya, A.

    2004-12-01

    Workers who prepare and inject radioactive Iodine I 131 doses at the medical centers in Syria are potentially exposed to the radioactive intake by ingestion or inhalation during preparation or injection processes. The received amount of the radioactive intake differs according to the amount of the I 131 that released during the preparation or injection processes, and to the work conditions and the applying ways of the radiation protection principles. Because of this radioactive intake, the thyroid gland may expose to amounts of I 131 which may negatively affect the health of the workers, so it is necessary to make routine monitoring for all workers who receive an intake of more than 10% of the annual intake limit which is (2*10 6 Bq/y) for I 131 . To make this monitoring process, it is necessary to use either the thyroid gland counter in order to know the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in the gland, or the analysis of a 24 hours urine sample of the exposed workers to determine the eliminated amount of the radioactivity using gamma spectrometry, also the two processes can be applied at the same time. Since the thyroid gland counter is not available, the analysis of urine sample was done to determine the concentrated amount of the radioactivity in urine, then to estimate the radioactive intake and the internal radioactive dose. The results of applying this method dictated that some workers work in safe conditions according to the radiation protection and there is no need for them to make routine monitoring . But the other workers receive a radioactive intake of about 10% yearly of the annual intake limit and that requires a routine periodical monitoring for those workers in addition to the necessity of applying the principles of the radiation protection during the work with I 131 . These principles and systems should indicate the basic requirement of radiation protection that must be available in the laboratory that deal with I 131 either for therapy or for

  5. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  6. Methodology of thyroid dose reconstruction for population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.; Bratilova, A.A.; Vlasov, A.Ju; Pitkevich, V.A.; Vlasov, O.K.; Shishkanov, N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has provoked radioactive contamination upon such extensive territories that the monitoring of short-lived iodine isotopes and estimation of their influence upon people were performed with a delay or not completely. So for solving the problem of dose estimation for thyroid exposure with iodine radionuclides among the population of contaminated territories, it was necessary to analyze retrospectively the existing data and to develop a model of the thyroid dose reconstruction. The reconstruction procedure for the average for a settlement thyroid dose in Russians has been worked out basing on the following data received in May-June 1986: 44 thousand measurements of I-131 content in the thyroid of inhabitants; 2000 gamma-spectrometric measurements of milk samples in Tula region; about 3500 measurements of total beta-activity in milk samples from Bryansk, Kaluga and Orel regions; over 100 radiochemical analysis of milk samples for I and Cs radionuclides' content; about 14000 thousand polls of inhabitants and local administration authorities upon the regime of behavior, milk consumption, cattle pasture dates and countermeasures in May 1986; the data of Roshydromet upon Cs-137 contamination of soil in settlements. The individual dose estimations by direct measurements of I-131 in the thyroid have been accepted as the basis for dose reconstruction. When counting the I-131 activity in the thyroid the additional radiation from cesium radionuclides distributed in extra-thyroidal tissues were excluded. Without this amendment the doses in the later terms of measurements could be 2-5 times overestimated. Because of the limited input data for dose calculations a formalized model of radioiodine intake into human body was used. The parameters of this model were based upon the analysis of the radiation monitoring data. According to the model daily intake of iodine-131 was constant within 10 days after radioactive fallout, and further on reduced proportionally

  7. Safeguarding food and food products from radiological contamination through gammametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Bautista, Angel T.VII; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman DS.; Cuyco, Danilo A.; Jimenez, Gloria R.; Bucal, Camille Grace D.; Morco, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate gammametric analysis in safeguarding food and food products from radioactive contamination caused by a nuclear accident. Different food and food products submitted for analysis from March 2011 to September 2011 were analyzed for Cesium-137, Cesium 134, and Iodine-131 radioactivity levels using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector gamma spectrometer system. Radioactivity levels of the said samples were found to be less than 1-4 Bq/Kg for both Cs-137 and Cs-134, and less than 0.2 - 2 Bq/Kg for I-131, and were found to below the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guideline Levels for Radionuclides in Foods Following Accidental Nuclear Contamination for Use in International Trade limits of 1,000 Bq/Kg for the sum of Cs-137 and Cs-134 in feeding stuffs, and that of 100 Bq/Kg for the sum of all isotopes of iodine notably I-131 in feeding stuff. (author)

  8. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  9. Absorbed body dose simulation in Thyroid cancer therapy using MCNP4Cand ITScodes and comparison to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, K.; Gorji, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Two standard particle transport codes of MCNP4C and integrated tiger series were used to estimate the total body dose in a thyroid cancer therapy study, with I-131 as the radionuclide source. Human body was modeled by water and soft tissue ellipsoids. Phantoms' dimensions were selected according to Brow nell recommendation. Absorbed fractions were calculated by both codes for different phantoms and for gammas with 0.364 MeV energy, which has the highest fraction in I-131 emitting gammas. Results were compared to the data published by Brow nell et.al.. Figure 1 shows the results of MCNP4C and Integrated Tiger Series with results published by Brow nell et. al.

  10. Feasibility of an on-line fission-gas-leak detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, P. H.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations were made to determine if a cladding failure could be detected in a 100-kW zirconium hydride reactor primary system by monitoring the highly radioactive NaK coolant for the presence of I-131. The system is to be completely sealed. A leak of 0.01 percent from a single fuel pin was postulated. The 0.364-MeV gamma of I-131 could be monitored on an almost continuous basis, while its presence could be varified by using a longer counting time for the 0.638-MeV gamma. A lithium-drifted germanium detector would eliminate radioactive corrosion product interference that could occur with a sodium iodide scintillation detector.

  11. Samplings of airborne particulates for granulometric determinations following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Calamosca, M.; Zaiacomo, T. de; Gragnani, R.; Michetti, I.; Testa, L.

