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Sample records for ccnd1 gene over-expression

  1. Tissue array for Tp53, C-myc, CCND1 gene over-expression in different tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To rapidly detect molecular alterations in different malignancies and investigate the possible role of Tp53, C-myc, and CCND1 genes in development of tumors in human organs and their adjacent normal tissues, as well as the possible relation between well- and poorly-differentiated tumors. METHODS: A tissue array consisting of seven different tumors was generated. The tissue array included 120 points of esophagus, 120 points of stomach, 80 points of rectum, 60 points of thyroid gland, 100 points of mammary gland, 80 points ofliver, and 80 points of colon. Expressions of Tp53, C-myc, and CCND1 were determined by RNA in situ hybridization. 3' terminal digoxin-labeled anti-sense single stranded oligonucleotide and locked nucleic acid modifying probe were used.RESULTS: The expression level of Tp53 gene was higher in six different carcinoma tissue samples than in paracancerous tissue samples with the exception in colon carcinoma tissue samples (P < 0.05). The expression level of CCND1 gene was significantly different in different carcinoma tissue samples with the exception in esophagus and colon carcinoma tissue samples. The expression level of C-myc gene was different in esophagus carcinoma tissue samples (x2 = 18.495, P = 0.000), stomach carcinoma tissue samples (x2 = 23.750, P = 0.000), and thyroid gland tissue samples (x2 = 10.999, P = 0.004). The intensity of signals was also different in different carcinoma tissue samples and paracancerous tissue samples.CONCLUSION: Over-expression of the Tp53, CCND1, and C-myc genes appears to play a role in development of human cancer by regulating the expression of mRNA. Tp53, CCND1 and C-myc genes are significantly correlated with the development of different carcinomas.

  2. Distinct Patterns of Colocalization of the CCND1 and CMYC Genes With Their Potential Translocation Partner IGH at Successive Stages of B-Cell Differentiation.

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    Sklyar, Ilya; Iarovaia, Olga V; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Pichugin, Andrey; Germini, Diego; Tsfasman, Tatiana; Caron, Gersende; Fest, Thierry; Lipinski, Marc; Razin, Sergey V; Vassetzky, Yegor S

    2016-07-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus is submitted to intra-chromosomal DNA breakages and rearrangements during normal B cell differentiation that create a risk for illegitimate inter-chromosomal translocations leading to a variety of B-cell malignancies. In most Burkitt's and Mantle Cell lymphomas, specific chromosomal translocations juxtapose the IGH locus with a CMYC or Cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene, respectively. 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on normal peripheral B lymphocytes induced to mature in vitro from a naive state to the stage where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). The CCND1 genes were found very close to the IGH locus in naive B cells and further away after maturation. In contrast, the CMYC alleles became localized closer to an IGH locus at the stage of SHM/CSR. The colocalization observed between the two oncogenes and the IGH locus at successive stages of B-cell differentiation occurred in the immediate vicinity of the nucleolus, consistent with the known localization of the RAGs and AID enzymes whose function has been demonstrated in IGH physiological rearrangements. We propose that the chromosomal events leading to Mantle Cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma are favored by the colocalization of CCND1 and CMYC with IGH at the time the concerned B cells undergo VDJ recombination or SHM/CSR, respectively. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1506-1510, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26873538

  3. FISH技术检测卵巢上皮性肿瘤组织CCND1表达及临床意义%Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of expression and clinic significance of CCND1 gene in epithelial ovarian neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志磊; 鲁强; 马德花; 赵淑萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨荧光原位杂交技术(FISH)检测卵巢上皮性肿瘤中CCND1基因的表达及其临床意义.方法:应用FISH技术检测45例卵巢正常组织和113例卵巢上皮性肿瘤中CCND1基因的表达.结果:CCND1基因在正常卵巢组织、卵巢良性肿瘤、交界性肿瘤及恶性肿瘤中的扩增表达率分别为11.1%、33.3%、43.5%和66.1%,恶性组的表达扩增率明显高于其他组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.01;卵巢上皮性癌组织中CCND1基因的表达扩增率与病理分级、临床病理分期及癌组织转移明显相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但与年龄、病理学类型无相关性,P>0.05.结论:CCND1基因的扩增在卵巢肿瘤的发生发展中起重要作用,且与卵巢癌的病理分级、临床分期及癌组织的转移有关,可用以预测肿瘤患者的预后.%OBJECTIVE: To investigation the CCND1 gene and its clinical significance in epithelial ovarian tumors. METHODS: The expression of CCND1 gene in 113 cases of epithelial ovarian tumors and 40 cases of normal ovarian tissue were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Positive expression rates of the CCND1 gene in normal ovarian tissue, benign tumor, borderline tumor and ovarian cancer were separately 11.1%, 33.3%, 43.5%, 66.1%. Compared with other groups , positive expression rate of ovarian cancer was higher (P0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: The CCDN1 gene plays a role in the development of ovarian cancer. The positive expression rate of it may serve as a new prognostic maker for ovarian tumor.

  4. Constitutive CCND1/CDK2 activity substitutes for p53 loss, or MYC or oncogenic RAS expression in the transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

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    Damian J Junk

    Full Text Available Cancer develops following the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations that inactivate tumor suppressor genes and activate proto-oncogenes. Dysregulated cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK activity has oncogenic potential in breast cancer due to its ability to inactivate key tumor suppressor networks and drive aberrant proliferation. Accumulation or over-expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1 occurs in a majority of breast cancers and over-expression of CCND1 leads to accumulation of activated CCND1/CDK2 complexes in breast cancer cells. We describe here the role of constitutively active CCND1/CDK2 complexes in human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC transformation. A genetically-defined, stepwise HMEC transformation model was generated by inhibiting p16 and p53 with shRNA, and expressing exogenous MYC and mutant RAS. By replacing components of this model, we demonstrate that constitutive CCND1/CDK2 activity effectively confers anchorage independent growth by inhibiting p53 or replacing MYC or oncogenic RAS expression. These findings are consistent with several clinical observations of luminal breast cancer sub-types that show elevated CCND1 typically occurs in specimens that retain wild-type p53, do not amplify MYC, and contain no RAS mutations. Taken together, these data suggest that targeted inhibition of constitutive CCND1/CDK2 activity may enhance the effectiveness of current treatments for luminal breast cancer.

  5. Peripheral position of CCND1 and HER-2/neu oncogenes within chromosome territories in esophageal and gastric cancers non-related to amplification and overexpression

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    Lucimari Bizari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interphase chromosomes have been shown to occupy discrete regions of the nucleus denominated chromosome territories (CTs, their active genes being preferentially positioned on the surfaces of these CTs, where they are accessible to transcriptional machinery. By means of FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization, we analyzed the CCND1 and HER-2/neu gene positions within the CTs and their relationship with gene amplification and protein over-expression in esophageal and gastric cancers. The CCND1 and HER-2/Neu genes were more often positioned at the periphery (mean frequency of 60%-83% of the CTs in tumor tissues of the esophagus and stomach. Moreover, this positioning revealed no association with either gene amplification or the protein over-expression status of these genes, although, in esophageal carcinoma, Kappa statistics showed a moderate agreement between amplification of the CCND1 gene (Kappa = 0.400 and its location within the CT, as well as with over-expression of the corresponding protein (Kappa = 0.444. Thus, our results suggest that gene positioning in interphase chromosomes does not follow a definitive pattern neither does it depend only on gene transcriptional activity. Apparently, this positioning could be both gene- and tissue-specific, and depends on other factors acting together, such as dense-gene, chromosome size, chromatin structure, and the level and stability of its expression.

  6. Promoter-associated noncoding RNA from the CCND1 promoter.

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    Song, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Xiangting; Arai, Shigeki; Kurokawa, Riki

    2012-01-01

    More than 90% of the human genome have been found to be transcribed and most of the transcripts are noncoding (nc) RNAs (Willingham et al., Science 309:1570-1573, 2005; ENCODE-consortium, Science 306:636-640, 2004; Carninci et al., Science 309:1559-1563, 2005; Bertone et al., Science 306:2242-2246, 2004). Studies on ncRNAs have been radically progressed mainly regarding microRNAs, piRNAs, siRNAs, and related small ncRNAs of which length are relatively short nucleotides (Fire et al., Nature 391:806-811, 1998; Filipowicz et al., Nat Rev Genet 9:102-114, 2008; Lau et al., Science 313:363-367, 2006; Brennecke et al., Science 322:1387-1392, 2008; Siomi and Siomi, Nature 457:396-404, 2009). These small RNAs play roles in regulation of translation and gene silencing while long ncRNAs with length more than 200 nucleotides have been emerging and turn out to be involved in regulation of transcription (Kapranov et al., Science 316:1484-1488, 2007; Ponting et al., Cell 136:629-641, 2009; Kurokawa et al., RNA Biol 6:233-236, 2009). Recently, we have identified novel, long ncRNAs bearing capability of repression of transcription (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008).RNA-binding protein, translocated in liposarcoma (TLS), binds CREB-binding protein CBP/adenovirus p300 and inhibits their histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008). The HAT inhibitory activity of TLS requires specific binding of RNA. The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment experiments with randomized sequences revealed that TLS specifically recognizes RNA oligonucleotides containing GGUG as a consensus sequence although the GGUG sequence is not an absolute requirement for the TLS binding (Lerga et al., J Biol Chem 276:6807-6816, 2001). TLS is specifically recruited to the CBP/p300-associated binding sites of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) and the cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) promoters (Wang et al., Nature 454:126-130, 2008; Impey et al., Cell 119:1041-1054, 2004

  7. The Association of a Variant in the Cell Cycle Control Gene CCND1 and Obesity on the Development of Asthma in the Swiss SAPALDIA Study

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    Thun, Gian Andri; Imboden, Medea; Berger, Wolfgang; Rochat, Thierry; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and asthma are poorly understood. Since shifts in the fate of bronchial cells due to low-grade systemic inflammation may provide a possible explanation, we investigated whether two of the best documented functional variants in cell cycle control genes modify the obesity-asthma association. METHODS: We genotyped 5930 SAPALDIA cohort participants for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs...

  8. Expression of Cyclin d1 protein and CCND1 та PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean up worker of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system.

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    Bazyka, D A; Kubashko, A V; Ilyenko, I M; Belyaev, O A; Pleskach, O J

    2015-12-01

    Meta. Doslidyty zminy rivniv Cyclin D1+ klityn ta asotsiyovanykh geniv CCND1 ta PNKP u mononuklearakh peryfe rychnoI krovi v uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI (ULNA) na ChAES z riznym imunnym statusom v zalezhnosti vid dozy oprominennia.Materialy i metody. Proanalizovano vidnosnyy riven' Cyclin D1+ klityn u mononuklearakh peryferychnoI krovi 39 ULNA na ChAES, cholovikiv, oprominenykh u dozi u diapazoni (0,01–2,00) Gr. Imunologichnyy status obstezhenykh vyz nachavsia za rivnem CD3/19, CD4/8, CD3/HLA DR, SD3/16/56 metodom protochnoI tsytofluorymetriI ta za vmistom Ig klasiv A,M,G metodom imunofermentnogo analizu u krovi. Ekspresiia geniv CCND1 ta PNKP, iaki pov’iazani z Syclin D1, provodylos' za metodom polimeraznoI lantsiugovoI reaktsiI u real'nomu chasi. Porivniannia rezul'tativ zdiysniuva los' iz vidpovidnymy danymy, otrymanymy vid 18 zdorovykh cholovikiv, iaki ne maly kontaktu z ionizuiuchym vyp rominiuvanniam vyshche pryrodn'ogo fonu.Rezul'taty. Pokazano, shcho vidsotok Suclin D1+ klityn zbil'shuiet'sia za normu v osib, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, ta koreliuie z dozoiu oprominennia (rs = 0,417, p = 0,048). Vidkhylennia rivnia Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh zna chen' pov’iazuiet'sia zi zminamy v klitynniy ta gumoral'niy lankakh imunitetu. Zmenshennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn za mezhi kontrol'nykh znachen' v ULNA na ChAES iz dozoiu 0,35 Gr, zbil'shennia vidsotku Cyclin D1+ klityn asotsiiuiet'sia zi znyzhenniam CD3+ ta tendentsiieiu shchodo znyzhennia CD3+16+56+ limfotsytiv u poiednanni zi zbil'shen niam rivnia IgG. Zbil'shennia rivniv CD4+, CD19+, Ireg. ta IgG suprovodzhuiet'sia poiavoiu koreliatsiynykh zv’iazkiv mizh Cyclin D1+ ta CD3 16+56+ klitynamy (rs = 0,872, p = 0,049), Cyclin D1+ ta CD8+ i IgG (rs = 0,683, p = 0,042; rs = 0,809, p = 0,014), Cyclin D1+ ta CD4+ (rs = 0,602, p = 0,029), Cyclin D1+ ta CD19+ i IgM (rs = 0,604, p = 0,017; rs = 0,538, p = 0,038) vidpovidno. V ULNA, oprominenykh u dozi > 0,1 Gr, fiksuiet'sia znyzhennia

  9. Heterogeneous abnormalities of CCND1 and RB1 in primary cutaneous T-Cell lymphomas suggesting impaired cell cycle control in disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xin; Orchard, Guy; Vonderheid, Eric C; Nowell, Peter C; Bagot, Martine; Bensussan, Armand; Russell-Jones, Robin; Young, Bryan D; Whittaker, Sean J

    2006-06-01

    Upregulation of cyclin D1/B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (CCND1/BCL1) is present in most mantle cell lymphomas with the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation. However, little is known about the abnormalities of CCND1 and its regulator RB1 in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). We analyzed CCND and RB status in CTCL using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Affymetrix expression microarray. FISH revealed loss of CCND1/BCL1 in five of nine Sézary syndrome (SS) cases but gain in two cases, and RB1 loss in four of seven SS cases. IHC showed absent CCND1/BCL1 expression in 18 of 30 SS, 10 of 23 mycosis fungoides (MF), and three of 10 primary cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (C-ALCL). Increased CCND1/BCL1 expression was seen in nine MF, seven C-ALCL, and six SS cases. Absent RB1 expression was detected in 8 of 12 MF and 7 of 9 SS cases, and raised RB1 expression in 7 of 8 C-ALCL. Affymetrix revealed increased gene expression of CCND2 in four of eight CTCL cases, CCND3 in three cases, and CDKN2C in two cases with a normal expression of CCND1 and RB1. These findings suggest heterogeneous abnormalities of CCND and RB in CTCL, in which dysregulated CCND and RB1 may lead to impaired cell cycle control.

  10. Reduced seed germination in Arabidopsis over-expressing SWI/SNF2 ATPase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Folta, Adam; Muras, Aleksandra; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2015-02-01

    In the life of flowering plants, seed germination is a critical step to ensure survival into the next generation. Generally the seed prior to germination has been in a dormant state with a low rate of metabolism. In the transition from a dormant seed to a germinating seed, various epigenetic mechanisms play a regulatory role. Here, we demonstrate that the over-expression of chromatin remodeling ATPase genes (AtCHR12 or AtCHR23) reduced the frequency of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana up to 30% relative to the wild-type seeds. On the other hand, single loss-of-function mutations of the two genes did not affect seed germination. The reduction of germination in over-expressing mutants was more pronounced in stress conditions (salt or high temperature), showing the impact of the environment. Reduced germinations upon over-expression coincided with increased transcript levels of seed maturation genes and with reduced degradation of their mRNAs stored in dry seeds. Our results indicate that repression of AtCHR12/23 gene expression in germinating wild-type Arabidopsis seeds is required for full germination. This establishes a functional link between chromatin modifiers and regulatory networks towards seed maturation and germination.

  11. A fast and efficient gene-network reconstruction method from multiple over-expression experiments

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    Thurner Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks presents one of the big challenges in systems biology. Gene regulatory networks are usually inferred from a set of single-gene over-expressions and/or knockout experiments. Functional relationships between genes are retrieved either from the steady state gene expressions or from respective time series. Results We present a novel algorithm for gene network reconstruction on the basis of steady-state gene-chip data from over-expression experiments. The algorithm is based on a straight forward solution of a linear gene-dynamics equation, where experimental data is fed in as a first predictor for the solution. We compare the algorithm's performance with the NIR algorithm, both on the well known E. coli experimental data and on in-silico experiments. Conclusion We show superiority of the proposed algorithm in the number of correctly reconstructed links and discuss computational time and robustness. The proposed algorithm is not limited by combinatorial explosion problems and can be used in principle for large networks.

  12. OCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Cao Lu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background OCT4 and BIRC5 are preferentially expressed in human cancer cells and mediate cancer cell survival and tumor maintenance. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates OCT4 and BIRC5 expression is not well characterized. Methods By manipulating OCT4 and BIRC5 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines, the regulatory mechanism of OCT4 on BIRC5 and CCND1 were investigated. Results Increasing or decreasing OCT4 expression could enhance or suppress BIRC5 expression, respectively, by regulating the activity of BIRC5 promoter. Because there is no binding site for OCT4 within BIRC5 promoter, the effect of OCT4 on BIRC5 promoter is indirect. An octamer motif for OCT4 in the CCND1 promoter has directly and partly participated in the regulation of CCND1 promoter activity, suggesting that OCT4 also could upregulated the expression of CCND1. Co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 induced cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, thereby efficiently inhibiting the proliferative activity of cancer cells and suppressing the growth of HCC xenogrfts in nude mice. Conclusion OCT4 can upregulate BIRC5 and CCND1 expression by increasing their promoter activity. These factors collusively promotes HCC cell proliferation, and co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 is potentially beneficial for HCC treatment.

  13. Over-expression of poplar transcription factor ERF76 gene confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

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    Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Shengji; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2016-07-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) belong to a large plant-specific transcription factor family, which play a significant role in plant development and stress responses. Poplar ERF76 gene, a member of ERF TF family, can be up-regulated in response to salt stress, osmotic stress, and ABA treatment. The ERF76 protein was confirmed to be targeted preferentially in the nucleus of onion cell by particle bombardment. In order to understand the functions of ERF76 gene in salt stress response, we conducted temporal and spatial expression analysis of ERF76 gene in poplar. Then the ERF76 cDNA fragment containing an ORF was cloned from di-haploid Populus simonii×P. nigra and transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method. Under salt stress, transgenic tobacco over-expressing ERF76 gene showed a significant increase in seed germination rate, plant height, root length, and fresh weight, as well as in relative water content (RWC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and proline content, compared to control tobacco lines. In contrast, transgenic tobacco lines displayed a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to salt stress, compared to control tobacco lines. Over all, the results indicated that ERF76 gene plays a critical role in salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco. PMID:27123829

  14. Isolation and analysis of a novel gene over-expressed during liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chang Li; Cun-Shuan Xu; Wu-Lin Zhu; wen-Qiang Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To isolate and analyze a novel gene over-expressed during liver regeneration. METHODS: Total RNA of regenerating liver was extracted from liver tissue after 0-4-36-36-36 hr short interval successive partial hepatectomy (SISPH). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to synthesize double strand cDNA, after the tissue was digested by proteinase K and Sfi A/B. The double-strand cDNA was ligated to λTriplEx2.λphage packaging reaction was performed and E. coli XL1-Blue was infected for titering and amplifying. One expressed sequence tag was probed by Dig and phagein situ hybridization was carried out to isolate positive clones. Positive recombinant λTriplEx2 was converted to the corresponding pTriplEx2, and bioinformatics was used to analyze full-length cDNA. RESULTS: We isolated a novel full-length cDNA during liver regeneration following SISPH.CONCLUSION: We have succeeded in cloning a novel gene,based on bioinformatics. We postulate that this gene may function in complicated network in liver regeneration. On the one hand, it may exert initiation of liver regeneration via regulating nitric oxide synthesis. On the other hand, it may protect damaged residue lobus following SISPH.

  15. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

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    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. PMID:23384757

  16. PROFILES OF GENE EXPRESSION ASSOCIATED WITH TETRACYCLINE OVER EXPRESSION OF HSP70 IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELLS

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    Profiles of gene expression associated with tetracycline over expression of HSP70 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from damage through their function as molecular chaperones. Some cancers reveal high levels of HSP70 expression in asso...

  17. Berberine inhibits cyclin D1 expression via suppressed binding of AP-1 transcription factors to CCND1 AP-1 motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LUO; Yu HAO; Tai-ping SHI; Wei-wei DENG; Na LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To verify the suppressive effect of berberine on the proliferation of the human pulmonary giant cell carcinoma cell line PG and to demonstrate the mecha-nisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine. Methods: The proliferative effects of PG cells were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetry. The cell cycle was examined by flow cytometry. The expression level of cyclin D1 was detected by RT-PCR. The activities of the activating protein-1 (AP-1) and NF-κB signaling pathways related to cyclin D1 were examined by luciferase assay. The cytoplasmic level of c-Jun was detected by Western blot analysis. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to examiae the binding of transcription factors to the cyclin D1 gene (CCNDl) AP-1 motif. Results: The results showed that the proliferation of PG cells treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL) of berberine for 24 and 48 h was suppressed significantly compared to the control group. After treatment with berberine, the proportion of PG cells at the G0/G1 phase increased, while cells at the S and G2/M phases decreased. Berberine could inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 in PG cells. Berberine inhibited the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway, but had no significant effect on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Berberine suppressed the expression of c-Jun and decreased the binding of tran-scription factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. Conclusion: Berberine suppresses the activity of the AP-1 signaling pathway and decreases the binding of transcrip-tion factors to the CCND1 AP-1 motif. This is one of the important mechanisms behind the antitumoral effects of berberine as a regulator of cyclin D1.

  18. Over-Expression of SlSHN1 Gene Improves Drought Tolerance by Increasing Cuticular Wax Accumulation in Tomato

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    Ayed M. Al-Abdallat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing cuticular wax accumulation in plants has been associated with improving drought tolerance in plants. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding the SlSHN1 transcription factor, the closest ortholog to WIN/SHN1 gene in Arabidopsis, was isolated from tomato plant. Expression analysis of SlSHN1 indicated that it is induced in response to drought conditions. The over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter produced plants that showed mild growth retardation phenotype with shiny and dark green leaves. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the over-expression of SlSHN1 in tomato resulted in higher cuticular wax deposition on leaf epidermial tissue when compared to non-transformed plants. Expression analysis in transgenic lines over-expressing SlSHN1 indicated that several wax-related synthesis genes were induced. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing SlSHN1 showed higher drought tolerance when compared with wild type plants; this was reflected in delayed wilting of transgenic lines, improved water status and reduced water loss rate when compared with wild type plants. In conclusion, the SlSHN1 gene can modulate wax accumulation and could be utilized to enhance drought tolerance in tomato plant.

  19. The effect of a DNA repair gene on cellular invasiveness: XRCC3 over-expression in breast cancer cells.

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    Veronica L Martinez-Marignac

    Full Text Available Over-expression of DNA repair genes has been associated with resistance to radiation and DNA-damage induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. More recently, based on the analysis of genome expression profiling, it was proposed that over-expression of DNA repair genes enhances the invasive behaviour of tumour cells. In this study we present experimental evidence utilizing functional assays to test this hypothesis. We assessed the effect of the DNA repair proteins known as X-ray complementing protein 3 (XRCC3 and RAD51, to the invasive behavior of the MCF-7 luminal epithelial-like and BT20 basal-like triple negative human breast cancer cell lines. We report that stable or transient over-expression of XRCC3 but not RAD51 increased invasiveness in both cell lines in vitro. Moreover, XRCC3 over-expressing MCF-7 cells also showed a higher tumorigenesis in vivo and this phenotype was associated with increased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-9 and the expression of known modulators of cell-cell adhesion and metastasis such as CD44, ID-1, DDR1 and TFF1. Our results suggest that in addition to its' role in facilitating repair of DNA damage, XRCC3 affects invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines and the expression of genes associated with cell adhesion and invasion.

  20. RNA Interference Improves Myopathic Phenotypes in Mice Over-expressing FSHD Region Gene 1 (FRG1)

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    Lindsay M Wallace; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Tupler, Rossella; Harper, Scott Q.

    2011-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies, and other diseases of muscle, arise from recessive and dominant gene mutations. Gene replacement strategies may be beneficial for the former, while gene silencing approaches may provide treatment for the latter. In the last two decades, muscle-directed gene therapies were primarily focused on treating recessive disorders. This disparity at least partly arose because feasible mechanisms to silence dominant disease genes lagged behind gene replacement strategies. With the ...

  1. Over-expression of histone H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15 enhances salt tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Yuan eShen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in stress-responsive gene expression and gene priming in plants. However, the role of H3K4me3 resetting in the processes is not clear. In this work we studied the expression and function of Arabidopsis H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15. We show that the expression of JMJ15 was relatively low and was limited to a number of tissues during vegetative growth but was higher in young floral organs. Over-expression of the gene in gain-of-function mutants reduced the plant height with accumulation of lignin in stems, while the loss-of-function mutation did not produce any visible phenotype. The gain-of-function mutants showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas the loss-of-function mutant was more sensitive to salt compared to the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that over-expression of JMJ15 down-regulated many genes which are preferentially marked by H3K4me3 and H3K4me2. Many of the down-regulated genes encode transcription regulators involved in stress responses. The data suggest that increased JMJ15 levels may regulate the gene expression program that enhances stress tolerance.

  2. Reduced BCL2 and CCND1 mRNA expression in human cervical cancer HeLa cells treated with a combination of everolimus and paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Akin; Alp, Ebru; Onen, H. Ilke; MENEVSE, SEVDA

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Everolimus displays direct effects on growth and proliferation of cancer cells via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein, which is known to be associated with drug resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of everolimus, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel in terms of cell viability and mRNA expression levels of GRP78, CCND1, CASP2, and BCL2 genes. Material and methods H...

  3. Over-expression of an Arabidopsis δ-OAT gene enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liangqi; FAN Zhanmin; GUO Lei; LI Yongqing; ZHANG Wenjing; QU Li-Jia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    δ-OAT, ornithine-δ-aminotransferase, is the key enzyme involved in proline biosynthesis. In this study the Arabidopsisδ-OAT gene was transferred into rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp japonica cv. Zhongzuo 321), whose successful integration was demonstrated by PCR and Southern blot analysis. The over-expression of the gene in transgenic rice was also confirmed. Biochemical analysis showed that, under salt or drought stress conditions, proline contents in the leaves and roots in transgenic rice plants were 5- to 15-fold of those in non-transgenic controls. Under stress conditions, germinating rate of transgenic lines is higher than that of controls. Although the growth of rice plants tested were more and more retarded with the increasing of NaCl concentration, the transgenic plants grow faster compared to the controls under the same stress condition. Meanwhile, the resistance to KCl and MgSO4 stresses was also found enhanced in transgenic rice. Furthermore, the over-expression ofδ-OAT also improved the yield of transgenic plants under stress conditions. The average yield per plant of transgenic lines increases about 12%-41% more than that of control lines under 0.1 mol/L NaCl stress. These data indicated that the over-expression of δ-OAT, with the accumulation of proline, resulted in the enhancement of salt and drought tolerance and an increase of rice yield, which is of significance in agriculture.

  4. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

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    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  5. RNA interference improves myopathic phenotypes in mice over-expressing FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lindsay M; Garwick-Coppens, Sara E; Tupler, Rossella; Harper, Scott Q

    2011-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies, and other diseases of muscle, arise from recessive and dominant gene mutations. Gene replacement strategies may be beneficial for the former, while gene silencing approaches may provide treatment for the latter. In the last two decades, muscle-directed gene therapies were primarily focused on treating recessive disorders. This disparity at least partly arose because feasible mechanisms to silence dominant disease genes lagged behind gene replacement strategies. With the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and its subsequent development as a promising new gene silencing tool, the landscape has changed. In this study, our objective was to demonstrate proof-of-principle for RNAi therapy of a dominant myopathy in vivo. We tested the potential of adeno-associated viral (AAV)-delivered therapeutic microRNAs, targeting the human Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) region gene 1 (FRG1), to correct myopathic features in mice expressing toxic levels of human FRG1 (FRG1(-high) mice). We found that FRG1 gene silencing improved muscle mass, strength, and histopathological abnormalities associated with muscular dystrophy in FRG1(-high) mice, thereby demonstrating therapeutic promise for treatment of dominantly inherited myopathies using RNAi. This approach potentially applies to as many as 29 different gene mutations responsible for myopathies inherited as dominant disorders. PMID:21730972

  6. Over-expressed Genes Detected by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization in Carcinoma Derived From Transformed 16HBE Cells Induced by BPDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE-JUAN AN; JIA-KUN CHEN; LI-LI LIU; YAN-FENG ZHAO; XUE-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To screen the over differentially expressed genes in carcinoma induced by BPDE-transformed 16HBE cells (16HBE-C cells). Methods The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was performed to profile differentially expressed genes between 16HBE-C cells and 16HBE cells. The cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes were inserted into TA cloning vector and transformed competent E. coli strain. Positive clones were randomly picked up and identified by the colony PCR method. Dot blot was used to test the same source with the tester. The differentially expressed cDNA fragments were sequenced and compared with known genes and EST database in Genbank. Results Eight known genes were over-expressed in 16HBE-C cells including eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, HIF-1 responsive RTP801, ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S29 (RPS29), mitochondrion related genes, and laminin receptor 1. Three differentially expressed cDNA fragments could not be matched to the known genes but to the EST database. Conclusion The SSH method can detect differentially expressed genes between 16HBE-C and 16HBE cells. BPDE-induced carcinogenesis may be related to alteration of at least eight known genes and three unknown genes. These expression data provide a clue to further cloning novel genes and studying functions in BPDE-induced carcinoma.

  7. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD) gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq)

    OpenAIRE

    Alisa Nakkaew; Amornrat Phongdara; Theera Eksomtramage; Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed...

  8. Prognostic Importance of Cell Cycle Regulators Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B/p27) in Sporadic Gastric Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarikova, Petra; Halkova, Tereza; Belsanova, Barbora; Tuckova, Inna; Belina, Frantisek; Dusek, Ladislav; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is known for a notable variety in the course of the disease. Clinical factors, such as tumor stage, grade, and localization, are key in patient survival. It is expected that molecular factors such as somatic mutations and gene amplifications are also underlying tumor biological behavior and may serve as factors for prognosis estimation. Aim. The purpose of this study was to examine gene amplifications from a panel of genes to uncover potential prognostic marker candidates. Methods. A panel of gene amplifications including 71 genes was tested by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique in 76 gastric cancer samples from a Caucasian population. The correlation of gene amplification status with patient survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. The amplification of two cell cycle regulators, CCND1 and CDKN1B, was identified to have a negative prognostic role. The medial survival of patients with gastric cancer displaying amplification compared to patients without amplification was 192 versus 725 days for CCND1 (P = 0.0012) and 165 versus 611 days for CDKN1B (P = 0.0098). Conclusion. Gene amplifications of CCND1 and CDKN1B are potential candidates to serve as prognostic markers for the stratification of patients based on the estimate of survival in the management of gastric cancer patients.

  9. NBL1 and anillin (ANLN genes over-expression in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Lange

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the gene expression profile of pancreatic cancer to derive novel molecular markers of this malignancy. The snap-frozen or RNA-later preserved samples of 18 pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 5 chronic pancreatitis cases and 6 specimens of grossly normal pancreas were used for microarray analysis by HG-U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide Affymetrix arrays. Validation was carried out by real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR in the set of 66 samples: 31 of pancreatic cancer, 14 of chronic pancreatitis and 21 of macroscopically unchanged pancreas. By Principal Component Analysis of the microarray data we found a very consistent expression pattern of normal samples and a less homogenous one in chronic pancreatitis. By supervised comparison (corrected p-value 0.001 we observed 11094 probesets differentiating between cancer and normal samples, while only seventy six probesets were significant for difference between cancer and chronic pancreatitis. The only gene occurring within the best 10 genes in both comparisons was S100 calcium binding protein P (S100P, already indicated for its utility as pancreatic cancer marker by earlier microarray-based studies. For validation we selected two genes which appeared as valuable candidates for molecular markers of pancreatic cancer: neuroblastoma, suppression of tumorigenicity 1 (NBL1 and anillin (ANLN. By Q-PCR, we confirmed statistically significant differences in these genes with a 9.5 fold-change difference between NBL1 expression in cancer/normal comparison and a relatively modest difference between cancer and pancreatitis. For ANLN even more distinct differences were observed (cancer/normal 19.8-fold, cancer/pancreatitis 4.0-fold. NBL1 and anillin are promising markers for pancreatic carcinoma molecular diagnostics.

  10. An Adult Male Presenting with Concurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma Involving a CCND1-IGH Translocation and Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia with a Variant (9;22) Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter M; Siangchin, Ken; Song, Sophie; Shabsovich, David; Naeini, Yalda; Tirado, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    The t(11;14)(q13;q32) involving IGH and CCND1 a nd t(9;22) (q34;q11.2) involving BCR and ABL1 are common abnormalities in plasma cell myeloma (PCM) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), respectively. However, the concurrence of the two malignancies is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of an 87-year-old male who presented with anemia and monocytosis. FISH studies on a bone marrow sample enriched for plasma cells detected a t(11;14) positive for IGH and CCND1 fusion in 92% of nuclei. However, cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) in 40% of the metaphases. Interphase and metaphase FISH studies on the sample confirmed the presence of the BCR-ABL1 fusion in 88% of nuclei but did not show any signals corresponding to the derivative 9, suggesting a variant t(9;22) with a deletion or additional material of unknown origin at the 9q34 band of the derivative 9 and a derivative 22 bearing the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. The concurrence of plasma cell myeloma and chronic myelogenous leukemia is extremely rare with less than 20 cases reported. The molecular pathway in which the multiple malignancies arise is still poorly understood, and this case provides insight into the concurrence of PCM and CML. PMID:27584682

  11. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  12. Over expression and application of the -carboxyltransferase (EgaccD gene in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an economic crop with its oil currently in high demand. In this work, the numbers of EgaccD copies, one of the key genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oil production, were compared from two populations of oil palm, one a low and the other a high oil content productivity cultivar. Real time PCR was employed and the copy number of the EgaccD from the high oil yielding cultivar was much higher than from the low oil yielding cultivar. The EgaccD was then over expressed in oil palm calli under the control of its promoter to establish if its overexpression could enhance the oil content of transgenic calli. An increase in the lipid accumulation by the modified calli was detected by Sudan black B staining. Based on this finding, genetic manipulation of EgaccD seemed to be one promising method to try to increase the oil content. Also it seemed possible to use the level of this gene as a marker to assist selection of possible high oil yielding cultivars in breeding programs.

  13. Simultaneous translocations of FGFR3/MMSET and CCND1 into two different IGH alleles in multiple myeloma: lack of concurrent activation of both proto-oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Borja; Martín-Subero, José I; Lahortiga, Idoya; Largo, Cristina; Larrayoz, María J; Odero, María D; Prosper, Felipe; Cigudosa, Juan C; Siebert, Reiner; Calasanz, María J

    2007-05-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of two different translocations affecting both alleles of the IGH gene has rarely been reported in multiple myeloma. In such a case, two different oncogenes might become transcriptionally deregulated. To investigate this hypothesis, we have characterized the plasma cell leukemia cell line SK-MM2 and a primary myeloma both carrying simultaneous IGH-FGFR3/MMSET and IGH-CCND1 fusions as shown by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. Remarkably, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that only one of the oncogene loci was transcriptionally upregulated in both instances. Moreover, the upregulated oncogenes differed between both samples. Thus, biallelic IGH translocations might exert different pathogenetic effects in plasma cell disorders.

  14. Over expression of a synthetic gene encoding interferon lambda using relative synonymous codon usage bias in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Hashaam; Akhtar, Samar; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Azka; Zaidi, Najam us Sahar Sadaf; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    Interferon Lambda (IFN-λ) is a type III interferon which belongs to a novel family of cytokines and possesses antiviral and antitumor properties. It is unique in its own class of cytokines; because of the specificity towards its heterodimer receptors and its structural similarities with cytokines of other classes. This renders IFN-λ a better choice for the treatment against many diseases including viral hepatitis and human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC). The present study describes a computational approach known as relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU); used to enhance the expression of IFN-λ protein in a eukaryotic expression system. Manually designed and commercially synthesized IFN-λ gene was cloned into pET-22b expression plasmid under the control of inducible T7-lac promoter. Maximum levels of IFN-λ expression was observed with 0.4 mM IPTG in transformed E. coli incubated for 4 hours in LB medium. Higher concentrations of IPTG had no or negative effect on the expression of IFN-λ. This synthetically over expressed IFN-λ can be tested as a targeted treatment option for viral hepatitis after purification. PMID:24191324

  15. Modulation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by TLA1 gene over-expression and RNA interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Mautusi; Kirst, Henning; Dewez, David; Melis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Truncated light-harvesting antenna 1 (TLA1) is a nuclear gene proposed to regulate the chlorophyll (Chl) antenna size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems and the chloroplast ultrastructure were manipulated upon TLA1 gene over-expression and RNAi downregulation. The TLA1 over-expressing lines possessed a larger chlorophyll antenna size for both photosystems and contained greater levels of Chl b per cell relative to the wild type. Conversely, TLA1 RNAi transformants had a smaller Chl antenna size for both photosystems and lower levels of Chl b per cell. Western blot analyses of the TLA1 over-expressing and RNAi transformants showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression was paralleled by modulation in the expression of light-harvesting protein, reaction centre D1 and D2, and VIPP1 genes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that modulation of TLA1 gene expression impacts the organization of thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast. Over-expressing lines showed well-defined grana, whereas RNAi transformants possessed loosely held together and more stroma-exposed thylakoids. Cell fractionation suggested localization of the TLA1 protein in the inner chloroplast envelope and potentially in association with nascent thylakoid membranes, indicating a role in Chl antenna assembly and thylakoid membrane biogenesis. The results provide a mechanistic understanding of the Chl antenna size regulation by the TLA1 gene. PMID:23148270

  16. Over-expression of gene encoding heat shock protein 70 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its evaluation as vaccine adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dhakal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat shock proteins (Hsps are evolutionary ancient and highly conserved molecular chaperons found in prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes. Hsp70 is a predominant member of Hsp family. Microbial Hsp70s (mHsp70s have acquired special significance in immunity since they have been shown to be potent activators of the innate immune system and generate specific immune responses against tumours and infectious agents. Objectives: The present study was aimed to clone express and purify recombinant Hsp70 from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterise it immunologically. The study also aimed at determining the potential of recombinant M. tuberculosis heat shock protein (rMTB-Hsp70 as adjuvant or antigen carrier. Materials and Methods: Cloning of M. tuberculosis heat shock protein (MTB-Hsp70 amplicon was carried out using the pGEMT-Easy vector although for expression, pProExHTb prokaryotic expression vector was used. Purification of recombinant Hsp70 was carried out by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. For immunological characterization and determining the adjuvant effect of MTB-Hsp70, BALB/c mice were used. The data obtained was statistically analysed. Results: Hsp70 gene was cloned, sequenced and the sequence data were submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Recombinant MTB-Hsp70 was successfully over-expressed using the prokaryotic expression system and purified to homogeneity. The protein was found to be immunodominant. Significant adjuvant effect was produced by the rMTB-Hsp70 when inoculated with recombinant outer membrane protein 31; however, effect was less than the conventionally used the Freund′s adjuvant. Conclusion: Protocol standardised can be followed for bulk production of rHsp70 in a cost-effective manner. Significant adjuvant effect was produced by rMTB-Hsp70; however, the effect was than Freund′s adjuvant. Further, studies need to be carried out to explore its

  17. MicroRNA-490-3p inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells by targeting CCND1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Haihua; Yang, Tao; Fu, Shaozi; Chen, Xiaofan; Guo, Lei; Ni, Yiming, E-mail: ni_yiming@hotmail.com

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • We examined the level of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells compared with normal bronchial epithelial cell line. • We are the first to show the function of miR-490-3p in A549 lung cancer cells. • We demonstrate CCND1 may be one of the targets of miR-490-3p. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the translation of messenger RNAs by binding their 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). In this study, we found that miR-490-3p is significantly down-regulated in A549 lung cancer cells compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line. To better characterize the role of miR-490-3p in A549 cells, we performed a gain-of-function analysis by transfecting the A549 cells with chemically synthesized miR-490-3P mimics. Overexpression of miR-490-3P evidently inhibits cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. We also found that forced expression of miR-490-3P decreased both mRNA and protein levels of CCND1, which plays a key role in G1/S phase transition. In addition, the dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-490-3P directly targets CCND1 through binding its 3′UTR. These findings indicated miR-490-3P could be a potential suppressor of cellular proliferation.