    1988-01-01

    Particle size distributions and concentrations of the radioactive aerosol that arose from the Chernobyl accident were determined in Bologna and Rome. The activity Median Aerodynamic Diameters (AMAD) of Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-134 and Cs-137, determined by means of impactors, were in the range 0.8 - 1.4 μm with Geometric Standard Deviations (Sg) in the range 1.6 - 3.7. Lower AMAD and higher Sg values were found for I-131 compared to those for the other radioisotopes. The gaseous fraction of I-131 was 60-70% of the total aerosuspended activity of this isotope. A comparison between direct measurement data concerning internal contamination on volunteers and values derived from air contamination data shows that in Bologna, during May 1986, almost all the contamination was due to inhalation. The data are unable to distinguish between different inhalation models

  12. Contribution of the short lived radionuclides in food to the total radiation burden of man after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Smelcerovic, M.; Maksimovic, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the short lived radionuclides (I-131, Te(I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141,144, Ru-103,106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Mo-99, Nb-95, Sb-125) mass activities estimation in some foodstuff (milk and milk products), immediately after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, in May 1986. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on Ge(Li) detector by standard gamma spectrometry, with the total error less than 20%. The results enabled the evaluation of the short lived radionuclides contribution in the total dose due to ingestion of milk and milk products, in the first month after the accident, compared to the contribution of I-131 and to the contribution of the main long lived radionuclides: Ce-134 and Cs-137 (author)

  13. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  14. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G., E-mail: dgav02@gmail.com [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Arequipa, Perú, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Escuela de Física, Arequipa (Peru); Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M. [Hospital Nacional Carlos Alberto Seguin Escobedo, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Arequipa (Peru); Vega Ramírez, J. L. [Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Escuela de Física, Arequipa (Peru)

    2016-07-07

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  15. Action in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.

    1961-01-01

    This report describes the radiation accidents that occurred in the Institute, causes of these accidents and actions undertaken to eliminate the consequences as well as losses and cost estimated. The accidents were as follows: explosion of the uranium mixture; contamination due to spill of P 32 ; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; spilling of I 131 in the cell for radioactive iodine production; contamination of the floor by P 32 ; contamination of the platform below the water shield at the RA reactor and during cleaning of the vertical channels; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; contamination of cells for I 131 and P 32 and the cell for isotopes packaging; contamination of the floor by non-identified isotope mixture; contamination of the cell for I'1 31 production by irradiated Tl powder; contamination by La 140 powder; contamination of the cell for isotopes packaging

  16. Radioablative therapy with Iodine-131 on a patient with thyroid cancer and chronic renal failure in hemodialysis first experience in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaza Veliz, D. G.; Herrera Vera, R. D.; Cardenas Abarca, C. A.; Oporto Gonzales, C. A.; Aguilar Ramírez, C.; Vega Ramírez, J. L.; Urquizo Baldomero, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The Iodine-131 (I-131) is a radioisotope used as a standard treatment for radioablation of thyroid remnants. Among thyroid cancer patients, the ones undergoing hemodialysis represent a specific group. The dose of I-131 is given orally to these patients, part of it is absorbed by the thyroid remnants and the rest of it, largely not incorporated, is excreted primarily by renal excretion. The use of a high dose of radioactivity in the process, and the inability of excretion, represents a high risk of exposure to the patient, medical staff and hemodialysis equipment. This work describes the procedure applied on the radioablation therapy for thyroid cancer while receiving hemodialysis, minimizing the risks for the patient and the staff involved. This clinical procedure will establish the dosimetric measures, a plan on radiation protection and a treatment protocol for this specific type of patients.

  17. Cancer risk due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 dietary intake after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The most important radionuclides carried by the radioactive plume over Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of the other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. Assessments of radiation doses to people living in the Bucharest area have utilized data obtained from measurement of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in dietary intake samples for a number of subjects of different ages and sexes. This paper summarizes the results of some of our measurements performed since April 1986 until March 1995. 7 refs, 8 figs

  18. Current status of radioisotope production in the year of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C

    2004-02-01

    The RIPF(Radio Isotope Production Facility) is the unique facility in Korea which has been used for the isotope production. Through the survey on the radioisotope quantities of production and consumption in the domestic industry, we were trying to show the trend of isotope production. The quantities of Tc-99m, Mo-99, Cr-51, I-131 solution and I-131 capsule produced in the hot cell and clean room of RIPF were compared with the quantities at the previous year. Also the output of the labeling compound such as Hippuran, MIBG, RIHSA, Phytate, MDP, DISIDA, DTPA, etc was compared with the previous year by the radioactivity and the vial. We treated the sum of selling amount of industrial isotopes and tracer isotopes and the status of technical supports also.

  19. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  20. Determination of the radiological capacity in the IEA environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Oliveira, P.L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The radiological capacity in the IEA environment, was calculated according to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in order to assess the management wastes disposal programming. The value of radiological capacity, take into account the isotopic composition, at the production moment, was 850 Ci/year. The IEA radioactive environment disposal, up to now, employed just a small fraction of its capacity. Iodine I-131 air inhalation, and external radiation, derivated from the sediments around the discharged point of Pinheiros river, were the 'critical pathways'; for the second case the 'critical radionuclides' were: Te-125m, Te-123m, Te-127m, I-131 e Cs-137. The 'Dose Commitment' of one year operation will be not upper than 20 mrad in the infant's thyroid and 140 mrad in the whole body [pt

  1. Transient hypothyroidism in iodine-131 treated thyrotoxicosis - a review of cases from 1970-1984 at JRRMMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, E.B.; de la Cruz, C.; Gonzales, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    This review was conducted to determine the minimum dose of radioactive iodine necessary to show signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis among Filipinos, to determine the incidence of hypothyroidism secondary to radioactive treatment and to determine if some cases of hypothyroidism following radioactive iodine treatment are only transient and replacement therapy could be withheld or not. A total of 212 patients who had I-131 therapy was evaluated (177 female and 35 male). Of this number 19 or 8.9% developed hypothyroidism. After three years, 14 or 74% of the hypothyroids were noted. Easy fatigability ranked first of the patients complaints, followed by dry skin, sleepiness, numbness of extremities, and joint pains. Results of this study indicate that there is a definite, although low incidence of hypothyroidism following I-131 therapy (8.9%). (ELC). 6 refs.; 6 tabs

  2. Evolution of 137Cs and 90Sr content of the main foodstuff in Bucharest area after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Soon after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive cloud, carrying the nuclides released into the atmosphere, reached Romania and, due to the rainy weather, an important fallout occurred over the Romanian territory. The most important contaminants for Romania were I 131 , Cs 134 , Cs 137 and Sr 90 . As in many other countries, in the first days, I 131 had the main contribution to the irradiation dose released to the population. After its decay, and the decay of other short-lived radionuclides, Cs 137 and Sr 90 remained the most important contaminants. The principal route of intake for these two radionuclides is considered to be the ingestion of contaminated foods. To assess the radioactive burden of foods, a long term, large scale survey was initiated at the National Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (INISP). These results were then used to assess the doses committed to cesium and strontium intake and the excedentary cancer risk for the population from Bucharest area