  18. Effects of the deletion and over-expression of Fusarium graminearum gene FgHal2 on host response to mycovirus Fusarium graminearum virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Son, Moonil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2015-09-01

    The mycovirus Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1) is associated with reduced virulence (hypovirulence) of Fusarium graminearum. Transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiling have shown that many F. graminearum genes are differentially expressed as a consequence of FgV1 infection. Several of these genes may be related to the maintenance of the virus life cycle. The host gene, FgHal2, which has a highly conserved 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphatase (PAP phosphatase-like) domain or inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) superfamily domain, shows reduced expression in response to FgV1 infection. We generated targeted gene deletion and over-expression mutants to clarify the possible function(s) of FgHal2 and its relationship to FgV1. The gene deletion mutant showed retarded growth, reduced aerial mycelia formation and reduced pigmentation, whereas over-expression mutants were morphologically similar to the wild-type (WT). Furthermore, compared with the WT, the gene deletion mutant produced fewer conidia and these showed abnormal morphology. The FgHal2 expression level was decreased by FgV1 infection at 120 h post-inoculation (hpi), whereas the levels were nine-fold greater for both the virus-free and virus-infected over-expression mutant than for the WT. FgV1 RNA accumulation was decreased in the deletion mutant at 48, 72 and 120 hpi. FgV1 RNA accumulation in the over-expression mutant was reduced relative to that of the WT at 48 and 120 hpi, but was similar to that of the WT at 72 hpi. The vertical transmission rate of FgV1 in the gene deletion mutant was low, suggesting that FgHal2 may be required for the maintenance of FgV1 in the host cell. Together, these results indicate that the putative 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase gene, FgHal2, has diverse biological functions in the host fungus and may affect the viral RNA accumulation and transmission of FgV1.

  19. Identifying Regulatory Patterns at the 3'end Regions of Over-expressed and Under-expressed Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K

    2013-05-01

    Promoters, neighboring regulatory regions and those extending further upstream of the 5’end of genes, are considered one of the main components affecting the expression status of genes in a specific phenotype. More recently research by Chen et al. (2006, 2012) and Mapendano et al. (2010) demonstrated that the 3’end regulatory regions of genes also influence gene expression. However, the association between the regulatory regions surrounding 3’end of genes and their over- or under-expression status in a particular phenotype has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to ascertain if regulatory regions surrounding the 3’end of genes contain sufficient regulatory information to correlate genes with their expression status in a particular phenotype. Over- and under-expressed ovarian cancer (OC) genes were used as a model. Exploratory analysis of the 3’end regions were performed by transforming the annotated regions using principal component analysis (PCA), followed by clustering the transformed data thereby achieving a clear separation of genes with different expression status. Additionally, several classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were tested with different parameter settings to analyze the discriminatory capacity of the 3’end regions of genes related to their gene expression status. The best performance was achieved using the SVM classification model with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 98.4%, sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92.5%. For gene expression status for newly available instances, based on information derived from the 3’end regions, an SVM predictive model was developed with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 67.0%, sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 61.0%. Moreover, building an SVM with polynomial kernel model to PCA transformed data yielded an accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 74.8% using

  20. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  1. Salt tolerance conferred by over-expression of OsNHX1 gene in Poplar 84K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuyao; CHEN Qijun; WANG Wenlong; WANG Xuechen; LU Mengzhu

    2005-01-01

    OsNHX1 gene (Na+/H+ antiporter gene of Oryza sativa L.) was introduced into Poplar 84K with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR, Southern and Northern blot analysis showed that OsNHX1 gene was incorporated successfully into the genome of Poplar 84K and expressed in these transgenic plants. Salt tolerance test showed that three lines of transgenic plants grew normally in the presence of 200 mmol/L NaCl, while the Na+ content in the leaves of the transgenic plants grown at 200 mmol/L NaCl was significantly higher than that in plants grown at 0 mmol/L NaCl. The osmotic potential in the transgenic plants with high salinity treatment was lower than that of control plants. Our results demonstrate the potential use of these transgenic plants for agricultural use in saline soils.

  2. Over-expressing a yeast ornithine decarboxylase gene in transgenic roots of Nicotiana rustica can lead to enhanced nicotine accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, J D; Robins, R J; Parr, A J; Evans, D M; Furze, J M; Rhodes, M J

    1990-07-01

    Transformed root cultures of Nicotiana rustica have been generated in which the gene from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae coding for ornithine decarboxylase has been integrated. The gene, driven by the powerful CaMV35S promoter with an upstream duplicated enhancer sequence, shows constitutive expression throughout the growth cycle of some lines, as demonstrated by the analysis of mRNA and enzyme activity. The presence of the yeast gene and enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity is associated with an enhanced capacity of cultures to accumulate both putrescine and the putrescine-derived alkaloid, nicotine. Even, however, with the very powerful promoter used in this work the magnitude of the changes seen is typically only in the order of 2-fold, suggesting that regulatory factors exist which limit the potential increase in metabolic flux caused by these manipulations. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that flux through a pathway to a plant secondary product can be elevated by means of genetic manipulation. PMID:2103440

  3. The Evaluation of Nerve Growth Factor Over Expression on Neural Lineage Specific Genes in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Mortazavi Yousef

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Treatment and repair of neurodegenerative diseases such as brain tumors, spinal cord injuries, and functional disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, are challenging problems. A common treatment approach for such disorders involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as an alternative cell source to replace injured cells. However, use of these cells in hosts may potentially cause adverse outcomes such as tumorigenesis and uncontrolled differentiation. In attempt to generate mesenchymal derived neural cells, we have infected MSCs with recombinant lentiviruses that expressed nerve growth factor (NGF and assessed their neural lineage genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we cloned the NGF gene sequence into a helper dependent lentiviral vector that contained the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene. The recombinant vector was amplified in DH5 bacterial cells. Recombinant viruses were generated in the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 packaging cell line with the helper vectors and analyzed under fluorescent microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells were infected by recombinant viruses for three days followed by assessment of neural differentiation. We evaluated expression of NGF through measurement of the NGF protein in culture medium by ELISA; neural specific genes were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results We observed neural morphological changes after three days. Quantitative PCR showed that expressions of NESTIN, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 genes increased following induction of NGF overexpression, whereas expressions of endogenous NGF and brain derived neural growth factor (BDNF genes reduced. Conclusion Ectopic expression of NGF can induce neurogenesis in MSCs. Direct injection of MSCs may cause tumorigenesis and an undesirable outcome. Therefore an alternative choice to overcome this

  4. RNAi and Homologous Over-Expression Based Functional Approaches Reveal Triterpenoid Synthase Gene-Cycloartenol Synthase Is Involved in Downstream Withanolide Biosynthesis in Withania somnifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrati Mishra

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera Dunal, is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine traditionally owing to its therapeutic potential, because of major chemical constituents, withanolides. Withanolide biosynthesis requires the activities of several enzymes in vivo. Cycloartenol synthase (CAS is an important enzyme in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene into cycloartenol. In the present study, we have cloned full-length WsCAS from Withania somnifera by homology-based PCR method. For gene function investigation, we constructed three RNAi gene-silencing constructs in backbone of RNAi vector pGSA and a full-length over-expression construct. These constructs were transformed in Agrobacterium strain GV3101 for plant transformation in W. somnifera. Molecular and metabolite analysis was performed in putative Withania transformants. The PCR and Southern blot results showed the genomic integration of these RNAi and overexpression construct(s in Withania genome. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of WsCAS gene was considerably downregulated in stable transgenic silenced Withania lines compared with the non-transformed control and HPLC analysis showed that withanolide content was greatly reduced in silenced lines. Transgenic plants over expressing CAS gene displayed enhanced level of CAS transcript and withanolide content compared to non-transformed controls. This work is the first full proof report of functional validation of any metabolic pathway gene in W. somnifera at whole plant level as per our knowledge and it will be further useful to understand the regulatory role of different genes involved in the biosynthesis of withanolides.

  5. RNAi and Homologous Over-Expression Based Functional Approaches Reveal Triterpenoid Synthase Gene-Cycloartenol Synthase Is Involved in Downstream Withanolide Biosynthesis in Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Smrati; Bansal, Shilpi; Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Jadaun, Jyoti Singh; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera Dunal, is one of the most commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine traditionally owing to its therapeutic potential, because of major chemical constituents, withanolides. Withanolide biosynthesis requires the activities of several enzymes in vivo. Cycloartenol synthase (CAS) is an important enzyme in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene into cycloartenol. In the present study, we have cloned full-length WsCAS from Withania somnifera by homology-based PCR method. For gene function investigation, we constructed three RNAi gene-silencing constructs in backbone of RNAi vector pGSA and a full-length over-expression construct. These constructs were transformed in Agrobacterium strain GV3101 for plant transformation in W. somnifera. Molecular and metabolite analysis was performed in putative Withania transformants. The PCR and Southern blot results showed the genomic integration of these RNAi and overexpression construct(s) in Withania genome. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of WsCAS gene was considerably downregulated in stable transgenic silenced Withania lines compared with the non-transformed control and HPLC analysis showed that withanolide content was greatly reduced in silenced lines. Transgenic plants over expressing CAS gene displayed enhanced level of CAS transcript and withanolide content compared to non-transformed controls. This work is the first full proof report of functional validation of any metabolic pathway gene in W. somnifera at whole plant level as per our knowledge and it will be further useful to understand the regulatory role of different genes involved in the biosynthesis of withanolides.

  6. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R;

    2013-01-01

    thoroughly validated antibodies and oligos, we give a detailed brain anatomical characterization of transgenic mice over expressing Neuroglobin. Moreover, using permanent middle artery occlusion the effect of elevated levels of Neuroglobin on ischemic damage was studied. Lastly, the impact of mouse strain...... genetic background on ischemic damage was investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A four to five fold increase in Neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression was seen in the brain of transgenic mice. A β-actin promoter was used to drive Neuroglobin over expression, but immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...... infarct volume 24 hours after ischemia. Immunohistochemistry showed no selective sparing of Neuroglobin expressing cells in the ischemic core or penumbra. A significant difference in infarct volume was found between mice of the same strain, but from different colonies. SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to some...

  7. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  8. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  9. Over-expression of Catharanthus roseus tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase in rol gene integrated transgenic cell suspensions of Vinca minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Abhishek; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Shanker, Karuna; Mathur, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR) genes from Catharanthus roseus have been successfully over-expressed in the rol gene integrated cell suspensions of V. minor. Thirty seconds SAAT (sonication-assisted Agrobacterium transformation) treatment of plant cell suspension with LBA1119 having construct () generated three stable TDC + STR over-expressing cell lines--PVG1, PVG2, and PVG3. The transgenes were confirmed by β-glucuronidase GUS histochemical assay and PCR amplification of rol genes/GUS gene. All the three cell suspension lines were found to be slow growing. In comparison to the control cell suspensions (GI = 241.0 ± 5.8), PVG3 cell line registered a growth index (GI) of 208.0 ± 10.0 followed by PVG1 (GI = 140.0 ± 14.2) and PVG2 (GI = 85.0 ± 9.6). The PVG3 cell line was also up-scaled in the 5-l stirred tank bioreactor with GI of 745.6 ± 35.3 under optimized parameters. Only PVG3 line registered a twofold increase in total alkaloid content (2.1 ± 0.1% dry wt.) and showed vincamine presence (0.003 ± 0.001% dry wt.) which was further enhanced at the bioreactor level (2.7 ± 0.3 and 0.005 ± 0.001% dry wt., respectively). Real-time (RT) qPCR analysis of PVG3 showed more than sevenfold to eightfold increase in TDC and STR expression [relative quantity value (RQ) = 7.6 ± 0.8 (TDC); RQ = 8.5 ± 0.9 (STR)]. PMID:25106473

  10. Over-Expression of ScMnSOD, a SOD Gene Derived from Jojoba, Improve Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-fei; ZHANG Gen-fa; SUN Wei-min; LI Ze-qin; BAI Rui-xue; LI Jing-xiao; SHI Zi-han; GENG Hong-wei; ZHENG Ying; ZHANG Jun

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is mainly distributed in desert, and the molecular mechanisms of jojoba in response to abiotic stress still remain elusive. In this paper, we cloned and characterized a SOD gene from jojoba named as ScMnSOD, and introduced into Arabidopsis to investigate its functions of responding to drought stress. The transgenic Arabidopsis showed an improvement in drought tolerance. Moreover, under a water deifcit condition, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines compared to the WT. Furthermore, the ScMnSOD promoter was cloned to the 5´-upstream of GUS coding region in a binary vector, and introduced into Arabidopsis. And results showed that ScMnSOD expression can be induced by drought, salt, ABA, and low temperature. In conclusion, ScMnSOD plays an important role in drought tolerance which is, at least partially, attributed to its role in ROS detoxiifcation.

  11. Over-expression of BvMTSH, a fusion gene for maltooligosyltrehalose synthase and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Joungsu; Choi, Hae Jong; Lee, Youn Hab; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Chung Ho; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Choi, Yang Do; Song, Sang Ik

    2014-01-01

    Plant abiotic stress tolerance has been modulated by engineering the trehalose synthesis pathway. However, many stress-tolerant plants that have been genetically engineered for the trehalose synthesis pathway also show abnormal development. The metabolic intermediate trehalose 6-phosphate has the potential to cause aberrations in growth. To avoid growth inhibition by trehalose 6-phosphate, we used a gene that encodes a bifunctional in-frame fusion (BvMTSH) of maltooligosyltrehalose synthase (BvMTS) and maltooligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase (BvMTH) from the nonpathogenic bacterium Brevibacterium helvolum. BvMTS converts maltooligosaccharides into maltooligosyltrehalose and BvMTH releases trehalose. Transgenic rice plants that over-express BvMTSH under the control of the constitutive rice cytochrome c promoter (101MTSH) or the ABA-inducible Ai promoter (105MTSH) show enhanced drought tolerance without growth inhibition. Moreover, 101MTSH and 105MTSH showed an ABA-hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. Our results suggest that over-expression of BvMTSH enhances drought-stress tolerance without any abnormal growth and showes ABA hyposensitive phenotype in the roots. PMID:24209631

  12. Anti-atherogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide by over-expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Ha Cheung

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is an important gaseous signaling molecule that functions in physiological and pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis. H2S dilates vessels and therefore has been suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule. Since cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE enzyme is responsible for producing H2S in the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that up-regulation of CSE expression in vivo with preservation of H2S bioactivity can slow down plaque formation and, can serve as a therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis. In this study, C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT, ApoE knockout mice (KO and transgenic ApoE knockout mice overexpressing CSE (Tg/KO at four weeks of age were weaned. They were then fed with either normal or atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. At week 16, serial plasma lipid levels, body weight, and blood pressure were measured prior to euthanization of the mice and the size of atherosclerotic plaques at their aortic roots was measured. Tg/KO mice showed an increase in endogenous H2S production in aortic tissue, reduced atherosclerotic plaque sizes and attenuation in plasma lipid profiles. We also showed an up-regulation in plasma glutathionine peroxidase that could indicate reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of p-p53 and down regulation of inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in aorta. To conclude, alteration of endogenous H2S by CSE gene activation was associated with reduced atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Up-regulation of CSE/H2S pathway attenuates atherosclerosis and this would be a potential target for therapeutic intervention against its formation.

  13. Over-expression of a grape stilbene synthase gene in tomato induces parthenocarpy and causes abnormal pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrosso, Ilaria; Bonsegna, Stefania; De Domenico, Stefania; Laddomada, Barbara; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo; Giovinazzo, Giovanna

    2011-10-01

    A novel strategy to induce parthenocarpy in tomato fruits by the induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in flower tissues was exploited. Two transgenic tomato lines were considered: a higher resveratrol-producing (35SS) line, constitutively expressing a grape stilbene synthase cDNA, and a lower resveratrol-producing (LoxS) line, expressing stilbene synthase under a fruit-specific promoter. The expression of the stilbene synthase gene affected flavonoid metabolism in a different manner in the transgenic lines, and in one of these, the 35SS line, resulted in complete male sterility. Resveratrol was synthesised either in 35SS or LoxS tomato flowers, at an even higher extent (about 8-10 times) in the former line. We further investigated whether stilbene synthase expression may have resulted in impaired naringenin accumulation during flower development. In the 35SS flowers, naringenin was significantly impaired by about 50%, probably due to metabolic competition. Conversely, the amount of glycosylated flavonols increased in transgenic flowers, thereby excluding the diminished production of flavonols as a reason for parthenocarpy in tomato. We further investigated whether resveratrol synthesis may have resulted changes to pollen structure. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of few and abnormal flake-like pollen grains in 35SS flowers with no germination capability. Finally, the analysis of coumaric and ferulic acids, the precursors of lignin and sporopollenin biosynthesis, revealed significant depletion of these compounds, therefore suggesting an impairment in structural compounds as a reason for pollen ablation. These overall outcomes, to the best of our knowledge, reveal for the first time the major role displayed by resveratrol synthesis on parthenocarpy in tomato fruits. PMID:21843947

  14. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara;

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...... is associated with developmental senescence. It was significantly up-regulated following ABA treatment, supported by ABA-responsive elements in its promoter, but it was not up-regulated during dark-induced senescence. The C-termini of proteins closely related to HvNAC005 showed overall high divergence but also...... contained conserved short motifs. A serine- and leucine-containing central motif was essential for transcriptional activity of the HvNAC005 C-terminus in yeast. Over-expression of HvNAC005 in barley resulted in a strong phenotype with delayed development combined with precocious senescence. The over...

  15. Over-Expression of the Pikh Gene with a CaMV 35S Promoter Leads to Improved Blast Disease (Magnaporthe oryzae) Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Siti N A; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Maziah, M; Sahebi, Mahbod; Ashkani, Sadegh; Taheri, Sima; Jahromi, Mohammad F

    2016-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is a rice blast fungus and plant pathogen that causes a serious rice disease and, therefore, poses a threat to the world's second most important food security crop. Plant transformation technology has become an adaptable system for cultivar improvement and to functionally analyze genes in plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects (through over-expressing and using the CaMV 35S promoter) of Pikh on MR219 resistance because it is a rice variety that is susceptible to the blast fungus pathotype P7.2. Thus, a full DNA and coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the Pikh gene, 3172 bp, and 1206 bp in length, were obtained through amplifying the gDNA and cDNA template from a PH9-resistant rice variety using a specific primer. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology was also used to introduce the Pikh gene into the MR219 callus. Subsequently, transgenic plants were evaluated from the DNA to protein stages using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), semi-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Transgenic plants were also compared with a control using a real-time quantification technique (to quantify the pathogen population), and transgenic and control plants were challenged with the local most virulent M. oryzae pathotype, P7.2. Based on the results, the Pikh gene encodes a hydrophilic protein with 18 sheets, 4 helixes, and 21 coils. This protein contains 401 amino acids, among which the amino acid sequence from 1 to 376 is a non-cytoplasmic region, that from 377 to 397 is a transmembrane region, and that from 398 to 401 is a cytoplasmic region with no identified disordered regions. The Pikh gene was up-regulated in the transgenic plants compared with the control plants. The quantity of the amino acid leucine in the transgenic rice plants increased significantly from 17.131 in the wild-type to 47.865 mg g(-1) in transgenic plants. The M. oryzae population was constant at 31, 48

  16. MiR-503 inhibited cell proliferation of human breast cancer cells by suppressing CCND1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jianting; Ou, Caiwen; Xia, Haoming; Zhu, Yifan; Liu, Dayue

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and a major cause of cancer-related mortality all over the world. A growing body of reports revealed that microRNAs play essential roles in the progression of cancers. Aberrant expression of miR-503 has been reported in several kinds of cancer. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of miR-503 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In the present study, our results suggested that miR-503 expression was markedly downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-503 in breast cancer cell lines reduced cell proliferation through inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by targeting CCND1. Together, our findings provide new knowledge regarding the role of miR-503 in the progression of breast cancer and indicate the role of miR-503 as a tumor suppressor microRNA (miRNA) in breast cancer.

  17. Over-expression of mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter enhances fruit quality in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Roopali; Gupta, Aarti; Chowdhary, Anuj; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches.

  18. Perinucleolar relocalization and nucleolin as crucial events in the transcriptional activation of key genes in mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinne, Jeanne; Pichugin, Andrei; Iarovaia, Olga; Klibi, Manel; Barat, Ana; Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz, Ewa; Markozashvili, Diana; Petrova, Natalia; Camara-Clayette, Valérie; Ioudinkova, Elena; Wiels, Joëlle; Razin, Sergey V; Ribrag, Vincent; Lipinski, Marc; Vassetzky, Yegor S

    2014-03-27

    In mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), one allele of the cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) gene is translocated from its normal localization on chromosome 11 to chromosome 14. This is considered as the crucial event in the transformation process of a normal naive B-cell; however, the actual molecular mechanism leading to Ccnd1 activation remains to be deciphered. Using a combination of three-dimensional and immuno-fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments, the radial position of the 2 Ccnd1 alleles was investigated in MCL-derived cell lines and malignant cells from affected patients. The translocated Ccnd1 allele was observed significantly more distant from the nuclear membrane than its nontranslocated counterpart, with a very high proportion of IgH-Ccnd1 chromosomal segments localized next to a nucleolus. These perinucleolar areas were found to contain active RNA polymerase II (PolII) clusters. Nucleoli are rich in nucleolin, a potent transcription factor that we found to bind sites within the Ccnd1 gene specifically in MCL cells and to activate Ccnd1 transcription. We propose that the Ccnd1 transcriptional activation in MCL cells relates to the repositioning of the rearranged IgH-Ccnd1-carrying chromosomal segment in a nuclear territory with abundant nucleolin and active PolII molecules. Similar transforming events could occur in Burkitt and other B-cell lymphomas.

  19. The use of a viral 2A sequence for the simultaneous over-expression of both the vgf gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Hill, Phil; Barrett, Perry; Ebling, Francis J.P.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The viral 2A sequence has become an attractive alternative to the traditional internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) for simultaneous over-expression of two genes and in combination with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) has been used to manipulate gene expression in vitro. New method To develop a rAAV construct in combination with the viral 2A sequence to allow long-term over-expression of the vgf gene and fluorescent marker gene for tracking of the transfected neurones in vivo. Results Transient transfection of the AAV plasmid containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP into SH-SY5Y cells resulted in eGFP fluorescence comparable to a commercially available reporter construct. This increase in fluorescent cells was accompanied by an increase in VGF mRNA expression. Infusion of the rAAV vector containing the vgf gene, viral 2A sequence and eGFP resulted in eGFP fluorescence in the hypothalamus of both mice and Siberian hamsters, 32 weeks post infusion. In situ hybridisation confirmed that the location of VGF mRNA expression in the hypothalamus corresponded to the eGFP pattern of fluorescence. Comparison with old method The viral 2A sequence is much smaller than the traditional IRES and therefore allowed over-expression of the vgf gene with fluorescent tracking without compromising viral capacity. Conclusion The use of the viral 2A sequence in the AAV plasmid allowed the simultaneous expression of both genes in vitro. When used in combination with rAAV it resulted in long-term over-expression of both genes at equivalent locations in the hypothalamus of both Siberian hamsters and mice, without any adverse effects. PMID:26300182

  20. Correlation of p53 over-expression and alteration in p53 gene detected by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism in adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer patients from India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Karim; Arif Ali

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the alterations in p53 gene among Indian gastric cancer patients and to correlate them with the various clinicopathological parameters.METHODS: A total of 103 gastric cancer patients were included in this study. The p53 alterations were studied by both immunohistochemical method as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. We only studied four (exon 5, 6, 7, and 8) of the 11 p53 exons. The alterations in p53 were also correlated with respect to various clinicopathological parameters.RESULTS: Among 103 cases, p53 over-expression and alteration were detected in 37 (35.92%) and 19 (18.44%) cases, respectively. Most of the p53 alterations were found at exon 5 (31.54%), followed by exon 6 (26.31%), exon 7 (21.04%) and exon 8 (21.04%). A significant correlation of p53 overexpression was found with p53 alteration ( P = 0.000).Concordance between p53 alteration (as detected by SSCP) and over-expression [as detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC)] was found in 75% cases.We found that IHC-positive/SSCP-negative cases accounted for 21% of cases and IHC-negative/SSCPpositive cases accounted for remaining 4% cases.CONCLUSION: Our results show that p53 gene mutations are significantly correlated with p53 protein over-expression, with 75% concordance in overexpression and alteration in the p53 gene, but 25% disconcordance also cautions against the assumption that p53 over-expression is always associated with a gene mutation. There may be other mechanisms responsible for stabilization and accumulation of p53 protein with no evidence of gene mutation that reflect an accumulation of a non-mutated protein, or a false negative SSCP result.

  1. Identification of a B lymphoid disorder defined by specific morphologic features, a del(11)(q13) and a same breakpoint far from CCND1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, D.; Callet, E.; Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire d`Hematologie, Pierre-Benite (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome rearrangements in 11q13 have been shown to occur in a variety of diffuse small B-cell lymphomas/leukemias, including, beside mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), some cases of CLL/SLL, PLL, and SLVL. If t(11;14)(q13;q32) may be considered as a hallmark of MCL, less is known about deletions involving 11q13. A series of 13 patients with a diffuse small B-lymphoma/leukemia was examined for morphology (cytology and histology), immunology, cytogenetics and FISH for some of them. According to karyotype findings, 2 groups were identified: Group 1: 9 patients (6M,3F), median age 60 yrs. without 11q anomalies. Apart from trisomy 12 (3 cases), diverse anomalies were identified including chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 17. Cases were classified as CLL (2), SLL/SLP (5), blast-rich immunocytomas (2). Group 2: 4 patients, all males, median age 52 yrs. with breakpoints in 11q13; there were 3 deletions, and a t(11;14) was present in another case. 2 patients presented with refractory disease followed for 23 and 9 months, respectively, without any consistent morphologic change, the chromosomal anomaly being present at diagnosis in 1.3 cases. Cytologically, a nucleolated cell component was the constant and striking feature and FISH study by cos 14, pHS 11, cos 17, cos 105 revealed the same breakpoint located far from CCND1. The fourth case, bearing the t(11;14), was diagnosed as CLL/PLL in cytology, but was histologically consistent with MCL; the breakpoint was located by FISH into the BCL1 locus. Even if this study needs further confirmation, it points at the 11q13 deletion as a genetic event leading to a more aggressive disease, associated with distinct cytologic features differing from MCL and a molecular event probably not involving BCL1/CCND1.

  2. Progestin and antiprogestin responsiveness in breast cancer is driven by the PRA/PRB ratio via AIB1 or SMRT recruitment to the CCND1 and MYC promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargon, Victoria; Riggio, Marina; Giulianelli, Sebastián; Sequeira, Gonzalo R; Rojas, Paola; May, María; Polo, María L; Gorostiaga, María A; Jacobsen, Britta; Molinolo, Alfredo; Novaro, Virginia; Lanari, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    There is emerging interest in understanding the role of progesterone receptors (PRs) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferative effect of progestins and antiprogestins depending on the relative expression of the A (PRA) and B (PRB) isoforms of PR. In mifepristone (MFP)-resistant murine carcinomas antiprogestin responsiveness was restored by re-expressing PRA using demethylating agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Consistently, in two human breast cancer xenograft models, one manipulated to overexpress PRA or PRB (IBH-6 cells), and the other expressing only PRA (T47D-YA) or PRB (T47D-YB), MFP selectively inhibited the growth of PRA-overexpressing tumors and stimulated IBH-6-PRB xenograft growth. Furthermore, in cells with high or equimolar PRA/PRB ratios, which are stimulated to proliferate in vitro by progestins, and are inhibited by MFP, MPA increased the interaction between PR and the coactivator AIB1, and MFP favored the interaction between PR and the corepressor SMRT. In a PRB-dominant context in which MFP stimulates and MPA inhibits cell proliferation, the opposite interactions were observed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in T47D cells in the presence of MPA or MFP confirmed the interactions between PR and the coregulators at the CCND1 and MYC promoters. SMRT downregulation by siRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of MFP on MYC expression and cell proliferation. Our results indicate that antiprogestins are therapeutic tools that selectively inhibit PRA-overexpressing tumors by increasing the SMRT/AIB1 balance at the CCND1 and MYC promoters.

  3. Identification of osteopontin as the most consistently over-expressed gene in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma:Detection by oligonucleotide microarray and real-time PCR analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Holger G Hass; Oliver Nehls; Juergen Jobst; Andrea Frilling; Ulrich Vogel; Stephan Kaiser

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the molecular pathways involved in human cholangiocarcinogenesis by gene expression profiling.METHODS: Oligonucleotide arrays (Affymetr/x U133A)were used to establish a specific gene expression profile of intrahepatic CCC in comparison to corresponding nonmalignant liver tissue.To validate the expression values of the most overexpressed genes, RT-PCR experiments were performed.RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty-two statistically differentially expressed genes/ESTs (221 probes significantly up-regulated, 331 probes down-regulated;P2;≥70%) were identified.Using these data and two-dimensional cluster analysis,a specific gene expression profile was obtained allowing fast and reproducible differentiation of CCC, which was confirmed by supervised neuronal network modelling.The most consistently overexpressed gene (median fold change 33.5, significantly overexpressed in 100%)encoded osteopontin.Furthermore, an association of various genes with the histopathological grading could be demonstrated.CONCLUSION: A highly specific gone expression profile for intrahepatic CCC was identified, allowing for its fast and reproducible discrimination against nonmalignant liver tissue and other liver masses.The most overexpressed gene in intrahepatic CCC was the gene encoding osteopontin.These data may lead to a better understanding of human cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  4. Over-expression of the Hybrid Aspen Homeobox PttKN1 Gene in Red Leaf Beet Induced Altered Coloration of Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanle XU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PttKN1 (Populus tremula × tremuloides KNOTTED1 gene belongs to the KNOXI gene family. It plays an important role in plant development, typically in meristem initiation, maintenance and organogenesis, and potentially in plant coloration. To investigate the gene functions further, it was introduced into red leaf beet by the floral dip method mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transformants demonstrated typical phenotypes as with other PttKN1 transformants. These alterations were very different from the morphology of the wild type. Among them, morphological modification of changed color throughout the entire plant from claret of wild type to yellowish green was the highlight in those transgenic PttKN1-beet plants. The result of spraying selection showed that the PttKN1-beet plants had kanamycin resistance. PCR assay of the 35S-Promoter, NPTII and PttKN1 gene, PCR-Southern analysis of the NPTII and PttKN1 gene showed that the foreign PttKN1 gene had successfully integrated into the genome of beet plant. Furthermore, the results of RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene was ectopic expressed in transgenic plants. These data suggested that there is a correlation between the ectopic expression of PttKN1 gene and morphological alterations of beet plants. Pigment content assay showed that betaxanthins concentrations shared little difference between wild type and transgenic lines, while betacyanins content in transgenic plants was sharply decreased, indicating that the altered plant coloration of the transgenic beet plants may be caused by the changed betacyanins content. The tyrosinase study suggested that the sharply decreased of betacyanins content in transgenic plants was caused via the decreased tyrosinase level. Therefore, the reason for the altered plant coloration may be due to partial inhibition of betacyanin biosynthesis that was induced via the pleiotropic roles of PttKN1 gene.

  5. Over-expression of VvWRKY1 in grapevines induces expression of jasmonic acid pathway-related genes and confers higher tolerance to the downy mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Marchive

    Full Text Available Most WRKY transcription factors activate expression of defence genes in a salicylic acid- and/or jasmonic acid-dependent signalling pathway. We previously identified a WRKY gene, VvWRKY1, which is able to enhance tolerance to fungal pathogens when it is overexpressed in tobacco. The present work analyzes the effects of VvWRKY1 overexpression in grapevine. Microarray analysis showed that genes encoding defence-related proteins were up-regulated in the leaves of transgenic 35S::VvWRKY1 grapevines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that three genes putatively involved in jasmonic acid signalling pathway were overexpressed in the transgenic grapes. The ability of VvWRKY1 to trans-activate the promoters of these genes was demonstrated by transient expression in grape protoplasts. The resistance to the causal agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, was enhanced in the transgenic plants. These results show that VvWRKY1 can increase resistance of grapevine against the downy mildew through transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  6. Early over expression of messenger RNA for multiple genes, including insulin, in the Pancreatic Lymph Nodes of NOD mice is associated with Islet Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenbarth George

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmune diabetes (T1D onset is preceded by a long inflammatory process directed against the insulin-secreting β cells of the pancreas. Deciphering the early autoimmune mechanisms represents a challenge due to the absence of clinical signs at early disease stages. The aim of this study was to identify genes implicated in the early steps of the autoimmune process, prior to inflammation, in T1D. We have previously established that insulin autoantibodies (E-IAA predict early diabetes onset delineating an early phenotypic check point (window 1 in disease pathogenesis. We used this sub-phenotype and applied differential gene expression analysis in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN of 5 weeks old Non Obese Diabetic (NOD mice differing solely upon the presence or absence of E-IAA. Analysis of gene expression profiles has the potential to provide a global understanding of the disease and to generate novel hypothesis concerning the initiation of the autoimmune process. Methods Animals have been screened weekly for the presence of E-IAA between 3 and 5 weeks of age. E-IAA positive or negative NOD mice at least twice were selected and RNAs isolated from the PLN were used for microarray analysis. Comparison of transcriptional profiles between positive and negative animals and functional annotations of the resulting differentially expressed genes, using software together with manual literature data mining, have been performed. Results The expression of 165 genes was modulated between E-IAA positive and negative PLN. In particular, genes coding for insulin and for proteins known to be implicated in tissue remodelling and Th1 immunity have been found to be highly differentially expressed. Forty one genes showed over 5 fold differences between the two sets of samples and 30 code for extracellular proteins. This class of proteins represents potential diagnostic markers and drug targets for T1D. Conclusion Our data strongly suggest that the

  7. Over-expression of Arabidopsis AtCHR23 chromatin remodeling ATPase results in increased variability of growth and gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folta, A.; Severing, E.I.; Krauskopf, J.; Geest, van de H.C.; Verver, J.; Nap, J.P.H.; Mlynarova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plants are sessile organisms that deal with their -sometimes adverse- environment in well-regulated ways. Chromatin remodeling involving SWI/SNF2-type ATPases is thought to be an important epigenetic mechanism for the regulation of gene expression in different developmental programs and f

  8. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  9. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest their Role in Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna eBhattacharjee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24. These genes were highly upregulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, auxin, salicylic acid and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/TATTG and AH2 (CAAT(C/GATTG. Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses.

  10. Characterization of Rice Homeobox Genes, OsHOX22 and OsHOX24, and Over-expression of OsHOX24 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Suggest Their Role in Abiotic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Khurana, Jitendra P; Jain, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Homeobox transcription factors are well known regulators of plant growth and development. In this study, we carried out functional analysis of two candidate stress-responsive HD-ZIP I class homeobox genes from rice, OsHOX22, and OsHOX24. These genes were highly up-regulated under various abiotic stress conditions at different stages of rice development, including seedling, mature and reproductive stages. The transcript levels of these genes were enhanced significantly in the presence of plant hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid. The recombinant full-length and truncated homeobox proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay established the binding of these homeobox proteins with specific DNA sequences, AH1 (CAAT(A/T)ATTG) and AH2 (CAAT(C/G)ATTG). Transactivation assays in yeast revealed the transcriptional activation potential of full-length OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 proteins. Homo- and hetero-dimerization capabilities of these proteins have also been demonstrated. Further, we identified putative novel interacting proteins of OsHOX22 and OsHOX24 via yeast-two hybrid analysis. Over-expression of OsHOX24 imparted higher sensitivity to stress hormone, ABA, and abiotic stresses in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants as revealed by various physiological and phenotypic assays. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of several stress-responsive genes in transgenic lines as compared to wild-type. Many of these genes were found to be involved in transcriptional regulation and various metabolic pathways. Altogether, our results suggest the possible role of OsHOX22/OsHOX24 homeobox proteins as negative regulators in abiotic stress responses. PMID:27242831

  11. Construction and Expression of Lentivirus Over-Expressing Human Secreted Endostatin Gene%分泌型人内皮抑素基因过表达慢病毒的构建与表达▲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓刚; 殷舞; 黄顺荣; 麦威; 刘斐; 李雷; 韦斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct and express the lentivirus over-expressing human secreted endostatin gene .Methods The synthetic human insulin signal peptide and endostatin gene sequences were created .pLVX-mC-MV-ZsGreen vector was used to develop lentivirus vector pLVX-hEndostatin-mCMV-ZsGreen .Recombinant lentivirus was produced in HEK 293 packaging cell line .Liver stem cells as target cells were transfected by recombinant lenti-virus,which expressed extracellular secreted endostatin ,and were screened for observing the stability of the cells ’ ex-pression .Results pLVX-hEndostatin-mCMV-ZsGreen lentivirus vector was developed successfully , and was con-firmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing .The vector could pack lentivirus with 293 cell,the lenti-virus expressed stably in the liver stem cells with human insulin signal peptide and endostatin gene sequences .The endostatin expression ranged from 18.58ng/ml to 34.20 ng/ml detected by ELISA.Conclusion Lentivirus over-ex-pressing secreted endostatin gene can be successfully developed and expressed in target cells ,which can be used for the research of tumor angiogenesis .%目的构建包装分泌型人内皮抑素(Endostatin)基因过表达慢病毒并表达。方法人工合成含人胰岛素信号肽和人Endostatin基因序列,利用pLVX-mCMV-ZsGreen载体质粒,构建慢病毒pLVX-hEndostatin-mCMV-ZsGreen质粒,通过293细胞包装制备慢病毒。利用重组慢病毒,转染肝干细胞,筛选胞外表达分泌型Endostatin的肝干细胞,观察其能否稳定表达。结果成功构建pLVX-hEndostatin-mCMV-ZsGreen,酶切鉴定及测序正确;该载体可通过293细胞包装慢病毒,该病毒携带人胰岛素信号肽和Endostatin基因序列,在肝干细胞中稳定表达分泌。ELISA检测Endostatin表达水平为18.58~34.20 ng/ml。结论分泌型人Endostatin基因过表达慢病毒成功制备并表达,可用于肿瘤血管生成相关实验。

  12. Ezrin基因敲低及过表达对脑胶质瘤细胞U87迁移的影响%Effect of Ezrin gene knockdown and over-expression on invasion of glioma U87 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃杰; 秦治刚; 孙利波; 金星一; 叶保国; 张金男; 朱庆三

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between Ezrin gene and infiltrative growth of glioma through Ezrin gene knockdown and over-expression. Methods According to Ezrin gene sequence in GenBank, primers were designed using Prime Primer 5. 0 software, with which the gene fragment encoding CDS region of Ezrin gene was amplified from U87 cells and cloned into expression vector pEGFP-1. U87 cells were transfected with the constructed recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C 1/Ezrin as well as plasmids shRNA-EZrin-2 and pEGFP-C 1 in mediation of LipofectimineTM 2000 respectively, then deter-mined for expression of Ezrin protein by Western blot, and for migration by scarification test. Results The homologies of mRNAs of cloned Ezrin gene were 99% to those of homo sapiens ezrin (EZR) and transcript variant 1 reported in Gen-Bank. The homologies of amino acids encoding by the cloned gene was 99% to that of ezrin [Homo sapiens] (Sequence ID: ref-NP_003370. 2-, Length:586), with variations of S66P, K258R, P265L and K577R, while the opening read frame was correct. The relative expression level (1. 17) of Ezrin protein in U87 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pEGFP-C1 /Ezrin was higher those transfected with shRNA-Ezrin-2 (0. 47) and pEGFP-C1 (0. 82). Scarification test showed migration of a small quantity of U87 cells transfected with shRNA-Ezrin-2 to the wound. However, in pEGFP-C1/ Ezrin transfection group, the wound was almost filled with cells. Conclusion Ezrin gene knockdown blocked , while the over-expression promoted the migration of U87 cells, indicating that Ezrin gene involved in the invasive growth of U87 cells.%目的 分析Ezrin基因敲低及过表达对脑胶质瘤细胞U87迁移的影响,以探讨脑胶质瘤浸润性生长的机理.方法 从U87细胞中扩增Ezrin基因CDS区片段,克隆至表达载体pEGFP-C1中,构建Ezrin基因表达质粒pEGFP-C1/Ezrin.将pEGFP-C1/Ezrin、Ezrin基因shRNA质粒shRNA-Ezrin-2和pEGFP-C1以脂质体LipofectimineTM 2000

  13. ABCC2基因过表达细胞株的建立及鉴定%Construction and identification of the recombinant cell line over-expressing ABCC2 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丹芸; 张洪; 彭锐; 张英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct the lentiviral vecter carrying human ABCC2 gene,then to screen out the stable cell line over -ex-pressing ABCC2 after package and transfection to HEK293 cells,thus to provide cell model to determine substrate drugs of multidrug re-sistance protein 2(MRP2)in vitro.Methods The primers were designed according to the cDNA sequence of ABCC2 gene from Gen-Bank.The gene were amplified by PCR and connected to lentiviral vector PEZ -LV105.The recombined lentiviral vector was pack-aged and transfected to HEK293 cells.After puromycin screening,HEK293 cells over -expressing human ABCC2 gene were selected and cloned.Finally,gene sequencing,real -time quantitative PCR(RTQ -PCR)and Western blot assays were performed for identifica-tion.Results RTQ -PCR showed that the ABCC2 mRNA in HEK293 cells transfected with exogenous ABCC2 gene was about 320 times higher than that of normal HEK293 cells and blank carrier HEK293 cells.MRP2 protein level in HEK293 cells with ABCC2 gene transfection was nearly 150 times higher than that of normal HEK293 cells and blank carrier HEK293 cells according to the Western blot.Conclusions Stable recombinant cell line over -expressing ABCC2 was successfully generated.The cell line could be useful in the confirmation of substrate drugs of multidrug resistance protein 2(MRP2)and the transport mechanism in vitro.%目的:构建携带 ABCC2基因的慢病毒载体,转染 HEK293细胞,筛选出稳定过表达 ABCC2基因的细胞株并进行鉴定,为体外实验确定与多药耐药相关蛋白2(MRP2)外排转运相关的底物药物及其转运机制提供细胞模型。方法根据 GenBank提供的 ABCC2基因 cDNA 序列设计引物,PCR 扩增该基因并将其连接至慢病毒载体 PZE -LV105,包装病毒并感染 HEK293细胞。用嘌呤霉素进行筛选得到过表达 ABCC2基因的稳转细胞株,通过基因测序、实时荧光定量 PCR(RTQ -PCR)和蛋白免疫印迹(Western blot)对稳转细

  14. DEK over-expression promotes mitotic defects and micronucleus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrka, Marie C; Hennigan, Robert F; Kappes, Ferdinand; DeLay, Monica L; Lambert, Paul F; Aronow, Bruce J; Wells, Susanne I

    2015-01-01

    The DEK gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds chromatin and is involved in various fundamental nuclear processes including transcription, RNA splicing, DNA replication and DNA repair. Several cancer types characteristically over-express DEK at the earliest stages of transformation. In order to explore relevant mechanisms whereby DEK supports oncogenicity, we utilized cancer databases to identify gene transcripts whose expression patterns are tightly correlated with that of DEK. We identified an enrichment of genes involved in mitosis and thus investigated the regulation and possible function of DEK in cell division. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that DEK dissociates from DNA in early prophase and re-associates with DNA during telophase in human keratinocytes. Mitotic cell populations displayed a sharp reduction in DEK protein levels compared to the corresponding interphase population, suggesting DEK may be degraded or otherwise removed from the cell prior to mitosis. Interestingly, DEK overexpression stimulated its own aberrant association with chromatin throughout mitosis. Furthermore, DEK co-localized with anaphase bridges, chromosome fragments, and micronuclei, suggesting a specific association with mitotically defective chromosomes. We found that DEK over-expression in both non-transformed and transformed cells is sufficient to stimulate micronucleus formation. These data support a model wherein normal chromosomal clearance of DEK is required for maintenance of high fidelity cell division and chromosomal integrity. Therefore, the overexpression of DEK and its incomplete removal from mitotic chromosomes promotes genomic instability through the generation of genetically abnormal daughter cells. Consequently, DEK over-expression may be involved in the initial steps of developing oncogenic mutations in cells leading to cancer initiation.

  15. 超表达Cdc20基因不影响牛卵母细胞第一极体排出%Over-expression of Cdc20 Gene Has No Effect on Bovine Oocytes First Polar Body Extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文琳; 安鹏; 李伟; 赵贵民; 史芸安; 雷安民

    2012-01-01

    As one of the co-activator of anaphase-promoting complex ( APC) , cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) protein also functions as the target of the spindle assembly checkpoint ( SAC), which is essential for the cell cycle regulation. To investigate the function of Cdc20 during the first polar body extrusion ( PBE I) , Cdc20 CDS was cloned and eukaryotic expression vector pCdc20-Venus was constructed. Using the linear pCdc20-Venus as template, the capped Cdc20-Venus mRNA was synthesized via T7 Mmessage Mmachine Kit ( Ambion). Cdc20 over-expression was performed by microinjection of Cdc20-Venus mRNA into the cytoplasm of bovine oocytes. The results showed that Venus tagged Cdc20 dispersed around the nucleus in HeLa cells. In bovine oocytes, the fluorescence appeared in the whole cytoplasm. However, the PBE I rate in over-expressed group (48. 9% ) is not significant, compared to Venus mRNA injection group (50.9%) and non-injection group (51.1%). Our study demonstrated that the over-expression of Cdc20 in bovine oocytes does not affect the PBE I rate ( P > 0.05).%CDC20(cell division cycle 20)是后期促进复合物(anaphase-promoting complex,APC)的共激活剂之一,也是纺锤体组装检查点(spindle assembly checkpoint,SAC)的靶点,在细胞周期调控中扮演重要角色.为探讨Cdc20在第一极体排出(first polar body extrusion,PBE I)中的作用,Cdc20基因被成功克隆并构建了真核表达载体pCdc20-Venus,随后用T7 Mmessage Mmachine Kit(Ambion)以线性化pCdc20-Venus为模板体外转录(in vitro transcription)获得带帽的Cdc20-Venus mRNA,将Ccdc20-Venus mRNA显微注射到体外培养的牛卵母细胞胞质中进行超量表达.结果表明,真核表达载体pCdc20-Venus转染HeLa细胞后能够正常表达,绿色荧光在细胞核周围呈弥散状分布;将Cdc20-Venus mRNA注射到牛卵母细胞胞质后,胞质内有绿色荧光出现.Cdc20-Venus mRNA注射组卵母细胞的PBE I率(48.9%)与Venus mRNA注射组卵母细胞的PBE I率(50

  16. MECHANISMS OF MRP OVER-EXPRESSION IN 4 HUMAN LUNG-CANCER CELL-LINES AND ANALYSIS OF THE MRP AMPLICON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EIJDEMS, EWHM; DEHAAS, M; COCOMARTIN, JM; OTTENHEIM, CPE; ZAMAN, GJR; DAUWERSE, HG; BREUNING, MH; TWENTYMAN, PR; BORST, P; BAAS, F

    1995-01-01

    Some multidrug resistant cell lines over-express the gene encoding the multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP). In all cell lines reported thus far, over-expression is associated with gene amplification. We have studied the predominant mechanisms of MRP over-expression in 4 human lung-cancer c

  17. In Vivo Over-expression of Circulating Dlk1/Pref-1 Protein Using Hydrodynamic-based Gene Transfer Leads to Lower Bone mass With Marked Effects on Trabecular Bone Micro-architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    DNA was subcloned under human ubiquitin promoter and rapidly injected via tail vein into BALB/cA male mice (16 weeks old, n =15) every 2 weeks over a period of 2 months. DNA, mRNA analysis, immunohistology and ELISA for FA1 were assayed to identify the expression of the transgene. Bone mass and structure were...... (Abdallah BM, et. al., JBMR, May,19(5):841-852, 2004). To further investigate the in vivo effect of Dlk1/Pref-1 on bone, we generated mice expressing high serum levels of FA1 (biological soluble form of Dlk1) using the hydrodynamic-based gene transfer procedure. Full length of mouse Pref-1 c...... (control) (198.0 ± 74.3 ng/ml vs 13.4 ± 1.1 ng/ml, pbone mineral density (BMD) compared to controls...

  18. Adenovirus-mediated neurotrophin-3 gene can over-express neurotrophin-3 in the motoneurons located at ventral horn of rat spinal cord%腺病毒介导的神经营养素-3基因能够在大鼠脊髓前角运动神经元内过表达神经营养素-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元峰; 曾湘; 曾园山

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe whether adenovirus-mediated neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene could over-express neu-rotrophin-3 in the motoneurons located at ventral hom of rat spinal cord, and derived efferent fibers of sciatic nerve. Methods NT-3 gene recombination adenovirus with green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (report gene) were injected into the sciatic nerve. NT-3 overexpression of motoneurons located at ventral hom of spinal cord were observed under the fluorescent microscope, using immunofluorescence histochemistal staining technique, seven days after injecting the gene recombination adenovirus. Results GFP positive labeling cells were observed on cross sections of L, and L5 spinal cord segments in the animals of the GFP express (the control group) and NT-3+GFP express groups. In the NT-3+GFP express group, NT-3 positive labeling cells were observed also in L4 and L5 spinal cord segments. These cells were merged with GFP positive labeling cells, and were ventral horn's motoneurons over-expressing NT-3. Compared with the morphous of ventral horn's motoneurons in the GFP express group, motoneurons overexpress-ing NT-3 showed more branching processes in the NT-3+GFP express group. Conclusion Adenovirus-mediated NT-3 gene can over-express neurotrophin-3 in the motoneurons located at ventral hom of rat spinal cord and derived efferent fibers of sciatic nerve. The finding provides an initial experimental data for utilizing further a strategy of NT-3 gene therapy to repair experimental spinal cord injury.%目的 观察腺病毒介导的神经营养素-3 (NT-3)基因在发出坐骨神经传出纤维的大鼠脊髓前角运动神经元的过表达.方法 在坐骨神经内直接注射含有绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)基因(报告基因)的NT-3基因重组腺病毒(Ad-NT-3-GFP),7d后应用免疫荧光组织化学染色技术,在荧光显微镜下观察脊髓前角运动神经元的NT-3过表达.结果 GFP表达组(对照组)和NT-3加GFP表达组两组动物的L4和L5脊髓段横

  19. 灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的克隆及超量表达对三萜合成的影响%Cloning of a sterol 14α-demethylase gene and the effects of over-expression of the gene on biological synthesis of triterpenes in Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方星; 师亮; 徐颖洁; 赵明文

    2011-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum has been used for centuries to cure various human diseases in our country, and triterpenoids are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of the fungus. Sterol 14a-demethylase (CYP51) is one of the key enzymes involved in the biological synthesis processes of triterpenes. Degenerate primers were designed according to conservative sites of protein sequences from related species and a specific DNA fragment was obtained, then full length of Gl-cyp51 was obtained using traditional methods. Genomic DNA was 1,981bp and cDNA was 1,635bp. The ORF encoded a 544-amino acid polypeptide with a theoretical pI of 6.36 and a theoretical molecular mass of 61.99kDa. The Gl-cyp51 complete cDNA was ligated to the plasmid pG1-GPD. By successful Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation to G. lucidum, we realized Gl-cyp51 over expression transforments. We found that the transcript level of Gl-cyp51 was over expressed and triterpenes production was mcrased. Further more, the transcript level of genes (Gl-aact, Gl-hmgr and Gl-ls) involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenes were also increased.%灵芝Ganoderma lucidum是我国传统的药用真菌,三萜类物质是灵芝的主要生物活性成分,甾醇14α-脱甲基酶是三萜合成途径中的关键酶.根据已报道其他物种甾醇14α-脱甲基酶的氨基酸保守序列设计简并引物,获得灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶特异基因片段,并进一步获得灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的全长DNA和cDNA序列.其中DNA序列长1,981bp,cDNA序列长1,635bp.结构基因编码蛋白包含544个氨基酸,分子量为61.99kDa,等电点为6.36.将甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的cDNA序列克隆剑灵芝超量表达载体pGl-GPD中,利用农杆菌介导的转化法实现了甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因在灵芝内的超量表达.转化子的甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因在转录水平表达量增加,三萜含量增加.进一步研究发现,三萜合成途径的关键酶基因Gl-aact

  20. Enhancing Indigo Production by Over-Expression of the Styrene Monooxygenase in Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Yin, Sheng; Chen, Min; Sun, Baoguo; Hao, Shuai; Wang, Chengtao

    2016-08-01

    As an important traditional blue dye, indigo has been used in food and textile industry for centuries, which can be produced via the styrene oxygenation pathway in Pseudomonas putida. Hence, the styrene monooxygenase gene styAB and oxide isomerase gene styC are over-expressed in P. putida to investigate their roles in indigo biosynthesis. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that transcriptions of styA and styB were increased by 2500- and 750-folds in the styAB over-expressed strain B4-01, compared with the wild-type strain B4, consequently significantly enhancing the indole monooxygenase activity. Transcription of styC was also increased by 100-folds in the styC over-expressed strain B4-02. Besides, styAB over-expression slightly up-regulated the transcription of styC in B4-01, while styC over-expression hardly exerted an effect on the transcriptional levels of styA and styB and indole monooxygenase activity in B4-02. Furthermore, shaking flask experiments showed that indigo production in B4-01 reached 52.13 mg L(-1) after 24 h, which was sevenfold higher than that in B4. But no obvious increase in indigo yield was observed in B4-02. Over-expression of styAB significantly enhanced the indigo production, revealing that the monooxygenase STYAB rather than oxide isomerase STYC probably acted as the key rate-limiting enzyme in the indigo biosynthesis pathway in P. putida. This work provided a new strategy for enhancing indigo production in Pseudomonas. PMID:27154464

  1. Over-expressed CmbT multidrug resistance transporter improves the fitness of Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipić Brankica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the over-expression of CmbT multidrug resistance transporter on the growth rate of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was studied. L. lactis is a lactic acid bacteria (LAB widely used as a starter culture in dairy industry. Recently characterized CmbT MDR transporter in L. lactis confers resistance to a wide variety of toxic compounds as well as to some clinically relevant antibiotics. In this study, the cmbT gene was over-expressed in the strain L. lactis NZ9000 in the presence of nisin inducer. Over-expression of the cmbT gene in L. lactis NZ9000 was followed by RT-PCR. The obtained results showed that the cmbT gene was successfully over-expressed by addition of sub-inhibitory amounts of nisin. Growth curves of L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 over-expressing the cmbT gene and L. lactis NZ9000 control strain were followed in the rich medium as well as in the chemically defined medium in the presence solely of methionine (0.084 mM or mix of methionine and cysteine (8.4 mM and 8.2 mM, respectively. Resulting doubling times revealed that L. lactis NZ9000/pCT50 had higher growth rate comparing to the control strain. This could be a consequence of the CmbT efflux activity, which improves the fitness of the host bacterium through the elimination of toxic compounds from the cell.

  2. NYGGF4基因过表达对成熟脂肪细胞线粒体形态及动力学的影响%Influence of Over-Expression of NYGGF4 Gene on Mitochondrial Morphology and Dynamics in Adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冠忠; 张春梅; 朱春; 朱金改; 赵亚萍; 秦大妮; 寇春兆; 郭锡熔

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of NYGGF4 gene over - expression on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics in 3T3 - L1 adipocytes. Methods 3T3 - L1 preadipocytes transfected with either an empty expression vector or a NYGGF4 expression vector were induced to differentiation. The ultrastructure of the mitochondria in adipocytes was visualized using transmission electron microscope after differentiation. The levels of mitofusin(Mfn) 1 mRNA,Mfn2 mRNA and dynamin related protein 1 (Drpl) mRNA expression were detected by realtime quantitative PCR. The levels of Mfnl ,Mfn2 protein and Drpl protein expression were detected by Western blot. Results 1. The mitochondria in NYGGF4 - over expressing adipocytes were smaller in size with abnormal morphology. Signs of mitochondrial damage ranged from swelling and reduced density to virtually hollow mitochondria. 2. The levels of Mfnl mRNA and Mfnl protein were dramatically increased in NYGGF4 - over expressing adipocytes compared with controls. 3. There was no significant difference in the levels of Mfn2 and Drpl both in mRNA and protein expression between the 2 groups. Conclusions In adipocytes with NYGGF4 gene over - expression, mitochondrial morphology is changed manifestly. Meanwhile ,the expressions of Mfni mRNA and protein are up -regulated. It can implicate that mitochondrial morohologv and dynamics are influenced in adipocvtes with NYGGF4 gene over - expression.%目的 探讨NYGGF4基因过表达对成熟3T3-L1脂肪细胞线粒体形态及动力学的影响.方法 以3T3-L1前体脂肪细胞为载体,建立NYGGF4基因稳定过表达细胞株,以空载质粒转染的细胞为对照,将前体脂肪细胞诱导分化为成熟脂肪细胞.采用透射电镜观察成熟脂肪细胞的线粒体形态,采用荧光定量PCR技术检测成熟脂肪细胞中线粒体融合基因(Mfn)1 mRNA、Mfn2 mRNA、线粒体动态相关基因(Drp)1 mRNA的表达水平.采用Western blot方法检测Mfn1蛋白、Mfn2蛋白、Drp1

  3. Effects of over-expressed Smac gene coupling with cisplatin on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells%Smac基因过表达联合顺铂对SMMC-7721细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩霞; 李艳博; 杜海英; 刘颖; 孙磊; 金明华; 孙志伟

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of over-expressed Smae gene combined with eisplatin (CDDP) on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic carcinoma cells. Methods The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1+-hSmac was introduced into the human hepatic carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells using a lipusome-mediated method. The expression of Smac protein was detected by Western blot and flow eytometry.The cells were treated with three different doses of CDDP, 5, 15 and 25 μg/ml, for 24 hours after the transfection.MTr colorimetry was used to detect the cellular growth-inhibitory effects; acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining (AO/EB) and flow cytometry with annexin V-PI double staining methods were used to detect the changes of cell apoptosis. Results Western blot and flow cytometry results demonstrated that the Smac protein level in SMMC-7721 cells was significantly increased after the transfection (P < 0.01). Compared with that of the control group, the over-expressed Smae gene inhibited the cell growth and induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.01). After being treated with CDDP, the inhibitory rates were increased significantly with increasing concentrations of CDDP compared with that of the control group, and the inhibitory rate of the CDDP-treated plus Smae group was significantly higher than that of the CDDP-treated group (P < 0.01). The results detected by AO/EB and flow cytometry demonstrated that the apoptotic rates of CDDP-treated plus Smac group were higher than those of the CDDP-treated group (P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that the Smac over-expression enhanced the effects of cell growth inhibition and apoptotic promotion induced by CDDP. Conclusion The pro-apoptotic Smac gene could be over-expressed in hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells and inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Moreover the over-expressed Smac could enhance the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of SMMC-7721 to cisplatin. This experimental work may help in further study on the regulatory

  4. CDK2-AP1基因过表达对乳腺癌MCF-7细胞增殖及周期的影响%Effect of CDK2-AP1 gene over-expression on proliferation and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓燕; 周卫兵; 黄隽; 王龙云; 廖遇平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To over-express cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2-AP1) gene, and investigate its effect on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Methods: CDK2-AP1 gene coding region was cloned into lentivirus vector. Lentivirus particles were infected into MCF-7 cells to upregulate the expression of CDK2-AP1 gene. The expression level of CDK2-AP1 was detected at both mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and Western blot. MTT assay, colony formatting assay, and flow cytometry were performed to detect the change of proliferation and cell cycle in MCF-7 cells. We examined the expression of cell cycle associated genes (CDK2, CDK4, P16Ink4A, and P2lCiP1/Wafl) followed by CDK2-AP1 over-expression by Western blot.Results: CDK2-AP1 gene was up-regulated significantly at both mRNA (6.94 folds) and protein level. MTT based growth curve, colony formatting assay and flow cytometry showed that CDK2- API over-expression lentivirus inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with statistical difference (P<0.05). In addition, with CDK2-AP1 over-expression, MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 phase accompanied by apoptosis. Western blot showed that the expression level of P21Clpl/wafl and P16Int4A was upregulated, while the expression level of CDK2 and CDK4, members of the CDK family, was downregulated.Conclusion: CDK2-AP1 gene plays a cancer suppressor role in breast cancer. Its function includes inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and arresting the cell cycle in G, phase.%目的:通过过表达手段上调细胞周期调节蛋白依赖性激酶2-关联蛋白1(CDK2-AP1)基因在乳腺癌细胞MCF-7中的表达,并观察其对MCF-7细胞生长和细胞周期调控的作用.方法:将CDK2-AP1基因的编码框构建于慢病毒表达载体,导入MCF-7细胞,应用实时定量PCR和Western印迹验证CDK2-AP1基因mRNA和蛋白的表达效率.利用MTT法绘制生长曲线、克隆形成实验观察CDK2-AP1

  5. Detection of t(12;14)(p13;q32) in a patient with IGH-CCND1 negative mantle cell lymphoma resembling ultra-high risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yi; Wang, Rong; Fan, Lei; Qiu, Hairong; Wu, Yujie; Chen, Yaoyu; Xu, Wei; Li, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    t(12;14)(p13;q32) is a rare recurrent chromosomal translocation, which has only been identified in a small subgroup of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) without typical t(11;14)(q13;q32). This rearrangement causes aberrant over-expression of cyclin D2 (CCND2), which disrupts the normal cell cycle. Here we report a subtle case of MCL with t(12;14)(p13;q32) that was initially misdiagnosed as ultra-high risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A 60-year-old male patient presented with obvious leukocyto...

  6. Effects of resistin-like molecule β over-expression on gastric cancer cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Duan Zheng; Chun-Lei Yang; Teng Qi; Meng Qi; Ling Tong; Qiang-Song Tong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of resistin-like molecule β (RELMβ) over-expression on the invasion,metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells.METHODS:Human RELMβ encoding expression vector was constructed and transfected into the RELMβ lowly-expressed gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45.Gene expression was measured by Western blotting,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR.Cell proliferation was measured by 2-(4,5-dimethyltriazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetry,colony formation and 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine incorporation assays.The in vitro migration,invasion and metastasis of cancer cells were measured by cell adhesion assay,scratch assay and matrigel invasion assay.The angiogenic capabilities of cancer cells were measured by tube formation of endothelial cells.RESULTS:Transfection of RELMβ vector into SGC-7901 and MKN-45 cells resulted in over-expression of RELMβ,which did not influence the cellular proliferation.However,over-expression of RELMβ suppressed the in vitro adhesion,invasion and metastasis of cancer cells,accompanied by decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9.Moreover,transfection of RELMβ attenuated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and in vitro angiogenic capabilities of cancer cells.CONCLUSION:Over-expression of RELMβ abolishes the invasion,metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells in vitro,suggesting its potentials as a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  7. NOR1基因转染对肝癌细胞HepG2基因表达谱的影响%Changes in Global Gene Expression Induced by NOR1 Over-expression in HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登清; 唐华; 桂嵘; 聂新民

    2008-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has cloned a novel gene NOR1 and showed its extensive expression in normal tissues and down-regulation in carcinomas. To further investigate its downstream target genes and better understand its function, NOR1 was over-expressed in HepG2 hepatoma cells and global changes in gene expressions from a stable line were identified by cDNA microarrays. The results discovered 59 genes up-regulated in these cells compared with the original cells, including Grb2, HBP17,TNFRSF11B genes that have been implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer development. In addition, 103 down-regalated genes were also identified, including genes encoding Bik, MAP2K6 and ZFP95 proteins. The expression patterns of certain genes identified by microarrays were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and the results showed that expression difference were statistically significant (P< 0.05). These data suggest that NOR1 may influence the biology and cancerous behaviors of HepG2 cells by regulating expression of a set of genes involved in signal traasduction, cell cycle regulation, transcription and Wanslation controls.%NOR1基因是一在正常组织中广泛表达且在肿瘤组织中表达下调的新基因.为进一步研究NOR1基因的功能和寻找其下游基因,利用脂质体技术将NOR1基因转染进HepG2细胞,采用cDNA微阵列技术分析其基因表达谱的改变.试验表明NOR1基因的转染能使Grb2,HBP17,TNFRSF11B等59个基因上调,同时也下调Bik,MAp2K6,ZFP95等103个基因.随后用实时荧光定量PCR对cDNA 微阵列结果中上述3个上调表达基因进行验证,结果表明,基因表达差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),荧光定量PCR结果与微阵列结果相符.这些结果提示,NOR1基因对肝癌HepG2细胞的生物学行为的影响可能与它对细胞信号转导,细胞周期调控,转录、翻译调控相关基因的表达影响有关.

  8. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  9. 东莞大蕉超表达拟南芥GBF1基因及其抗寒性检测%Over-Expression of the Arabidopsis CBF1 Gene in Dongguandajiao (Musa spp.ABB group) and Detection of Its Cold Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 胡春华; 杜发秀; 张玉娥; 魏岳荣; 易干军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究超表达拟南芥CBF1基因(AtCBF1)对大蕉抗寒性的影响,为从大蕉克隆抗寒相关基因奠定基础.[方法]采用农杆菌介导法转化东莞大蕉的胚性细胞悬浮系,获得转AtCBF1基因的大蕉植株;利用GUS组织染色、PCR、RT-PCR以及RT-qPCR对转基因植株进行鉴定;比较低温处理后的转基因株系和对照的冷害特征以及超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量等生理生化指标,鉴定转基因大蕉植株的抗寒能力.[结果]试验共获得6个抗性再生转化系.GUS组织染色结果表明,除T1外,其余均为阳性;PCR鉴定结果表明,AtCBF1在6个抗性再生转化系均为阳性,而GUS基因在T1转化系中没有检测出;RT-PCR结果表明,AtCBF1在6个转化系均得到表达,对T1、T2和T3 3个转化系进行RT-qPCR检测发现,AtCBF1基因在3个转基因株系表达水平存在差异;在低温处理下,转基因植株的叶片相对电导率、MDA的累积都低于非转基因植株,而SOD总活性高于对照;低温处理条件下,转基因植株叶片的冷害症状明显轻于对照.[结论]At CBF1在大蕉中超表达,具有增强大蕉SOD活性,降低因低温导致的MDA含量和离子渗漏率,缓解质膜过氧程度,进而改善大蕉植株抗低温胁迫的能力.%[Objective] To elucidate the effects of over-expression of AtCBFl gene on tolerance to low-temperature in Musa ABB cv. Dongguandajiao and establish a foundation for cloning cold resistance relative genes from Dongguandajiao. [Method! Transgenic plants transformed by AtCBFl gene were generated based on Agrobacterium tumerficiens-taedizted transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) of Dongguandajiao. The transgenic plants were confirmed via GUS staining, PCR, RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR(RT-qPCR). The cold tolerance of transgenic plants were evaluated by the comparisons of plant morphology and physiological parameters such as chilling injury symptom

  10. pitx2基因早期过量表达对斑马鱼牙齿生长发育相关基因的影响%The effect of pitx2 over expression on the expression of the genes involved in tooth development in the early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琼琼; 王娟; 赵庆顺; 李谨

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of pitx2 over expression on the expression of the genes involved in tooth development in the early stage. METHODS: Specific gene fragment of pitx2 gene was cloned and the restriction enzyme cutting site in the two terminals was inserted. Pitx2 mRNA was synthesized by reverse transcription -polymerase chain reaction( RT-PCR) using the pitx2 coding sequence( CDS) as the template. 100 zebrafish embryos (0h) were used in each of the following groupes; in groupe Ⅰ pitx2 mRNA at 200 pg/nL was microinjected into a zebrafish embryo and in group Ⅱ at 100pg/nL; in group Ⅲ100 pg/nL yellow fluorescent protein ( YFP) mRNA was given as the control and in group Ⅳ the natural mating was served as the wild type control. The development of the zebrafish embryos was observed for 72 h. Bmp4 , fgf8 , dlx2b , runx2a and left expressions of the embryos in the 4 groups were examined at 24 h,48 h and 72 h respectively after microinjection by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and grayscale value analysis. RESULTS: pitx2 mRNA was synthesized and identified. In group Ⅰ 66% embryos died in 24h after microinjection , the development of the rest zebrafish embryos was arrested or in dysgenesis. The survival ratios of the other 3 groupes were 84% or more. In groupe fl development arrest, pericardial edema, spinal deformity and eye malformations were observed in 72 h; bmp4 expression was down regulated, fgf8 , lef1 and runx2a expressions were up regulated , dlx2b expression was not changed. CONCLUSION: pitx2 over expression may impact the expression of the genes involved in tooth development in the early stage.%目的:研究pitx2基因早期过量表达对斑马鱼牙齿发育相关基因的影响.方法:利用RT-PCR技术克隆pitx2特异性基因片段;插入特异性酶切位点后以之为模板体外合成pitx2 mRNA.选取正常交配获得的斑马鱼胚胎,随机分为4组采用显微注射技术构建pitx2过表达模型:实验1组注射pitx2 mRNA200 pg

  11. The Study of Over-expression of the Auxin Influx Carrier Gene PtAUX1 in Populus tomentosa Carr.%毛白杨生长素载体蛋白基因PtAUX1超表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淑惠; 闫辉; 左曼曼; 郎庆雯; 樊金会

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to study the action of genes encoding auxin signaling components in plants development. P. tomentosa and Arabidopsis were chosen as the research object in the paper. PtAUXl complied with the role of auxin characteristics and influenced organ morphology through the regulation of auxin polar transport in the distribution of the plants. By using expression vector of P. tomentosa PtAUXl constructed by our laboratory, the auxin influx import carrier PtA UX1 was transformed into Arabidopsis and Poplar. PtA UX1 transgenic plants were detected by PCR, and the phenotypes of transgenic plants and morphologic characters cultured in vivo were analyzed. The experiments showed that the over-expression of PtAUXl influenced many organs of the morphological development. Transgenic plant of Poplar had vigorous growth and spire. Transgenic plant of Arabidopsis had grown in groveling, not altered root geotropism, trichome number increased on the stem, and abnormal floral organs. The results indicated that PtAUXl promoted cells and tissues to absorb endogenesis IAA by auxin polar transport, and then participated in organ polarity establishment, and influenced morphology and development of the organs.q%以毛白杨和拟南芥为研究对象,研究生长素信号转导因子基因在植物发育过程中的作用.利用构建好的tAUX1的表达载体,转化拟南芥和毛白杨,获得转基因植株,通过PCR技术检测转化植株,分析植株表型并观察植株离体条件下的形态变化.结果显示PtAUX1影响植株各器官的形态发育,毛白杨长势旺盛、外植体有莲座状幼叶产生,拟南芥出现了匍匐生长、不改变根的向地性、茎上的表皮毛增多、花器官畸形等现象.以上结果表明PtAUX1基因通过生长素极性运输,促进各细胞、组织对内源生长素IAA的吸收,进而参与器官极性的建立,影响各器官的形态和发育过程.

  12. Over-expression of DSCAM and COL6A2 cooperatively generates congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar R Grossman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant current challenge in human genetics is the identification of interacting genetic loci mediating complex polygenic disorders. One of the best characterized polygenic diseases is Down syndrome (DS, which results from an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. A short interval near the distal tip of chromosome 21 contributes to congenital heart defects (CHD, and a variety of indirect genetic evidence suggests that multiple candidate genes in this region may contribute to this phenotype. We devised a tiered genetic approach to identify interacting CHD candidate genes. We first used the well vetted Drosophila heart as an assay to identify interacting CHD candidate genes by expressing them alone and in all possible pairwise combinations and testing for effects on rhythmicity or heart failure following stress. This comprehensive analysis identified DSCAM and COL6A2 as the most strongly interacting pair of genes. We then over-expressed these two genes alone or in combination in the mouse heart. While over-expression of either gene alone did not affect viability and had little or no effect on heart physiology or morphology, co-expression of the two genes resulted in ≈50% mortality and severe physiological and morphological defects, including atrial septal defects and cardiac hypertrophy. Cooperative interactions between DSCAM and COL6A2 were also observed in the H9C2 cardiac cell line and transcriptional analysis of this interaction points to genes involved in adhesion and cardiac hypertrophy. Our success in defining a cooperative interaction between DSCAM and COL6A2 suggests that the multi-tiered genetic approach we have taken involving human mapping data, comprehensive combinatorial screening in Drosophila, and validation in vivo in mice and in mammalian cells lines should be applicable to identifying specific loci mediating a broad variety of other polygenic disorders.

  13. Gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1 over-expression protects kidney from ischemiareperfusion injury in rats%转基因诱导人血红素加氧酶1过表达对大鼠肾脏缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕金星; 严春寅; 浦金贤; 侯建全; 袁和兴; 平季根

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察转基因方法诱导人血红素加氧酶1(hHO-1)过表达对大鼠肾脏缺血再灌注损伤的作用.方法 构建SD大鼠的肾脏缺血再灌注模型.治疗组(18只),经供肾动脉用负载人血红素加氧酶-1腺病毒(Ad-hHO-1)2.5×109pfu/只灌注保存1 h用以转染肾细胞.模型组(12只)和空载体组(18只)则分别用生理盐水1.0 ml和腺病毒空载体(Ad-EGFP)2.5×109pfu/只代替.检测各组大鼠外周血尿素氮和肌酐水平;HE染色和电镜观察缺血再灌注损伤后肾脏的组织形态变化;原位末端标记(TUNEL)法检测肾组织中细胞凋亡情况;免疫组化方法观察肾脏内hHO-1的表达;定量检测肾组织中hHO-1的酶活性.结果 经肾动脉灌注Ad-hHO-1可以成功转染大鼠肾脏细胞,治疗组肾组织中hHO-1的酶活性[(1.62±0.07)nmol·mg-1·min-1]明显高于模型组[(1.27±0.07)nmol·mg-1·min-1]和空载体组[(1.22±0.06)nmol·mg-1·min-1](P<0.01).免疫组化证实治疗组的肾组织内有大量hHO-1表达,而凋亡细胞减少,相应的肾功能生化检查及肾组织形态变化较模型组和空载体组明显改善.结论 hHO-1在大鼠肾脏中的过表达可以显著减弱缺血再灌注对肾脏引起的损伤.%Objective To study the protection of gene transfer-induced human heme oxygenase-1over-expression against renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods The model of kidney ischemiareperfusion injury was established with Sprague-Dawley rats. In the therapy group (n = 18) ,the left kidney was perfused and preserved with Ad-hHO-1 at 2. 5 × 109 pfu/1. 0 ml after flushed with 0 ~4 ℃ HC-A organ storage solution via donor renal aorta. The rats in control groups were perfused with 0. 9% saline solution ( n = 12) or the vector carrying no interest gene Ad-EGFP 2. 5 × 109 pfu/1. 0 ml ( n = 18 ) instead of AdhHO-1. BUN and Cr in serum were measured by slide chemical methods. The kidney samples of rats were harvested for assay of histology

  14. The transcriptomic fingerprint of glucoamylase over-expression in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger are well known for their exceptionally high capacity for secretion of proteins, organic acids, and secondary metabolites and they are therefore used in biotechnology as versatile microbial production platforms. However, system-wide insights into their metabolic and secretory capacities are sparse and rational strain improvement approaches are therefore limited. In order to gain a genome-wide view on the transcriptional regulation of the protein secretory pathway of A. niger, we investigated the transcriptome of A. niger when it was forced to overexpression the glaA gene (encoding glucoamylase, GlaA and secrete GlaA to high level. Results An A. niger wild-type strain and a GlaA over-expressing strain, containing multiple copies of the glaA gene, were cultivated under maltose-limited chemostat conditions (specific growth rate 0.1 h-1. Elevated glaA mRNA and extracellular GlaA levels in the over-expressing strain were accompanied by elevated transcript levels from 772 genes and lowered transcript levels from 815 genes when compared to the wild-type strain. Using GO term enrichment analysis, four higher-order categories were identified in the up-regulated gene set: i endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane translocation, ii protein glycosylation, iii vesicle transport, and iv ion homeostasis. Among these, about 130 genes had predicted functions for the passage of proteins through the ER and those genes included target genes of the HacA transcription factor that mediates the unfolded protein response (UPR, e.g. bipA, clxA, prpA, tigA and pdiA. In order to identify those genes that are important for high-level secretion of proteins by A. niger, we compared the transcriptome of the GlaA overexpression strain of A. niger with six other relevant transcriptomes of A. niger. Overall, 40 genes were found to have either elevated (from 36 genes or lowered (from 4 genes transcript levels under all

  15. Over-expression of carboxypeptidase of extreme thermophile pyrococcus furiosus in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles are potential source of thermostable proteases for economical application. This study deals with cloning and over-expression of a carboxypeptidase (CBP) from the extreme thermophile archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus in E. coli. Using the forward and the reverse primers designed according to the putative CBP gene sequence analysed from the published genome sequence of P. furiosus, 1.5 kb fragment of CBP gene was PCR amplified. After TA-cloning in pTZ57R/T vector, the gene was ligated into pET-22b(+) and the recombinant plasmid thus obtained was used to transform E. coli BL21 (DE3)RIPL. On induction with IPTG for 6-8 hours CBP was expressed up to 30% of the total cell proteins. The enzyme, however, was expressed in an insoluble form which was refolded to an active state by treatment with urea. (author)

  16. 苎麻胞液型谷氨酰胺合成酶基因的克隆和超量表达载体构建%Cloning and Construction of Over -expression Vector of GS1 Gene from Ramie (Boehmeria nivea Gaud)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建树; 喻春明; 陈平; 王延周; 谭龙涛; 朱涛涛; 陈继康; 卢凌霄; 熊和平

    2014-01-01

    The glutamine synthetase (GS) incluing cytosolic (GS1) and plastid (GS2) is an essen-tial enzyme in nitrogen metabolism pathway of higher plants.We reported the first cloning of cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene BnGS1-1 from ramie ( Boehmeria nivea Gaud) .The cDNA of BnGS1-1 with length of 1205 bp encoded GS1 polypeptide of 356 amino acids.Sequence and structural analyses showed that BnGS1-1 protein contained beta -Grasp and catalytic functional domains that were conser-vative with other plants GS.The pI and Mw was 5.64 and 39.19 KDa, the residues in site 56, 92, 249 and 297 was Asp, Cys, His and Glu respectively.The amino acid sequences derived from BnGS1-1 had extensive homology with GS1s from other higher plants.The phylogenetic tree displayed that the BnGS1-1 and GS1 from Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Medicago sativa and Gossypium raimondii in-corporated into the same sub -clade.In addition , the plant over -expression vector was successfully constructed according to homologous recombination technology.Therefore, our work provided material and theoretical basis for understanding and improving ramie forage quality.%谷氨酰胺合成酶是植物氮代谢途径中的关键酶,分为胞液型( GS1)和质体型( GS2)两种。本文首次从苎麻中克隆了一个胞液型谷氨酰胺合成酶基因BnGS1-1,并利用生物信息学对其序列和结构特征进行了分析。该基因序列全长1205 bp,含有一个1071 bp的ORF区,编码356个氨基酸残基的多肽, pI和Mw分别为5.64和39.19 KDa,具有beta -Grasp和catalytic两个保守功能域;蛋白序列在56、92、249和297位点分别为Asp、 Cys、 His和Glu。系统进化分析表明BnGS1-1与大豆( Glycine max)、四季豆( Phaseolus vulgaris)、苜蓿( Medicago sativa)、棉花( Gossypium raimondii)在同一个分支上。同时,将BnGS1-1与pBI121载体利用同源重组技术,成功构建了植物超量表达载体。因此,本研究为了解和

  17. YUCCA6 over-expression demonstrates auxin function in delaying leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jeong Im

    2011-04-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana YUCCA family of flavin monooxygenase proteins catalyses a rate-limiting step in de novo auxin biosynthesis. A YUCCA6 activation mutant, yuc6-1D, has been shown to contain an elevated free IAA level and to display typical high-auxin phenotypes. It is reported here that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing YUCCA6, such as the yuc6-1D activation mutant and 35S:YUC6 transgenic plants, displayed dramatic longevity. In addition, plants over-expressing YUCCA6 exhibited classical, delayed dark-induced and hormone-induced senescence in assays using detached rosette leaves. However, plants over-expressing an allele of YUCCA6, that carries mutations in the NADPH cofactor binding site, exhibited neither delayed leaf senescence phenotypes nor phenotypes typical of auxin overproduction. When the level of free IAA was reduced in yuc6-1D by conjugation to lysine, yuc6-1D leaves senesced at a rate similar to the wild-type leaves. Dark-induced senescence in detached leaves was accompanied by a decrease in their free IAA content, by the reduced expression of auxin biosynthesis enzymes such as YUCCA1 and YUCCA6 that increase cellular free IAA levels, and by the increased expression of auxin-conjugating enzymes encoded by the GH3 genes that reduce the cellular free auxin levels. Reduced transcript abundances of SAG12, NAC1, and NAC6 during senescence in yuc6-1D compared with the wild type suggested that auxin delays senescence by directly or indirectly regulating the expression of senescence-associated genes. 2011 The Author(s).