  3. Association of Serum CXCL13 with Intrarenal Ectopic Lymphoid Tissue Formation in Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Li; Long, Kang Xia; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the concentrations of serum CXCL13 and intrarenal ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT) profiles and their correlation in the patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Methods. Serum CXCL13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The expression of CD3, CD20, and CD21 in renal biopsy specimens was tested using immunohistochemical methods. Results. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly higher in the LN group than those in the SLE group without LN and also in the type III and IV LN patients than in type V LN patients. LN patients with positive CD20 expression (CD20+ LN) had a longer disease course and poorer response to combination therapy and higher serum CXCL13 levels than CD20− LN patients. Moreover, the serum CXCL13 level was positively correlated with the number of B cells/HP in the renal tissue of LN patients. The coexpression patterns of CD3, CD20, and CD21 in the renal tissue of LN patients with different WHO pathological types were significantly different. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly higher in ELT-2 type LN patients than in 0 or 1 type LN patients. Conclusions. This study suggested that increased serum levels of CXCL13 might be involved in renal ELT formation and renal impairment process in LN. PMID:27990444

  4. Association of Serum CXCL13 with Intrarenal Ectopic Lymphoid Tissue Formation in Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ning He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the concentrations of serum CXCL13 and intrarenal ectopic lymphoid tissue (ELT profiles and their correlation in the patients with lupus nephritis (LN. Methods. Serum CXCL13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. The expression of CD3, CD20, and CD21 in renal biopsy specimens was tested using immunohistochemical methods. Results. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly higher in the LN group than those in the SLE group without LN and also in the type III and IV LN patients than in type V LN patients. LN patients with positive CD20 expression (CD20+ LN had a longer disease course and poorer response to combination therapy and higher serum CXCL13 levels than CD20− LN patients. Moreover, the serum CXCL13 level was positively correlated with the number of B cells/HP in the renal tissue of LN patients. The coexpression patterns of CD3, CD20, and CD21 in the renal tissue of LN patients with different WHO pathological types were significantly different. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly higher in ELT-2 type LN patients than in 0 or 1 type LN patients. Conclusions. This study suggested that increased serum levels of CXCL13 might be involved in renal ELT formation and renal impairment process in LN.

  5. Adult Neuroblastoma Complicated by Increased Intracranial Pressure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Patrick L.; Johnson, Douglas B.; Thompson, Mary Ann; Keedy, Vicki L.; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Snyder, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most commonly occurring malignancy of the pediatric population, although it is extremely rare in the adult population. In adults, neuroblastoma is often metastatic and portends an extremely poor overall survival. Our case report documents metastatic neuroblastoma occurring in a healthy 29-year-old woman whose course was complicated by an unusual presentation of elevated intracranial pressures. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, I131 metaiodobenzylgu...

  6. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  7. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathologic findings identified during 3 rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a cohort of children and adolescents from belarus exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia B; Nadyrov, Eldar A; Rozhko, Alexander V; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga N; McConnell, Robert J; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina V; Little, Mark P; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of children and adolescents who were exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine exhibited a significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histologic and morphologic features is not clear. A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus who were aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident underwent 3 cycles of thyroid screening during 1997 to 2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident and from dosimetric questionnaire data. Demographic, clinical, and tumor pathologic characteristics of the patients with thyroid cancer were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, chi-square tests or Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression. In total, 158 thyroid cancers were identified as a result of screening. The majority of patients had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many positive regional lymph nodes (N1; 60.6%) but few distant metastases (M1; <1%). Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P < .01) and histologic features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P < .03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two patients with self-reported thyroid cancers which were diagnosed before 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared with patients who had screening-detected thyroid cancers (all P < .0001). I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with a significantly greater frequency of solid and diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Treating tumours with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of radiopharmaceuticals in radiotherapy. After a discussion on the suitability of various isotopes for therapeutic use, some well-established examples of radiotherapy are described. These include the treatment of thyroid diseases with I-131, of polycythemia vera with P-32 and of neural crest tumours with 131 I-MIBG. New trends in therapy of bone diseases and in radioimmunotherapy are also considered

  9. Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan) in differentiated thyroid cancer: A single center community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, P; Driscoll, H K; Venkatraman, P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan) with either I-123 or I-131 (radioactive isotopes of iodine) is performed to assess the extent of thyroid cancer especially distant metastasis prior to administering the therapeutic dose of I-131. Our aim of the following study was to determine the utility of the diagnostic pre-therapy scan in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer. It was a case-control study carried out by retrospective chart review, of a randomly selected 100 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had followed in our community hospital over the course of 1 year. We collected data on multiple variables in the subjects - including age, gender, pre-operative size of the nodules, diagnosis, stage of the malignancy, size of the tumor, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, dose of radioiodine used for remnant ablation, recurrence rates and persistence rates. Continuous variables were compared using the independent sample Mann-Whitney U-test whereas the Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. The mean dose of radioactive iodine administered was 97.56 (±27.98) in the pre-therapy scan group and it was 97.23 (±32.40) in the control group. There was no difference between the two groups (P - 0.45). There was also no difference in the recurrence rates between the groups (P = 1.0). There was a trend toward a higher degree of persistent cancer in the group that had the pre-therapy scans (P - 0.086). Pre-therapy scan may not affect the dose of radio-iodine I-131 used for remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer and does not influence the recurrence rates. This was especially true with respect to I-131 remnant ablation for low risk tumors.

  10. Evaluation of release amount of radioactivity from Chernobyl accident and of resulting radiological consequence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    Three kinds of methods are used to evaluate the release amount from Chernoby1 RBMK-1000 reactor accident, i.e. (1) estimation by comparison with Windscale accident; (2) estimation in terms of the stock in the core; and (3) estimation according to the available monitoring data form adjacent countries such as Poland and Finland. The results obtained are as follows: the release of I-131 was 0.1-1.5 EBq, which is approximately 4-50% of the stock in the core; the release amount of Ru-103 was comparable to that of Cs-137, both approximately 5-10% of that of I-131; the volatile nuclides such as Mo-99, Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-137 etc., were in the order of 0.4 EBq; involatile nuclides were 0.2 EBq; noble gases and other fission products 10 EBq; and the total amount released was about 20 EBq, which taken together 8% of the stock in the core. The radioactive cloud cluster passed through over the area of China in the beginning of May. It was estimated that the total amount of I-131 in air over China area was about 1.6 PB q , Cs-137 about 0.3 PB q , Ru-103 about 0.2 PB q ; the total fallout in the area of China was about 3 PB q for I-131, about 0.1 PB q for Cs-137, about 0.3 PB q for Ru-103. The resulting effective dose equavalent commitment to critical group individual was about 60 μSv, collective effective dose equavalent commitment received by the population of China was about 1 x 10 4 man.Sv

  11. Development of a Safe and Effective Skin Decontamination System: Demonstration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    accordion packs, tobacco pouches, surgical kits, zip lock pouches, change purses, bellows packs, and a partial wrap of the individual pouches...followed to assure the materials were produced in compliance with FDA Good Manufacturing Practices ( GMP ). In all, 55 batches were run in the 1-cu-ft Sweco...IRA-900C(OH) resin quality is maintained. I I. - 131 - Prior to these runs Rohm and Haas conducted a GMP audit of the Union Process facility and

  12. Management of the Patient with Aggressive and Resistant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miftari, Rame; Top?iu, Valdete; Nura, Adem; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent type of thyroid cancer and was considered the most benign of all thyroid carcinomas, with a low risk of distant metastases. However, there are some variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma that have affinity to spread in many organs, such as: lymph nodes, lungs and bones. Aim: The aim of this study was presentation of a case with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, very persistent and resistant in treatment with I 131. Material and result...

  13. Biodistribution of a radiolabelled thermoresponsive polymer in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2010), s. 1073-1078 ISSN 0969-8043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP207/10/P054; GA MŠk 2B06165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Thermoresponsive polymer * I-131 * Local radiotherapy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 0.999, year: 2010

  14. Retention of 131I volatilized from aqueous solutions by sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuber, H.

    1985-02-01

    By far the largest proportion of the I-131 that was volatilized from alkaline aqueous solutions was in a form whose retention by various sorbents was lower than that of I 2 , but higher than that of CH 3 I. This form is called 'HOI' although no direct identification exists. With all the fresh impregnated activated carbons investigated, the retention of 'HOI' was higher than 99% at a residence time of 0.1 s. The influence of purging was insignificant. (orig.) [de

  15. Radiation of the thyroid during examination of patients with thyroid diseases using radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Likhtarev, A.A.; Nikolaeva, A.A.

    1984-02-01

    Basing on 131I uptake functions in the thyroid of 109 patients irradiation doses of this organ were evaluated for persons with normal iodine metabolism and in the following diseases: hypothyrosis, moderate thyrotoxicosis, nodular toxic and nontoxic goiter, vegetative neurosis. Maximum tolerant doses of 123I, 125I, 131I and 132I are recommended for diagnostic examination of thyroid function and scanning of this organ.

  16. Study of prediction of migration of radiocesium and radiostrontium in soil for environmental control around shallow radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution coefficients, migration velocity and dispersion coefficients for radiocesium and radiostrontium in soil were determined in laboratory while simulating some field conditions. The experimental and predicted data of breakthrough of Cs-134, Sr-85 e Sr-89 using I-131 + 0.01 NKI to describe the hydrodynamic dispersion were in good agreement. Data of variation of dispersion coefficient with various carrier concentration of Cs and Sr are presented. (Author) [pt

  17. Exposure rates (versus time after administration), in relation with clinical factors, for thyroid carcinoma patients treated with Iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, D.; Oros, L.; Manetou, A.; Perris, A.; Molfetas, M.; Kottou, S.

    2002-01-01

    While the therapeutic use of iodine-131 for thyroid carcinoma patients offers enormous benefit to them, it contributes also significantly to the radiation exposure of individuals and population. A critical quantity for decisions relating radiation protection system based on restrictions recommended by authorities is the residual I-131 activity in patient's body. When this value is larger than a threshold level, it may keep the patient hospitalised for a short period of usually 2 to 3 days with an additional period of 7 days at home, where he must sleep separately and avoid close contact with other people. Essential for radiation protection issues is the careful collection of radioactive urine, radioactive waste and avoidance of any contaminations by perspiration and saliva. Longer hospital stay would increase the total cost of the treatment and limit the availability of the isolation room. So the patient has then to return home, having always in mind that in spite of the fast washout of the I-131 from his body, even the second week still contributes significantly to the total radiation burden to relatives and friends. Radiation hazards concerning relatives and friends can be kept to a truly negligible level (a small fraction of the annual dose limit of only 1mSv), only if it is provided that: a) reasonable standards of personal hygiene and cleanliness are followed, b) urine or saliva contaminations are avoided and c) patient's close contact with relatives or friends is kept to a minimum. These measures should be followed for a time period of 2-8 days after hospital discharge, a period that depends on administered and retained I-131 activity. This work tries to estimate the correlation between several clinical factors and the residual activity of I-131 in patient's body and proposes a method for a more simple measurement of the total body activity during patient's stay in the treatment centre - hospital

  18. Valuating report on radionuclide concentrations in aerosols in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1989-03-01

    Sample preparation - and measuring methods and results on aerosol samples from the Austrian Environment Radioactivity Monitoring Network are presented. Special emphasis is on Cs-134, Cs-137 (Chernobyl fallout) and I-131 from medical applications. Comparisons with 1987 are made. The lung doses for the population are estimated to be 0,5 - 5 nSv, i.e. very small. 8 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs. (qui)

  19. Whole body measurements of subjects who have ingested radioactive materials from the accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Iodine-131 in the thyroid was the most significant nuclide that was detected in subjects monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory who might have been exposed by the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The estimated intake of I-131 by subjects ranged from 0.4 to 12 kBq, with a weighted committed dose equivalent (thyroid) of between 0.006 and 0.17 mSv. Whole-body monitoring data is presented for all subjects

  20. Nuclear medical diagnosis and therapy of pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Winterberg, B.; Vetter, H.; Mueller-Rensing, R.