  18. Effect of microRNA-494 over-expression and RNA interference-mediated Survivin gene inhibition on xenograft prostate cancer growth%微小RNA-494过表达与RNA干扰抑制Survivin基因对前列腺癌移植瘤生长的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙承文; 王礼平; 臧亚晨; 薛波新; 单玉喜; 许立军; 阳东荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of microRNA-494 over-expression and RNA interference-mediated Survivin gene inhibition on on xenograft prostate cancer growth in nude mice.Methods Two adenovirns vectors,Ad-494 which can overexpressed microRNA-494,and Ad-sur loaded with Survivin short hairpin RNA,were transfected into PC-3 cells alone or in combination,and the following groups were established:PBS group (blank control),Ad-GFP group (negative control),Ad-sur group,Ad-494 group,Ad-sur + Ad-494 group.Then a total of 1 × 107 transfected cells were injected to the right armpit of one nude mouse to establish xenograft prostate cancer model.The gross tumor volumes were measured periodically.Fifty-five days after cell injection,the mice were sacrificed and tumor volume was measured.The expression of Survivin gene in tumor sample was detected by using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.The expression of B lymphocytes/leukemia-2 (bcl-2),bcl-2 associated X protein (bax),and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease (Caspase)-3 in tumor samples was examined by using immunohistochemistry.Results The tumor growth was inhibited dramatically in Ad-sur group,Ad-494 group and Ad-sur + Ad-494 group as compared with control groups (P < 0.05).Thirty-five days after tumor cell injection,the difference in the tumor volume was found in each group.The average volume in Ad-sur + Ad-494 group was the smallest (40.69 ±0.69) mm3 as compared to that in either Ad-sur group (102.11 ± 5.32) mm3 or Ad-494 group (99.03 ±3.50) mm3(P < 0.05).Fifty-five days after tumor cell injection,the tumor inhibition rate in Ad-sur group,Ad-494 group and Ad-sur + Ad-494 group was 64.62%,65.98% and 86.67%,respectively,suggesting the synergetic anti-tumor effect of Ad-sur + Ad-494 (Q =0.99).Both Western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that Survivin gene expression was down-regulated in all experimental groups as compared with control groups,more obviously in Ad-sur + Ad-494 group (P

  19. Reactive astrocytes over express TSPO and are detected by TSPO Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrocytes and micro-glia become reactive under most brain pathological conditions, making this neuro-inflammation process a surrogate marker of neuronal dysfunction. Neuro-inflammation is associated with increased levels of translocator protein 18kDa(TSPO) and binding sites for TSPO ligands. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of TSPO is thus commonly used to monitor neuro-inflammation in preclinical and clinical studies. It is widely considered that TSPO PET signal reveals reactive micro-glia, although a few studies suggested a potential contribution of reactive astrocytes. Because astrocytes and micro-glia play very different roles, it is crucial to determine whether reactive astrocytes can also over-express TSPO and yield to a detectable TSPO PET signal in vivo. We used a model of selective astrocyte activation through lentiviral gene transfer of the cytokine ciliary neuro-trophic factor (CNTF) into the rat striatum, in the absence of neuro-degeneration. CNTF induced an extensive activation of astrocytes, which over-expressed GFAP and become hypertrophic, whereas micro-glia displayed minimal increase in reactive markers.Two TSPO radioligands, [18F]DPA-714[N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-[18F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl) - 5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide] and [11C]SSR180575 (7-chloro-N,N-dimethyl-5-[11C]methyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl - 3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5- b]indole-1-acetamide),showed a significant binding in the lenti-CNTF-injected striatum that was saturated and displaced by PK11195[N-methyl- N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-isoquinoline-3-carboxamide]. The volume of radioligand binding matched the GFAP immuno-positive volume. TSPO mRNA levels were significantly increased, and TSPO protein was over-expressed by CNTF-activated astrocytes. We show that reactive astrocytes over-express TSPO, yielding to a significant and selective binding of TSPO radioligands. Therefore, caution must be used when interpreting TSPO PET imaging in animals or

  20. Effects of over-expressing resistin on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You LIU; Qun WANG; Ying-bin PAN; Zhi-jie GAO; Yan-fen LIU; Shao-hong CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Resistin, a newly discovered peptide hormone mainly secreted by adipose tissues, is present at high levels in serum of obese mice and may be a potential link between obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. However, some studies of rat and mouse models have associated insulin resistance and obesity with decreased resistin expression. In humans, no relationship between resistin level and insulin resistance or adiposity was observed. This suggests that additional studies are necessary to determine the specific role of resistin in the regulation of energy metabolism and adipogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resistin in vivo on glucose and lipid metabolism by over-expressing resistin in mice by intramuscular injection of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-Retn encoding porcine resistin gene. After injection, serum resistin and serum glucose (GLU) levels were significantly increased in the pcDNA3.1-Retn-treated mice; there was an obvious difference in total cholesterol (TC) level between the experiment and the control groups on Day 30. In pcDNA3.1-Retn-treated mice, both free fatty acid (FFA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were markedly lower than those of control, whereas HDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, lipase activity was expressly lower on Day 20. Our data suggest that resistin over-expressed in mice might be responsible for insulin resistance and parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism were changed accordingly.

  1. Widespread over-expression of the X chromosome in sterile F₁hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Good

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome often plays a central role in hybrid male sterility between species, but it is unclear if this reflects underlying regulatory incompatibilities. Here we combine phenotypic data with genome-wide expression data to directly associate aberrant expression patterns with hybrid male sterility between two species of mice. We used a reciprocal cross in which F₁ males are sterile in one direction and fertile in the other direction, allowing us to associate expression differences with sterility rather than with other hybrid phenotypes. We found evidence of extensive over-expression of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis in sterile but not in fertile F₁ hybrid males. Over-expression was most pronounced in genes that are normally expressed after meiosis, consistent with an X chromosome-wide disruption of expression during the later stages of spermatogenesis. This pattern was not a simple consequence of faster evolutionary divergence on the X chromosome, because X-linked expression was highly conserved between the two species. Thus, transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis appears particularly sensitive to evolutionary divergence between species. Overall, these data provide evidence for an underlying regulatory basis to reproductive isolation in house mice and underscore the importance of transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome to the evolution of hybrid male sterility.

  2. The formation of brown adipose tissue induced by transgenic over-expression of PPARγ2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Jinzeng; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Ting; Xu, Dequan; Zuo, Bo; Hou, Liming; Wu, Wangjun; Zhang, Lin; Xia, Xiaoliang; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ren, Zhuqing; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2014-04-18

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to dissipate energy as heat, therefore reducing fat deposition and counteracting obesity. Brown adipocytes arise from myoblastic progenitors during embryonic development by the action of transcription regulator PRDM16 binding to PPARγ, which promotes BAT-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. To investigate the capability of converting white adipose tissue to BAT or browning by PPARγ in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with over-expressed PPARγ2. The transgenic mice showed strong brown fat features in subcutaneous fat in morphology and histology. To provide molecular evidences on browning characteristics of the adipose tissue, we employed quantitative real-time PCR to determine BAT-specific gene expressions. The transgenic mice had remarkably elevated mRNA level of UCP1, Elovl3, PGC1α and Cebpα in subcutaneous fat. Compared with wild-type mice, UCP1 protein levels were increased significantly in transgenic mice. ATP concentration was slightly decreased in the subcutaneous fat of transgenic mice. Western blotting analysis also confirmed that phosphorylated AMPK and ACC proteins were significantly (P<0.01) increased in the transgenic mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that over-expression of PPARγ2 in skeletal muscle can promote conversion of subcutaneous fat to brown fat formation, which can have beneficial effects on increasing energy metabolisms and combating obesity.

  3. Over-Expression of BnMAPK1 in Brassica napus Enhances Tolerance to Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Chang-mei; LU Jun-xing; WAN Hua-fang; WANG Shu-wen; WANG Zhen; LU Kun; LIANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases widely conserved in all eukaryotes and involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, two over-expressing BnMAPK1 oilseed rape lines, ov3 and ov11, were used to study the drought-resistant mechanism of BnMAPK1 under natural drought and simulation drought through spraying 10%PEG 8000 in seedlings. Zhongyou 821 (WT) was used as control. Compared with wild type, transgenic seedlings had higher leaf water content, higher root activity, slightly higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, higher proline content and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The expression of drought-resistant related genes, including P5CSB, PLC, LEA4 and SCE1, have been up-regulated in some degree and the expressed time of transgenic lines were earlier than that of wild type. These results suggested that over-expression of BnMAPK1 can enhance the resistance to drought in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

  4. OVER-EXPRESSION OF A TRUNCATED TYPEⅡ TGF-β RECEPTOR IN NORMAL DERMAL FIBROBLASTS DECREASES TGF-β1 AUTOPRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 蔡泽浩; 商庆新; 钱云良; 曹谊林

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine over expression of a truncated type Ⅱ TGF-β receptor in down regulating TGF-β1 autoproduction in normal dermal fibroblasts.MethodsIn vitro cultured dermal fibroblasts were treated with rhTGF β1(5ng/ml) or recombinant adenovirus containing a truncated type Ⅱ TGF-β receptor gene(50pfu/cell). Their effects on regulating gene expression of TGF β1 were observed with Northern Blot.Resultsrh TGF β1 up regulated the gene expression of TGF-β1(34%~150%) and type Ⅰ procollagen(13%~190%).Over expression of a truncated receptor Ⅱ decreased the gene expression of TGF-β1(53%~66%).ConclusionOver expression of the truncated TGF-β receptor Ⅱ down regulated TGF-β1 autoproduction via blocking signal transduction of TGF-β. This study may provide a new strategy for scar gene therapy.

  5. Erythropoietin over-expression protects against diet-induced obesity in mice through increased fat oxidation in muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    Erythropoietin can be over-expressed in skeletal muscles by gene electrotransfer, resulting in 100-fold increase in serum EPO and significant increases in haemoglobin levels. Earlier studies have suggested that EPO improves several metabolic parameters when administered to chronically ill kidney...... patients. Thus we applied the EPO over-expression model to investigate the metabolic effect of EPO in vivo.At 12 weeks, EPO expression resulted in a 23% weight reduction (Pobese mice; thus the mice weighed 21.9+/-0.8 g (control, normal diet,) 21.9+/-1.4 g (EPO, normal diet), 35...... in the high-fat fed mice. EPO expression also induced a 14% increase in muscle volume and a 25% increase in vascularisation of the EPO transfected muscle. Muscle force and stamina were not affected by EPO expression. PCR array analysis revealed that genes involved in lipid metabolism, thermogenesis...

  6. CXCL12/SDF-1 over-expression in human insulinomas and its biological relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilhan, Aysegul; Nabokikh, Anastasiya; Maj, Magdalena;

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed on the basis of previously obtained investigative gene array data concerning the over-expression of CXCL12/SDF-1 in human insulinomas versus human pancreatic islet preparations. The presence of CXCL12/SDF-1 was studied by RT-qPCR in human insulinomas (n=8) versus pancreatic...... islets (n=3), and was found to be significantly up-regulated in the former (pCXCL12 protein and high expression in insulinoma tissue. Individual human insulinoma...... cells at cytospins stained positive for CXCL12 in the paranuclear region. These morphological data were extended by consecutive immunoblotting for cell-compartment-specific marker proteins of fractions obtained by sucrose gradient fractionation using Rin-5F insulinoma cells. CXCL12-containing fractions...

  7. Improving xylitol production at elevated temperature with engineered Kluyveromyces marxianus through over-expressing transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Three transporter genes including Kluyveromyces marxianus aquaglyceroporin gene (KmFPS1), Candida intermedia glucose/xylose facilitator gene (CiGXF1) or glucose/xylose symporter gene (CiGXS1) were over-expressed in K. marxianus YZJ017 to improve xylitol production at elevated temperatures. The xylitol production of YZJ074 that harbored CiGXF1 was improved to 147.62g/L in Erlenmeyer flask at 42°C. In fermenter, 99.29 and 149.60g/L xylitol were produced from 99.55 and 151.91g/L xylose with productivity of 4.14 and 3.40g/L/h respectively at 42°C. Even at 45°C, YZJ074 could produce 101.30g/L xylitol from 101.41g/L xylose with productivity of 2.81g/L/h. Using fed-batch fermentation through repeatedly adding non-sterilized substrate directly, YZJ074 could produce 312.05g/L xylitol which is the highest yield reported to date. The engineered strains YZJ074 which can produce xylitol at elevated temperatures is an excellent foundation for xylitol bioconversion. PMID:25465792

  8. DEK over expression as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DEK protein is related to chromatin reconstruction and gene transcription, and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. High expression levels of the human DEK gene have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. This study explores the roles of DEK in tumor progression and as a prognostic determinant of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer specimens from 109 patients with strict follow-up, and colorectal adenomas from 52 patients were selected for analysis of DEK protein by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between DEK over expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact tests. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was also analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models. DEK protein showed a nuclear immunohistochemical staining pattern in colorectal cancers. The strongly positive rate of DEK protein was 48.62% (53/109) in colorectal cancers, which was significantly higher than that in either adjacent normal colon mucosa (9.17%, 10/109) or colorectal adenomas (13.46%, 7/52). DEK over expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, late stage, and disease-free survival- and 5-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with late stage colorectal cancer and high DEK expression had worse survival rates than those with low DEK expression. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed high DEK expression, serosal invasion, and late stage are significant independent risk factors for mortality in colorectal cancer. DEK plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor of colorectal cancers

  9. Over-expression of a cytochrome P450 is associated with resistance to pyriproxyfen in the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Karatolos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen is a suppressor of insect embryogenesis and development, and is effective at controlling pests such as the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood which are resistant to other chemical classes of insecticides. Although there are reports of insects evolving resistance to pyriproxyfen, the underlying resistance mechanism(s are poorly understood. RESULTS: Bioassays against eggs of a German (TV8 population of T. vaporariorum revealed a moderate level (21-fold of resistance to pyriproxyfen. This is the first time that pyriproxyfen resistance has been confirmed in this species. Sequential selection of TV8 rapidly generated a strain (TV8pyrsel displaying a much higher resistance ratio (>4000-fold. The enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO suppressed this increased resistance, indicating that it was primarily mediated via metabolic detoxification. Microarray analysis identified a number of significantly over-expressed genes in TV8pyrsel as candidates for a role in resistance including cytochrome-P450 dependent monooxygenases (P450s. Quantitative PCR highlighted a single P450 gene (CYP4G61 that was highly over-expressed (81.7-fold in TV8pyrsel. CONCLUSION: Over-expression of a single cytochrome P450 gene (CYP4G61 has emerged as a strong candidate for causing the enhanced resistance phenotype. Further work is needed to confirm the role of the encoded P450 enzyme CYP4G61 in detoxifying pyriproxyfen.

  10. Characterization of a human cell line stably over-expressing the candidate oncogene, dual specificity phosphatase 12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Cain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of chromosomal rearrangements within primary tumors has been influential in the identification of novel oncogenes. Identification of the "driver" gene(s within cancer-derived amplicons is, however, hampered by the fact that most amplicons contain many gene products. Amplification of 1q21-1q23 is strongly associated with liposarcomas and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization narrowed down the likely candidate oncogenes to two: the activating transcription factor 6 (atf6 and the dual specificity phosphatase 12 (dusp12. While atf6 is an established transcriptional regulator of the unfolded protein response, the potential role of dusp12 in cancer remains uncharacterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the oncogenic potential of dusp12, we established stable cell lines that ectopically over-express dusp12 in isolation and determined whether this cell line acquired properties frequently associated with transformed cells. Here, we demonstrate that cells over-expressing dusp12 display increased cell motility and resistance to apoptosis. Additionally, over-expression of dusp12 promoted increased expression of the c-met proto-oncogene and the collagen and laminin receptor intergrin alpha 1 (itga1 which is implicated in metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these results suggest that dusp12 is oncologically relevant and exposes a potential association between dusp12 and established oncogenes that could be therapeutically targeted.

  11. Effect of the over-expression of PII and PZ proteins on the nitrogenase activity of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Filipaki, Angela; Chubatsu, Leda S; Yates, M Geoffrey; Steffens, Maria Berenice; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M

    2005-12-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense PII and PZ proteins, encoded by the glnB and glnZ genes respectively, are intracellular transducers of nitrogen levels with distinct functions. The PII protein participates in nif regulation by controlling the activity of the transcriptional regulator NifA. PII is also involved in transducing the prevailing nitrogen levels to the Fe-protein ADP-ribosylation system. PZ regulates negatively ammonium transport and is involved in nitrogenase reactivation. To further investigate the role of PII and PZ in the regulation of nitrogen fixation, broad-host-range plasmids capable of over-expressing the glnB and glnZ genes under control of the ptac promoter were constructed and introduced into A. brasilense. The nitrogenase activity and nitrate-dependent growth was impaired in A. brasilense cells over-expressing the PII protein. Using immunoblot analysis we observed that the reduction of nitrogenase activity in cells over-expressing PII was due to partial ADP-ribosylation of the Fe-protein under derepressing conditions and a reduction in the amount of Fe-protein. These results support the hypothesis that the unmodified PII protein act as a signal to the DraT enzyme to ADP-ribosylate the Fe-protein in response to ammonium shock, and that it also inhibits nif gene expression. In cells over-expressing the PZ protein the nitrogenase reactivation after an ammonium shock was delayed indicating that the PZ protein is involved in regulation of DraG activity.

  12. Over-expression, purification, and confirmation of Bacillus anthracis transcriptional regulator NprR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amy J; Woo, Jerry K; Khan, Attiya; Szypulinski, Michael Z; Johnson, Michael E; Lee, Hyunwoo; Lee, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been recognized as an important biological phenomenon in which bacterial cells communicate and coordinate their gene expression and cellular processes with respect to population density. Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of fatal pulmonary anthrax infections, and the NprR/NprX QS system may be involved in its pathogenesis. NprR, renamed as aqsR for anthrax quorum sensing Regulator, is a transcriptional regulator that may control the expression of genes required for proliferation and survival. Currently, there is no protocol reported to over-express and purify B. anthracis AqsR. In this study, we describe cloning, purification, and confirmation of functional full-length B. anthracis AqsR protein. The AqsR gene was cloned into the pQE-30 vector with an HRV 3C protease recognition site between AqsR and the N-terminal His6-tag in order to yield near native AqsR after the His-tag cleavage, leaving only two additional amino acid residues at the N-terminus. PMID:26344899

  13. Enhancing cytochrome P450-mediated conversions in P. pastoris through RAD52 over-expression and optimizing the cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Moser, Sandra; Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Pichler, Harald

    2016-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play an essential role in the biosynthesis of various natural compounds by catalyzing regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation reactions. Thus, CYP activities are of great interest in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceutical compounds or flavors and fragrances. Industrial applicability of CYPs has driven extensive research efforts aimed at improving the performance of these enzymes to generate robust biocatalysts. Recently, our group has identified CYP-mediated hydroxylation of (+)-valencene as a major bottleneck in the biosynthesis of trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone in Pichia pastoris. In the current study, we aimed at enhancing CYP-mediated (+)-valencene hydroxylation by over-expressing target genes identified through transcriptome analysis in P. pastoris. Strikingly, over-expression of the DNA repair and recombination gene RAD52 had a distinctly positive effect on trans-nootkatol formation. Combining RAD52 over-expression with optimization of whole-cell biotransformation conditions, i.e. optimized media composition and cultivation at higher pH value, enhanced trans-nootkatol production 5-fold compared to the initial strain and condition. These engineering approaches appear to be generally applicable for enhanced hydroxylation of hydrophobic compounds in P. pastoris as confirmed here for two additional membrane-attached CYPs, namely the limonene-3-hydroxylase from Mentha piperita and the human CYP2D6. PMID:26898115

  14. Tbx3 represses PTEN and is over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgucu Durmus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances in diagnostic and treatment strategies, head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC constitutes one of the worst cancer types in terms of prognosis. PTEN is one of the tumour suppressors whose expression and/or activity have been found to be reduced in HNSCC, with rather low rates of mutations within the PTEN gene (6-8%. We reasoned that low expression levels of PTEN might be due to a transcriptional repression governed by an oncogene. Tbx2 and Tbx3, both of which are transcriptional repressors, have been found to be amplified or over-expressed in various cancer types. Thus, we hypothesize that Tbx3 may be over expressed in HNSCC and may repress PTEN, thus leading to cancer formation and/or progression. Methods Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR (qPCR, protein and mRNA levels of PTEN and Tbx3 were identified in samples excised from cancerous and adjacent normal tissues from 33 patients who were diagnosed with HNSCC. In addition, HeLa and HEK cell lines were transfected with a Tbx3 expressing plasmid and endogenous PTEN mRNA and protein levels were determined via qPCR and flow cytometry. Transcription assays were performed to demonstrate effects of Tbx3 on PTEN promoter activity. Mann–Whitney, Spearman’s Correlation and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyze the data. Results We demonstrate that in HNSCC samples, Tbx3 mRNA levels are increased with respect to their normal tissue counterparts (p Conclusions We show that Tbx3 is up-regulated in tissue samples of HNSCC patients and that Tbx3 represses PTEN transcription. Thus, our data not only reveals a new mechanism that may be important in cancer formation, but also suggests that Tbx3 can be used as a potential biomarker in cancer.

  15. Reducing acetate excretion from E. coli K-12 by over-expressing the small RNA sgrS

    OpenAIRE

    Negrete, Alejandro; Majdalani, Nadim; Phue, Je Nie; Shiloach, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    When exposed to the non-metabolized glucose derivative alpha methyl glucoside, both E. coli K-12 (JM109 and MG1655) and E. coli B (BL21) respond by reducing the concentration of the mRNA of the ptsG gene which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the glucose transporter EIICBglu. This occurs through the over-expression of the non-coding small RNA SgrS, which interacts specifically with the mRNA of the ptsG gene and prevents its translation. However, when these bacteria are exposed to a gluc...

  16. Over-expression of OsHsfA7 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an important role in plant stresstolerance and are mainly regulated by heat shock transcriptionfactors (Hsfs. In this study, we generated transgenic riceover-expressing OsHsfA7 and carried out morphologicalobservation and stress tolerance assays. Transgenic plantsexhibited less, shorter lateral roots and root hair. Under salttreatment, over-expressing OsHsfA7 rice showed alleviativeappearance of damage symptoms and higher survival rate, leafelectrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content of transgenicplants were lower than those of wild type plants. Meanwhile,transgenic rice seedlings restored normal growth but wild typeplants could not be rescued after drought and re-wateringtreatment. These findings indicate that over-expression ofOsHsfA7 gene can increase tolerance to salt and drought stressesin rice seedlings. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 31-36

  17. Enhancing lignan biosynthesis by over-expressing pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayella, Allan K; Trick, Harold N; Wang, Weiqun

    2007-12-01

    Lignans are phenylpropane dimers that are biosynthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway, in which pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase (PLR) catalyzes the last steps of lignan production. Our previous studies demonstrated that the contents of lignans in various wheat cultivars were significantly associated with anti-tumor activities in APC(Min) mice. To enhance lignan biosynthesis, this study was conducted to transform wheat cultivars ('Bobwhite', 'Madison', and 'Fielder', respectively) with the Forsythia intermedia PLR gene under the regulatory control of maize ubiquitin promoter. Of 24 putative transgenic wheat lines, we successfully obtained 3 transformants with the inserted ubiquitin-PLR gene as screened by PCR. Southern blot analysis further demonstrated that different copies of the PLR gene up to 5 were carried out in their genomes. Furthermore, a real-time PCR indicated approximately 17% increase of PLR gene expression over the control in 2 of the 3 positive transformants at T(0) generation. The levels of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, a prominent lignan in wheat as determined by HPLC-MS, were found to be 2.2-times higher in one of the three positive transgenic sub-lines at T(2 )than that in the wild-type (117.9 +/- 4.5 vs. 52.9 +/- 19.8 mug/g, p <0.005). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that elevated lignan levels in a transgenic wheat line has been successfully achieved through genetic engineering of over-expressed PLR gene. Although future studies are needed for a stably expression and more efficient transformants, the new wheat line with significantly higher SDG contents obtained from this study may have potential application in providing additive health benefits for cancer prevention.

  18. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  19. IL-35 over-expression increases apoptosis sensitivity and suppresses cell growth in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Zhang, Xulong; Wen, Mingjie; Kong, Qingli; Lv, Zhe; An, Yunqing; Wei, Xiao-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel heterodimeric cytokine in the IL-12 family and is composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. IL-35 is expressed in T regulatory (Treg) cells and contributes to the immune suppression function of these cells. In contrast, we found that both IL-35 subunits were expressed concurrently in most human cancer cell lines compared to normal cell lines. In addition, we found that TNF-α and IFN-γ stimulation led to increased IL-35 expression in human cancer cells. Furthermore, over-expression of IL-35 in human cancer cells suppressed cell growth in vitro, induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and mediated robust apoptosis induced by serum starvation, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation through the up-regulation of Fas and concurrent down-regulation of cyclinD1, survivin, and Bcl-2 expression. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel functional role for IL-35 in suppressing cancer activity, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and increasing the apoptosis sensitivity of human cancer cells through the regulation of genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis. Thus, this research provides new insights into IL-35 function and presents a possible target for the development of novel cancer therapies.

  20. Seed-Specific Over-Expression of a Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Gene (VgDGAT1) Increase Seed Oil Accumulation in Camelina sativa%种子特异表达二酰甘油酰基转移酶基因(VgDGAT1)提高亚麻荠种子油脂积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑丽霞; 毛雪; 高昌勇; 张莉; 薛金爱; 杨致荣; 李润植

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an important non-food industrial oilseed with“low-input, high efifciency and en-environment- friendly”. To enhance seed oil content for meeting an increasing market demand, a cDNA clone (Vg- DGAT1) encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Vernonia galamensis with the higher DGAT enzymatic activity was introduced into camelina by Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip infiltration. Seed-specific over-expression of VgDGAT1 significantly enhanced the DGAT activity in the transgenic seeds by 30 folds more compared to the wild-type control, resulting in seed oil content increase from 37% (dry weight) in the wild-type seeds up to 46%–51% in the transgenics. However, seed protein level was not significant difference between the transgenic and the wild type, indicating that genetic modification on DGAT can break up the negative genetic linkage of oil and protein contents in seeds. Moreover, the seed-specific high expression of Vg- DGAT1 did not adversely affect seed weight, seed germination and other agronomic traits. Such novel engineered camelina lines with higher seed oil content and no reduction of protein accumulation could be used for breeding new camelina varieties with multiple excellent agronomic traits for commercialization.%亚麻荠(Camelina sativa)是一种“低耗、高效、环保”的非粮型工业油料作物。为提高亚麻荠种子含油量,将来源于一种菊科野生油料植物(Vernonia galamensis)高酶活性的二酰甘油酰基转移酶1 cDNA克隆(VgDGAT1)在发育种子中特异表达。VgDGAT1超表达导致转基因亚麻荠种子中DGAT酶活性提高了30多倍。VgDGAT1高表达的亚麻荠种子含油量从野生型的37%提高到46%~51%,而且蛋白质积累未减少,表明对DGAT酶基因进行遗传修饰可打破种子油和蛋白含量的负相关连锁。此外, VgDGAT1高表达也没有对种子重量和种子萌发等农艺性状造成不良影响。这种高油亚麻荠基因工程新

  1. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  2. Optimized over-expression of [FeFe] hydrogenases with high specific activity in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Abendroth, Gregory; Stripp, Sven; Happe, Thomas [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen, AG Photobiotechnologie, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Silakov, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bioanorganische Chemie, 45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe; Girbal, Laurence [UMR5504, UMR792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, CNRS, INRA, INSA, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2008-11-15

    It was previously shown that Clostridium acetobutylicum is capable to over-express various [FeFe] hydrogenases although the protein yield was low. In this study we report on doubling the yield of the clostridial hydrogenase by replacing the native gene hydA1{sub Ca} with a recombinant one via homologous recombination. The purified protein HydA1{sub Ca} shows an unexpected high specific activity (up to 2257 {mu}mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mg{sup -1}) for hydrogen evolution. Furthermore, the highly active green algal hydrogenase HydA1{sub Cr} from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was heterologously expressed in C. acetobutylicum, and purified with increased yield (1 mg protein per liter of cells) and high activity (625 {mu}mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mg{sup -1}). EPR studies demonstrate intact H-clusters for homologously and heterologously expressed [FeFe] hydrogenases in the CO-inhibited oxidized redox state, and prove the high efficiency of the C. acetobutylicum expression system. (author)

  3. The effects of over-expressing Tip60 on cellular DNA damage repair and cell cycle progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effects of Tip60 on DNA damage repair, cell cycle and the related mechanism as well, the proliferative activity, DNA double strand break (DSB) repair competency and cell cycle arrest were analyzed in stable Tip60-overexpression U2OS cells established by transfecting with exogenous Tip60 gene. It was found that the overexpression of Tip60 inhibited the proliferative activity but increased the DNA damage repair competency. The radiation-induced G2/M arrest was prolonged in Tip60 over-expressed U2OS cells, which was associated with a decreasing level of cell cycle checkpoint protein Cyclin B/CDC2 complex. (authors)

  4. relA over-expression reduces tumorigenicity and activates apoptosis in human cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ricca, A; Biroccio, A; Trisciuoglio, D; M. Cippitelli; Zupi, G.; Bufalo, D Del

    2001-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bcl-2 over-expression increases the malignant behaviour of the MCF7 ADR human breast cancer cell line and enhances nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-k B) transcriptional activity. Here, we investigated the direct effect of increased NF-k B activity on the tumorigenicity of MCF7 ADR cells by over-expressing the NF-k B subunit relA/p65. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that over-expression of relA determines a considerable reduction of the tumorigenic ability in n...

  5. Over-expressed and truncated midkines promote proliferation of BGC823 cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Ling Wang; Hui Wang; Shu-Li Zhao; Ya-Hong Huang; Ya-Yi Hou

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether midkine (MK) and its truncated form (tMK) contribute to gastric tumorigenesis using in vitro and in vivo models.METHODS: Human MK and tMK plasmids were constructed and expressed in BGC823 (a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line) to investigate the effect of over-expressed MK or tMK on cell growth and turmorigenesis in nude mice.RESULTS: The growth of MK-transfected or tMK-transfected cells was significantly increased compared with that of the control cells, and tMK-transfected cells grew more rapidly than MK-transfected cells. The number of colony formation of the cells transfected with MK or tMK gene was larger than the control cells. In nude mice injected with MK-transfected or tMK-transfected cells, visible tumor was observed earlier and the tumor tissues were larger in size and weight than in control animals that were injected with cells without the transfection of either genes.CONCLUSION: Over-expressed MK or tMK can promote human gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, and tMK has greater effect than MK. tMK may be a more promising gene therapeutic target compared with MK for treatment of malignant tumors.

  6. bcl-xl over-expression in transgenic mice reduces cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Furong Wang; Yongsheng Jiang; Yan Liu; Wenwu Xiao; Suming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell lymphoma-extra large (bcl-xl) can inhibit neuronal apoptosis by stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane and suppressing cytochrome C release into the cytoplasm. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to further investigate the cascade reaction pathway of cellular apoptosis. We established an ischemia/dreperfusion model by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in transgenic and wild-type mice, and observed changes in the number and distribution of apoptotic neural cells, differences in cerebral infarct volume, in neurological function score, and in cytochrome C expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex, at different time points, DESIGN AND SETTING: The present gene engineering and cell biology experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Biology, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences and at the Laboratory of Immunology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. MATERIALS: Male bcl-xl over-expression Kunming mice aged 8 weeks and age-matched male wild-type mice were used for this study. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) kits were purchased from Boliman, France. Cytochrome C antibody and Bcl-x immunohistochemical kit were purchased from PharMingen, USA and Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA, respectively. METHODS: Following MCAO and reperfusion, apoptosis in the ischemic cerebral cortex was detected by the TUNEL assay. Prior to MCAO and 3 hours after reperfusion, the Bcl-xl protein level in the ischemic cerebral cortex was measured by immunohistochemistry. At 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after reperfusion, the level of cytochrome C in the ischemic cerebral cortex was examined by western blot analysis. Subsequent to MCAO, cerebral infarct volume measurement and neurological examination were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neural cell apoptosis and cytochrome C expression in the ischemic cerebral cortex; cerebral infarct volume and neurological function score. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after

  7. Cell-cycle negative regulatory gene ANA is over-expressed in the brain tissues of patients with Down syndrome%细胞周期抑制性基因ANA在唐氏综合征患者脑组织过量表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何湘君; 张旗; 马丽萍; 杨丽君; 沈浣; 郭静竹

    2005-01-01

    目的:分析唐氏综合征(Down syndrome,DS)胎儿脑组织21号染色体(Chr21)基因的表达,探讨DS脑病变的分子机制.方法:采用优化的半定量RT-PCR法,以B2M为内参,检测了7个Chr21基因在DS胎儿及同龄对照胎儿大脑皮层及小脑组织中的表达.结果:Chr21基因DYRK1A, SYNJ1,PCP4(purkinje cell protein 4 gene), C21orf5, C21orf2 和C21orf106的表达在DS胎儿大脑皮层及小脑组织较正常对照均没有明显改变.ANA(abundant in neuroepithelium area)基因表达在DS胎儿小脑无明显改变,但在DS胎儿大脑皮层的表达显著升高.结论:细胞周期抑制性基因ANA的过表达可能与DS患者脑组织神经元细胞密度低有关.

  8. Cognition, learning behaviour and hippocampal synaptic plasticity are not disrupted in mice over-expressing the cholesterol transporter ABCG1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eadie Brennan D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits are a hallmark feature of both Down Syndrome (DS and Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Extra copies of the genes on chromosome 21 may also play an important role in the accelerated onset of AD in DS individuals. Growing evidence suggests an important function for cholesterol in the pathogenesis of AD, particularly in APP metabolism and production of Aβ peptides. The ATP-Binding Cassette-G1 (ABCG1 transporter is located on chromosome 21, and participates in the maintenance of tissue cholesterol homeostasis. Results To assess the role of ABCG1 in DS-related cognition, we evaluated the cognitive performance of mice selectively over-expressing the ABCG1 gene from its endogenous regulatory signals. Both wild-type and ABCG1 transgenic mice performed equivalently on several behavioral tests, including measures of anxiety, as well as on reference and working memory tasks. No deficits in hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity as determined with electrophysiological studies were apparent in mice over-expressing ABCG1. Conclusion These findings indicate that although ABCG1 may play a role in maintaining cellular or tissue cholesterol homeostasis, it is unlikely that excess ABCG1 expression contributes to the cognitive deficits in DS individuals.

  9. 侧孢短芽孢杆菌碱性蛋白酶基因BLG4在枯草芽孢杆菌WB600中的高效表达%Over-expression of an alkaline protease gene BLG4 from Brevibacillus laterosporus G4 in Bacillus subtilis WB600

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭菁; 田宝玉; 蔡婉玲; 黄薇; 江贤章; 黄建忠

    2011-01-01

    侧孢短芽孢杆菌G4菌株在侵染线虫的过程中可以分泌蛋白酶,降解线虫体壁,从而帮助细菌侵入宿主体内.在本文中,侧孢短芽孢杆菌的胞外蛋白酶BLG4基因经克隆后插入到改造后的枯草芽孢杆菌表达载体pWT22中,构建重组表达质粒pWT22-BLG4.构建成功的重组质粒通过化学转化法转入枯草芽孢杆菌蛋白酶缺失菌株WB6000中,转化子pWT22-BIG4/WB600在IPTG(1.0 mmol·L-1)的诱导下,发酵液上清中的蛋白酶活可达到620U·mL-1,高于出发菌株G4的BLG4酶活(240 U·mL-1).经SDS-PAGE分析,重组子pWT22-BLG4/WB600产生了一条分子质量约为30ku的条带,该条带的大小与侧孢短芽孢杆菌G4上清发酵液中BLG4条带的大小一致.而未经IPTG诱导的重组子pWT22-BLG4和经IPTG诱导的WB600则未出现该条带.结果证明侧孢短芽孢杆菌G4的碱性蛋白酶基因BLG4已在枯草芽孢杆菌WB600中获得了成功表达.重组蛋白酶具有与侧孢短芽孢杆菌G4产生的BLG4蛋白酶同样的酶学性质.同时,重组蛋白酶具有明显的杀线虫和体壁降解能力,表明其在线虫生物防治中将有广泛的应用前景.%Protease BLG4 from Brevibacilluslaterosporus G4 has been propesed as an important virulence factor in bacterial pathogenicity against nematodes. In this paper, alkaline protease gene BLG4 from B.laterosporus G4 was cloned and inserted into an expression vector pWT22 to construct a recombinanted plasmid pWT22-BLG4. The pWT22-BLG4 was transformed into Bacillus subtilis WB600 by chemical method. After IPTG ( 1.0 mmol· L-1 ) induction, the protease activity of the fermentation supematant of the transformant pWT22-BLG 4/WB600 reached 620 U · mL-1, which was higher than native BLG4 enzyme activity produced by the wild strain G4. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the transformant with recombinanted expression plasmid pWT22-BLG4 had an additional 30 ku protein band, which was identical to B.laterosporus G4. However, the

  10. Over Expression of Voltage Dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2 in Muscles of Electrically Stunned Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshahida Abu Samah, Azura Amid, and Faridah Yusof

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water bath stunning is a common practice in commercial slaughterhouses. Such treatment is economic and in line with animal welfare practice. However, the conditions applied for the stunning process may vary from a slaughterhouse to another slaughterhouse. Such a loose regulation on the stunning procedure has opened up doors for food adulteration such as over dose stunning. In this study, a simple and reliable approach using proteomics have been developed to study the effect of different currents and voltages in stunning on the protein expression of the chickens. Protein profiles of the chickens were constructed in order to detect any differences in protein expression and modifications. The different voltage studied were 10 V, 40 V and 70 V while the values for current studied were 0.25 A, 0.5 A, and 0.75 A. After the proteomics analyses using 2D Platinum ImageMaster 6.0 and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight (MALDI TOF spectrometry identification, Voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2 was identified to be over expressed in the muscle sample of over stunned chicken. The over expression of VDAC2 was confirmed at the transcriptional level of RNA expression. Real Time PCR showed that all over stunned samples contained higher mRNA expression level for VDAC2 genes. The mRNA level of VDAC2 was up-regulated by 59.87 fold change when normalized with housekeeping gene. In conclusion, VDAC2 could serve as potential biomarkers for identification of electrically stimulated chickens. The existence of these biomarkers will help to monitor the slaughtering and stunning process in the future. It will revolutionize the food authentication field and give a new breathe to the meat industry.ABSTRAK: Kaedah "waterbath stunning" merupakan amalan biasa di pusat-pusat penyembelihan. Kaedah ini adalah ekonomik dan selari dengan amalan kebajikan haiwan. Walaubagaimanapun, syarat-syarat yang digunakan untuk proses kejutan tersebut mungkin

  11. The over-expression of a chrysanthemum WRKY transcription factor enhances aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

    2015-10-01

    Members of the large WRKY transcription factor family are responsible for the regulation of plant growth, development and the stress response. Here, five WRKY members were isolated from chrysanthemum. They each contained a single WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger motif, so were classified into group II. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that all five were expressed in the nucleus, although CmWRKY42 was also expressed in the cytoplasm. When expressed heterologously in yeast, the products of CmWRKY22 and CmWRKY48 exhibited transactivation activity, while those of CmWRKY21, CmWRKY40 and CmWRKY42 did not. The transcription of the five CmWRKY genes was profiled when the plants were challenged with a variety of abiotic and biotic stress agents, as well as being treated with various phytohormones. CmWRKY21 proved to be markedly induced by salinity stress, and suppressed by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY22 was induced by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY40 was highly induced by salinity stress, and treatment with either abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA); CmWRKY42 was up-regulated by salinity stress, low temperature, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation; CmWRKY48 was induced by drought stress, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation. The function of CmWRKY48 was further investigated by over-expressing it transgenically. The constitutive expression of this transcription factor inhibited the aphids' population growth capacity, suggesting that it may represent an important component of the plant's defense machinery against aphids. PMID:26184088

  12. Identification of a secreted casein kinase 1 in Leishmania donovani: effect of protein over expression on parasite growth and virulence.

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    Mary Dan-Goor

    Full Text Available Casein kinase 1 (CK1 plays an important role in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and their substrates include key regulatory proteins involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and chromosome segregation. The Leishmania genome encodes six potential CK1 isoforms, of which five have orthologs in other trypanosomatidae. Leishmania donovani CK1 isoform 4 (Ldck1.4, orthologous to LmjF27.1780 is unique to Leishmania and contains a putative secretion signal peptide. The full-length gene and three shorter constructs were cloned and expressed in E. coli as His-tag proteins. Only the full-length 62.3 kDa protein showed protein kinase activity indicating that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains are essential for protein activity. LdCK1.4-FLAG was stably over expressed in L. donovani, and shown by immunofluorescence to be localized primarily in the cytosol. Western blotting using anti-FLAG and anti-CK1.4 antibodies showed that this CK1 isoform is expressed and secreted by promastigotes. Over expression of LdCK1.4 had a significant effect on promastigote growth in culture with these parasites growing to higher cell densities than the control parasites (wild-type or Ld:luciferase, P<0.001. Analysis by flow cytometry showed a higher percentage, ∼4-5-fold, of virulent metacyclic promastigotes on day 3 among the LdCK1.4 parasites. Finally, parasites over expressing LdCK1.4 gave significantly higher infections of mouse peritoneal macrophages compared to wild-type parasites, 28.6% versus 6.3%, respectively (p = 0.0005. These results suggest that LdCK1.4 plays an important role in parasite survival and virulence. Further studies are needed to validate CK1.4 as a therapeutic target in Leishmania.