    1984-01-01

    After prior labeling of the kidneys or the skeletal system for easier orientation, 0.3 - 0.7 mCi of I-131-MIBG (Henning-Berlin) were injected intravenously and scans were obtained with a gamma-camera-computer system 24 to 120 hours later. 22 patients showed clinical and biochemical evidence of pheochromocytoma; the diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 19. Two patients (16 years old) with metastatic pheochromocytoma and a female aged 73 years with intra-adrenal pheochromocytoma ineligible for surgery because of catecholamine-induced myocarditis currently undergo fractionated I-131-MIBG treatment with single doses of 65 - 135 mCi. The tumor response was assessed in 2 females by determining the volume of reference tumors with computer tomography; by 24-hour urinary catecholamine assays; and by checking drug consumption. Scintigraphy showed intra-adrenal pheochromocytoma to be present in 17 cases (left, n=11; right, n=5; bilateral, n=1). Two patients were found to have medullary hyperplasia, while 3 presented with multilocular malignant pheochromocytoma. Treatment substantially improved the clinical symptoms in 3 females. Determination of tumor volume by computer tomography showed a tumor reduction of 61% in 1 patient after a total dose of 415 mCi and of 10% after a total dose of 365 mCi in another patient. Experiences sofar available suggest that I-131-MIBG is a useful specific radionuclide for the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma. (Author)

  1. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD); Sistema de Materiales Radiactivos del ININ (SMATRAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  2. Mo-99 production by fission and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, E.C.; Novello, A.; Bronca, M.; Cestau, D.; Bavaro, R.; Centurion, R.; Bravo, C.; Bronca, P.; Gualda, E.; Fraguas, F.; Giomi, A.; Ivaldi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Description of the I-131 and Mo-99 production process: The process starts with the irradiation of uranium-aluminum mini plates in the RA-3, Argentinean Reactor No.3, Ezeiza Atomic Center. In a nuclear reactor there is a constant flow of neutrons and when a neutron with proper energy impacts on a nucleus of U-235, it is absorbed at the same time generate an unstable configuration nuclear. For this reason, the nucleus formed is fission, getting two different atoms. Approximately 6% of the fissions produce Mo-99 and 3% produce I-131; the percentage remaining corresponds to formation of atoms without interest for use in medicine. In conclusion, the objective of the process developed in the Fission Plant, is starting from uranium mini plates, separate the Mo-99 and I-131 generated, the remaining elements formed. - Evolution of Mo-99 Production in the last 10 years: The Fission Mo-99 Plant Production begins routine production of Mo-99 in 1985, using targets made of uranium enriched at 90% U-235. In the 1990s, global concern regarding the use of highly enriched uranium, due to non-proliferation issues, caused the interruption of supply of nuclear material (HEU enriched at 90% of U-235). Following this, Argentina developed target based on low-enriched uranium (less than 20% U-235), becoming in 2002 the first country in the world to produce Mo-99 with LEU targets. From 2002 to date, the activity produced of Mo-99 has been tripled annually (author)

  3. Design, Fabrication and Installation of the Charcoal Filter Housing in RIPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jin; Lim, I. C.; Bang, H. S. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    In the Hot Cell Bank 3 of the Radioisotope Production Facility, production and dispense of I-131 solution and capsule that are used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer are made. The original charcoal filter housings installed in 1994 and were utilized until the leakage of a very small amount of radio-iodine was found due to the erroneous installation of the charcoal filter in the filter housing. Thus the production of I-131 was discontinued until the repair and performance testing of the filter housing and the inspection by the regulatory body were finished. Although the production of I-131 was resumed, there was a desire for installing the brand-new charcoal filter housing which has an intrinsically safe design and no possibility of leakage. This report describes the design, fabrication and installation of brand-new charcoal filter housing. And also were described the dismantlement of the old housings, the assessment of the structural integrity of the shielding concrete wall and the installation of the shielding doors.

  4. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  5. Iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody detection of gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, H.A.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.; Haagensen, D.A.; Thurston, M.O.; Mojzisik, C.; Houchens, D.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To localize gastrointestinal tumor, 31 patients were injected with 1.7-2.1 mCi I-131 anti-CEA baboon polyclonal antibody. Whole body imaging at 48, 72, and occasionally 96 hrs was performed with a Signa Camera (Technicare) peaked at 364 keV with 20% window. Additional spot views were usually obtained. No subtraction methods were used. All patients had surgical and pathological confirmation of the nuclear medicine studies. Labeled antibody images were positive in 15 (8 recurrent or metastatic colorectal, 2 gastric, 1 pancreatic, 1 primary colon, and 1 breast metastatic to chest wall). In 1, antibody images were positive for metastatic deposits in para-aortic lymph nodes, but negative for primary rectal tumor. True negative images were observed in 6; false negative images in 9 (4 liver metastases, 2 rectal, 1 pancreatic, 1 mesenteric lymph node metastasis, 1 bone metastasis). In all cases, no correlation existed between preoperative CEA serum levels and imaging. I-131 labeled anti-CEA polyclonal antibody imaging proved highly efficient in detecting gastric cancer (2/2) and moderately efficient in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer (8/15). On the other hand, the I-131 labeled polyclonal anti-CEA antibody imaging was of limited value in detecting colon cancer (1/9), pancreatic cancer (1/4) and metastatic liver disease

  6. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by the thyroid of patients undergoing treatment of Graves disease;Avaliacao da dose absorvida pela tireoide de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento da doenca de Graves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tiago L.; Filho, Joao A. [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Silva, Jose M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The radioiodine is used as complementary treatment of thyroid cancer and as first choice for the treatment of Graves' disease, being efficient, safe and easy administration, but without there is a protocol defined. This work was evaluated the thyroid absorbed dose from its mass and maximum uptake of I-131 obtained in the examination of diagnostic radiology of radiotherapeutic patients undergoing treatment of Graves' disease. Based on the results, it is observed that the thyroid absorbed dose, as much in terms of mass as the maximum uptake of I-131 for different values of administered activity, varies significantly. The analysis of these parameters is an excellent indicator for the pre-define quantity of radionuclide that is administered to the patient in terms of the radiation dose required to achieve an efficient therapeutic treatment. Moreover, it was observed that the thyroid absorbed dose depends on the degree of pathology of the disease, its mass and of the maximum uptake of I-131. (author)