  13. Over-expression of microRNA171 affects phase transitions and floral meristem determinancy in barley

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    Curaba Julien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitions from juvenile to adult and adult to reproductive phases of growth are important stages in the life cycle of plants. The regulators of these transitions include miRNAs, in particular miR156 and miR172 which are part of a regulatory module conserved across the angiosperms. In Arabidopsis miR171 represses differentiation of axillary meristems by repressing expression of SCARECROW-LIKE(SCL transcription factors, however the role of miR171 has not been examined in other plants. Results To investigate the roles of mir171 and its target genes in a monocot, the Hvu pri-miR171a was over-expressed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden promise leading to reduced expression of at least one HvSCL gene. The resulting transgenic plants displayed a pleiotropic phenotype which included branching defects, an increased number of short vegetative phytomers and late flowering. These phenotypes appear to be the consequence of changes in the organisation of the shoot meristem. In addition, the data show that miR171 over-expression alters the vegetative to reproductive phase transition by activating the miR156 pathway and repressing the expression of the TRD (THIRD OUTER GLUME and HvPLA1 (Plastochron1 genes. Conclusions Our data suggest that some of the roles of miR171 and its target genes that have been determined in Arabidopsis are conserved in barley and that they have additional functions in barley including activation of the miR156 pathway.

  14. Over-expression of polyphenol oxidase gene in strawberry fruit delays the fungus infection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites widely present in plants and beneficial to human health. In this study, the changes of polyphenol contents during strawberry fruit development as well as changes of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was analyzed. The polyphenol content showed declining trend during fruit...

  15. HER2 over-expression and response to different chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Yan LIU

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To exam the relationship between HER2 over-expression and different adjuvant chemotherapies in breast cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 1625 primary breast cancer patients who received post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy in Tianjin Cancer Hospital, China, from July 2002 to November 2005 were included in the study. Among them, 600 patients were given CMF (CTX+MTX+5-Fu) regimen, 600 given CEF (CTX+E-ADM+5-Fu) regimen, and 425 given anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen, with mean follow-up time of 42 months. Results: In CMF treatment group, the 3-year disease free survival (DFS)in HER2 over-expressed patients was lower than that of the HER2-negative ones (89.80% vs 91.24%, P=0.0348); in node-positive subgroup, the 3-year DFS was 84.72% in HER2 over-expressed patients, and 90.18% in the HER-2-negative ones (P=0.0271).Compared to CMF regimen, anthracyclines and anthracyclines plus taxanes regimens are more effective (P<0.05) in node-positive HER2 over-expression than those in the node-negative. Conclusion: HER2 over-expression is an independent index for predicting poor prognosis and short DFS for breast cancer patients. HER2 over-expressed patients are resistant to CMF regimen chemotherapy, but sensitive to anthracyclines-based or anthracyclines plus taxanes regimen. HER2 expression can be taken as a marker for therapies in breast cancer.

  16. The anti-inflammatory target A(3) adenosine receptor is over-expressed in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochaion, A; Bar-Yehuda, S; Cohen, S; Barer, F; Patoka, R; Amital, H; Reitblat, T; Reitblat, A; Ophir, J; Konfino, I; Chowers, Y; Ben-Horin, S; Fishman, P

    2009-01-01

    The Gi protein associated A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) was recently defined as a novel anti-inflammatory target. The aim of this study was to look at A(3)AR expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases and to explore transcription factors involved receptor expression. Over-expression of A(3)AR was found in PBMCs derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis and Crohn's disease compared with PBMCs from healthy subjects. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated the presence of DNA binding sites for nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) in the A(3)AR gene promoter. Up-regulation of NF-kappaB and CREB was found in the PBMCs from patients with RA, psoriasis and Crohn's disease. The PI3K-PKB/Akt signaling pathway, known to regulate both the NF-kappaB and CREB, was also up-regulated in the patients' PBMCs. Taken together, NF-kappaB and CREB are involved with the over-expression of A(3)AR in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The receptor may be considered as a specific target to combat inflammation. PMID:19426966

  17. Polymorphisms in cell cycle regulatory genes, urinary arsenic profile and urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Polymorphisms in p53, p21 and CCND1 could regulate the progression of the cell cycle and might increase the susceptibility to inorganic arsenic-related cancer risk. The goal of our study was to evaluate the roles of cell cycle regulatory gene polymorphisms in the carcinogenesis of arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma (UC). Methods: A hospital-based case-controlled study was conducted to explore the relationships among the urinary arsenic profile, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, p53 codon 72, p21 codon 31 and CCND1 G870A polymorphisms and UC risk. The urinary arsenic profile was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). 8-OHdG levels were measured by high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Genotyping was conducted using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymerase (PCR-RFLP). Results: Subjects carrying the p21 Arg/Arg genotype had an increased UC risk (age and gender adjusted OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.02-2.29). However, there was no association of p53 or CCND1 polymorphisms with UC risk. Significant effects were observed in terms of a combination of the three gene polymorphisms and a cumulative exposure of cigarette smoking, along with the urinary arsenic profile on the UC risk. The higher total arsenic concentration, monomethylarsonic acid percentage (MMA%) and lower dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%), possessed greater gene variant numbers, had a higher UC risk and revealed significant dose-response relationships. However, effects of urinary 8-OHdG levels combined with three gene polymorphisms did not seem to be important for UC risk. Conclusions: The results showed that the variant genotype of p21 might be a predictor of inorganic arsenic-related UC risk

  18. Growth Inhibition of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by sgRNA Targeting the Cyclin D1 mRNA Based on TRUE Gene Silencing

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Tamura, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits increased expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). Previous studies have shown a correlation between poor prognosis of HNSCC and cyclin D1 overexpression. tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is one of the RNA-mediated gene expression control technologies that have therapeutic potential. This technology is based on a unique enzymatic property of mammalian tRNase ZL, which is that it can cleave any target RNA at any...

  19. p130Cas over-expression impairs mammary branching morphogenesis in response to estrogen and EGF.

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    Maria del Pilar Camacho Leal

    Full Text Available p130Cas adaptor protein regulates basic processes such as cell cycle control, survival and migration. p130Cas over-expression has been related to mammary gland transformation, however the in vivo consequences of p130Cas over-expression during mammary gland morphogenesis are not known. In ex vivo mammary explants from MMTV-p130Cas transgenic mice, we show that p130Cas impairs the functional interplay between Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR and Estrogen Receptor (ER during mammary gland development. Indeed, we demonstrate that p130Cas over-expression upon the concomitant stimulation with EGF and estrogen (E2 severely impairs mammary morphogenesis giving rise to enlarged multicellular spherical structures with altered architecture and absence of the central lumen. These filled acinar structures are characterized by increased cell survival and proliferation and by a strong activation of Erk1/2 MAPKs and Akt. Interestingly, antagonizing the ER activity is sufficient to re-establish branching morphogenesis and normal Erk1/2 MAPK activity. Overall, these results indicate that high levels of p130Cas expression profoundly affect mammary morphogenesis by altering epithelial architecture, survival and unbalancing Erk1/2 MAPKs activation in response to growth factors and hormones. These results suggest that alteration of morphogenetic pathways due to p130Cas over-expression might prime mammary epithelium to tumorigenesis.

  20. relA over-expression reduces tumorigenicity and activates apoptosis in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, A; Biroccio, A; Trisciuoglio, D; Cippitelli, M; Zupi, G; Bufalo, D Del

    2001-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bcl-2 over-expression increases the malignant behaviour of the MCF7 ADR human breast cancer cell line and enhances nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-k B) transcriptional activity. Here, we investigated the direct effect of increased NF-k B activity on the tumorigenicity of MCF7 ADR cells by over-expressing the NF-k B subunit relA/p65. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that over-expression of relA determines a considerable reduction of the tumorigenic ability in nude mice as indicated by the tumour take and the median time of tumour appearance. In vitro studies also evidenced a reduced cell proliferation and the activation of the apoptotic programme after relA over-expression. Apoptosis was associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, and the cleavage of the specific substrate Poly-ADP-ribose-polymerrase. Our data indicate that there is no general role for NF-k B in the regulation of apoptosis and tumorigenicity. In fact, even though inhibiting NF-k B activity has been reported to be lethal to tumour cells, our findings clearly suggest that an over-induction of nuclear NF-k B activity may produce the same effect. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11747334

  1. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

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    Chatterjee Namita

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. Methods To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. Results In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. Conclusions These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells.

  2. Enhanced tolerance to low temperature in tobacco by over-expression of a new maize protein phosphatase 2C, ZmPP2C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Liu, Lixia; Xiao, Beilei; Li, Dapeng; Xing, Xin; Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Dequan

    2010-10-15

    Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses affecting plant growth and agricultural production. Serine/threonine protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) have been suggested to play an important role in stress signaling. To identify potential new member of the PP2C proteins in maize and investigate its functions for stress responses, the ZmPP2C2 gene, encoding a new PP2C protein from maize roots, was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. Its constitutive expression in roots, stems and leaves of maize seedlings was detected by RNA gel blot, and its regulation in response to cold stress was also examined. To further evaluate its function in the cold stress response, we over-expressed the ZmPP2C2 gene in tobacco under the control of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and assessed a series of physiological changes in wild type and transgenic plants under low temperatures. Compared with wild type tobacco under cold stress, plants that over-expressed ZmPP2C2 displayed higher germination speed and rate, higher antioxidant enzyme (SOD, POD, CAT) activities, with lower cold-induced electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. These results show that over-expression of ZmPP2C2 in tobacco enhanced tolerance to cold stress, suggesting that this new gene, ZmPP2C2, may act as a positive regulator of cold resistance in plants.

  3. MicroRNA 218 mediates the effects of Tbx5a over-expression on zebrafish heart development.

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    Elena Chiavacci

    Full Text Available tbx5, a member of the T-box gene family, encodes one of the key transcription factors mediating vertebrate heart development. Tbx5 function in heart development appears to be exquisitely sensitive to gene dosage, since both haploinsufficiency and gene duplication generate the cardiac abnormalities associated with Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS, a highly penetrant autosomal dominant disease characterized by congenital heart defects of varying severity and upper limb malformation. It is suggested that tight integration of microRNAs and transcription factors into the cardiac genetic circuitry provides a rich and robust array of regulatory interactions to control cardiac gene expression. Based on these considerations, we performed an in silico screening to identify microRNAs embedded in genes highly sensitive to Tbx5 dosage. Among the identified microRNAs, we focused our attention on miR-218-1 that, together with its host gene, slit2, is involved in heart development. We found correlated expression of tbx5 and miR-218 during cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse P19CL6 cells. In zebrafish embryos, we show that both Tbx5 and miR-218 dysregulation have a severe impact on heart development, affecting early heart morphogenesis. Interestingly, down-regulation of miR-218 is able to rescue the heart defects generated by tbx5 over-expression supporting the notion that miR-218 is a crucial mediator of Tbx5 in heart development and suggesting its possible involvement in the onset of heart malformations.

  4. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Shao, Fangyang; Pi, Weidong; Shi, Cong; Chen, Yujia; Gong, Diping; Wang, Bingjie; Cao, Zhiwei; Tang, Kailin

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000), suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  5. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan He

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000, suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  6. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion.

  7. Over-expression of the cercosporin facilitator protein, CFP, in Cercospora kikuchii up-regulates production and secretion of cercosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, R G; Rose, M S; Eweida, M

    2001-10-16

    CFP (cercosporin facilitator protein), a light-regulated gene from the soybean fungal pathogen Cercospora kikuchii, encodes the putative major facilitator transporter of the fungal polyketide cercosporin. Gene disruption of CFP in C. kikuchii strain Gus-3 resulted in dramatically reduced cercosporin production and virulence, and increased sensitivity to the toxin. Two C. kikuchii transformant strains (10-1 and 10-11) that over-produce cercosporin were recovered from the complementation of CFP gene-disrupted strain Gus-3. Southern analysis revealed that these strains contained multiple genomic copies of CFP and over-expressed CFP transcript and protein. Although 10-1 and 10-11 produce and secrete significantly elevated levels of cercosporin, they exhibit wild-type resistance to cercosporin, and maintain a wild-type pattern of light-regulated toxin accumulation. Restoration of wild-type cercosporin resistance in 10-1 and 10-11 suggests that CFP does contribute substantially to cercosporin resistance via toxin secretion. The three-fold increase in toxin accumulation, predominantly associated with the mycelium fraction of these CFP multi-copy strains, suggests that CFP may also have a significant, but unknown, role in regulating toxin production.

  8. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

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    Deepak K Sinha

    Full Text Available The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion.

  9. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion. PMID:26815857

  10. Microarray dataset of Jurkat cells following miR-93 over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioiosa, Silvia; Verduci, Lorena; Azzalin, Gianluca; Carissimi, Claudia; Fulci, Valerio; Macino, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The dataset presented here represents a microarray experiment of Jurkat cell line over-expressing miR-93 after lentiviral transgenic construct transduction. Three biological replicates have been performed. We further provide normalized and processed data, log2 Fold Change based ranked list and GOterms resulting table. The raw microarray data are available in the ArrayExpress database (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number ArrayExpress: E-MTAB-4588. PMID:27408928

  11. Anosmin-1 over-expression regulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, migration and myelin sheath thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Martínez-Hernández, José; Gruart, Agnès; Luján, Rafael; Delgado-García, José María; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    During development of the central nervous system, anosmin-1 (A1) works as a chemotropic cue contributing to axonal outgrowth and collateralization, as well as modulating the migration of different cell types, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) being the main receptor involved in all these events. To further understand the role of A1 during development, we have analysed the over-expression of human A1 in a transgenic mouse line. Compared with control mice during development and in early adulthood, A1 over-expressing transgenic mice showed an enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and a higher number of OPCs in the subventricular zone and in the corpus callosum (CC). The migratory capacity of OPCs from the transgenic mice is increased in vitro due to a higher basal activation of ERK1/2 mediated through FGFR1 and they also produced more myelin basic protein (MBP). In vivo, the over-expression of A1 resulted in an elevated number of mature oligodendrocytes with higher levels of MBP mRNA and protein, as well as increased levels of activation of the ERK1/2 proteins, while electron microscopy revealed thicker myelin sheaths around the axons of the CC in adulthood. Also in the mature CC, the nodes of Ranvier were significantly longer and the conduction velocity of the nerve impulse in vivo was significantly increased in the CC of A1 over-expressing transgenic mice. Altogether, these data confirmed the involvement of A1 in oligodendrogliogenesis and its relevance for myelination. PMID:25662897

  12. Anosmin-1 over-expression regulates oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, migration and myelin sheath thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Martínez-Hernández, José; Gruart, Agnès; Luján, Rafael; Delgado-García, José María; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    During development of the central nervous system, anosmin-1 (A1) works as a chemotropic cue contributing to axonal outgrowth and collateralization, as well as modulating the migration of different cell types, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) being the main receptor involved in all these events. To further understand the role of A1 during development, we have analysed the over-expression of human A1 in a transgenic mouse line. Compared with control mice during development and in early adulthood, A1 over-expressing transgenic mice showed an enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and a higher number of OPCs in the subventricular zone and in the corpus callosum (CC). The migratory capacity of OPCs from the transgenic mice is increased in vitro due to a higher basal activation of ERK1/2 mediated through FGFR1 and they also produced more myelin basic protein (MBP). In vivo, the over-expression of A1 resulted in an elevated number of mature oligodendrocytes with higher levels of MBP mRNA and protein, as well as increased levels of activation of the ERK1/2 proteins, while electron microscopy revealed thicker myelin sheaths around the axons of the CC in adulthood. Also in the mature CC, the nodes of Ranvier were significantly longer and the conduction velocity of the nerve impulse in vivo was significantly increased in the CC of A1 over-expressing transgenic mice. Altogether, these data confirmed the involvement of A1 in oligodendrogliogenesis and its relevance for myelination.

  13. Over-Expression of Catalase in Myeloid Cells Confers Acute Protection Following Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bernadette Cabigas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and new treatment options are greatly needed. Oxidative stress is increased following myocardial infarction and levels of antioxidants decrease, causing imbalance that leads to dysfunction. Therapy involving catalase, the endogenous scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, has been met with mixed results. When over-expressed in cardiomyocytes from birth, catalase improves function following injury. When expressed in the same cells in an inducible manner, catalase showed a time-dependent response with no acute benefit, but a chronic benefit due to altered remodeling. In myeloid cells, catalase over-expression reduced angiogenesis during hindlimb ischemia and prevented monocyte migration. In the present study, due to the large inflammatory response following infarction, we examined myeloid-specific catalase over-expression on post-infarct healing. We found a significant increase in catalase levels following infarction that led to a decrease in H2O2 levels, leading to improved acute function. This increase in function could be attributed to reduced infarct size and improved angiogenesis. Despite these initial improvements, there was no improvement in chronic function, likely due to increased fibrosis. These data combined with what has been previously shown underscore the need for temporal, cell-specific catalase delivery as a potential therapeutic option.

  14. Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits.

  15. Enhanced Tolerance of Transgenic Potato Plants Over-Expressing Non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein-1 (StnsLTP1) against Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Baniekal H; Sajeesh, Kappachery; Venkatesh, Jelli; Baskar, Venkidasamy; Abhinandan, Kumar; Yu, Jae W; Prasad, Ram; Mishra, Raghvendra K

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT) control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species and regulated expression of stress-related genes.

  16. Enhanced Tolerance of Transgenic Potato Plants Over-Expressing Non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein-1 (StnsLTP1) against Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Baniekal H.; Sajeesh, Kappachery; Venkatesh, Jelli; Baskar, Venkidasamy; Abhinandan, Kumar; Yu, Jae W.; Prasad, Ram; Mishra, Raghvendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT) control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species and regulated expression of stress-related genes. PMID:27597854

  17. Enhanced Tolerance of Transgenic Potato Plants Over-Expressing Non-specific Lipid Transfer Protein-1 (StnsLTP1) against Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Baniekal H; Sajeesh, Kappachery; Venkatesh, Jelli; Baskar, Venkidasamy; Abhinandan, Kumar; Yu, Jae W; Prasad, Ram; Mishra, Raghvendra K

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT) control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species and regulated expression of stress-related genes. PMID:27597854

  18. Enhancement in production of recombinant two-chain Insulin Glargine by over-expression of Kex2 protease in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Basavaraju, Yogesh; Kanojia, Komal; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Natarajan, Jayaprakash; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2015-01-01

    Glargine is an analog of Insulin currently being produced by recombinant DNA technology using two different hosts namely Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Production from E. coli involves the steps of extraction of inclusion bodies by cell lysis, refolding, proteolytic cleavage and purification. In P. pastoris, a single-chain precursor with appropriate disulfide bonding is secreted to the medium. Downstream processing currently involves use of trypsin which converts the precursor into two-chain final product. The use of trypsin in the process generates additional impurities due to presence of Lys and Arg residues in the Glargine molecule. In this study, we describe an alternate approach involving over-expression of endogenous Kex2 proprotein convertase, taking advantage of dibasic amino acid sequence (Arg-Arg) at the end of B-chain of Glargine. KEX2 gene over-expression in Pichia was accomplished by using promoters of varying strengths to ensure production of greater levels of fully functional two-chain Glargine product, confirmed by HPLC and mass analysis. In conclusion, this new production process involving Kex2 protease over-expression improves the downstream process efficiency, reduces the levels of impurities generated and decreases the use of raw materials. PMID:25239036

  19. Selenium status and over-expression of interleukin-15 in celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Velia Stazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In celiac disease (CD, for its multifactorial nature, the target organs are not limited to the gut, but include thyroid, liver, skin and reproductive and nervous systems. Between the extraintestinal symptoms associated with CD, autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs are more evident, underlining as CD-related autoimmune alterations can be modulated not only by gluten but also by various concurrent endogenous (genetic affinity, over-expression of cytokines and exogenous (environment, nutritional deficiency factors. In their pathogenesis a central role for over-expression of interleukin-15 (IL-15 is shown, by inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the perpetuation of inflammation and tissue destruction. Thyroid is particularly sensitive to selenium deficiency because selenoproteins are significant in biosynthesis and activity of thyroid hormones; besides, some selenoproteins as glutathione peroxidase are involved in inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, selenium malabsorption in CD can be thought as a key factor directly leading to thyroid and intestinal damage. Considering the complexity of this interaction and on the basis of available evidence, the aim of this review is to assess as preventive and therapeutic target the role of IL-15 and selenium in the pathogeneses of both CD and AITD.

  20. Over-expression of ST3Gal-I promotes mammary tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picco, Gianfranco; Julien, Sylvain; Brockhausen, Inka;

    2010-01-01

    and lactating mammary glands, the stomach, lungs and intestine. Although no obvious defects were observed in the fully developed mammary gland, when these mice were crossed with PyMT mice, a highly significant decrease in tumor latency was observed compared to the PyMT mice on an identical background......3Gal-I adds sialic acid to the galactose residue of core 1 (Galbeta1,3GalNAc) O-glycans and this enzyme is over-expressed in breast cancer resulting in the expression of sialylated core 1 glycans. In order to study the role of ST3Gal-I in mammary tumor development, we developed transgenic mice...... that over-express the sialyltransferase under the control of the human membrane-bound mucin 1 promoter. These mice were then crossed with PyMT mice that spontaneously develop mammary tumors. As expected, ST3Gal-I transgenic mice showed increased activity and expression of the enzyme in the pregnant...

  1. Tobacco plants over-expressing the sweet orange tau glutathione transferases (CsGSTUs) acquire tolerance to the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cicero, Luca; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-08-01

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are members of a superfamily of enzymes with pivotal role in the detoxification of both xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. In this work, the generation and characterization of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing tau glutathione transferases from Citrus sinensis (CsGSTU1 and CsGSTU2) and several cross-mutate forms of these genes are reported. Putative transformed plants were verified for the presence of the transgenes and the relative quantification of transgene copy number was evaluated by Taqman real time PCR. The analysis of gene expression revealed that transformed plants exhibit high levels of CsGSTU transcription suggesting that the insertion of the transgenes occurred in transcriptional active regions of the tobacco genome. In planta studies demonstrate that transformed tobacco plants gain tolerance against fluorodifen. Simultaneously, the wild type CsGSTU genes were in vitro expressed and their kinetic properties were determined using fluorodifen as substrate. The results show that CsGSTU2 follows a Michaelis-Menten hyperbolic kinetic, whereas CsGSTU1 generates a sigmoid plot typical of the regulatory enzymes, thus suggesting that when working at sub-lethal fluorodifen concentrations CsGSTU2 can counteract the herbicide injury more efficiently than the CsGSTU1. Moreover, the transgenic tobacco plant over-expressing CsGSTs exhibited both drought and salinity stress tolerance. However, as we show that CsGSTUs do not function as glutathione peroxidase in vitro, the protective effect against salt and drought stress is not due to a direct scavenging activity of the oxidative stress byproducts. The transgenic tobacco plants, which are described in the present study, can be helpful for phytoremediation of residual xenobiotics in the environment and overall the over-expression of CsGSTUs can be helpful to develop genetically modified crops with high resistance to abiotic stresses. PMID:25819876

  2. Tobacco plants over-expressing the sweet orange tau glutathione transferases (CsGSTUs) acquire tolerance to the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cicero, Luca; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-08-01

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are members of a superfamily of enzymes with pivotal role in the detoxification of both xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. In this work, the generation and characterization of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing tau glutathione transferases from Citrus sinensis (CsGSTU1 and CsGSTU2) and several cross-mutate forms of these genes are reported. Putative transformed plants were verified for the presence of the transgenes and the relative quantification of transgene copy number was evaluated by Taqman real time PCR. The analysis of gene expression revealed that transformed plants exhibit high levels of CsGSTU transcription suggesting that the insertion of the transgenes occurred in transcriptional active regions of the tobacco genome. In planta studies demonstrate that transformed tobacco plants gain tolerance against fluorodifen. Simultaneously, the wild type CsGSTU genes were in vitro expressed and their kinetic properties were determined using fluorodifen as substrate. The results show that CsGSTU2 follows a Michaelis-Menten hyperbolic kinetic, whereas CsGSTU1 generates a sigmoid plot typical of the regulatory enzymes, thus suggesting that when working at sub-lethal fluorodifen concentrations CsGSTU2 can counteract the herbicide injury more efficiently than the CsGSTU1. Moreover, the transgenic tobacco plant over-expressing CsGSTs exhibited both drought and salinity stress tolerance. However, as we show that CsGSTUs do not function as glutathione peroxidase in vitro, the protective effect against salt and drought stress is not due to a direct scavenging activity of the oxidative stress byproducts. The transgenic tobacco plants, which are described in the present study, can be helpful for phytoremediation of residual xenobiotics in the environment and overall the over-expression of CsGSTUs can be helpful to develop genetically modified crops with high resistance to abiotic stresses.

  3. Over-expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 (ANT1) Induces Apoptosis and Tumor Regression in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the exchange of mitochondrial ATP for cytosolic ADP. ANT has been known to be a major component of the permeability transition pore complex of mitochondria and contributes to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Human ANT has four isoforms (ANT1, ANT2, ANT3, and ANT4), and the expression of the ANT isoforms is variable depending on the tissue and cell type, developmental stage, and proliferation status. Among the isoforms, ANT1 is highly expressed in terminally-differentiated tissues, but expressed in low levels in proliferating cells, such as cancer cells. In particular, over-expression of ANT1 induces apoptosis in cultured tumor cells. We applied an ANT1 gene transfer approach to induce apoptosis and to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of ANT1 in a nude mouse model. We demonstrated that ANT1 transfection induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells, inactivated NF-κB activity, and increased Bax expression. ANT1-inducing apoptosis was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and the activation of caspases-9 and -3. Moreover, ANT1 transfection significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that ANT1 transfection may be a useful therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer

  4. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Li, Bingnan; de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-03-10

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity. PMID:25682873

  5. Over-expression of PUMA correlates with the apoptosis of spinal cord cells in rat neuropathic intermittent claudication model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuropathic intermittent claudication (NIC is a typical clinical symptom of lumbar spinal stenosis and the apoptosis of neurons caused by cauda equina compression (CEC has been proposed as an important reason. Whereas, the factors and the mechanism involved in the process of apoptosis induced by CEC remain unclear. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In our modified rat model of NIC, a trapezoid-shaped silicon rubber was inserted into the epidural space under the L5 and L6 vertebral plate. Obvious apoptosis was observed in spinal cord cells after compression by TUNEL assay. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis and p53 were upregulated significantly in spinal cord under compression, while the expression of p53 inhibitor MDM2 and SirT2 decreased in the same region. Furthermore, CEC also resulted in the upregulation of Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic genes expression and caspase-3 activation. With the protection of Methylprednisolone, the upregulation of PUMA and p53 expression as well as the decrease of MDM2 and SirT2 in spinal cord were partially rescued in western bolt analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that over-expression of PUMA correlates with CEC caused apoptosis of spinal cord cells, which is characterized by the increase of p53, Bax and Bad expression. PUMA upregulation might be crucial to induce apoptosis of spinal cord cells through p53-dependent pathway in CEC.

  6. Co-Occurrence of Two Allelic Variants of CYP51 in Erysiphe necator and Their Correlation with Over-Expression for DMI Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Baudoin, Anton B

    2016-01-01

    Demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) have been an important tool in the management of grapevine powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator. Long-term, intensive use of DMIs has resulted in reduced sensitivity in field populations. To further characterize DMI resistance and understand resistance mechanisms in this pathogen, we investigated the cyp51 sequence of 24 single-spored isolates from Virginia and surrounding states and analyzed gene expression in isolates representing a wide range of sensitivity. Two cyp51 alleles were found with respect to the 136th codon of the predicted EnCYP51 sequence: the wild-type (TAT) and the mutant (TTT), which results in the known Y136F amino acid change. Some isolates possessed both alleles, demonstrating gene duplication or increased gene copy number and possibly a requirement for at least one mutant copy of CYP51 for resistance. Cyp51 was over-expressed 1.4- to 19-fold in Y136F-mutant isolates. However, the Y136F mutation was absent in one isolate with moderate to high resistance factor. Two additional synonymous mutations were detected as well, one of which, A1119C was present only in isolates with high cyp51 expression. Overall, our results indicate that at least two mechanisms, cyp51 over-expression and the known target-site mutation in CYP51, contribute to resistance in E. necator, and may be working in conjunction with each other. PMID:26839970

  7. Co-Occurrence of Two Allelic Variants of CYP51 in Erysiphe necator and Their Correlation with Over-Expression for DMI Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Esther E Rallos

    Full Text Available Demethylation inhibitors (DMIs have been an important tool in the management of grapevine powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator. Long-term, intensive use of DMIs has resulted in reduced sensitivity in field populations. To further characterize DMI resistance and understand resistance mechanisms in this pathogen, we investigated the cyp51 sequence of 24 single-spored isolates from Virginia and surrounding states and analyzed gene expression in isolates representing a wide range of sensitivity. Two cyp51 alleles were found with respect to the 136th codon of the predicted EnCYP51 sequence: the wild-type (TAT and the mutant (TTT, which results in the known Y136F amino acid change. Some isolates possessed both alleles, demonstrating gene duplication or increased gene copy number and possibly a requirement for at least one mutant copy of CYP51 for resistance. Cyp51 was over-expressed 1.4- to 19-fold in Y136F-mutant isolates. However, the Y136F mutation was absent in one isolate with moderate to high resistance factor. Two additional synonymous mutations were detected as well, one of which, A1119C was present only in isolates with high cyp51 expression. Overall, our results indicate that at least two mechanisms, cyp51 over-expression and the known target-site mutation in CYP51, contribute to resistance in E. necator, and may be working in conjunction with each other.

  8. Inhibition of PMA-induced endothelial cell activation and adhesion by over-expression of domain negative IκBα protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Feng Wei; Ke Sun; Shi-Guo Xu; Hai-Yang Xie; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: NF-κB, regulate the expression of cytokine-inducible genes involving immune and inflammatory responses, will be potential therapy approach for allograft from rejection. In this study, we use pCMV-IκBαM vector to inhibit NF-κB activation and investigate the effect of pCMV-IκBαM in inhibition of T cells adhesion to endothelial cells. METHODS: The NF-κB activity was detected with pNF-κB reporter gene and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Expression of cell surface molecules was detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometer. The cell-cell adhesion assay was performed to determine the effect of pCMV-IκBαM in inhibition of T cells adhesion to endothelial cells. RESULTS: We could find that NF-κB activity is inhibited by over-expression of non-degraded IκBα protein. Expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin as well as cell-cell adhesion were inhibited significantly by transfection of the pCMV-IκBαM vector. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the pCMVIκBαM, which inhibit the activity of NF-κB through over-expression of non-degraded IκBα protein, can be used for gene therapy in diseases involving NF-κB activation abnormally like organ transplantation via inhibiting cell adhesion.

  9. Inactivation of CDK2 is synthetically lethal to MYCN over-expressing cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Molenaar; M.E. Ebus; D. Geerts; J. Koster; F. Lamers; L.J. Valentijn; E.M. Westerhout; R. Versteeg; H.N. Caron

    2009-01-01

    Two genes have a synthetically lethal relationship when the silencing or inhibiting of 1 gene is only lethal in the context of a mutation or activation of the second gene. This situation offers an attractive therapeutic strategy, as inhibition of such a gene will only trigger cell death in tumor cel

  10. Properties of astrocytes cultured from GFAP over-expressing and GFAP mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander disease is a fatal leukoencephalopathy caused by dominantly-acting coding mutations in GFAP. Previous work has also implicated elevations in absolute levels of GFAP as central to the pathogenesis of the disease. However, identification of the critical astrocyte functions that are compromised by mis-expression of GFAP has not yet been possible. To provide new tools for investigating the nature of astrocyte dysfunction in Alexander disease, we have established primary astrocyte cultures from two mouse models of Alexander disease, a transgenic that over-expresses wild type human GFAP, and a knock-in at the endogenous mouse locus that mimics a common Alexander disease mutation. We find that mutant GFAP, as well as excess wild type GFAP, promotes formation of cytoplasmic inclusions, disrupts the cytoskeleton, decreases cell proliferation, increases cell death, reduces proteasomal function, and compromises astrocyte resistance to stress.

  11. Properties of astrocytes cultured from GFAP over-expressing and GFAP mutant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Woosung [Waisman Center and Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave, Rm 713, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Messing, Albee, E-mail: messing@waisman.wisc.edu [Waisman Center and Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Highland Ave, Rm 713, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Alexander disease is a fatal leukoencephalopathy caused by dominantly-acting coding mutations in GFAP. Previous work has also implicated elevations in absolute levels of GFAP as central to the pathogenesis of the disease. However, identification of the critical astrocyte functions that are compromised by mis-expression of GFAP has not yet been possible. To provide new tools for investigating the nature of astrocyte dysfunction in Alexander disease, we have established primary astrocyte cultures from two mouse models of Alexander disease, a transgenic that over-expresses wild type human GFAP, and a knock-in at the endogenous mouse locus that mimics a common Alexander disease mutation. We find that mutant GFAP, as well as excess wild type GFAP, promotes formation of cytoplasmic inclusions, disrupts the cytoskeleton, decreases cell proliferation, increases cell death, reduces proteasomal function, and compromises astrocyte resistance to stress.

  12. GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer cells and patient breast cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Gowrishankar

    Full Text Available F18 2-Fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG has been the gold standard in positron emission tomography (PET oncologic imaging since its introduction into the clinics several years ago. Seeking to complement FDG in the diagnosis of breast cancer using radio labeled fructose based analogs, we investigated the expression of the chief fructose transporter-GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells and human tissues. Our results indicate that GLUT 5 is not over-expressed in breast cancer tissues as assessed by an extensive immunohistochemistry study. RT-PCR studies showed that the GLUT 5 mRNA was present at minimal amounts in breast cancer cell lines. Further knocking down the expression of GLUT 5 in breast cancer cells using RNA interference did not affect the fructose uptake in these cell lines. Taken together these results are consistent with GLUT 5 not being essential for fructose uptake in breast cancer cells and tissues.

  13. The DNA binding domain of c-Myb: over-expression and NMR characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA-binding domain of the Drosophila melanogaster c-Myb protein, 160 residues long, containing three conserved imperfect repeats of nearly 50 residues each has been over expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3). The protein is expressed to the extent of at least 20% of the total cellular protein. It has been purified by a four-step protocol developed in the laboratory. The protein has been characterized by various 2D NMR experiments. Several specific amino acids have been identified. A three-dimensional NMR spectrum has been recorded to achieve dispersion of cross-peaks into different 2D planes. (author). 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed

  15. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation

  16. Conditional over-expression of PITX1 causes skeletal muscle dystrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachchida N. Pandey

    2012-05-01

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1 was specifically up-regulated in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD by comparing the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of 12 neuromuscular disorders. In addition, it is the only known direct transcriptional target of the double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4 of which aberrant expression has been shown to be the cause of FSHD. To test the hypothesis that up-regulation of PITX1 contributes to the skeletal muscle atrophy seen in patients with FSHD, we generated a tet-repressible muscle-specific Pitx1 transgenic mouse model in which expression of PITX1 in skeletal muscle can be controlled by oral administration of doxycycline. After PITX1 was over-expressed in the skeletal muscle for 5 weeks, the mice exhibited significant loss of body weight and muscle mass, decreased muscle strength, and reduction of muscle fiber diameters. Among the muscles examined, the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, quadricep, bicep, tricep and deltoid showed significant reduction of muscle mass, while the soleus, masseter and diaphragm muscles were not affected. The most prominent pathological change was the development of atrophic muscle fibers with mild necrosis and inflammatory infiltration. The affected myofibers stained heavily with NADH-TR with the strongest staining in angular-shaped atrophic fibers. Some of the atrophic fibers were also positive for embryonic myosin heavy chain using immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that the p53 was up-regulated in the muscles over-expressing PITX1. The results suggest that the up-regulation of PITX1 followed by activation of p53-dependent pathways may play a major role in the muscle atrophy developed in the mouse model.

  17. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Si-Jian [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wu, Yue-Bing [Department of Internal Medicine Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Cai, Shang [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 21500 (China); Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei [Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Bian, Liu-Guan [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Bomin [Department of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Sun, Qing-Fang, E-mail: sunqingfang11@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  18. Over-expression of gsh1 in the cytosol affects the photosynthetic apparatus and improves the performance of transgenic poplars on heavy metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, L A; Ronzhina, D A; Ivanov, L A; Stroukova, L V; Peuke, A D; Rennenberg, H

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of transgenic poplars over-expressing the genes gsh1 and gsh2 encoding γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase, respectively, provided detailed information on regulation of GSH synthesis, enzymes activities and mRNA expression. In this experiment, we studied quantitative parameters of leaves, assimilating tissues, cells and chloroplasts, mesophyll resistance for CO(2) diffusion, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content in wild-type poplar and transgenic plants over-expressing gsh1 in the cytosol after 3 years of growth in relatively clean (control) or heavy metal-contaminated soil in the field. Over-expression of gsh1 in the cytosol led to a twofold increase of intrafoliar GSH concentration and influenced the photosynthetic apparatus at different levels of organisation, i.e., leaves, photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts. At the control site, transgenic poplars had a twofold smaller total leaf area per plant and a 1.6-fold leaf area per leaf compared to wild-type controls. Annual aboveground biomass gain was reduced by 50% in the transgenic plants. The reduction of leaf area of the transformants was accompanied by a significant decline in total cell number per leaf, indicating suppression of cell division. Over-expression of γ-ECS in the cytosol also caused changes in mesophyll structure, i.e., a 20% decrease in cell and chloroplast number per leaf area, but also an enhanced volume share of chloroplasts and intercellular airspaces in the leaves. Transgenic and wild poplars did not exhibit differences in chlorophyll and carotenoid content of leaves, but transformants had 1.3-fold fewer soluble carbohydrates. Cultivation on contaminated soil caused a reduction of palisade cell volume and chloroplast number, both per cell and leaf area, in wild-type plants but not in transformants. Biomass accumulation of wild-type poplars decreased in contaminated soil by more than 30-fold, whereas transformants showed a twofold decrease

  19. Over-expression of the Arabidopsis proton-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances transplant survival, root mass, and fruit development under limiting phosphorus conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibing; Zhang, Xiao; Gaxiola, Roberto A; Xu, Guohua; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S

    2014-07-01

    Phosphorus (P), an element required for plant growth, fruit set, fruit development, and fruit ripening, can be deficient or unavailable in agricultural soils. Previously, it was shown that over-expression of a proton-pyrophosphatase gene AVP1/AVP1D (AVP1DOX) in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato resulted in the enhancement of root branching and overall mass with the result of increased mineral P acquisition. However, although AVP1 over-expression also increased shoot biomass in Arabidopsis, this effect was not observed in tomato under phosphate-sufficient conditions. AVP1DOX tomato plants exhibited increased rootward auxin transport and root acidification compared with control plants. AVP1DOX tomato plants were analysed in detail under limiting P conditions in greenhouse and field trials. AVP1DOX plants produced 25% (P=0.001) more marketable ripened fruit per plant under P-deficient conditions compared with the controls. Further, under low phosphate conditions, AVP1DOX plants displayed increased phosphate transport from leaf (source) to fruit (sink) compared to controls. AVP1DOX plants also showed an 11% increase in transplant survival (Ptomato cultivars for increased proton pyrophosphatase gene expression could be useful when selecting for cultivars to be grown on marginal soils.

  20. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, Daria [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Rizvanov, Albert A.; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I.; Kudryashova, Nezhdana V. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András, E-mail: palotas@asklepios-med.eu [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Asklepios-Med (Private Medical Practice and Research Center), Szeged (Hungary); Islamov, Rustem R., E-mail: islamru@yahoo.com [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignant transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis.

  1. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignant transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis

  2. Entamoeba histolytica: the over expression of a mutated EhRabB protein produces a decrease of in vitro and in vivo virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, L J; García-Pérez, R M; Salas-Casas, A; García-Rivera, G; Orozco, E; Rodríguez, M A

    2013-03-01

    Vesicular trafficking, which is implicated in secretion of cytolytic molecules as well as in phagocytosis, plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis. Thus, Rab GTPases, that are key regulators of vesicle trafficking, should be considered as molecules involved in the parasite virulence. EhRabB is a Rab protein located in cytoplasmic vesicles that are translocated to phagocytic mouths during ingestion of target cells, suggesting that this Rab protein is involved in phagocytosis. To prove this hypothesis, we over expressed the wild type EhrabB gene and a mutant gene encoding for a protein (RabBN118I) unable to bind guanine nucleotides and therefore constitutively inactive. The over expression of the mutated protein in E. histolytica trophozoites provoked a dominant negative effect, reflected in a significant decrease of both phagocytosis and cytopathic effect as well as in a failure to produce hepatic abscesses in hamsters. These results confirm that EhRabB is involved in phagocytosis and virulence of E. histolytica.