  7. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  8. Source of Iodine-131 in Europe Identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA has received information from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) that the source of the iodine-131 (I-131) detected in Europe was most probably a release to the atmosphere from the Institute of Isotopes Ltd., Budapest. The Institute of Isotopes Ltd. produces radioisotopes for healthcare, research and industrial applications. According to the HAEA, the release occurred from September 8 to November 16, 2011. The cause of the release is under investigation. As previously mentioned, the levels of I-131 that have been detected in Europe are extremely low. There is no health concern to the population. If any member of the public were to breathe iodine for a whole year at the levels measured in European countries, then they would receive a dose in the range of 0.01 microsieverts for the year. To put this into perspective, the average annual background is 2 400 microsieverts per year. The IAEA was first notified of the presence of trace levels of I-131 by authorities from the Czech Republic on 11 November. Since this notification, the IAEA contacted several member states throughout the region to determine the cause and origin. The IAEA also worked with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to conduct air dispersion modelling, as part of efforts to determine the source. (IAEA)

  9. Using ion-selective electrode for determining iodine-131 preparation specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnik, M.I.; Nazirova, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot facility was developed in 2000 for the production of iodine-131. The parameters of the preparation are as follows: chemical form: sodium iodide solution (NaI-131) in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (or in 0.001M NaOH); specific activity: carrier free (> 5 Ci/mg); solution pH: 7-10; radionuclide purity: > 99.9%; radiochemical purity: > 97%; bulk activity: 0.15 Ci/ml. The experimental results of investigation aimed at the determination of the specific activity of the I-131 preparation using a iodine-selective electrode are described. The method enables the analytical concentration of iodide ions in the carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH = 8-11) and NaOH solution (0.01 mol/l, pH = 8-11) to be determined. A micro-cell has been developed for the analysis of the I-131 solution allowing the sample volume to be reduced to below 0.3 ml. The relative error of determination of the analytical concentration of iodide (10 -6 to 10 -1 mol/l) does not exceed 1%

  10. Study of the distribution of gamma emitters radionuclides between a pollution abatement factory and its surrounding environment; Case of the water treatment plant of the Grand Caen district. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Except nuclear industry, diverse structures (hospitals, of research or manufacturers) can have appeal to the use of radioisotopes conditioned under unsealed shape. Such practices lead to tolerate releases in environment in the respect of a statutory device. So the collective network can contain radioisotopes the future of which is going to depend partially on the cleaning applied to waste water. This study through the analysis of a concrete case, has for objective to inform about the future of gamma radioelements present in waste water treated by a wastewater treatment plant. The contamination of the network is essentially due to Tc 99 and I 131 , radioelements present whatever the working day and the hour considered. The total estimated in-load for a day is important, of the order of 4000 MBq for Tc 99 and 15 to 300 MBq for I 131 . The assessment of cleaning of the station shows that this one plays a role towards this pollution through these stages of treatment. Within the natural environment receiving treated waters only the presence of I 131 is noticed. (N.C.)

  11. Beef contamination by Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Cruz, Camila Oliveira da; Paulo Filho, Guilherme de Souza; Pereira, Wagner de S.

    2013-01-01

    The most serious earthquake ever registered in Japan occurred on March 11, 2011; it was followed by a tsunami that flowed over the Prefectures of Miyagi and Fukushima destroying roads, cities and rice fields, but also knocking several nuclear power plants. The Dai-ichi plant was seriously damaged and considerable amounts of radioactivity were release contaminating atmosphere, soil, ocean and associated fauna and flora. A major environmental monitoring program started covering the Japanese territory and the sea along the coasts of Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. Thousands of measurements were released every day by Japanese authorities, the plant operator and Universities principally looking for the presence of I-131, C s -134 and C s -137. Drinking water and aliments were seriously contaminated. We here analyze data released during one year on I-131 and C s -134,137 radioactive concentrations in cattle meat. Along this period I-131, when observed, was present only in trace amounts, but the contamination by cesium isotopes exceeded legal Japanese limit in several Japanese prefectures, and became an acute national and international economic problem. (author)

  12. Development, evaluation, and in-vivo validation of two non-invasive methods for quantitation of activity and dosimetry of monoclonal antibodies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, N.D.; Moldofsky, P.J.; Exten, R.E.; Gatenby, R.A.; Broder, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have applied both a conjugate view imaging method and a first pass study for quantitation of absolute I-131 activity in lesions and normal tissue of patients with colon carcinoma in order to study biological clearance of the I-131 F(ab)'/sub 2/ fragments of mouse monoclonal antibody and the resultant dosimetry. Both methods require a transmission scan for determining patient attenuation and measurement of patient lesion or organ size in the region of interest. The conjugate view method is analyzed for both SPECT and planar imaging. The percent error of both methods relates to lesion size and absolute activity when compared to actual well-counter assayed samples of malignant and normal tissue obtained from CT-guided needle biopsies or surgical specimens. Dosimetric evaluation was based on determination of activity, clearance from computer-generated time-activity curves and lesion or organ volumes from volumetric CT scan data. The dose to the thyroid gland was calculated for one population receiving Lugol's solution 3 days prior and for the other who received Lugol's at the time of administration. Data showed no significant difference in absorbed thyroid dose. Lastly, the absolute uptake of I-131, lesion to background ratios, and the dosimetry data were compared for three different monoclonal antibody fragments

  13. Assessment of the Role of Different Imaging Modalities with Emphasis on Fdg Pet/Ct in the Management of Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (WDTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi A, Tuba Karagulle; Mudalegundi, Shwetha; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Lee, Daniel; Halkar, Raghuveer; Chen, Amy Y

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography is suggested to have a role in detection of iodine negative recurrence in well differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study is to identify role of different imaging modalities in the management of well differentiated thyroid cancer. We reviewed 900 well differentiated thyroid cancer patients after post-thyroidectomy who underwent recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone stimulated Sodium Iodide I 131 imaging. Out of 900 patients, 74 had positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Multivariate analysis was performed by controlling positron emission tomography/computed tomography, Sodium Iodide I 131 scan, neck ultrasonography, age, sex, primary tumor size, stage, histology, thyroglobulin. Patients were grouped according to results of Sodium Iodide I 131 scan and positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography was positive in 23 of 74 patients. The sensitivity for positron emission tomography was 11/11(100%), the specificity was 51/63 (81.0%), the positive predictive value was 11/23 (47.8%), and the negative predictive value was 51/51 (100%). The sensitivity for the neck ultrasonography was 4/8 (50%), the specificity was 53/60 (88.3%), positive predictive value was 4/11 (36.4%), and negative predictive value was 53/57 (93.0%). 50% of patients who had Sodium Iodide I 131 negative scan and positive positron emission tomography/computed tomography had a change in management. Thirty-six percent with positive neck ultrasonography had a change in management. Out of 11 recurrences, 6 had distant metastatic disease, and 5/11 had regional nodal disease. Neck ultrasonography showed nodal metastasis in 4/5 (80%). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography altered management in the presence of a high thyroglobulin level and a negative Sodium Iodide I 131 scan. Neck ultrasonography should be the first line of imaging with rising thyroglobulin levels