  3. Marked over expression of uncoupling protein-2 in beta cells exerts minor effects on mitochondrial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The impact of UCP-2 over expression on mitochondrial function is controversial. ► We tested mitochondrial functions at defined levels of overexpression. ► We find minor increases of fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling. ► Effects were seen only at high level (fourfold) of over expression. ► Hence it is doubtful whether these effects are of importance in diabetes. -- Abstract: Evidence is conflicting as to the impact of elevated levels of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) on insulin-producing beta cells. Here we investigated effects of a fourfold induction of UCP-2 protein primarily on mitochondrial parameters and tested for replication of positive findings at a lower level of induction. We transfected INS-1 cells to obtain a tet-on inducible cell line. A 48 h exposure to 1 μg/ml of doxycycline (dox) induced UCP-2 fourfold (424 ± 113%, mean ± SEM) and 0.1 μg/ml twofold (178 ± 29%, n = 3). Fourfold induced cells displayed normal viability (MTT, apoptosis), normal cellular insulin contents and, glucose-induced insulin secretion (+27 ± 11%) as well as D-[U-14C]-glucose oxidation (+5 ± 9% at 11 mM glucose). Oxidation of [1-14C]-oleate was increased from 4088 to 5797 fmol/μg prot/2 h at 3.3 mM glucose, p 14C(U)]-glutamine was unaffected. Induction of UCP-2 did not significantly affect measures of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123) or mitochondrial mass (Mitotracker Green) and did not affect ATP levels. Oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption (a measure of mitochondrial uncoupling) was marginally increased, the effect being significant in comparison with dox-only treated cells, p < 0.05. Oxygen radicals, assessed by dichlorofluorescin diacetate, were decreased by 30%, p < 0.025. Testing for the lower level of UCP-2 induction did not reproduce any of the positive findings. A fourfold induction of UCP-2 was required to exert minor metabolic effects. These findings question an impact of moderately elevated UCP-2 levels in beta cells as

  4. Marked over expression of uncoupling protein-2 in beta cells exerts minor effects on mitochondrial metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hals, Ingrid K., E-mail: ingrid.hals@ntnu.no [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Ogata, Hirotaka; Pettersen, Elin [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Ma, Zuheng; Bjoerklund, Anneli [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Skorpen, Frank [Department of Laboratory Medicine, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Egeberg, Kjartan Wollo [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Grill, Valdemar [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The impact of UCP-2 over expression on mitochondrial function is controversial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested mitochondrial functions at defined levels of overexpression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find minor increases of fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects were seen only at high level (fourfold) of over expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hence it is doubtful whether these effects are of importance in diabetes. -- Abstract: Evidence is conflicting as to the impact of elevated levels of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) on insulin-producing beta cells. Here we investigated effects of a fourfold induction of UCP-2 protein primarily on mitochondrial parameters and tested for replication of positive findings at a lower level of induction. We transfected INS-1 cells to obtain a tet-on inducible cell line. A 48 h exposure to 1 {mu}g/ml of doxycycline (dox) induced UCP-2 fourfold (424 {+-} 113%, mean {+-} SEM) and 0.1 {mu}g/ml twofold (178 {+-} 29%, n = 3). Fourfold induced cells displayed normal viability (MTT, apoptosis), normal cellular insulin contents and, glucose-induced insulin secretion (+27 {+-} 11%) as well as D-[U-{sup 14}C]-glucose oxidation (+5 {+-} 9% at 11 mM glucose). Oxidation of [1-{sup 14}C]-oleate was increased from 4088 to 5797 fmol/{mu}g prot/2 h at 3.3 mM glucose, p < 0.03. Oxidation of L-[{sup 14}C(U)]-glutamine was unaffected. Induction of UCP-2 did not significantly affect measures of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123) or mitochondrial mass (Mitotracker Green) and did not affect ATP levels. Oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption (a measure of mitochondrial uncoupling) was marginally increased, the effect being significant in comparison with dox-only treated cells, p < 0.05. Oxygen radicals, assessed by dichlorofluorescin diacetate, were decreased by 30%, p < 0.025. Testing for the lower level of UCP-2 induction did not reproduce any of the

  5. Over-expression of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibits mitochondrial respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampol, Mariana A.; Busso, Cleverson; Gomes, Fernando [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira-Junior, Jose Ribamar [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tzagoloff, Alexander [Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, NY (United States); Barros, Mario H., E-mail: mariohb@usp.br [Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} COQ10 deletion elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q{sub 2}, a synthetic diffusible ubiquinone. {yields} The significance that purified Coq10p contains bound Q{sub 6} was examined by testing over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. {yields} Inhibition of CoQ function due to Coq10p excess strength our hypothesis of Coq10p function in CoQ delivery. {yields} Respiratory deficiency caused by more Coq10p was specific and restored by Q{sub 2} in mitochondria or by Coq8p in cells. {yields} Coq8p over-production on other coq mutants revealed a surprisingly higher stability of other Coq proteins. -- Abstract: COQ10 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicits a defect in mitochondrial respiration correctable by addition of coenzyme Q{sub 2}. Rescue of respiration by Q{sub 2} is a characteristic of mutants blocked in coenzyme Q{sub 6} synthesis. Unlike Q{sub 6} deficient mutants, mitochondria of the coq10 null mutant have wild-type concentrations of Q{sub 6}. The physiological significance of earlier observations that purified Coq10p contains bound Q{sub 6} was examined in the present study by testing the in vivo effect of over-expression of Coq10p on respiration. Mitochondria with elevated levels of Coq10p display reduced respiration in the bc1 span of the electron transport chain, which can be restored with exogenous Q{sub 2}. This suggests that in vivo binding of Q{sub 6} by excess Coq10p reduces the pool of this redox carrier available for its normal function in providing electrons to the bc1 complex. This is confirmed by observing that extra Coq8p relieves the inhibitory effect of excess Coq10p. Coq8p is a putative kinase, and a high-copy suppressor of the coq10 null mutant. As shown here, when over-produced in coq mutants, Coq8p counteracts turnover of Coq3p and Coq4p subunits of the Q-biosynthetic complex. This can account for the observed rescue by COQ8 of the respiratory defect in strains

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in smoking mice over-expressing protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cunto, G; Cardini, S; Cirino, G; Geppetti, P; Lungarella, G; Lucattelli, M

    2011-04-01

    The mechanism(s) involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD is still the object of investigation. Cigarette smoke (CS) may lead to remodelling of intrapulmonary vessels and dynamic changes in vascular function, at least in some smokers. A role for proteases in PH has been recently put forward. We investigated, in smoking mice, the role of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 in the pathogenesis of PH associated with emphysema. We demonstrated that CS exposure can modulate PAR-2 expression in mouse lung. Acute CS exposure induces in wildtype (WT) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAR-2 (FVB(PAR-2-TgN)) a similar degree of neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. After chronic CS exposure WT and FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice show emphysema, but only transgenic mice develop muscularisation of small intrapulmonary vessels that precedes the development of PH (~45% increase) and right ventricular hypertrophy. Smoking in FVB(PAR-2-TgN) mice results in an imbalance between vasoconstrictors (especially endothelin-1) and vasodilators (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and enhanced production of growth factors involved both in fibroblast-smooth muscle cell transaction (i.e. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β) and vascular cell proliferation (PDGF). PAR-2 signalling can influence the production and release of many factors, which may play a role in the development of PH in smokers. PMID:20693251

  7. BDNF over-expression increases olfactory bulb granule cell dendritic spine density in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole, B; Isgor, C; Pare, C; Guthrie, K

    2015-09-24

    Olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are axon-less, inhibitory interneurons that regulate the activity of the excitatory output neurons, the mitral and tufted cells, through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses located on GC spines. These contacts are established in the distal apical dendritic compartment, while GC basal dendrites and more proximal apical segments bear spines that receive glutamatergic inputs from the olfactory cortices. This synaptic connectivity is vital to olfactory circuit function and is remodeled during development, and in response to changes in sensory activity and lifelong GC neurogenesis. Manipulations that alter levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vivo have significant effects on dendritic spine morphology, maintenance and activity-dependent plasticity for a variety of CNS neurons, yet little is known regarding BDNF effects on bulb GC spine maturation or maintenance. Here we show that, in vivo, sustained bulbar over-expression of BDNF in transgenic mice produces a marked increase in GC spine density that includes an increase in mature spines on their apical dendrites. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that changes in spine density were most notable in the distal and proximal apical domains, indicating that multiple excitatory inputs are potentially modified by BDNF. Our results indicate that increased levels of endogenous BDNF can promote the maturation and/or maintenance of dendritic spines on GCs, suggesting a role for this factor in modulating GC functional connectivity within adult olfactory circuitry. PMID:26211445

  8. Over-expression of VEGF165 in the adipose tissue-derived stem cells via the lentiviral vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiang-zhou; LIU Gui-hua; WANG Zhuo-qing; ZHENG Fu-fu; BIAN Jun; HUANG Yan-ping; GAO Yong; ZHANG Ya-dong; DENG Chun-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background Many researchers studied the possibility of using stem cells as gene therapeutic vector. But few related reports on the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are available. Therefore we intended to construct a lentiviral VEGF165 expression vector and then infect the ADSCs to produce therapeutic seed cells.Methods EHS1001-68950485313912 clone was mutated by PCR method to produce consensus fragment of VEGF165 transcript (NM_001025368). Lentivirus was enveloped with pGC-FU, pHelper 1.0 and pHelper 2.0 plasmids in 293T cells.And then the ADSCs (multiplicity of infection=20) were transfected with the vectors after titer determination. Stable expression of VEGF165 in ADSCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting analysis.Results DNA sequencing and 293T transfection verified VEGF165 was linked to the GFP fused vector. The virus titer is up to 2x10a determined by quantitative PCR. VEGF165 transduced cells could show green fluorescence confirmed by immunofluorescence staining (almost 95%). ELISA analyses could detect out the density of VEGF was 850.86-1202.13pg/ml (mean (923.00±31.22) pg/ml) in the supernatant of VEGF16s-transduced cells but not detected in the GFP-transduced cells (P <0.001) and the Western blotting analyses also confirmed VEGF165 expression in VEGF165-transduced cells.Conclusions The VEGF165 over-expression ADSCs were obtained and may be used as a cell therapeutic tool and may be applied for vascular regeneration, especially in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  9. Genomic-wide analysis of lymphatic metastasis-associated genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Feng Lee; Zhi-Qiang Ling; Ting Zhao; Shih-Hua Fang; Weng-Cheng Chang; San-Chih Lee; Kuan-Rong Lee

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the genes related to lymph node metastasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 32 HCC patients with or without lymph node metastasis were investigated by high-throughput microarray comprising 886 genes.METHODS: The samples of cancerous and non-cancerouspaired tissue were taken from 32 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy with lymph node dissection. Total RNA was extracted from the cells obtained by means of laser microdissection (LCM) and was amplified by the T7-based amplification system. Then, the amplified samples were applied in the cDNA microarray comprising of 886 genes.RESULTS: The results demonstrated that 25 upregulated genes such as cell membrane receptor,intracellular signaling and cell adhesion related genes,and 48 down-regulated genes such as intracellular signaling and cell cycle regulator-related genes,were correlated with lymph node metastasis in HCC. Amongst them were included some interesting genes, such as MET, EPHA2, CCND1, MMP2, MMP13,CASP3, CDH1, and PTPN2. Expression of 16 genes ( MET, CCND1, CCND2, VEGF, KRT18, RFC4, BIRC5,CDC6, MMP2, BCL2A1, CDH1, VIM, PDGFRA, PTPN2,SLC25A5 and DSP) were further confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).CONCLUSION: Tumor metastasis is an important biological characteristic, which involves multiple genetic changes and cumulation. This genome-wide information contributes to an improved understanding of molecular alterations during lymph node metastasis in HCC. It may help clinicians to predict metastasis of lymph nodes and assist researchers in identifying novel therapeutic targets for metastatic HCC patients.

  10. MicroRNA-125a is over-expressed in insulin target tissues in a spontaneous rat model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Christina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional control of gene expression of a wide number of genes, including those involved in glucose homeostasis. Type 2 diabetes (T2D is characterized by hyperglycaemia and defects in insulin secretion and action at target tissues. We sought to establish differences in global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic and normoglycaemic strains. Methods We used a miRNA microarray platform to measure global miRNA expression in two insulin-target tissues: liver and adipose tissue from inbred rats of spontaneously diabetic (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] and normoglycaemic (Brown-Norway [BN] strains which are extensively used in genetic studies of T2D. MiRNA data were integrated with gene expression data from the same rats to investigate how differentially expressed miRNAs affect the expression of predicted target gene transcripts. Results The expression of 170 miRNAs was measured in liver and adipose tissue of GK and BN rats. Based on a p-value for differential expression between GK and BN, the most significant change in expression was observed for miR-125a in liver (FC = 5.61, P = 0.001, Padjusted = 0.10; this overexpression was validated using quantitative RT-PCR (FC = 13.15, P = 0.0005. MiR-125a also showed over-expression in the GK vs. BN analysis within adipose tissue (FC = 1.97, P = 0.078, Padjusted = 0.99, as did the previously reported miR-29a (FC = 1.51, P = 0.05, Padjusted = 0.99. In-silico tools assessing the biological role of predicted miR-125a target genes suggest an over-representation of genes involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Gene expression analysis identified 1308 genes with significantly different expression between GK and BN rats (Padjusted Conclusion MiR-125a is over-expressed in liver in hyperglycaemic GK rats relative to normoglycaemic BN rats, and our array data also suggest miR-125a is over-expressed

  11. CRF receptor antagonist astressin-B reverses and prevents alopecia in CRF over-expressing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF signaling pathways are involved in the stress response, and there is growing evidence supporting hair growth inhibition of murine hair follicle in vivo upon stress exposure. We investigated whether the blockade of CRF receptors influences the development of hair loss in CRF over-expressing (OE-mice that display phenotypes of Cushing's syndrome and chronic stress, including alopecia. The non-selective CRF receptors antagonist, astressin-B (5 µg/mouse injected peripherally once a day for 5 days in 4-9 months old CRF-OE alopecic mice induced pigmentation and hair re-growth that was largely retained for over 4 months. In young CRF-OE mice, astressin-B prevented the development of alopecia that occurred in saline-treated mice. Histological examination indicated that alopecic CRF-OE mice had hair follicle atrophy and that astressin-B revived the hair follicle from the telogen to anagen phase. However, astressin-B did not show any effect on the elevated plasma corticosterone levels and the increased weights of adrenal glands and visceral fat in CRF-OE mice. The selective CRF₂ receptor antagonist, astressin₂-B had moderate effect on pigmentation, but not on hair re-growth. The commercial drug for alopecia, minoxidil only showed partial effect on hair re-growth. These data support the existence of a key molecular switching mechanism triggered by blocking peripheral CRF receptors with an antagonist to reset hair growth in a mouse model of alopecia associated with chronic stress.

  12. Analysis of membrane proteome and secretome in cells over-expressing ADAM17 using quantitative proteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, R.; Simabuco, F.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Yokoo, S.; Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sherman, N. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) protease is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-associated proteins and modulation of key cell signaling pathways in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we examined the effect of over-expressing the full length human ADAM17 in membrane and secreted proteins. To this end, we constructed a stable Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cells expressing ADAM17 by tetracycline induction. These cells were grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium containing light lysine, arginine or heavy, L-Arg-13C615N4 and L-Lys -13C615N2 (SILAC: stable isotope labeling with amino acid in cell culture) media and they were treated with an ADAM17 activator, phorbolester (PMA). Controls such as Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cell without PMA treatment and without ADAM17 cloned were cultivated in light medium. The ADAM17 overexpression was induced with tetracycline 500 ng/ml for 24 hours. Cells in a heavy condition were treated with PMA 50 ng/ml for 1 hour and vehicle DMSO was used as control in a light cell condition. The extracellular media were collected, concentrated and used to evaluate the secretome and a cell surface biotinylation-based approach was used to capture cell surface-associated proteins. The biotinylated proteins were eluted with dithiothreitol, alkylated with iodoacetamide and then digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis on an ETD enabled Orbitrap Velos instrument. The results showed different proteins up or down regulated in membrane and secretome analysis which might represent potential molecules involved in signaling or ADAM17 regulation events. (author)

  13. Analysis of membrane proteome and secretome in cells over-expressing ADAM17 using quantitative proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) protease is involved in proteolytic ectodomain shedding of several membrane-associated proteins and modulation of key cell signaling pathways in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we examined the effect of over-expressing the full length human ADAM17 in membrane and secreted proteins. To this end, we constructed a stable Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cells expressing ADAM17 by tetracycline induction. These cells were grown in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium containing light lysine, arginine or heavy, L-Arg-13C615N4 and L-Lys -13C615N2 (SILAC: stable isotope labeling with amino acid in cell culture) media and they were treated with an ADAM17 activator, phorbolester (PMA). Controls such as Flp-In T-RExHEK293 cell without PMA treatment and without ADAM17 cloned were cultivated in light medium. The ADAM17 overexpression was induced with tetracycline 500 ng/ml for 24 hours. Cells in a heavy condition were treated with PMA 50 ng/ml for 1 hour and vehicle DMSO was used as control in a light cell condition. The extracellular media were collected, concentrated and used to evaluate the secretome and a cell surface biotinylation-based approach was used to capture cell surface-associated proteins. The biotinylated proteins were eluted with dithiothreitol, alkylated with iodoacetamide and then digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis on an ETD enabled Orbitrap Velos instrument. The results showed different proteins up or down regulated in membrane and secretome analysis which might represent potential molecules involved in signaling or ADAM17 regulation events. (author)

  14. Over-expression of 14-3-3zeta is an early event in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional and clinical significance of 14-3-3 proteins in human cancers remain largely undetermined. Earlier, we have reported differential expression of 14-3-3ζ mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by differential display. The clinical relevance of 14-3-3ζ protein in oral tumorigenesis was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded sections of oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs), OSCCs and histologically normal oral tissues and corroborated by Western Blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to determine its association with NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2. Intense immunostaining of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed in 61/89 (69%) OPLs and 95/120 (79%) OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein from normal mucosa to OPLs to OSCCs (ptrend < 0.001). Significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed as early as in hyperplasia (p = 0.009), with further elevation in moderate and severe dysplasia, that was sustained in OSCCs. These findings were validated by Western blotting. Using Co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ protein binds to NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2, suggesting its involvement in cellular signaling, leading to proliferation of oral cancer cells. Our findings suggest that over-expression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event in oral tumorigenesis and may have an important role in its development and progression. Thus, 14-3-3ζ may serve as an important molecular target for designing novel therapy for oral cancer

  15. Validity of multiplex biomarker model of 6 genes for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules

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    Ducena Kristine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently the cytological examination of fine needle aspiration (FNA biopsies is the standard technique for the pre-operative differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, the results may be non-informative in ~20% of cases due to an inadequate sampling and the lack of highly specific, measurable cytological criteria, therefore ancillary biomarkers that could aid in these cases are clearly needed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of 8 candidate marker genes as the diagnostic biomarkers for the discrimination of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to find a combination of biomarkers with the highest diagnostic value. Materials and methods mRNA expression levels of eight candidate marker genes - BIRC5, CCND1, CDH1, CITED1, DPP4, LGALS3, MET and TFF3 was measured by real-time RT-PCR in paired nodular and surrounding normal thyroid tissue specimens of 105 consecutive patients undergoing thyroid surgery and compared between different types of thyroid lesions. Results Significant differences in the mRNA expression levels between the normal and malignant thyroid tissues and between benign and malignant nodules were found for BIRC5, CCND1, CITED1, DPP4, LGALS3, MET and TFF3, but not CDH1. On a single gene basis, relative quantity (RQ of LGALS3 had the highest diagnostic value for the discrimination of malignant and benign thyroid nodules (AUC = 0.832, P LGALS3 was RQ sum of LGALS3 and BIRC5 (AUC = 0.841, P LGALS3, BIRC5, TFF3, CCND1, MET and CITED1 that had considerably higher specificity than a single marker or two marker gene-based models (AUC = 0.895, P Conclusions This study confirmed that mRNA expression levels of 7 out of 8 candidate genes analysed have a diagnostic value for the distinction of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The multiplex biomarker model based on 6 genes outperformed a single marker or two marker-based models and warrants feasibility studies on FNA biopsies and

  16. Over-expression of StAPX in tobacco improves seed germination and increases early seedling tolerance to salinity and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Hong; Duan, Ming; Shu, De-Feng; Yang, Sha; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Ascorbate peroxidase plays a key role in scavenging reactive oxygen species under environmental stresses and in protecting plant cells against toxic effects. The Solanum lycopersicum thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase gene (StAPX) was introduced into tobacco under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transformants were selected for their ability to grow on medium containing kanamycin. RNA gel blot analysis confirmed that StAPX was transferred into the tobacco genome and StAPX was induced by salt and osmotic stresses in tomato leaves. Over-expression of StAPX in tobacco improved seed germination rate and elevated stress tolerance during post-germination development. Two transgenic lines showed higher APX activity and accumulated less hydrogen peroxide than wild-type plants after stress treatments. The photosynthetic rates, the root lengths, the fresh and dry weights of the transgenic lines were distinctly higher than those of wild-type plants under stress conditions. Results indicated that the over-expression of StAPX had enhanced tolerance to salt stress and osmotic stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

  17. Bcl-2 over-expression and activation of protein kinase C suppress the Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trail,a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand,is a novel potent endogenous activator of the cell death pathway through the activation of cell surface death receptors Trail-R1 and Trail-R2.Its role,like FasL in activation-induced cell death(AICD),has been demonstrated in immune system.However the mechanism of Trail induced apoptosis remains unclear.In this report,the recombinant Trail protein was expressed and purified.The apoptosis-inducing activity and the regulation mechanism of recombinant Trail on Jurkat T cells were explored in vitro.Trypan blue exclusion assay demonstrated that the recombinant Trail protein actively killed Jurkat T cells in a dose-dependent manner.Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells were remarkably reduced by Bcl-2 over expression in Bcl-2 gene transfected cells.Treatment with PMA(phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate),a PKC activator,suppressed Trail-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T cells.The inhibition of apoptosis by PMA was abolished by pretreatment with Bis,a PKC inhibitor.Taken together,it was suggested that Bcl-2 over-expression and PMA activated PKC actively down-regulated the Trail-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat T cell.

  18. Over-expression of putative transcriptional coactivator KELP interferes with Tomato mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ogata, Takuya; Deguchi, Masakazu; Nagai, Shoko; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) that is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. We have demonstrated previously that KELP, a putative transcriptional coactivator of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its orthologue from Brassica campestris can bind to ToMV MP in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the transient over-expression of KELP on ToMV infection and the intracellular localization of MP in Nicotiana benthamiana, an experimental host of the virus. In co-bombardment experiments, the over-expression of KELP inhibited virus cell-to-cell movement. The N-terminal half of KELP (KELPdC), which had been shown to bind to MP, was sufficient for inhibition. Furthermore, the over-expression of KELP and KELPdC, both of which were co-localized with ToMV MP, led to a reduction in the plasmodesmal association of MP. In the absence of MP expression, KELP was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the localization signal in its N-terminal half. It was also shown that ToMV amplified normally in protoplasts prepared from leaf tissue that expressed KELP transiently. These results indicate that over-expressed KELP interacts with MP in vivo and exerts an inhibitory effect on MP function for virus cell-to-cell movement, but not on virus amplification in individual cells.

  19. MRP1 and glucosylceramide are coordinately over expressed and enriched in rafts during multidrug resistance acquisition in colon cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, K; Hinrichs, JWJ; Kroesen, BJ; Sietsma, H; Kok, JW

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have described a novel multidrug-resistant cell line, HT29(col), which displayed over expression of the multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and an altered sphingolipid composition, including enhanced levels of glucosylceramide (GlcCer; Kok JW, Veldman RJ, Klappe K, Koning H, Filipean

  20. Myoglobin over-expression attenuates angiogenic response in hindlimb ischemia in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yao-guo; GUAN Heng; LIU Chang-wei; LI Yong-jun

    2009-01-01

    Background Myoglobin is expressed exclusively in striated skeletal muscles and has been implicated in nitric oxide scavenging. Accumulating data suggest a critical role for nitric oxide in both the endogenous and therapeutic angiogenic response to ischemia. A clear role for myoglobin in ischemic skeletal muscle is uncertain. We hypothesized that myoglobin overexpression has an adverse impact on the angiogenic response to ischemia.Methods Muscle-specific myoglobin over-expressing transgenic mice (MbTG, n=11), wild type littermates (WT, n=23) underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation and excision. Laser doppler perfusion imaging was used to monitor changes in hindlimb perfusion before surgery and weekly after surgery up to 28 days. Tissue ischemia was assessed by a necrosis incidence. Upon termination of the experiment (28 days after surgery), skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior) were harvested, the distal part of the muscle was frozen and embedded for histology study, the proximal part was used either to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or to determine the proliferation (proliferating call nuclear antigen (PCNA)) and apoptosis (Bax, and Bcl-2) condition in ischemic muscle by Western blotting. Capillaries were stained with endothelial phosphate alkaline staining and vascular density was expressed in capillaries/fiber.Results The recovery of perfusion in MbTG mice was similar to that of WT mice on day 7 (0.485±0.095 vs 0.500±0.084)but was significantly less on day 14 (0.536±0.086 vs 0.623±0.077, P <0.05), day 21 (0.588±0.082 vs 0.684±0.068, P <0.01) and day 28 (0.606±0.079 VS 0.733±0.093, P<0.01). The necrosis incidence was higher in MbTG than in WT (54.5% vs 21.6%). Vascular density was less in MbTG compared with that in WT (gastrocnemius 0.19±0.08 vs 0.30±0.08, P <0.05; tibialis anterior 0.22±0.11 vs 0.33±0.04, P<0.05). With ischemic injury, the VEGF level was

  1. Over-expression of PsGPD, a mushroom glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, enhances salt tolerance in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Il; Lim, Hye-Min; Siddiqui, Zamin Shaheed; Park, Sung-Han; Kim, A-Ram; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic potatoes expressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), isolated from the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, had increased tolerance to salt stress (Jeong et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:192-196, 2000). To examine the physiological mechanisms enhancing salt tolerance in GPD-transgenic rice plants, the salt tolerance of five GPD transgenic rice lines (T1-T5) derived from Dongjin rice cultivar were evaluated in a fixed 150 mM saline environment in comparison to two known wild-type rice cultivars, Dongjin (salt sensitive) and Pokali (salt tolerant). Transgenic lines, T2, T3, and T5, had a substantial increase in biomass and relative water content compared to Dongjin. Stomatal conductance and osmotic potential were higher in the GPD transgenic lines and were similar to those in Pokali. The results are discussed based on the comparative physiological response of GPD transgenic lines with those of the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars.

  2. Over-Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer

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    Yuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001, and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003, deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001 and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006. In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we

  3. An inverse metabolic engineering approach for the design of an improved host platform for over-expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli

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    Ghosh Chaitali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A useful goal for metabolic engineering would be to generate non-growing but metabolically active quiescent cells which would divert the metabolic fluxes towards product formation rather than growth. However, for products like recombinant proteins, which are intricately coupled to the growth process it is difficult to identify the genes that need to be knocked-out/knocked-in to get this desired phenotype. To circumvent this we adopted an inverse metabolic engineering strategy which would screen for the desired phenotype and thus help in the identification of genetic targets which need to be modified to get overproducers of recombinant protein. Such quiescent cells would obviate the need for high cell density cultures and increase the operational life span of bioprocesses. Results A novel strategy for generating a library, consisting of randomly down regulated metabolic pathways in E. coli was designed by cloning small genomic DNA fragments in expression vectors. Some of these DNA fragments got inserted in the reverse orientation thereby generating anti-sense RNA upon induction. These anti-sense fragments would hybridize to the sense mRNA of specific genes leading to gene ‘silencing’. This library was first screened for slow growth phenotype and subsequently for enhanced over-expression ability. Using Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP as a reporter protein on second plasmid, we were able to identify metabolic blocks which led to significant increase in expression levels. Thus down-regulating the ribB gene (3, 4 dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase led to a 7 fold increase in specific product yields while down regulating the gene kdpD (histidine kinase led to 3.2 fold increase in specific yields. Conclusion We have designed a high throughput screening approach which is a useful tool in the repertoire of reverse metabolic engineering strategies for the generation of improved hosts for recombinant protein expression.

  4. The EAR motif controls the early flowering and senescence phenotype mediated by over-expression of SlERF36 and is partly responsible for changes in stomatal density and photosynthesis.

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    Rakesh Kumar Upadhyay

    Full Text Available The EAR motif is a small seven amino acid motif associated with active repression of several target genes. We had previously identified SlERF36 as an EAR motif containing gene from tomato and shown that its over-expression results in early flowering and senescence and a 25-35% reduction of stomatal density, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in transgenic tobacco. In order to understand the role of the EAR motif in governing the phenotypes, we have expressed the full-length SlERF36 and a truncated form, lacking the EAR motif under the CaMV35S promoter, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plants over-expressing the full-length SlERF36 show prominent early flowering under long day as well as short day conditions. The early flowering leads to an earlier onset of senescence in these transgenic plants which in turn reduces vegetative growth, affecting rosette, flower and silique sizes. Stomatal number is reduced by 38-39% while photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decrease by about 30-40%. Transgenic plants over-expressing the truncated version of SlERF36 (lacking the C-terminal EAR motif, show phenotypes largely matching the control with normal flowering and senescence indicating that the early flowering and senescence is governed by the EAR motif. On the other hand, photosynthetic rates and stomatal number were also reduced in plants expressing SlERF36ΔEAR although to a lesser degree compared to the full- length version indicating that these are partly controlled by the EAR motif. These studies show that the major phenotypic changes in plant growth caused by over-expression of SlERF36 are actually mediated by the EAR motif.

  5. Over-expression of small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 predicts chemo-sensitivity and poor survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Juwei; Zuo Yong; Yang Wenjing; Chen Zhaoli; Liu Ziyuan; Tu Jun; Li Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignant tumors.Despite the advances in therapy over the years,its mortality remains high.The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases 1 (SENP1) in NSCLC tissues and its role in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression.We also investigated the association between the expression level of SENP1 and the clinicopathological features and survival of the patients.Methods A SENP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was constructed and transfected into the NSCLC cells.VEGF gene expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Immunohistochemistry staining was used to assess the expression of SENP1 in 100 NSCLC patients and its association with the clinicopathological features and survival was analyzed.Results VEGF expression was significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than in normal lung tissues.Inhibition of SENP1 by siRNA was associated with decreased VEGF expression.SENP1 was over-expressed in 55 of the 100 NSCLC samples (55%) and was associated with a moderate and low histological tumor grade (3.6%,38.2%,and 58.2% in high,moderate and low differentiated tumors,respectively,P=0.046),higher T stage (10.9% in T1,and 89.1% in T2 and T3 tumor samples,P <0.001)and TNM stage (10.9% in stage Ⅰ,and 89.1% in stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ tumor samples,P <0.001).The rate of lymph node metastasis was significantly higher in the SENP1 over-expression group (76.4%) than that in the SENP1 low expression group (33.3%,P <0.001).Sixty three patients received postoperative chemotherapy,including 34 with SENP1 over-expression and 29 with SENP1 low expression.Among the 34 patients with SENP1 over-expression,22 (64.7%) patients developed recurrence or metastasis,significantly higher than those in the low expression group 27.6% (8/29) (P=0.005).Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that lymph

  6. Syndecan-2 is a novel target of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and is over-expressed in fibrosis.

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    Ximena D Ruiz

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix deposition and tissue scarring characterize the process of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ and Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in various tissues by inducing mesenchymal cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. We identified Syndecan-2 (SDC2 as a gene induced by TGFβ in an IGFBP-3-dependent manner. TGFβ induction of SDC2 mRNA and protein required IGFBP-3. IGFBP-3 independently induced production of SDC2 in primary fibroblasts. Using an ex-vivo model of human skin in organ culture expressing IGFBP-3, we demonstrate that IGFBP-3 induces SDC2 ex vivo in human tissue. We also identified Mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase (Mknk2 as a gene induced by IGFBP-3. IGFBP-3 triggered Mknk2 phosphorylation resulting in its activation. Mknk2 independently induced SDC2 in human skin. Since IGFBP-3 is over-expressed in fibrotic tissues, we examined SDC2 levels in skin and lung tissues of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and lung tissues of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. SDC2 levels were increased in fibrotic dermal and lung tissues of patients with SSc and in lung tissues of patients with IPF. This is the first report describing elevated levels of SDC2 in fibrosis. Increased SDC2 expression is due, at least in part, to the activity of two pro-fibrotic factors, TGFβ and IGFBP-3.

  7. The epigenetically regulated effects of Wnt antagonists on the expression of genes in the apoptosis pathway in human bladder cancer cell line (T24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Nuray; Konac, Ece; Onen, Ilke Hacer; Gurocak, Serhat; Alp, Ebru; Yilmaz, Akin; Menevse, Sevda; Sozen, Sinan

    2014-07-01

    The epigenetic suppression of Wnt antagonists (sFRPs, DKKs, and WIF-1) causes the activation of both β-catenin and target genes, which play an important role in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. This study is aimed to investigate, on transcriptional and protein levels, the synergic effects of unaccompanied and/or combined use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC, 5-aza-dC), trichostatin A (TSA), and gemcitabine+cisplatin chemotherapeutic agents on the apoptotic pathway of human bladder cancer cell line T24. The anti-tumor effects of gemcitabine (0-500 nM), cisplatin (0-10 μM), DAC (10 μM), and TSA (300 nM) alone and/or together on T24 cells were determined by WST-1. ELISA method was used to analyze the effects of unaccompanied and combined use of gemcitabine+cisplatin, DAC, and TSA on cell proliferation and determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic dosages at the level of H3 histone acetylation. Methylation-specific PCR was used to evaluate methylation profiles of Wnt antagonist gene (WIF-1). In the case of unaccompanied and/or combined use of specified drugs, the variations in the expression levels of CTNNB1, GSK3β, c-MYC, CCND1, CASP-3, CASP-8, CASP-9, BCL2L1, and WIF-1 genes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that through inhibition of DNA methylation, expression of β-catenin and Wnt antagonist re-activation and expressions of canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway target genes, c-myc and cyclin D1 (CCND1), have decreased. In addition, DAC, TSA, and gemcitabine+cisplatin combination caused an increase in GSK3β mRNA levels, which in turn significantly decreased CCND1 mRNA levels. Moreover, BCL2L1, an anti-apoptotic gene, was downregulated significantly. Meanwhile, both CASP-3 mRNA and active caspase-3 protein levels increased with respect to control (p<0.01). The results revealed that use of quadruplicate gemcitabine+cisplatin+DAC+TSA combination led to a reduced inhibition of canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and reduced

  8. Over-expression of LSD1 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer.

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    Tangfeng Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 has been identified and biochemically characterized in epigenetics, but the pathological roles of its dysfunction in lung cancer remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of LSD1 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to define its exact role in lung cancer proliferation, migration and invasion. METHODS: The protein levels of LSD1 in surgically resected samples from NSCLC patients were detected by immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. The mRNA levels of LSD1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The correlation of LSD1 expression with clinical characteristics and prognosis was determined by statistical analysis. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by MTS assay and immunofluorescence. Cell migration and invasion were detected by scratch test, matrigel assay and transwell invasion assay. RESULTS: LSD1 expression was higher in lung cancer tissue more than in normal lung tissue. Our results showed that over-expression of LSD1 protein were associated with shorter overall survival of NSCLC patients. LSD1 was localized mainly to the cancer cell nucleus. Interruption of LSD1 using siRNA or a chemical inhibitor, pargyline, suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of A549, H460 and 293T cells. Meanwhile, over-expression of LSD1 enhanced cell growth. Finally, LSD1 was shown to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Over-expression of LSD1 was associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC, and promoted tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results suggest that LSD1 is a tumor-promoting factor with promising therapeutic potential for NSCLC.

  9. Influence of Europium speciation on its accumulation in Brassica napus and over-expressing BnTR1 lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at influence of europium speciation on its accumulation in Brassica napus (CK) and over-expressing BnTR1 lines (OE), and the kinetics of Eu uptake were investigated. These results indicated that the uptake in the roots of OE was higher than that of CK at high concentrations of europium and even the enrichment in the roots of OE was as high as 20,000 mg/kg at 328.9 μΜ Eu, this suggested that OE might have better resistance to uranium than CK. The time kinetics in plants showed that there had the similar trend between CK and OE. The formation of Eu3+at pH 5 in deionized water was beneficial to plants enrichment Eu and carbonate could reduce the adsorption of Eu in two group and phosphate almost completely impress the adsorption of Eu in two group, but citric acid could enhance europium root-to-shoot translocation in two group. These results would help understanding the mechanism of Eu uptake in Brassica napus (CK) and over-expressing BnTR1 lines (OE), therefore properly developing efficient europium/americium phytoremediation. (author)

  10. Anosmin-1 over-expression increases adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and neuroblast migration to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego; Murcia-Belmonte, Verónica; Esteban, Pedro F; Ortega, Felipe; Díaz, David; Sánchez-Vera, Irene; Lebrón-Galán, Rafael; Escobar-Castañondo, Laura; Martínez-Millán, Luis; Weruaga, Eduardo; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Berninger, Benedikt; de Castro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    New subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate via the rostral migratory stream are continuously added to the olfactory bulb (OB) of the adult rodent brain. Anosmin-1 (A1) is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) to exert its biological effects. When mutated as in Kallmann syndrome patients, A1 is associated with severe OB morphogenesis defects leading to anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Here, we show that A1 over-expression in adult mice strongly increases proliferation in the SVZ, mainly with symmetrical divisions, and produces substantial morphological changes in the normal SVZ architecture, where we also report the presence of FGFR1 in almost all SVZ cells. Interestingly, for the first time we show FGFR1 expression in the basal body of primary cilia in neural progenitor cells. Additionally, we have found that A1 over-expression also enhances neuroblast motility, mainly through FGFR1 activity. Together, these changes lead to a selective increase in several GABAergic interneuron populations in different OB layers. These specific alterations in the OB would be sufficient to disrupt the normal processing of sensory information and consequently alter olfactory memory. In summary, this work shows that FGFR1-mediated A1 activity plays a crucial role in the continuous remodelling of the adult OB. PMID:25300351

  11. Human neural stem cells over-expressing VEGF provide neuroprotection, angiogenesis and functional recovery in mouse stroke model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a lethal stroke type. As mortality approaches 50%, and current medical therapy against ICH shows only limited effectiveness, an alternative approach is required, such as stem cell-based cell therapy. Previously we have shown that intravenously transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs selectively migrate to the brain and induce behavioral recovery in rat ICH model, and that combined administration of NSCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF results in improved structural and functional outcome from cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that human NSCs overexpressing VEGF transplanted into cerebral cortex overlying ICH lesion could provide improved survival of grafted NSCs, increased angiogenesis and behavioral recovery in mouse ICH model. ICH was induced in adult mice by unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into striatum. HB1.F3.VEGF human NSC line produced an amount of VEGF four times higher than parental F3 cell line in vitro, and induced behavioral improvement and 2-3 fold increase in cell survival at two weeks and eight weeks post-transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Brain transplantation of F3 human NSCs over-expressing VEGF near ICH lesion sites provided differentiation and survival of grafted human NSCs and renewed angiogenesis of host brain and functional recovery of ICH animals. These results suggest a possible application of the human neural stem cell line, which is genetically modified to over-express VEGF, as a therapeutic agent for ICH-stroke.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ in CHO cells that over-express glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase-1.

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    Cliona M Stapleton

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is an agonist for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. Although glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1 esterifies glycerol-3-phosphate to form LPA, an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of glycerolipids, it has been assumed that LPA synthesized by this route does not have a signaling role. The availability of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells that stably overexpress GPAT1, allowed us to analyze PPARγ activation in the presence of LPA produced as an intracellular intermediate. LPA levels in CHO-GPAT1 cells were 6-fold higher than in wild-type CHO cells, and the mRNA abundance of CD36, a PPARγ target, was 2-fold higher. Transactivation assays showed that PPARγ activity was higher in the cells that overexpressed GPAT1. PPARγ activity was enhanced further in CHO-GPAT1 cells treated with the PPARγ ligand troglitazone. Extracellular LPA, phosphatidic acid (PA or a membrane-permeable diacylglycerol had no effect, showing that PPARγ had been activated by LPA generated intracellularly. Transient transfection of a vector expressing 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-2, which converts endogenous LPA to PA, markedly reduced PPARγ activity, as did over-expressing diacylglycerol kinase, which converts DAG to PA, indicating that PA could be a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These data suggest that LPA synthesized via the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway can activate PPARγ and that intermediates of de novo glycerolipid synthesis regulate gene expression.

  13. Constitutive over-expression of rice ClpD1 protein enhances tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Grover, Anil

    2016-09-01

    Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) perform the important role of removing protein aggregates from cells, which can otherwise prove to be highly toxic. ClpD system is a two-component protease complex composed of a regulatory ATPase module ClpD and a proteolytic component ClpP. Under desiccation stress condition, rice ClpD1 (OsClpD1) gene encoding for the regulatory subunit, was represented by four variant transcripts differing mainly in the expanse of their N-terminal amino acids. These transcripts were expressed in a differential manner in response to salt, mannitol and polyethylene glycol stresses in rice. Purified OsClpD1.3 protein exhibited intrinsic chaperone activity, shown using citrate synthase as substrate. Arabidopsis (Col-0) plants over-expressing OsClpD1.3 open reading frame downstream to CaMV35S promoter (ClpD1.3 plants) showed higher tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses as compared to wild type plants. ClpD1.3 seedlings also showed enhanced growth during the early stages of seed germination under unstressed, control conditions. The free proline levels and starch breakdown activities were higher in the ClpD1.3 seedlings as compared to the wild type Arabidopsis seedlings. It thus emerges that increasing the potential of ClpD1 chaperoning activity may be of advantage in protection against abiotic stresses. PMID:27457985

  14. Comparative Study on Growth Performance of Transgenic (Over-ExpressedOsNHX1) and Wild-Type Nipponbare under Different Salinity Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul Kahrani ISHAK; Zohrah SULAIMAN; Kushan U TENNAKOON

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Nipponbarewhich over-expressed a Na+/H+ antiporter geneOsNHX1 was used to compare its growth performance, water status and photosynthetic efficiency with its wild type under varying salinity regimes. Chlorophyll content, quantum yield and photosynthetic rate were measured to assess the impact of salinity stress on photosynthetic efficiency for transgenic and wild-type Nipponbare. Effects of salinity on water status and gas exchange to both lines were studied by measuring water use efficiency, instantaneous transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Dry shoot weight and leaf area were determined after three months of growth to assess the impacts of salinity on the growth of those two lines. Our study showed that both lines were affected by salinity stress, however, the transgenic line showed higher photosynthetic efficiency, better utilization of water, and better growth due to low transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Reduction of photosynthetic efficiency exhibited by the wild-type Nipponbare was correlated to its poor growth under salinity stress.

  15. Over-expression of human endosulfatase-1 exacerbates cadmium-induced injury to transformed human lung cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiying [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Newman, Donna R. [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Bonner, James C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sannes, Philip L., E-mail: philip_sannes@ncsu.edu [Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, Center for Comparative Molecular Translational Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium is known to cause damage to alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, impair their capacity to repair, and result in permanent structural alterations. Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) can modulate cell responses to injury through their interactions with soluble effector molecules. These interactions are often sulfate specific, and the removal of sulfate groups from HS side chains could be expected to influence cellular injury, such as that caused by exposure to cadmium. The goal of this study was to define the role 6-O-sulfate plays in cellular responses to cadmium exposure in two pulmonary epithelial cancer cell lines (H292 and A549) and in normal human primary alveolar type II (hAT2) cells. Sulfate levels were modified by transduced transient over-expression of 6-O-endosulfatase (HSulf-1), a membrane-bound enzyme which specifically removes 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPG side chains. Results showed that cadmium decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways at low concentrations in hAT2 cells but not in the cancer cells. HSulf-1 over-expression, on the contrary, decreased cell viability and activated apoptosis pathways in H292 and A549 cells but not in hAT2 cells. When combined with cadmium, HSulf-1 over-expression further decreased cell viability and exacerbated the activation of apoptosis pathways in the transformed cells but did not add to the toxicity in hAT2 cells. The finding that HSulf-1 sensitizes these cancer cells and intensifies the injury induced by cadmium suggests that 6-O-sulfate groups on HSPGs may play important roles in protection against certain environmental toxicants, such as heavy metals. -- Highlights: ► Primary human lung alveolar type 2 (hAT2) cells and H292 and A549 cells were used. ► Cadmium induced apoptosis in hAT2 cells but not in H292 or A549 cells. ► HSulf-1exacerbates apoptosis induced by cadmium in H292 and A549 but not hAT2 cells.

  16. Over-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in inferior olivary neurons of rolling mouse Nagoya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Kawano, Michihiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Hisano, Setsuji; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2003-10-01

    Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA was examined in the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) of an ataxic mutant, rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN) by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. The most marked difference in the level of CRF mRNA signals between RMN and non-ataxic littermates (control mice) was observed in the beta-subnucleus and ventrolateral protrusion of the ION. The level of signals in these subnuclei was about twofold higher in RMN than in the controls. Signal levels in the dorsal nucleus, principal nucleus and subnucleus A were slightly but significantly higher in RMN than in the controls. In the other subnuclei, there were no differences in signal level between RMN and controls. These results suggest a region-related over-expression of CRF mRNA in the ION of RMN. This may be responsible for the increased sensitivity of some Purkinje cells to glutamate, resulting in ataxic symptoms of RMN.

  17. Selective over-expression of endothelin-1 in endothelial cells exacerbates inner retinal edema and neuronal death in ischemic retina.

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    Simon S F Cheung

    Full Text Available The level of endothelin-1 (ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, was associated with retinopathy under ischemia. The effects of endothelial endothelin-1 (ET-1 over-expression in a transgenic mouse model using Tie-1 promoter (TET-1 mice on pathophysiological changes of retinal ischemia were investigated by intraluminal insertion of a microfilament up to middle cerebral artery (MCA to transiently block the ophthalmic artery. Two-hour occlusion and twenty-two-hour reperfusion were performed in homozygous (Hm TET-1 mice and their non-transgenic (NTg littermates. Presence of pyknotic nuclei in ganglion cell layer (GCL was investigated in paraffin sections of ipsilateral (ischemic and contralateral (non-ischemic retinae, followed by measurement of the thickness of inner retinal layer. Moreover, immunocytochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, glutamine synthetase (GS and aquaporin-4 (AQP4 peptides on retinal sections were performed to study glial cell reactivity, glutamate metabolism and water accumulation, respectively after retinal ischemia. Similar morphology was observed in the contralateral retinae of NTg and Hm TET-1 mice, whereas ipsilateral retina of NTg mice showed slight structural and cellular changes compared with the corresponding contralateral retina. Ipsilateral retinae of Hm TET-1 mice showed more significant changes when compared with ipsilateral retina of NTg mice, including more prominent cell death in GCL characterized by the presence of pyknotic nuclei, elevated GS immunoreactivity in Müller cell bodies and processes, increased AQP-4 immunoreactivity in Müller cell processes, and increased inner retinal thickness. Thus, over-expression of endothelial ET-1 in TET-1 mice may contribute to increased glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on neuronal cells and water accumulation in inner retina leading to edema.

  18. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

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    Kogner Per

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB; Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples. Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics.

  19. Expression of Senescence-Associated microRNAs and Target Genes in Cellular Aging and Modulation by Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction

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    Sharon Gwee Sian Khee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences highlight the implication of microRNAs as a posttranscriptional regulator in aging. Several senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs are found to be differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on SA-miRNAs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on SA-miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, and miR-449a and established target genes of miR-34a (CCND1, CDK4, and SIRT1 during replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Primary cultures of HDFs at young and senescent were incubated with TRF at 0.5 mg/mL. Taqman microRNA assay showed significant upregulation of miR-24 and miR-34a and downregulation of miR-20a and miR-449a in senescent HDFs (P<0.05. TRF reduced miR-34a expression in senescent HDFs and increased miR-20a expression in young HDFs and increased miR-449a expression in both young and senescent HDFs. Our results also demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-34a reduced the expression of CDK4 significantly (P<0.05. TRF inhibited miR-34a expression thus relieved its inhibition on CDK4 gene expression. No significant change was observed on the expression of CCND1, SIRT1, and miR-34a upstream transcriptional regulator, TP53. In conclusion tocotrienol-rich fraction prevented cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via modulation of SA-miRNAs and target genes expression.

  20. Hypoxia in Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis: Evaluation of VEGF and MMP Over-expression and Down-Regulation of HIF-1alpha with RNAi in Hypoxic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti

    Background: As tumor mass grows beyond a few millimeters in diameter, the angiogenic "switch" is turned on leading to recruitment of blood vessels from surrounding artery and veins. However, the tumor mass is poorly perfused and there are pockets of hypoxia or lower oxygen concentrations relative to normal tissue. Hypoxia-inducing factor-1a (HIF-1a), a transcription factor, is activated when the oxygen concentration is low. Upon activation of HIF-1a, a number of other genes also turn on that allows the tumor to become more aggressive and resistant to therapy. Purpose: The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of hypoxia-induced HIF-1a followed by over-expression of angiogenic and metastatic markers in tumor cells and down-regulation of HIF-1a using nanoparticle-delivered RNA interference therapy. Methods: Human ovarian (SKOV3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) adenocarcinoma cells were incubated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Following hypoxia treatment of the cells, HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 expression was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. For intracellular delivery of HIF-1a gene silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA), type B gelatin nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent displacement method and the surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mol. wt. 2kDa). Cellular uptake and distribution of the nanoparticles was observed with Cy3-siRNA loaded, FITC-conjugated gelatin nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle formulations was evaluated in both the cell lines. siRNA was transfected in the gelatin nanoparticles under hypoxic conditions. Total cellular protein and RNA were extracted for analysis of HIF1a, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Results: MDA-MB-231 and SKOV3 cells show increased expression of HIF1a under hypoxic conditions compared to baseline levels at normoxic conditions. ELISA and western blots of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 appear to

  1. Association between HER-2 Over-Expression and Prognosis in Human Osteosarcoma:a Meta-Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueguo Li; Ning Zhang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Various studies examining the relationship between HER-2 over-expression and the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in patients with osteosarcoma have yielded inconclusive results.The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relation of HER-2 status with the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in osteosarcoma.METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of 6 studies that evaluated the correlation between HER-2 status and histologic response to chemotherapy and 2-year survival.Data were synthesized in summary receiver operating characteristic curves and with summary likelihood ratios (LRs) and relative risk.RESULTS The quantitative synthesis showed that HER-2 status is not a prognostic factor for the response to chemotherapy.The positive LR was 1.27 (95% confidence interval,0.91~1.77),and the negative LR was 0.68 (95% confidence interval,0.38~1.22).There was no significant between-study heterogeneity.HER2-positive status tended to be associated with a worse 2-year survival,but the overall results were not formally statistically significant.CONCLUSION HER-2 status is not associated with the histologic response to chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma,whereas HER-2 positive patients may be associated with decreased survival.

  2. Over-expression and refolding of isotopically labeled recombinant catalytic domain of human macrophage elastase (MMP-12) for NMR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xunhai; Ou, Li; Tong, Xiaotian; Zhu, Jing; Wu, Houming

    2007-12-01

    Human macrophage elastase (MMP-12) plays an important role in inflammatory processes and is involved in a number of physiological or pathological situations, such as conversion of plasminogen into angiostatin, allergic airway inflammation, vascular remodeling or alteration, as well as emphysema, and has been justified as a novel drug target. Here, we report the over-expression in Escherichia coil, purification and refolding of MMP-12 catalytic domain for NMR studies. The primary sequence of expressed protein was identified by means of MALDI-TOF MS, and was confirmed by the MALDI-TOF MS data of trypsin-digested peptides. A significantly optimized protocol has been worked out to prepare 15N and/or 13C-labeled MMP-12 catalytic domain, and the yield of the purified protein is estimated to 10-12 mg from 0.5L of M9 minimal media. Finally, the 15N-1H HSQC spectrum of uniformly 15N-labeled MMP-12 catalytic domain indicates the presence of well-ordered and properly folded protein in a monomeric form. PMID:17601747

  3. Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of Septin4 ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in mouse livers infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xue; Bao, Jing; Chen, Jinling; Sun, Xiaolei; Wang, Jianxin; Zhu, Dandan; Song, Ke; Peng, Wenxia; Xu, Tianhua; Duan, Yinong

    2015-12-01

    Septin4 (Sept4) belongs to Septin family and may be involved in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking and other cell processes. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of Sept4 in hepatic fibrosis induced by Schistosoma japonicum. ICR mice infected with S. japonicum for 12weeks were treated with PBS, Ad-ctr and Ad-Sept4, respectively. All mice were killed at 2weeks after injection, and the changes in the fibrotic livers were detected via H&E staining, Sirius red staining, qRT-PCR, western blot and TUNEL analysis. In addition, pcDNA3.1-Sept4 plasmid was transfected into LX-2 cells to observe the effect of Sept4 on apoptosis of HSCs in vitro. Ad-Sept4 could ameliorate liver fibrosis, as detected by H&E staining and Sirius red staining. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was increased in the Ad-Sept4 treated group. The expression of Sept4 and cleaved-caspase-3 were all augmented, while the expression of α-SMA, Col1α1 and IL-13 were reduced in the Ad-Sept4 treated group, compared with that expressed in the Ad-ctr group. Over-expression of Sept4 in LX-2 cells could promote apoptosis of LX-2 cells in vitro. In conclusion, Ad-Sept4 can attenuate the development of liver fibrosis induced by S. japonicum through apoptosis. PMID:26190030

  4. AHR over-expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical and molecular assessments in a series of Italian acromegalic patients with a long-term follow-up.

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    Caterina Mian

    Full Text Available Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3-7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR interacting protein (AIP have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer.Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied.12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status.The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma.

  5. AHR Over-Expression in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Clinical and Molecular Assessments in a Series of Italian Acromegalic Patients with a Long-Term Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Caterina; Ceccato, Filippo; Barollo, Susi; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Albiger, Nora; Regazzo, Daniela; de Lazzari, Paola; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Rotondi, Sandra; Nacamulli, Davide; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Grimaldi, Franco; Occhi, Gianluca; Scaroni, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aim Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3–7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) interacting protein (AIP) have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer. Methods Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied. Results 12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas) were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status. Conclusions The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25019383

  6. Over-expression of NYGGF4 inhibits glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via attenuated phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-mei ZHANG; Xiao-hui CHEN; Bin WANG; Feng LIU; Xia CHI; Mei-ling TONG; Yu-hui NI; Rong-hua CHEN; Xi-rong GUO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: NYGGF4 is a novel gene that is abundantly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NYGGF4 on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes transfected with either an empty expression vector (pcDNA3.1Myc/His B) or an NYGGF4 expression vector were differentiated into mature adipocytes. Glucose uptake was determined by measuring 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose uptake into the adipocytes. Immunoblotting was performed to detect the translocation of insulin-sensitive glu-cose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Immunoblotting also was used to measure the phosphorylation and total protein contents of insulin signaling proteins such as the insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-I, Akt, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. Results: NYGGF4 over-expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. It also diminished insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and serine phos-phorylation of Akt without affecting the phosphorylation of IR, ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. Conclusion: NYGGF4 regulates the functions of IRS-1 and Akt, decreases GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake in response to insulin. These observations highlight the potential role of NYGGF4 in glucose homeostasis and possibly in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  7. Ubiquitous Over-Expression of Chromatin Remodeling Factor SRG3 Ameliorates the T Cell-Mediated Exacerbation of EAE by Modulating the Phenotypes of both Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.

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    Sung Won Lee

    Full Text Available Although SWI3-related gene (SRG3, a chromatin remodeling factor, is critical for various biological processes including early embryogenesis and thymocyte development, it is unclear whether SRG3 is involved in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells, the key mediator of adaptive immune responses. Because it is known that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE development is determined by the activation of CD4+ T helper cells, here, we investigated the role of SRG3 in EAE development using SRG3 transgenic mouse models exhibiting two distinct SRG3 expression patterns: SRG3 expression driven by either the CD2 or β-actin promoter. We found that the outcome of EAE development was completely different depending on the expression pattern of SRG3. The specific over-expression of SRG3 using the CD2 promoter facilitated EAE via the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells, whereas the ubiquitous over-expression of SRG3 using the β-actin promoter inhibited EAE by promoting Th2 differentiation and suppressing Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, the ubiquitous over-expression of SRG3 polarized CD4+ T cell differentiation towards the Th2 phenotype by converting dendritic cells (DCs or macrophages to Th2 types. SRG3 over-expression not only reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs but also shifted macrophages from the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-expressing M1 phenotype to the arginase-1-expressing M2 phenotype during EAE. In addition, Th2 differentiation in β-actin-SRG3 Tg mice during EAE was associated with an increase in the basophil and mast cell populations and in IL4 production. Furthermore, the increased frequency of Treg cells in the spinal cord of β-actin-SRG3 Tg mice might induce the suppression of and accelerate the recovery from EAE symptoms. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence supporting the development of a new therapeutic strategy for EAE involving the modulation of SRG3 expression to induce M2 and Th2

  8. Ubiquitous Over-Expression of Chromatin Remodeling Factor SRG3 Ameliorates the T Cell-Mediated Exacerbation of EAE by Modulating the Phenotypes of both Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Won; Park, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Sung Ho; Lee, Changjin; Seong, Rho Hyun; Park, Se-Ho; Hong, Seokmann

    2015-01-01

    Although SWI3-related gene (SRG3), a chromatin remodeling factor, is critical for various biological processes including early embryogenesis and thymocyte development, it is unclear whether SRG3 is involved in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells, the key mediator of adaptive immune responses. Because it is known that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development is determined by the activation of CD4+ T helper cells, here, we investigated the role of SRG3 in EAE development using SRG3 transgenic mouse models exhibiting two distinct SRG3 expression patterns: SRG3 expression driven by either the CD2 or β-actin promoter. We found that the outcome of EAE development was completely different depending on the expression pattern of SRG3. The specific over-expression of SRG3 using the CD2 promoter facilitated EAE via the induction of Th1 and Th17 cells, whereas the ubiquitous over-expression of SRG3 using the β-actin promoter inhibited EAE by promoting Th2 differentiation and suppressing Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, the ubiquitous over-expression of SRG3 polarized CD4+ T cell differentiation towards the Th2 phenotype by converting dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages to Th2 types. SRG3 over-expression not only reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by DCs but also shifted macrophages from the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing M1 phenotype to the arginase-1-expressing M2 phenotype during EAE. In addition, Th2 differentiation in β-actin-SRG3 Tg mice during EAE was associated with an increase in the basophil and mast cell populations and in IL4 production. Furthermore, the increased frequency of Treg cells in the spinal cord of β-actin-SRG3 Tg mice might induce the suppression of and accelerate the recovery from EAE symptoms. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence supporting the development of a new therapeutic strategy for EAE involving the modulation of SRG3 expression to induce M2 and Th2 polarization

  9. Over-expressed copper/zinc superoxide dismutase localizes to mitochondria in neurons inhibiting the angiotensin II-mediated increase in mitochondrial superoxide

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    Shumin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (AngII is the main effector peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS, and contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease by exerting its effects on an array of different cell types, including central neurons. AngII intra-neuronal signaling is mediated, at least in part, by reactive oxygen species, particularly superoxide (O2·−. Recently, it has been discovered that mitochondria are a major subcellular source of AngII-induced O2·−. We have previously reported that over-expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, a mitochondrial matrix-localized O2·− scavenging enzyme, inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling. Interestingly, over-expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, which is believed to be primarily localized to the cytoplasm, similarly inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling and provides protection against AngII-mediated neurogenic hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that CuZnSOD over-expression in central neurons localizes to mitochondria and inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling by scavenging mitochondrial O2·−. Using a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons, we demonstrate that both endogenous and adenovirus-mediated over-expressed CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD are present in mitochondria. Furthermore, we show that over-expression of CuZnSOD attenuates the AngII-mediated increase in mitochondrial O2·− levels and the AngII-induced inhibition of neuronal potassium current. Taken together, these data clearly show that over-expressed CuZnSOD in neurons localizes in mitochondria, scavenges AngII-induced mitochondrial O2·−, and inhibits AngII intra-neuronal signaling.

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha promotes the proliferation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengxing; Yu, Jiong; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2016-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) reside in a physiologically low-oxygen microenvironment. Hypoxia influences a variety of stem cell cellular activities, frequently involving hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α). This research showed that hPMSCs cultured in hypoxic conditions (5% O2) exhibited a more naïve morphology and had a higher proliferative capability and higher HIF-2α expression than hPMSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (21% O2). Similar to the hypoxic cultures, hPMSCs over-expressing HIF-2α showed higher proliferative potential and higher expression of CCND1 (CyclinD1), MYC (c-Myc), POU5F1 (Oct4) and the components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In contrast, these genes were down-regulated in the HIF-2α-silenced hPMSCs. After adding the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD0325901, cell growth and the expression of CCND1 and MYC were inhibited. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that HIF-2α bound to the MAPK3 (ERK1) promoter, indicative of its direct regulation of MAPK/ERK components at the transcriptional level during hPMSC expansion. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-2α facilitated the preservation of hPMSC stemness and promoted their proliferation by regulating CCND1 and MYC through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27765951

  11. Characterization of DNA binding activities of over-expressed kpnI restriction endonuclease and modification methylase

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekaran, Siddamadappa; Babu, Padmanabhan; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding the KpnI restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase from Klebsiella pneumoniae have been cloned and expressed in Escherchia coli using a two plasmid strategy. The gene for KpnI methylase with its promoter was cloned and expressed in pACYC184. Even though the methylase clone is in a low copy number plasmid pACMK, high level expression of methylase is achieved. A hyper-expressing clone of KpnI endonuclease, pETRK was engineered by cloning the R gene into the T7 expression...

  12. Over-expression of the transcription factor, ZBP-89, leads to enhancement of the C2C12 myogenic program

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, Morgan; Owens, Gary K.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-01-01

    Myogenesis involves the complex interplay between the down-regulation of non-muscle genes and the up-regulation of muscle-specific genes. This interplay is controlled by the myogenic regulatory factors Myf5, MRF4, MyoD and myogenin. To trigger the up-regulation of these muscle-specific factors, certain environmental cues, such as the removal of serum, signal C2C12 myoblast cells to withdraw from cell cycle, fuse and activate muscle-specific genes. Here, the level of ZBP-89 (zfp148), a Krüppel...

  13. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short......-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here, we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of streptomycin resistance and reduces susceptibility to several other antibiotics following sub-lethal streptomycin antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel...

  14. Ethanol Enhances the Interaction of Breast Cancer Cells Over-Expressing ErbB2 With Fibronectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Bower, Kimberly A.; Chen, Gang; Shi, Xianglin; Dong, Zheng; Ke, Zunji; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol is a tumor promoter and may enhance the metastasis of breast cancer. However, the underlying cellular / molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Amplification of ErbB2 or HER2, a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family, is found in 20 to 30% of patients with breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that the effect of ethanol on the migration / invasion of breast cancer cells positively correlated with the expression levels of ErbB2. Adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important initial step for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol on the adhesion of MCF7 breast cancer cells over-expressing ErbB2 (MCF7ErbB2) to human plasma fibronectin. Methods To test the hypothesis that ethanol may enhance the attachment of human breast cancer cells to fibronectin, an important component of the ECM, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the expression of focal adhesions, cell attachment, and ErbB2 signaling in cultured MCF7ErbB2 cells. Results Exposure to ethanol drastically enhanced the adhesion of MCFErbB2 cells to fibronectin and increased the expression of focal adhesions. Ethanol induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 at Tyr1248, FAK at Tyr861, and cSrc at Try216. Ethanol promoted the interaction among ErbB2, FAK, and cSrc, and the formation of a focal complex. AG825, a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, attenuated the ethanol-induced phosphorylation of ErbB2 and its association with FAK. Furthermore, AG825 blocked ethanol-promoted cell / fibronectin adhesion as well as the expression of focal adhesions. Conclusions Our results suggest that ethanol enhances the adhesion of breast cancer cells to fibronectin in an ErbB2-dependent manner, and the FAK pathway plays an important role in ethanol-induced formation of a focal complex. PMID:20201928

  15. CPT1α over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1α (CPT1α). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1α transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1α over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1α over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1α over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly, PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1α, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo

  16. Lentiviral-mediated over-expression of hyaluronan synthase-1 (HAS-1) decreases the cellular inflammatory response and results in regenerative wound repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caskey, Robert C.; Allukian, Myron; Lind, Robert C.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Radu, Antoneta; Mitchell, Marc E.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal wounds have been found to have increased levels of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) compared with those of adults. The primary enzyme responsible for producing HMW-HA is hyaluronic acid synthase-1 (HAS-1). We hypothesized that over-expression of HAS-1 in adult dermal wounds would decr

  17. Genomic imbalances in esophageal carcinoma cell lines involve Wnt pathway genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacqueline Brown; Hannelie Bothma; Robin Veale; Pascale Willem

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify molecular markers shared across South African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis. METHODS: We used conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and multicolor FISH to characterize the chromosomal rearrangements of five ESCC cell lines established in South Africa. The whole genome copy number profile was established from 250K SNP arrays, and data was analyzed with the CNAT 4.0 and GISTIC software. RESULTS: We detected common translocation breakpoints involving chromosomes 1p11-12 and 3p11.2, the latter correlated with the deletion, or interruption of the EPHA3 gene. The most significant amplifications involved the following chromosomal regions and genes: 11q13.3 ( CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, MYEOV), 8q24.21( C-MYC, FAM84B), 11q22.1-q22.3 ( BIRC2, BIRC3), 5p15.2 ( CTNND2), 3q11.2-q12.2 ( MINA) and 18p11.32 ( TYMS, YES1). The significant deletions included 1p31.2-p31.1 ( CTH, GADD45α, DIRAS3), 2q22.1 ( LRP1B), 3p12.1-p14.2 ( FHIT), 4q22.1-q32.1 ( CASP6, SMAD1), 8p23.2-q11.1 ( BNIP3L) and 18q21.1-q21.2 ( SMAD4, DCC). The 3p11.2 translocation breakpoint was shared across four cell lines, supporting a role for genes involved at this site, in particular, the EPHA3 gene which has previously been reported to be deleted in ESCC. CONCLUSION: The finding that a significant number of genes that were amplified (FGF3 , FGF4 , FGF19 , CCND1 and C-MYC ) or deleted (SFRP2 gene) are involved in the Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways, suggests that these pathways may be activated in these cell lines.

  18. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. ► Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. ► This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4+ T cells and especially CD8+ T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

  19. NRP-1 gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue and regulating effect of targeted inhibition of gene expression on cell function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Ming Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To studyNRP-1 gene expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue and the regulating effect of targeted inhibition of gene expression on cell function.Methods:Nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue, adjacent tissue and normal tissue were collected, and NRP-1 expression levels were detected; nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells were cultured and transfected with NRP-1 siRNA and negative control (NC) siRNA, and the contents of angiogenesis molecules, proliferation-related proteins and invasion-related proteins were detected.Results:NRP-1 protein content, positive cell rate, staining intensity and IHC score in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue were higher than those in adjacent tissue and normal tissue; VEGF, bFGF, EGF and ANG-1 contents in culture medium of NRP1-siRNA group were lower than those in NC-siRNA group; Tie-2, EGFR, Livin, Bmi-1, CDK6, CDK4, CCND1, E2F1, LMP1, FN1, MT1-MMP and Fascin expression levels in cells of NRP1-siRNA group were lower than those in NC-siRNA group.Conclusions:NRP-1 expression level significantly increases in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue, and NRP-1 can promote nasopharyngeal carcinoma angiogenesis, cell proliferation and invasion.

  20. Over-expression and localization of a host protein on the membrane of Cryptosporidium parvum infected epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Lin; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheoran, Abhineet S; Manque, Patricio A; Buck, Gregory A; Widmer, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium includes several species of intestinal protozoan parasites which multiply in intestinal epithelial cells. The impact of this infection on the transcriptome of cultured host cells was investigated using DNA microarray hybridizations. The expression of 14 genes found to be consistently up- or down-regulated in infected cell monolayers was validated with RT PCR. Using immunofluorescence we examined the expression of Protease Activated Receptor-2, which is encoded by one of the up-regulated genes. In infected cells this receptor localized to the host cell membrane which covers the intracellular trophozoites and meronts. This observation indicates that the composition of the host cell membrane is affected by the developing trophozoite, a phenomenon which has not been described previously.

  1. SK2 potassium channel over-expression in basolateral amygdala reduces anxiety, stress-induced corticosterone and dendritic arborization

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mitra; Ferguson, D.; Sapolsky, RM

    2009-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala is critical for generation of anxiety. Additionally, exposure to both stress and glucocorticoids induce anxiety. Demonstrated ability of the amygdala to change in response to stress and glucocorticoids could thus be important therapeutic target for anxiety management. Several studies have reported a relationship between anxiety and dendritic arborization of the amygdaloid neurons. In this study we employed a gene therapeutic approach to reduce anxiety and dendritic ar...

  2. Over expression of wild type or a catalytically dead mutant of Sirtuin 6 does not influence NFκB responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Grimley

    Full Text Available SIRT6 is involved in inflammation, aging and metabolism potentially by modulating the functions of both NFκB and HIF1α. Since it is possible to make small molecule activators and inhibitors of Sirtuins we wished to establish biochemical and cellular assays both to assist in drug discovery efforts and to validate whether SIRT6 represents a valid drug target for these indications. We confirmed in cellular assays that SIRT6 can deacetylate acetylated-histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9Ac, however this deacetylase activity is unusually low in biochemical assays. In an effort to develop alternative assay formats we observed that SIRT6 overexpression had no influence on TNFα induced nuclear translocation of NFκB, nor did it have an effect on nuclear mobility of RelA/p65. In an effort to identify a gene expression profile that could be used to identify a SIRT6 readout we conducted genome-wide expression studies. We observed that overexpression of SIRT6 had little influence on NFκB-dependent genes, but overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant affected gene expression in developmental pathways.

  3. Over-expression of a Rab family GTPase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confers tolerance to salt stress on transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Suja; Parida, Ajay

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic and biotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, an abiotic stress tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Rab family GTPase from P. juliflora (Pj Rab7) and the ability of this gene to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Northern analysis for Pj Rab7 in P. juliflora leaf tissue revealed up-regulation of this gene under salt stress under the concentrations and time points analyzed. Pj Rab7 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 150 mM NaCl stress compared to control un-transformed plants. Pj Rab7 transgenic plants were found to accumulate more sodium than control plants during salt stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for generation of crop plants tolerant to abiotic stress.

  4. Targeting Hsp90 with small molecule inhibitors induces the over-expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule, survivin, in human A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Kevin W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a dual functioning protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cancer cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Since the molecular chaperone Hsp90 binds and stabilizes survivin, it is widely believed that down-regulation of survivin is one of the important therapeutic functions of Hsp90 inhibitors such as the phase III clinically trialed compound 17-AAG. However, Hsp90 interferes with a number of molecules that up-regulate the intracellular level of survivin, raising the question that clinical use of Hsp90 inhibitors may indirectly induce survivin expression and subsequently enhance cancer anti-drug responses. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting Hsp90 can alter survivin expression differently in different cancer cell lines and to explore possible mechanisms that cause the alteration in survivin expression. Results Here, we demonstrated that Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, induced the over-expression of survivin in three different human cancer cell lines as shown by Western blotting. Increased survivin mRNA transcripts were observed in 17-AAG and geldanamycin-treated HT-29 and HONE-1 cancer cells. Interestingly, real-time PCR and translation inhibition studies revealed that survivin was over-expressed partially through the up-regulation of protein translation instead of gene transcription in A549 cancer cells. In addition, 17-AAG-treated A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cells showed reduced proteasomal activity while inhibition of 26S proteasome activity further increased the amount of survivin protein in cells. At the functional level, down-regulation of survivin by siRNA further increased the drug sensitivity to 17-AAG in the tested cancer cell lines. Conclusions We showed for the first time that down-regulation of survivin is not a definite therapeutic function of Hsp90 inhibitors. Instead, targeting Hsp90 with small

  5. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [{sup 3}H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K{sub m} for carnitine was 36 {mu}M. [{sup 3}H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH{sub 2} reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  6. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. ► The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. ► The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. ► Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni2+-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [3H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The Km for carnitine was 36 μM. [3H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH2 reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  7. Distinct expression pattern and post-transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes in the glandular epithelia of avian ovarian carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young Lee

    Full Text Available The cell cycle system is controlled in a timely manner by three groups of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. Abnormal alterations of cell cycle regulatory mechanisms are a common feature of many diseases including numerous tumor types such as ovarian cancer. Although a variety of cell cycle regulatory genes are well known in mammalian species including human and mice, they are not well studied in avian species, especially in laying hens which are recognized as an excellent animal model for research relevant to human ovarian carcinogenesis. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on comparative expression and regulation of expression of candidate genes which might be involved in the cell cycle program in surface epithelial ovarian cancer in laying hens. Our current results indicate that expression levels of cell cycle gene transcripts are greater in cancerous as compared to normal ovaries. In particular, cyclin A2 (CCNA2, CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE2, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1, CDK3, CDK5, cyclin dependent kinases inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A and CDKN1B were upregulated predominantly in the glandular epithelia of cancerous ovaries from laying hens. Further, several microRNAs (miRs, specifically miR-1798, miR-1699, miR-223 and miR-1744 were discovered to influence expression of CCND1, CCNE2, CDK1, and CDK3 mRNAs, respectively, via their 3'-UTR which suggests that post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression influences their expression in laying hens. Moreover, miR-1626 influenced CDKN1A expression and miR-222, miR-1787 and miR-1812 regulated CDKN1B expression via their 3'-UTR regions. Collectively, results of the present study demonstrate increased expression of cell cycle-related genes in cancerous ovaries of laying hens and indicate that expression of these genes is post-transcriptionally regulated by specific microRNAs.

  8. Gene expression array analyses predict increased proto-oncogene expression in MMTV induced mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popken-Harris, Pamela; Kirchhof, Nicole; Harrison, Ben; Harris, Lester F

    2006-08-01

    Exogenous infection by milk-borne mouse mammary tumor viruses (MMTV) typically induce mouse mammary tumors in genetically susceptible mice at a rate of 90-95% by 1 year of age. In contrast to other transforming retroviruses, MMTV acts as an insertional mutagen and under the influence of steroid hormones induces oncogenic transformation after insertion into the host genome. As these events correspond with increases in adjacent proto-oncogene transcription, we used expression array profiling to determine which commonly associated MMTV insertion site proto-oncogenes were transcriptionally active in MMTV induced mouse mammary tumors. To verify our gene expression array results we developed real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for the common MMTV insertion site genes found in RIII/Sa mice (int-1/wnt-1, int-2/fgf-3, int-3/Notch 4, and fgf8/AIGF) as well as two genes that were consistently up regulated (CCND1, and MAT-8) and two genes that were consistently down regulated (FN1 and MAT-8) in the MMTV induced tumors as compared to normal mammary gland. Finally, each tumor was also examined histopathologically. Our expression array findings support a model whereby just one or a few common MMTV insertions into the host genome sets up a dominant cascade of events that leave a characteristic molecular signature.

  9. eEF-2 Phosphorylation Down-Regulates P-Glycoprotein Over-Expression in Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua Tang

    Full Text Available We investigated whether glutamate, NMDA receptors, and eukaryote elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K/eEF-2 regulate P-glycoprotein expression, and the effects of the eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 on the expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs.Cortex was obtained from newborn Wistar rat brains. After surface vessels and meninges were removed, the pellet containing microvessels was resuspended and incubated at 37°C in culture medium. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. RBMECs were identified by immunohistochemistry with anti-vWF. P-glycoprotein, phospho-eEF-2, and eEF-2 expression were determined by western blot analysis. Mdr1a gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR.Mdr1a mRNA, P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression increased in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs. P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression were down-regulated after NH125 treatment in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs.eEF-2K/eEF-2 should have played an important role in the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in RBMECs. eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 could serve as an efficacious anti-multidrug resistant agent.

  10. Over-expression of fHbp in Arabdopsis for development of meningococcal serogroup B subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nuo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jisheng; Jin, Libo; Xing, Shaochen; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2016-07-01

    Due to lack of commercial vaccine against the serogroup B (MenB) of Neisseria meningitides, the incidence of meningococcal disease remains high. To solve the issue, transgenic plants are used as bioreactors to produce a plant-derived fHbp subunit vaccine. In this study, the fHbp gene was optimized according to the codon usage bias of Arabidopsis thaliana, synthesized artificially, cloned into an expression vector, driven by a seed-specific promoter, and introduced into A. thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip transformation. Transgenic plants were identified by glufosinate selection, quickstix strips for PAT/bar tests and PCR analysis. The five plants showing higher expression of recombinant fHbp were screened through indirect ELISA. Southern blot analysis showed that the transgenic line rHF-22 had a single-copy integration and the highest expression of fHbp. Recombinant fHbp was purified from seeds of rHF-22 by nitrilotriacetic acid-mediated affinity chromatography, and the purity was 82.5%. BALB/c mice were tested for fHbp vaccine protection from lethal MenB infection, and the relative percent survival was found to be 80%. This study indicates that the recombinant fHbp produced from seeds of rHF-22 is a potential candidate for commercial MenB vaccine. It also provides a reference for safe, cheap and large-scale production of other plant-made vaccines. PMID:27119621

  11. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abel, Frida

    2011-04-14

    Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.

  12. Over-expression of ATF3 Inhibits the Proliferation of Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma Cells%激活转录因子3的过表达对食管癌细胞生长的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢仰民; 谢剑君; 周飞; 侯健; 曹君君; 许丽艳; 李恩民

    2009-01-01

    背景与目的:激活转录因子3(activating transcription factor 3,ATF3)在食管癌中表达异常下调,但其功能仍不清楚.本研究拟探讨ATF3在食管癌细胞过表达对癌细胞生长及裸鼠成瘤的影响. 材料与方法:利用分子克隆技术将ATF3基因完整编码区克隆至真核细胞表达载体pcDNA3中,获得重组表达质粒;将该表达质粒转染食管癌EC109细胞并用G418筛选稳定表达的细胞克隆;用Western blot检测ATF3的过表达效果;对ATF3过表达的细胞与相应对照细胞进行细胞克隆形成实验和裸鼠体内成瘤实验,以分析ATF3过表达对食管癌细胞生长的影响. 结果:ATF3的过表达在体外可以降低食管癌细胞的克隆形成能力;在体内可以抑制食管癌细胞在雌鼠中的成瘤能力,但对雄鼠中的成瘤能力没有明显影响.结论:ATF3的过表达可以抑制食管癌细胞的生长,ATF3可能在食管癌的发生发展中发挥重要作用.%BACKGROUND AND AIM: ATF3 was down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the roles of ATF3 in ESCC cells still remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ATF3 on the proliferation of ESCC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The recombinant expressing plasmid was constructed by inserting the full coding sequence of ATF3 gene into the eukaryotic expressing vector pcDNA3. Then, the expressing plasmid was stably transfected into EC 109 cells, an ESCC cell line, and the over-expressing ATF3 cell clones were obtained. Colony formation assay and tumor formation assay in nude mice were used to explore the effect of ATF3 over-expression on the proliferation of ESCC cells. RESULTS: With the over-expression of ATF3, the colony formation ability of EC109 cells was decreased and the tumor formation of EC109 cells in female mice was inhibited. CONCLUSION: Over-expression of ATF3 could inhibit the proliferation of ESCC cells and ATF3 may play important roles in the progression of ESCC.

  13. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  14. Verteporfin can Reverse the Paclitaxel Resistance Induced by YAP Over-Expression in HCT-8/T Cells without Photoactivation through Inhibiting YAP Expression

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    Wang Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Paclitaxel (PTX is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs. However, multiple drug resistance is still the main factor that hinders the effective treatment of cancer with PTX. Several factors including YAP over-expression can cause PTX resistance. In this study, we aimed to verify the role YAP plays in PTX resistance, explore the reversal of PTX resistance by verteporfin (VP and investigate the effect of combination therapy of PTX and VP on the PTX resistant colon cancer cells (HCT-8/T. Methods: To study the relationship between YAP and PTX resistance, a stable YAP-over-expression or YAP silencing cell line was generated by transfected with YAP-plasmids or siYAP-RNA. WST-1 assay was performed to detect the cytotoxicity of PTX on HCT-8 and HCT-8/T cells. Clone formation assay and Transwell assay was preformed to determine the cell proliferation and invasion ability respectively. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis was performed for protein detection. Results: YAP was stronger expressed in HCT-8/T than in HCT-8, and PTX resistance was positively correlated with the level of YAP expression. VP, a strongly YAP inhibitor, could reduce the PTX resistance on HCT-8/T cells without light activation by inhibiting YAP. Beside, VP and PTX combination therapy showed synergism on inhibition of YAP and cytotoxicity to HCT-8/T. Moreover, verteporfin and PTX combination therapy affect the invasion and colony formation ability and induce apoptosis of HCT-8/T cells. Conclusions: VP can reverse the PTX resistance induced by YAP over-expression in HCT-8/T cells without photoactivation through inhibiting YAP expression.

  15. Over-expression of 60s ribosomal L23a is associated with cellular proliferation in SAG resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani.

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    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG unresponsiveness of Leishmania donovani (Ld had effectively compromised the chemotherapeutic potential of SAG. 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a, identified as one of the over-expressed protein in different resistant strains of L.donovani as observed with differential proteomics studies indicates towards its possible involvement in SAG resistance in L.donovani. In the present study 60sRL23a has been characterized for its probable association with SAG resistance mechanism. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression profile of 60s ribosomal L23a (60sRL23a was checked in different SAG resistant as well as sensitive strains of L.donovani clinical isolates by real-time PCR and western blotting and was found to be up-regulated in resistant strains. Ld60sRL23a was cloned, expressed in E.coli system and purified for raising antibody in swiss mice and was observed to have cytosolic localization in L.donovani. 60sRL23a was further over-expressed in sensitive strain of L.donovani to check its sensitivity profile against SAG (Sb V and III and was found to be altered towards the resistant mode. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports for the first time that the over expression of 60sRL23a in SAG sensitive parasite decreases the sensitivity of the parasite towards SAG, miltefosine and paramomycin. Growth curve of the tranfectants further indicated the proliferative potential of 60sRL23a assisting the parasite survival and reaffirming the extra ribosomal role of 60sRL23a. The study thus indicates towards the role of the protein in lowering and redistributing the drug pressure by increased proliferation of parasites and warrants further longitudinal study to understand the underlying mechanism.