  14. Recent advances in radioiodine use for the management of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It has been well accepted that radioiodine is useful in the management of patients with recurrent or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Although radioiodine has been used for more than 60 years in diagnosis and treatment, some improvements still appear continuously. Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) and radioiodine whole body scans (WBS) are used to detect recurrent thyroid caner. Tg has been known to be more sensitive than WBS, and false negative WBS with elevated Tg are frequently found. However, the clinical importance of Tg negative cases with positive WBS has not been clarified. We found that 34 among 960 patients who showed negative Tg with positive post-therapy I-131 WBS had functioning metastases to extrathyroidal organs. Complementary use of radioiodine WBS is recommended to exclude Tg false negative cases. The retinoic acid (RA) is well known to induce the cellular re-differentiation and increase the expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in de-differentiated tumor cell. We performed RA treatment with I-131 in 40 patients with elevated serum Tg level but no focal iodine uptake in WBS. In 14 patients (35%), improved I-131 uptake was seen. Focal iodine uptakes were seen in 4 patients, and diffuse hepatic visualization without localized lesions were found in 10 patients. Maximal safe dose (MSD) administration based on bone marrow radiation allows the delivery of a large amount of I-131 to thyroid cancer tissue within the safety margin. We performed MSD therapy in 46 patients with differentiated thyroid cancers, which had persisted even after conventional fixed dose therapy. MSD was calculated according to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center protocol using blood samples. Mean calculated MSD was 12.5±2.1 GBq (337.3±37.5 mCi). Of the 46 patients, 6 (13.0%) showed complete remission, 15 (32.6%) partial response, 19 stable disease, and 6 disease progression. Twenty-nine patients (63%) had a transient cytopenia after therapy. MSD therapy of

  15. Long-Term Follow-up of the Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia under sedation (SPO2 < 80% or requiring oxygenation) GI 6% (5/83) 6.7% (1/15) Any lesion on endoscopy Chronic...CD20 Live/Dead CD45 2 CD4 & CD8 T Naïve & Memory , B cells CD45RA CD4 CD8 Live/Dead CD45 3 DCs CD1c CD11c CD3/CD20 dump...of CD4 and CD8 T cells and their respective naïve and memory populations. Figure 3.8: Age at baseline in the prospective cohort

  16. A case of cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma of the legs appearing as chronic venous ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carlesimo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of a woman with a cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma of the legs. She had a plaque lesion, superficially ulcerated and necrotized with tumorous borders situated on the posterior side of the right leg and two red or bluish-red nodular lesions. A skin biopsy from both nodular and plaque lesion showed a diffuse infiltrate of atypical large B cells CD20+ and CD79a+, spanning epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. A therapeutic approach containing anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab was suggested.

  17. The Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Management of Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Cherry

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used in leukemias. In the last three decades, scientists have made considerable progress understanding the structure and the functions of various surface antigens, such as CD20, CD33. The introduction of rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, had a great impact in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Gemtuzumab, an anti CD 33 conjugated monoclonal antibody has activity in acute mylegenous leukemia (AML. As this field is undergoing a rapid growth, the years will see an increasing use of monoclonal antibodies in hematological malignancies.

  18. Ofatumumab in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Lionel; Coiffier, Bertrand

    2015-07-01

    Ofatumumab is a second-generation humanized monoclonal antibody targeting CD20 registered for the treatment of patients with relapsing/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review will describe the activity of ofatumumab in patients with CD20 B-cell lymphomas. A review of all manuscript published on ofatumumab activity in B-cell lymphomas is presented with conclusions on the future use of this antibody in these patients. Ofatumumab activity is low in indolent or aggressive B-cell lymphomas. The future of this drug is challenged by new monoclonal antibodies and new targeted drugs.

  19. Treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the liver with yttrium-90 microsphere embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Timothy S; Benjamin, Heather; Kroft, Steven H; Hohenwalter, Eric J; Rilling, William S

    2008-11-01

    A 41-year-old male with a 4-year history of chronic hepatitis C presented with a 1-month history of abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats. Laboratory examinations, chest, abdomen, and pelvic CT scans, PET-CT scans, ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of liver lesions, bone-marrow biopsy, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical staining for B-cell markers including CD20. Chemoresistant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with gradual loss of CD20 antigen expression. Embolization of hepatic tumors using yttrium-90 microspheres (Therasphere, Theragenics Corporation, Buford, GA).

  20. Distribution and transfer of radiocesium and radioiodine in the environment following the Fukushima nuclear accident - Distribution and transfer of radiocesium and radioiodine in the environment of Fukushima Prefecture following the nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Midori [Gakushuin University, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8588 (Japan); Sato, Mamoru [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Centre, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Large quantities of radioiodine and radiocesium were released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in March 2011. We have carried out intensive studies on the distribution and behaviour of these nuclides in the environment following the accident. Two topics obtained from our studies are presented. (1) Retrospective estimation of I-131 deposition through the analysis of I-129 in soil: It is necessary to obtain deposition data of radioiodine in Fukushima Prefecture for the assessment of thyroid doses due to the accident. However, short half-life of I-131 (8 days) made it impossible to obtain adequate sample coverage that would permit direct determination of the regional deposition patterns of I-131 within the prefecture and surrounding areas. On the other hand, I-129 released simultaneously during the accident still remains in soil, due to its long half-life of 1.57x10{sup 7} years. In order to reconstruct the I-131 deposition, we have determined I-129 concentrations by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). A good correlation was found between the measured concentrations of I-131 and I-129 in soils collected in the vicinity of FDNPP. We have analyzed I-129 in more than 500 soil samples collected systematically from Fukushima Prefecture. Using the obtained results, the I-131 deposition was calculated in different areas and the deposition map for I-131 was constructed. We also studied the vertical distribution of I-129 in soil. (2) Peculiar accumulation of radiocesium to some plants and mushrooms The radioactivity levels in agricultural crops decreased markedly in some months following the accident and their concentrations became lower than the Japanese guideline for foodstuffs (500 Bq/kg in 2011, and 100 Bq/kg after 2012). However, some agricultural products such as tea leaves and citrus fruits showed relatively higher values. Our analytical results obtained for the distribution of radiocesium in tea trees show that the root uptake

  1. Radiolabeling of methanol extracts of yarrow (Achillea millefolium l in rats Radiomarcação do extrato metanólico de yarrow (Achillea millefolium l em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Cekic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Current study is focused on extraction with methanol, purification, labeling with 131I using iodogen method of the yarrow plant and investigating in vivo biological activity using biodistribution and imaging studies on healthy animal models. The aim of the study is to contribute plant extracts to discover new drugs in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. METHODS: Nine female and nine male healthy Wistar albino rats, which were approximately 100-150 g in weight, were used for biodistribution studies. For imaging studies four healthy male Balb-C mice were used. Quality control studies were done utilizing thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods. For biodistribution studies, 131I radiolabeled Peak 7 (131I-Peak 7 was sterilized and injected into the tail veil of rats and imaging studies were obtained using Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. RESULTS: The radiolabeling yield of each purified the bioactive extracts of the yarrow plant, seven peaks was between 79 and 92%. The highest radiolabeling yield was calculated for 131I radiolabeled seventh peak (131I-Peak 7 (92.78±5.04, n=5. For this reason the biodistribution and imaging studies were done for 131I-Peak 7. That's why; these studies with Peak 7 were carried out. CONCLUSION: Peak 7 was radiolabeled with 131I in high yield for using imaging and therapeutic studies in nuclear medical applications.OBJETIVO: O atual estudo tem por objetivo a extração com metanol, purificação, marcação com I131 usando o método direto de marcação da planta Achillea, para investigar in vivo a atividade biológica usando biodistribuição e estudos de imagem em modelos animais saudáveis. O objetivo do estudo é contribuir com extratos de plantas para descobrir novas drogas para o diagnóstico e tratamento de várias doenças. MÉTODOS: Nove fêmeas e nove machos ratos Wistar albino saudáveis, com aproximadamente 100 a 150g de peso

  2. Fulminante, rituximab-resistente, mucocutane pemphigus vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostyński, A.; Ammatuna, E.; Huls, G.; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Jonkman, M. F.; Horváth, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies against desmoglein 1 and 3. First line treatment for pemphigus consists of systemic corticosteroids and anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab) to eliminate B-cells. Since 2005, more than 100 patients with pemphigus have been treated with

  3. An approach for conjugation of 177 Lu- DOTA-SCN- Rituximab (BioSim & its evaluation for radioimmunotherapy of relapsed & refractory B-cell non Hodgkins lymphoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Thakral

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: A favourable radiochemical purity, stability and biodistribution of the radiolabelled immunoconjugate indicate that clinical trials for evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of 177 Lu-DOTA-antiCD20 antibody-Rituximab (BioSim in patients of relapsed and refractory non Hodgkin′s lymphoma can be considered.

  4. Degradation of radioiodinated B cell monoclonal antibodies: inhibition via a FCgamma-receptor-II-mediated mechanism and by drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoordeldonk, S. F.; Balkenende, A. Y.; van den Berg, H.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van der Schoot, C. E.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; Slaper-Cortenbach, I. C.

    1996-01-01

    Our aim is to treat patients with B cell malignancies with radioimmunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as CD19, CD20 and CD22. In this study we investigated the rate of internalization and catabolism of these mAb. After 24 h at 37 degrees C, 20%-25% of initially cell-bound (125)I-CD19

  5. R-ICE and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With First-Relapse/Primary Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    CD20 Positive; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  6. Combination of two anti-CD5 monoclonal antibodies synergistically induces complement-dependent cytotoxicity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Josephine L; Koefoed, Klaus; Geisler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) has been improved by introduction of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exert their effect through secondary effector mechanisms. CLL cells are characterized by expression of CD5 and CD23 along with CD19 and CD20, hence anti-CD5 Abs that engage...

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... Conclusion: Classic Hodgkin's disease (CD30, CD 15, CD20 and CD45) is the mostcommonest immunophenotype in Kampala, Uganda, and mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depleted are. August 2004 the main histologic subtypes. INTRODUCTION. Hodgkin's disease is the third most common lymphoma ...

  8. The potential role for ocrelizumab in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    as therapy for autoimmune diseases including MS lay near at hand. Rituximab was the first therapeutic B-cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody to be used successfully in MS. Ocrelizumab, a second-generation humanized anti-CD20 antibody, was explored in a large phase II, randomized, placebo...

  9. Rituximab administration in third trimester of pregnancy suppresses neonatal B-cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, D. T.; van Elburg, R. M.; Schreurs, M. W. J.; van Well, G. T. J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the effect on the neonate of administration of rituximab to a woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, was given weekly for 4 weeks to a woman with ITP in her third trimester of pregnancy. One month after the last rituximab administration a

  10. Targeting lentiviral vectors to antigen-specific immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Leslie; Yang, Lili; Joo, Kye il; Yang, Haiguang; Baltimore, David; Wang, Pin

    2008-09-01

    Gene transfer into B cells by lentivectors can provide an alternative approach to managing B lymphocyte malignancies and autoreactive B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. These pathogenic B cell populations can be distinguished by their surface expression of monospecific immunoglobulin. Development of a novel vector system to deliver genes to these specific B cells could improve the safety and efficacy of gene therapy. We have developed an efficient method to target lentivectors to monospecific immunoglobulin-expressing cells in vitro and in vivo. We were able to incorporate a model antigen CD20 and a fusogenic protein derived from the Sindbis virus as two distinct molecules into the lentiviral surface. This engineered vector could specifically bind to cells expressing surface immunoglobulin recognizing CD20 (alphaCD20), resulting in efficient transduction of target cells in a cognate antigen-dependent manner in vitro, and in vivo in a xenografted tumor model. Tumor suppression was observed in vivo, using the engineered lentivector to deliver a suicide gene to a xenografted tumor expressing alphaCD20. These results show the feasibility of engineering lentivectors to target immunoglobulin- specific cells to deliver a therapeutic effect. Such targeting lentivectors also could potentially be used to genetically mark antigen-specific B cells in vivo to study their B cell biology.

  11. [Biological treatment of rare inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the use of biological medicine in the treatment of adult onset morbus still, Wegeners granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reviewed. The need for controlled trials is emphasized. Anti-CD20 treatment for SLE patients with kidney involvement and patients wi...

  12. B-Cell Depletion Attenua