  16. Chronic over-expression of heat shock protein 27 attenuates atherogenesis and enhances plaque remodeling: a combined histological and mechanical assessment of aortic lesions.

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    Charles M Cuerrier

    Full Text Available AIMS: Expression of Heat Shock Protein-27 (HSP27 is reduced in human coronary atherosclerosis. Over-expression of HSP27 is protective against the early formation of lesions in atherosclerosis-prone apoE(-/- mice (apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e - however, only in females. We now seek to determine if chronic HSP27 over-expression is protective in a model of advanced atherosclerosis in both male and female apoE(-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 12 weeks on a high fat diet, serum HSP27 levels rose more than 16-fold in male and female apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice, although females had higher levels than males. Relative to apoE(-/- mice, female apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice showed reductions in aortic lesion area of 35% for en face and 30% for cross-sectional sinus tissue sections - with the same parameters reduced by 21% and 24% in male cohorts; respectively. Aortic plaques from apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice showed almost 50% reductions in the area occupied by cholesterol clefts and free cholesterol, with fewer macrophages and reduced apoptosis but greater intimal smooth muscle cell and collagen content. The analysis of the aortic mechanical properties showed increased vessel stiffness in apoE(-/-HSP27(o/e mice (41% in female, 34% in male compare to apoE(-/- counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic over-expression of HSP27 is atheroprotective in both sexes and coincides with reductions in lesion cholesterol accumulation as well as favorable plaque remodeling. These data provide new clues as to how HSP27 may improve not only the composition of atherosclerotic lesions but potentially their stability and resilience to plaque rupture.

  17. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression promotes multi-drug resistance in E. coli following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics

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    Lise eGoltermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antiobiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and overexpression sensitize and promote short-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of aminoglycoside resistance and multi-drug resistance following sub-lethal aminoglycoside antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel mechanism for antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance development.

  18. Cardiac-specific over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 induces pro-survival pathways and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice.

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    Polina Sysa-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that ErbB2 signaling has a critical role in cardiomyocyte physiology, based mainly on findings that blocking ErbB2 for cancer therapy is toxic to cardiac cells. However, consequences of high levels of ErbB2 activity in the heart have not been previously explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated consequences of cardiac-restricted over-expression of ErbB2 in two novel lines of transgenic mice. Both lines develop striking concentric cardiac hypertrophy, without heart failure or decreased life span. ErbB2 transgenic mice display electrocardiographic characteristics similar to those found in patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, with susceptibility to adrenergic-induced arrhythmias. The hypertrophic hearts, which are 2-3 times larger than those of control littermates, express increased atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain mRNA, consistent with a hypertrophic phenotype. Cardiomyocytes in these hearts are significantly larger than wild type cardiomyocytes, with enlarged nuclei and distinctive myocardial disarray. Interestingly, the over-expression of ErbB2 induces a concurrent up-regulation of multiple proteins associated with this signaling pathway, including EGFR, ErbB3, ErbB4, PI3K subunits p110 and p85, bcl-2 and multiple protective heat shock proteins. Additionally, ErbB2 up-regulation leads to an anti-apoptotic shift in the ratio of bcl-xS/xL in the heart. Finally, ErbB2 over-expression results in increased activation of the translation machinery involving S6, 4E-BP1 and eIF4E. The dependence of this hypertrophic phenotype on ErbB family signaling is confirmed by reduction in heart mass and cardiomyocyte size, and inactivation of pro-hypertrophic signaling in transgenic animals treated with the ErbB1/2 inhibitor, lapatinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies are the first to demonstrate that increased ErbB2 over-expression in the heart can activate protective signaling

  19. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Chen, Xueqin; Yi, Bing [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); She, Jin-Xiong, E-mail: jshe@georgiahealth.edu [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4{sup +} T cells and especially CD8{sup +} T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells.

  20. Reversible regulation of cell cycle-related genes by epigallocatechin gallate for hibernation of neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Yoon; Kanamune, Jun; Han, Dong-Wook; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the hibernation effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) on neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts (nHTFs) by analyzing the expression of cell cycle-related genes. EGCG application to culture media moderately inhibited the growth of nHTFs, and the removal of EGCG from culture media led to complete recovery of cell growth. EGCG resulted in a slight decrease in the cell population of the S and G(2)/M phases of cell cycle with concomitant increase in that of the G(0)/G(1) phase, but this cell cycle profile was restored to the initial level after EGCG removal. The expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), CCNE2, CCN-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), and CDK2 was restored, whereas that of CCNA, CCNB1, and CDK1 was irreversibly attenuated. The expression of a substantial number of genes analyzed by cDNA microarray was affected by EGCG application, and these affected expression levels were restored to the normal levels after EGCG removal. We also found the incorporation of FITC-EGCG into the cytosol of nHTFs and its further nuclear translocation, which might lead to the regulation of the exogenous signals directed to genes for cellular responses including proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest that EGCG temporarily affects not only genes related to the cell cycle but also various other cellular functions. PMID:19622233

  1. Reversible regulation of cell cycle-related genes by epigallocatechin gallate for hibernation of neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Yoon; Kanamune, Jun; Han, Dong-Wook; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the hibernation effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) on neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts (nHTFs) by analyzing the expression of cell cycle-related genes. EGCG application to culture media moderately inhibited the growth of nHTFs, and the removal of EGCG from culture media led to complete recovery of cell growth. EGCG resulted in a slight decrease in the cell population of the S and G(2)/M phases of cell cycle with concomitant increase in that of the G(0)/G(1) phase, but this cell cycle profile was restored to the initial level after EGCG removal. The expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), CCNE2, CCN-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), and CDK2 was restored, whereas that of CCNA, CCNB1, and CDK1 was irreversibly attenuated. The expression of a substantial number of genes analyzed by cDNA microarray was affected by EGCG application, and these affected expression levels were restored to the normal levels after EGCG removal. We also found the incorporation of FITC-EGCG into the cytosol of nHTFs and its further nuclear translocation, which might lead to the regulation of the exogenous signals directed to genes for cellular responses including proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest that EGCG temporarily affects not only genes related to the cell cycle but also various other cellular functions.

  2. Targeting polyIC to EGFR over-expressing cells using a dsRNA binding protein domain tethered to EGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Nufar; Lebendiker, Mario; Klein, Shoshana; Zigler, Maya; Langut, Yael; Levitzki, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Selective delivery of drugs to tumor cells can increase potency and reduce toxicity. In this study, we describe a novel recombinant chimeric protein, dsRBEC, which can bind polyIC and deliver it selectively into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. dsRBEC, comprises the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) of human PKR (hPKR), which serves as the polyIC binding moiety, fused to human EGF (hEGF), the targeting moiety. dsRBEC shows high affinity towards EGFR and triggers ligand-induced endocytosis of the receptor, thus leading to the selective internalization of polyIC into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. The targeted delivery of polyIC by dsRBEC induced cellular apoptosis and the secretion of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. dsRBEC-delivered polyIC is much more potent than naked polyIC and is expected to reduce the toxicity caused by systemic delivery of polyIC. PMID:27598772

  3. Over-expression of Metastasis-associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1)Associates with Better Prognosis of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua Ge; Jia-fu Ji; Xiao-jiang Wu; Xiao-hong Wang; Xiao-fang Xing; Lian-hai Zhang; Yu-bing Zhu; Hong Du; Bin Dong; Ying Hu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in Chinese gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between MACC1 expression and postoperative survival. Methods: The expression of MACC1 and c-MET protein in a sample of 128 gastric cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. A retrospective cohort study on the prognosis was carried out and data were collected from medical records. Results: The positive rate of MACC1 protein expression in gastric cancer was 47.66%, higher than that in adjacent noncancerous mucosa (P<0.001). MACC1 protein expression was not related to the clinicopathological variables involved. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the survival of MACC1 positive group tended to be better than that of MACC1 negative group, particularly in patients with stage Ⅲ carcinoma (P=0.032). Cox regression analysis revealed that MACC1 protein over-expression in gastric cancer tended to be a protective factor with hazard ratio of 0.621 (P=0.057). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the positive rate of c-MET protein expression was much higher in cases with positive MACC1 expression in gastric cancer (P=0.002), but P53 expression was not associated with MACC1 expression. Conclusion: MACC1 over-expression implies better survival and may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer in Chinese patients.

  4. Vesicular Trafficking Defects, Developmental Abnormalities, and Alterations in the Cellular Death Process Occur in Cell Lines that Over-Express Dictyostelium GTPase, Rab2, and Rab2 Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Maringer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Small molecular weight GTPase Rab2 has been shown to be a resident of pre-Golgi intermediates and required for protein transport from the ER to the Golgi complex, however, the function of Rab2 in Dictyostelium has yet to be fully characterized. Using cell lines that over-express DdRab2, as well as cell lines over-expressing constitutively active (CA, and dominant negative (DN forms of the GTPase, we report a functional role in vesicular transport specifically phagocytosis, and endocytosis. Furthermore, Rab2 like other GTPases cycles between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound state. We found that this GTP/GDP cycle for DdRab2 is crucial for normal Dictyostelium development and cell–cell adhesion. Similar to Rab5 and Rab7 in C. elegans, we found that DdRab2 plays a role in programmed cell death, possibly in the phagocytic removal of apoptotic corpses.

  5. Effect of Endo G over-expression on cadmium induced apoptosis of HEK-293 cells%Endo G基因过表达对镉诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凤云; 潘杨滨; 何志娟; 毛伟平; 李文秀; 刘宣宣; 徐翀

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察细胞凋亡因子核酸内切酶G( endonuclease G,Endo G)基因过表达在镉诱导人胚胎肾细胞HEK-293凋亡中的影响.方法 从人肝癌细胞系(human hepatocarcinoma cells,HepG 2)中提取RNA,经逆转录获取互补DNA cDNA),通过聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增Endo G基因,与pcDNA 3.0相连,构建pcDNA 3.0-Endo G真核表达载体,转染HEK-293细胞,并结合不同浓度氯化镉处理细胞;通过蛋白印迹实验(Western blot)验证基因过表达,吖啶橙/溴乙锭(AO/EB)双染法及流式细胞术(FCM)检测Endo G基因过表达对镉诱导HEK-293细胞凋亡的影响,噻唑蓝法(MTT)检测细胞存活率.结果 成功构建pcDNA 3.0-EndoG真核表达载体,Endo G基因扩增片段大小约1 100 bp;该载体转染细胞后,Endo G成功过表达,使HEK-293细胞凋亡率>37%,且随氯化镉浓度增加,Endo G表达量先上升后下降.结论 Endo G以诱导细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡为主要形式.%Objective To examine the effects of over-expression of endonuclease G(Endo G) gene on cadmium-induced apoptosis of embryonic kidney cell HEK-293 in vitro. Methods Total RNA was obtained from human hepato-carcinoma cell line( HepG 2) and cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription. The Endo G gene was amplified by PCR. The Endo G was inserted reversely into pcDNA 3. 0,and the recombinant plasmid pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was selected and then transferred into DH5a strain. The pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was transfected into HEK-293 cells. Western blot was used to confirm the expression of Endo G gene in HEK-293 cells. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide(AO/EB) and flow cytom-etry were used to determine the effect of Endo G gene on cadmium-induced apoptosis of HEK-293 cells. The cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium(MTT) method. Results The size of Endo G gene fragment is about 1100 bp. The eukaryotic expressing plasmid of pcDNA 3. 0-Endo G was constructed successfully. The expression of Endo G was first increased and then

  6. Effects of common germ-line genetic variation in cell cycle genes on ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Hogdall, E.; Ramus, S.J.;

    2008-01-01

    plausibly influence clinical characteristics of multiple tumors types. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined associations between common germ-line genetic variation in 14 genes involved in cell cycle pathway (CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, CDKN2D, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and RB1.......05) in these genes. The genotypes of each polymorphism were tested for association with survival by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A nominally statistically significant association between genotype and ovarian cancer survival was observed for polymorphisms in CCND2 and CCNE1. The per-allele hazard ratios (95......% confidence intervals) were 1.16 (1.03-1.31; P = 0.02) for rs3217933, 1.14 (1.02-1.27; P = 0.024) for rs3217901, and 0.85 (0.73-1.00; P = 0.043) for rs3217862 in CCND2 and 1.39 (1.04-1.85; P = 0.033) for rs3218038 in CCNE1. However, these were not significant after adjusting for multiple hypothesis tests...

  7. The hepatic Raldh1 expression is elevated in Zucker fatty rats and its over-expression introduced the retinal-induced Srebp-1c expression in INS-1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available The roles of vitamin A (VA in the development of metabolic diseases remain unanswered. We have reported that retinoids synergized with insulin to induce the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene (Srebp-1c expression in primary rat hepatocytes. Additionally, the hepatic Srebp-1c expression is elevated in Zucker fatty (ZF rats, and reduced in those fed a VA deficient diet. VA is metabolized to retinoic acid (RA for regulating gene expression. We hypothesized that the expression of RA production enzymes contributes to the regulation of the hepatic Srebp-1c expression. Therefore, we analyzed their expression levels in Zucker lean (ZL and ZF rats. The mRNA levels of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 gene (Raldh1 were found to be higher in the isolated and cultured primary hepatocytes from ZF rats than that from ZL rats. The RALDH1 protein level was elevated in the liver of ZF rats. Retinol and retinal dose- and time-dependently induced the expression of RA responsive Cyp26a1 gene in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. INS-1 cells were identified as an ideal tool to study the effects of RA production on the regulation of gene expression because only RA, but not retinal, induced Srebp-1c mRNA expression in them. Recombinant adenovirus containing rat Raldh1 cDNA was made and used to infect INS-1 cells. The over-expression of RALDH1 introduced the retinal-mediated induction of Srebp-1c expression in INS-1 cells. We conclude that the expression levels of the enzymes for RA production may contribute to the regulation of RA responsive genes, and determine the responses of the cells to retinoid treatments. The elevated hepatic expression of Raldh1 in ZF rats may cause the excessive RA production from retinol, and in turn, result in higher Srebp-1c expression. This excessive RA production may be one of the factors contributing to the elevated lipogenesis in the liver of ZF rats.

  8. Carbon nanoparticle induced cytotoxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells through upregulation of TNF3, NFKBIA and BCL2L1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alfawaz, Mohammed A; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-02-01

    Carbon based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond and carbon nanoparticles, have emerged as potential candidates for a wide variety of applications because of their unusual electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. However, our understanding of how increased usage of carbon based nanomaterials could lead to harmful effects in humans and other biological systems is inadequate. Our present investigation is focused on the cellular toxicity of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Following exposure to CNPs, cell viability, nuclear morphological changes, apoptosis and cell cycle progression were monitored. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in both cell death (e.g., P53, TNF3, CDKN1A, TNFRSF1A, TNFSF10, NFKBIA, BCL2L1) and cell cycle regulation (e.g., PCNA, EGR1, E2F1, CCNG1, CCND1, CCNC, CYCD3) were assessed using qPCR. Our results indicated that CNPs reduce cell viability and cause chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle analysis indicated that CNPs affect the cell cycle progression. However, the gene expression measurements confirmed that CNPs significantly upregulated the P53, TNF3, CDKNIA, and NFKBIA genes and downregulated the EGR1 gene in hMSCs. Our findings suggest that CNPs reduce cell viability by disrupting the expression of cell death genes in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC). The results of this investigation revealed that CNPs exhibited moderate toxicity on hMSCs.

  9. 脑胶质瘤细胞体外促进人骨髓间充质干细胞肿瘤相关基因表达%Glioma cells promote expression of cancer-related genes in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱汝森; 许成杰; 兰柳波; 陈兴贵; 梁远生; 尹延庆

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the expression profile of cancer related genes in hMSCs co-cultured with U251 glioma cells, to evaluate the risk of malignant transformation of hMSCs in glioma environment. Methods hMSCs were co-cultured with U251 glioma cells for 5 days and the expression profile of cancer-related genes were investigated by using microarray assay, followed by Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Results Of the 440 cancer-re⁃lated genes covered by Oligo GEArray Human Cancer Microarray OHS-802, SPINT2, TK1, STC1, MMP1, CCND1, SORT1, SEPT6, CDC20, SHB, CDK5, RELA, XRCC4, KIT, CTPS, CAPNS1 and ETV6 were significantly upregulated (>3-fold) whereas none was downregulated in hMSCs co-cultured with U251 glioma cells. The upregulation of oncogenes KIT, CAPNS1, TK1, MMP1, CCND1, CDC20, RELA and STC1 in co-cultured hMSCs were confirmed by Real-time quan⁃ titative RT-PCR. The upregulation of protein expression of oncogenes KIT, MMP1, CCND1 and RELA were detected by Western blot. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that co-culture of hMSCs with human glioma cells leads to up⁃regulation of some important oncogenes in hMSCs, indicating the tumorigenic potential of hMSCs in glioma environment.%目的:观察与人脑胶质瘤细胞共培养后的人骨髓间充质干细胞(human bone marrow-derived mesen⁃chymal stromal cells,hMSCs)中肿瘤相关基因表达的变化,初步评估hMSCs在人脑胶质瘤环境中的生物安全性在致瘤性方面的风险。方法将hMSCs与人脑胶质瘤细胞U251于体外共同培养5d后,通过肿瘤基因芯片、实时定量RT-PCR及Western-blot实验检测hMSCs中肿瘤相关基因表达水平的变化。结果基因芯片结果显示,与单独培养的 hMSCs 对比,与人脑胶质瘤细胞 U251共同培养后的 hMSCs 中存在 SPINT2、TK1、STC1、MMP1、CCND1、SORT1、SEPT6、CDC20、SHB、CDK5、RELA、XRCC4、KIT、CTPS、CAPNS1及ETV6等16个肿瘤相关

  10. Explorative data analysis of MCL reveals gene expression networks implicated in survival and prognosis supported by explorative CGH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller-Hermelink Hans K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is an incurable B cell lymphoma and accounts for 6% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. On the genetic level, MCL is characterized by the hallmark translocation t(11;14 that is present in most cases with few exceptions. Both gene expression and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH data vary considerably between patients with implications for their prognosis. Methods We compare patients over and below the median of survival. Exploratory principal component analysis of gene expression data showed that the second principal component correlates well with patient survival. Explorative analysis of CGH data shows the same correlation. Results On chromosome 7 and 9 specific genes and bands are delineated which improve prognosis prediction independent of the previously described proliferation signature. We identify a compact survival predictor of seven genes for MCL patients. After extensive re-annotation using GEPAT, we established protein networks correlating with prognosis. Well known genes (CDC2, CCND1 and further proliferation markers (WEE1, CDC25, aurora kinases, BUB1, PCNA, E2F1 form a tight interaction network, but also non-proliferative genes (SOCS1, TUBA1B CEBPB are shown to be associated with prognosis. Furthermore we show that aggressive MCL implicates a gene network shift to higher expressed genes in late cell cycle states and refine the set of non-proliferative genes implicated with bad prognosis in MCL. Conclusion The results from explorative data analysis of gene expression and CGH data are complementary to each other. Including further tests such as Wilcoxon rank test we point both to proliferative and non-proliferative gene networks implicated in inferior prognosis of MCL and identify suitable markers both in gene expression and CGH data.

  11. Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway

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    Mennerich Detlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromelysin-3 (ST-3 is over-expressed in the majority of human carcinomas including breast carcinoma. Due to its known effect in promoting tumour formation, but its impeding effect on metastasis, a dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression, depending on the cellular grade of dedifferentiation, was hypothesized. Methods The present study was designed to investigate the influence of ST-3 in vivo and in vitro on the oestrogen-dependent, non-invasive MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line as well as on the oestrogen-independent, invasive MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line. Therefore an orthotopic human xenograft tumour model in nude mice, as well as a 3D matrigel cell culture system, were employed. Results Using both in vitro and in vivo techniques, we have demonstrated that over-expression of ST-3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells leads to both increased cell numbers and tumour volumes. This observation was dependent upon the presence of growth factors. In particular, the enhanced proliferative capacity was in MCF-7/ST-3 completely and in MDA-MB-231/ST-3 cells partially dependent on the IGF-1 signalling pathway. Microarray analysis of ST-3 over-expressing cells revealed that in addition to cell proliferation, further biological processes seemed to be affected, such as cell motility and stress response. The MAPK-pathway as well as the Wnt and PI3-kinase pathways, appear to also play a potential role. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that breast cancer cell lines of different differentiation status, as well as the non-tumourigenic cell line MCF-10A, have a comparable capability to induce endogenous ST-3 expression in fibroblasts. Conclusion These data reveal that ST-3 is capable of enhancing tumourigenesis in highly differentiated "early stage" breast cancer cell lines as well as in further progressed breast cancer cell lines that have already undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We propose that ST-3 induction in tumour

  12. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150.

  13. Transgenic over-expression of slit2 enhances disruption of blood-brain barrier and increases cell death after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Hang; He, Xiao-Fei; Li, Ge; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Jia, Huan-Huan; Li, Jiang-Chao; Huang, Ren; Pei, Zhong; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among male adolescents and young adults; and mild traumatic brain injury is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in brain trauma. Previously, we have found that slit2, a member of slit protein family, increases permeability of BBB. In the present study, we examined the role of slit2 in the pathogenesis of mild TBI in a mouse model of micro TBI. Rhodamine BandPI (PropidiumIodide) staining were used to detect the permeability of BBB and cell death, respectively. The leakage of Rhodamine B and cell death were significantly increased in Slit2-Tg mice than in C57 control mice after micro TBI. The present results suggest that over expression of slit2 plays a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of mild TBI.

  14. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150. PMID:27301890

  15. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

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    Hisatomi Keiko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  16. Long-term controlled GDNF over-expression reduces dopamine transporter activity without affecting tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the rat mesostriatal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Chinea, Pedro; Cruz-Muros, Ignacio; Afonso-Oramas, Domingo; Castro-Hernández, Javier; Salas-Hernández, Josmar; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Luis-Ravelo, Diego; Humbert-Claude, Marie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; González-Hernández, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein expressed in dopaminergic (DA-) cells that takes back DA into presynaptic neurons after its release. DAT dysfunction has been involved in different neuro-psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). On the other hand, numerous studies support that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a protective effect on DA-cells. However, studies in rodents show that prolonged GDNF over-expression may cause a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) decline. The evidence of TH down-regulation suggests that another player in DA handling, DAT, may also be regulated by prolonged GDNF over-expression, and the possibility that this effect is induced at GDNF expression levels lower than those inducing TH down-regulation. This issue was investigated here using intrastriatal injections of a tetracycline-inducible adeno-associated viral vector expressing human GDNF cDNA (AAV-tetON-GDNF) in rats, and doxycycline (DOX; 0.01, 0.03, 0.5 and 3mg/ml) in the drinking water during 5weeks. We found that 3mg/ml DOX promotes an increase in striatal GDNF expression of 12× basal GDNF levels and both DA uptake decrease and TH down-regulation in its native and Ser40 phosphorylated forms. However, 0.5mg/ml DOX promotes a GDNF expression increase of 3× basal GDNF levels with DA uptake decrease but not TH down-regulation. The use of western-blot under non-reducing conditions, co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assay revealed that the DA uptake decrease is associated with the formation of DAT dimers and an increase in DAT-α-synuclein interactions, without changes in total DAT levels or its compartmental distribution. In conclusion, at appropriate GDNF transduction levels, DA uptake is regulated through DAT protein-protein interactions without interfering with DA synthesis. PMID:26777664

  17. Over-Expression of Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Attenuates Chronic Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Collister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain senses circulating levels of angiotensin II (AngII via circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ (SFO, and is thought to adjust sympathetic nervous system output accordingly via this neuro-hormonal communication. However, the cellular signaling mechanisms involved in these communications remain to be fully understood. Previous lesion studies of either the SFO, or the downstream median preoptic nucleus (MnPO have shown a diminution of the hypertensive effects of chronic AngII, without providing a clear explanation as to the intracellular signaling pathway(s involved. Additional studies have reported that over-expressing copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, an intracellular superoxide (O2·− scavenging enzyme, in the SFO attenuates chronic AngII-induced hypertension. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that overproduction of O2·− in the MnPO is an underlying mechanism in the long-term hypertensive effects of chronic AngII. Adenoviral vectors encoding human CuZnSOD (AdCuZnSOD or control vector (AdEmpty were injected directly into the MnPO of rats implanted with aortic telemetric transmitters for recording of arterial pressure. After a 3 day control period of saline infusion, rats were intravenously infused with AngII (10 ng/kg/min for ten days. Rats over-expressing CuZnSOD (n = 7 in the MnPO had a blood pressure increase of only 6 ± 2 mmHg after ten days of AngII infusion while blood pressure increased 21 ± 4 mmHg in AdEmpty-infected rats (n = 9. These results support the hypothesis that production of O2·− in the MnPO contributes to the development of chronic AngII-dependent hypertension.

  18. Growth inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by sgRNA targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA based on TRUE gene silencing.

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    Satoshi Iizuka

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC exhibits increased expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1. Previous studies have shown a correlation between poor prognosis of HNSCC and cyclin D1 overexpression. tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing is one of the RNA-mediated gene expression control technologies that have therapeutic potential. This technology is based on a unique enzymatic property of mammalian tRNase ZL, which is that it can cleave any target RNA at any desired site by recognizing a pre-tRNA-like complex formed between the target RNA and an artificial small guide RNA (sgRNA. In this study, we designed several sgRNAs targeting human cyclin D1 mRNA to examine growth inhibition of HNSCC cells. Transfection of certain sgRNAs decreased levels of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells, and also inhibited their proliferation. The combination of these sgRNAs and cisplatin showed more than additive inhibition of cancer cell growth. These findings demonstrate that TRUE gene silencing of cyclin D1 leads to inhibition of the growth of HNSCC cells and suggest that these sgRNAs alone or combined with cisplatin may be a useful new therapy for HNSCCs.

  19. Growth inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by sgRNA targeting the cyclin D1 mRNA based on TRUE gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Oridate, Nobuhiko; Nashimoto, Masayuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Tamura, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits increased expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). Previous studies have shown a correlation between poor prognosis of HNSCC and cyclin D1 overexpression. tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is one of the RNA-mediated gene expression control technologies that have therapeutic potential. This technology is based on a unique enzymatic property of mammalian tRNase ZL, which is that it can cleave any target RNA at any desired site by recognizing a pre-tRNA-like complex formed between the target RNA and an artificial small guide RNA (sgRNA). In this study, we designed several sgRNAs targeting human cyclin D1 mRNA to examine growth inhibition of HNSCC cells. Transfection of certain sgRNAs decreased levels of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein in HSC-2 and HSC-3 cells, and also inhibited their proliferation. The combination of these sgRNAs and cisplatin showed more than additive inhibition of cancer cell growth. These findings demonstrate that TRUE gene silencing of cyclin D1 leads to inhibition of the growth of HNSCC cells and suggest that these sgRNAs alone or combined with cisplatin may be a useful new therapy for HNSCCs. PMID:25437003

  20. The over-expression of two transcription factors, ABS5/bHLH30 and ABS7/MYB101, leads to upwardly curly leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui An

    Full Text Available Proper leaf development is essential for plant growth and development, and leaf morphogenesis is under the control of intricate networks of genetic and environmental cues. We are interested in dissecting these regulatory circuits genetically and report here the isolation of two Arabidopsis dominant mutants, abnormal shoot5-1D (abs5-1D and abs7-1D identified through activation tagging screens. Both abs5-1D and abs7-1D display an intriguing upwardly curly leaf phenotype. Molecular cloning showed that the elevated expression of a bHLH transcription factor ABS5/T5L1/bHLH30 or a MYB transcription factor ABS7/MYB101 is the cause for the abnormal leaf phenotypes found in abs5-1D or abs7-1D, respectively. Protoplast transient expression assays confirmed that both ABS5/T5L1 and ABS7/MYB101 are targeted to the nucleus. Interestingly, the expression domains of auxin response reporter DR5::GUS were abnormal in leaves of abs5-1D and ABS5/T5L1 over-expression lines. Moreover, cotyledon venation analysis showed that more areoles and free-ending veins are formed in abs5-1D. We found that the epidermis-specific expressions of ABS5/T5L1 or ABS7/MYB101 driven by the Arabidopsis Meristem Layer 1 promoter (PAtML1 were sufficient to recapitulate the curly leaf phenotype of abs5-1D or abs7-1D. In addition, PAtML1::ABS5 lines exhibited similar changes in DR5::GUS expression patterns as those found in 35S-driven ABS5/T5L1 over-expression lines. Our work demonstrated that enhanced expressions of two transcription factors, ABS5/T5L1 and ABS7/MYB101, are able to alter leaf lamina development and reinforce the notion that leaf epidermis plays critical roles in regulating plant organ morphogenesis.

  1. Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickstrom, Eric

    2008-03-19

    New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

  2. Over-expression of the GluN2B subunit in the forebrain facilitates the acquisition of morphine-related positive and aversive memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Ping, Xingjie; Yu, Peng; Liang, Jing; Shen, Fang; Han, Jisheng; Cui, Cailian

    2016-09-15

    GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain are known to have an important role in drug-associated learning and memory. Selective blockage of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2B-NMDARs) has been shown to impair morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting natural reward-induced CPP. In the present study, GluN2B transgenic rats with over-expressed GluN2B-subunits in the forebrain were used to assess the susceptibility to CPP induced by morphine and natural rewards as well as to naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that GluN2B transgenic rats exhibited a relatively higher susceptibility to morphine-induced CPP and naloxone-induced CPA than their wild-type littermates did, while they retained the similar sensitivity as wild-type rats to CPP induced by natural reinforcers (food and sucrose). These findings suggest that increased level of GluN2B-NMDARs in forebrain facilitates formation of drug-related memory, but not that associated with natural rewards. GluN2B-NMDARs might be a potential target for the treatment of drug abuse. PMID:27217103

  3. Over-expression of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL in small intestine alters endocannabinoid levels and whole body energy balance, resulting in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyoun Chon

    Full Text Available The function of small intestinal monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL is unknown. Its expression in this tissue is surprising because one of the primary functions of the small intestine is to convert diet-derived MGs to triacylglycerol (TG, and not to degrade them. To elucidate the function of intestinal MGL, we generated transgenic mice that over-express MGL specifically in small intestine (iMGL mice. After only 3 weeks of high fat feeding, iMGL mice showed an obese phenotype; body weight gain and body fat mass were markedly higher in iMGL mice, along with increased hepatic and plasma TG levels compared to wild type littermates. The iMGL mice were hyperphagic and displayed reduced energy expenditure despite unchanged lean body mass, suggesting that the increased adiposity was due to both increased caloric intake and systemic effects resulting in a hypometabolic rate. The presence of the transgene resulted in lower levels of most MG species in intestinal mucosa, including the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG. The results therefore suggest a role for intestinal MGL, and intestinal 2-AG and perhaps other MG species, in whole body energy balance via regulation of food intake as well as metabolic rate.

  4. D-dopachrome tautomerase is over-expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and acts cooperatively with macrophage migration inhibitory factor to promote cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Guo, Jinshuai; Yao, Junchao; Jiang, Kun; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Haiyang; Lin, Lin; Sun, Wenyu; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have established the important role of MIF in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) for both therapeutic and diagnostic perspectives, but little is known about the expression and function of D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a functional homolog of MIF, in PDAC. In the present study, we demonstrated that DDT was over-expressed in PDAC tissues in a pattern correlated with MIF. In the pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1, BXPC-3 and ASPC-1, both DDT and MIF were expressed and co-localized with each other in the endosomal compartments and plasma membrane. Knockdown of DDT and MIF in PANC-1 cells cooperatively inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, increased p53 expression, and reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor formation. These effects were rescued by the re-expression of MIF or DDT, but not by the forced expression of the tautomerase-deficient mutants of DDT and MIF, P1G-DDT and P1G-MIF. Finally, we observed that 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), a covalent tautomerase inhibitor of both DDT and MIF, attenuated PANC-1 cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Thus, targeting the tautomerase sites of both MIF and DDT may offer more efficient therapeutic benefits to PDAC patients. PMID:27434219

  5. iASPP is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer and regulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells through a p53 associated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    iASPP is a key inhibitor of tumour suppressor p53 and is found to be up-regulated in certain malignant conditions. The present study investigated the expression of iASPP in clinical lung cancer, a leading cancer type in the world, and the biological impact of this molecule on lung cancer cells. iASPP protein levels in lung cancer tissues were evaluated using an immunohistochemical method. In vitro, iASPP gene expression was suppressed with a lentvirus-mediated shRNA method and the biological impact after knocking down iASSP on lung cancer cell lines was investigated in connection with the p53 expression status. We showed here that the expression of iASPP was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. iASPP shRNA treatment resulted in a down-regulation of iASPP in lung cancer cells. There was a subsequent reduction of cell proliferation of the two lung tumour cell lines A459 and 95D both of which had wild-type p53 expression. In contrast, reduction of iASPP in H1229 cells, a cell with little p53 expression, had no impact on its growth rate. iASPP regulates the proliferation and motility of lung cancer cells. This effect is intimately associated with the p53 pathway. Together with the pattern of the over-expression in clinical lung cancers, it is concluded that iASPP plays an pivotal role in the progression of lung cancer and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy

  6. 过表达转录因子 AhAREB1对拟南芥生长素分布的影响%Auxin Distribution in Arabidopsis Plants Over-Expressing AhAREB1 Encoding a Transcription Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莹莹; 李晓云; 刘帅; 钟钰婷; 李玲

    2015-01-01

    本课题组前期研究表明,过表达AhAREB1(花生AREB转录因子基因)植株矮小,叶片卷曲,抗旱能力增强,体内IAA含量升高,推测AhAREB1可能影响植株体内IAA分布。该文采用携带3个重复IAA化学诱导启动子元件的pDR5:GUS植株与AhAREB1过表达拟南芥植株的杂交纯合后代,通过GUS组织化学染色方法,探讨AhAREB1转录因子对植株体内IAA分布的影响。结果表明,过表达AhAREB1植株体内IAA增加,主要分布在幼苗的根尖和成苗的叶片边缘;在过表达植株IAA响应基因IAA29和IAA运输蛋白基因LAX3表达均显著下调,而IAA响应蛋白基因ARF2和ARF9显著上调。过表达AhAREB1植株体内IAA分布不均衡是引起表型变化的原因之一。%Our previous study showed that Arabidopsis plants over-expressing AhAREB1 ( a peanut AREB transcrip-tion factor) displayed growth retardation, curly leaves, enhanced drought tolerance and increased IAA content.It is implied that auxin distribution may be affected by the expression of AhAREB1.In the present study, the homozy-gous transgenic Arabidopsis, generated by hybridizing the pDR5::GUS ( harboring GUS gene driven by a promoter with three repeat IAA-induced elements) plants with AhAREB1 over-expressing plants, was used to further investi-gate the effect of the expression of AhAREB1 transcription factor on auxin distribution through GUS histochemical staining .The results showed that the IAA content was increased in AhAREB1 over-expressing plants when compared with that in the controlled plants.The IAA mainly accumulated in the root tip of transgenic seedlings, instead on the edge of the leaves in mature plants.The expressions of IAA-responsive genes IAA29 and IAA-transport gene LAX3 in AhAREB1 over-expressing plants were significantly down-regulated, whereas The expressions of other two IAA-responsive genes ARF2 and ARF9 were significantly up-regulated.Take together, the unbalanced IAA distri

  7. Effects of over-expression of the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG on the ammonium-dependent post-translational regulation of nitrogenase reductase in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Steffens, Maria B R; Yates, M Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

    2005-03-01

    Nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense is regulated at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Post-translational control occurs through the reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase (Fe Protein), mediated by the dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DraT) and dinitrogenase reductase glycohydrolase (DraG). Although the DraT and DraG activities are regulated in vivo, the molecules responsible for such regulation remain unknown. We have constructed broad-host-range plasmids capable of over-expressing, upon IPTG induction, the regulatory enzymes DraT and DraG as six-histidine-N-terminal fused proteins (His). Both DraT-His and DraG-His are functional in vivo. We have analyzed the effects of DraT-His and DraG-His over-expression on the post-translational modification of Fe Protein. The DraT-His over-expression led to Fe Protein modification in the absence of ammonium addition, while cells over-expressing DraG-His showed only partial ADP-ribosylation of Fe Protein by adding ammonium. These results suggest that both DraT-His and DraG-His lose their regulation upon over-expression, possible by titrating out negative regulators.

  8. Gene Body Methylation can alter Gene Expression and is a Therapeutic Target in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Han, Han; De Carvalho, Daniel D.; Lay, Fides D.; Jones, Peter A.; Liang, Gangning

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA methylation in promoters is well known to silence genes and is the presumed therapeutic target of methylation inhibitors. Gene body methylation is positively correlated with expression yet its function is unknown. We show that 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment not only reactivates genes but decreases the over-expression of genes, many of which are involved in metabolic processes regulated by c-MYC. Down-regulation is caused by DNA demethylation of the gene bodies and restoration of high levels of expression requires remethylation by DNMT3B. Gene body methylation may therefore be an unexpected therapeutic target for DNA methylation inhibitors, resulting in the normalization of gene over-expression induced during carcinogenesis. Our results provide direct evidence for a causal relationship between gene body methylation and transcription. PMID:25263941

  9. Analyses of GA20ox- and GID1-over-expressing aspen suggest that gibberellins play two distinct roles in wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Moritz, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many aspects of plant development, including shoot growth, flowering and wood formation. Increased levels of bioactive GAs are known to induce xylogenesis and xylem fiber elongation in aspen. However, there is currently little information on the response pathway(s) that mediate GA effects on wood formation. Here we characterize an important element of the GA pathway in hybrid aspen: the GA receptor, GID1. Four orthologs of GID1 were identified in Populus tremula x P. tremuloides (PttGID1.1-1.4). These were functional when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, and appear to present a degree of sub-functionalization in hybrid aspen. PttGID1.1 and PttGID1.3 were over-expressed in independent lines of hybrid aspen using either the 35S promoter or a xylem-specific promoter (LMX5). The 35S:PttGID1 over-expressors shared several phenotypic traits previously described in 35S:AtGA20ox1 over-expressors, including rapid growth, increased elongation, and increased xylogenesis. However, their xylem fibers were not elongated, unlike those of 35S:AtGA20ox1 plants. Similar differences in the xylem fiber phenotype were observed when PttGID1.1, PttGID1.3 or AtGA20ox1 were expressed under the control of the LMX5 promoter, suggesting either that PttGID1.1 and PttGID1.3 play no role in fiber elongation or that GA homeostasis is strongly controlled when GA signaling is altered. Our data suggest that GAs are required in two distinct wood-formation processes that have tissue-specific signaling pathways: xylogenesis, as mediated by GA signaling in the cambium, and fiber elongation in the developing xylem.

  10. Long-Term Over-Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Contributes to Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance Partly via the Y5 Receptor.

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    Min Long

    Full Text Available Intracerebroventricular injection and overexpression of Neuropeptide Y (NPY in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN has been shown to induce obesity and glucose metabolism disorder in rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism contributing to glucose metabolic disturbance induced by NPY. Recombinant lentiviral NPY vectors were injected into the PVN of rats fed a high fat (HFD or low-fat diet. 8 weeks later, in vivo intravenous glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp revealed that insulin resistance of adipose tissue were induced by NPY overexpression with or without HFD. NPY increased food intake, but did not change blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c or lipid levels. However, NPY decreased the expression of pGSK3β, PI3K p85 and pAKTSer473 in adipose tissue of rats. In vitro, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with NPY, NPY Y1 and Y5 receptor antagonists. Glucose consumption and 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake were partly inhibited by NPY, while a decrease in PI3K-AKT pathway signaling and a decreased expression of pGSK3α and pGSK3β were observed. Nevertheless, a Y5 receptor antagonist (L-152,804 reversed the effects of NPY on glucose uptake and consumption. These data suggest that long-term over-expression of NPY in PVN contributes to the establishment of adipose tissue insulin resistance, at least partly via the Y5 Receptor.

  11. Aberrant over-expression of TRPM7 ion channels in pancreatic cancer: required for cancer cell invasion and implicated in tumor growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies in zebrafish development have led to identification of the novel roles of the transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7 ion channels in human pancreatic cancer. However, the biological significance of TRPM7 channels in pancreatic neoplasms was mostly unexplored. In this study, we determined the expression levels of TRPM7 in pancreatic tissue microarrays and correlated these measurements in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with the clinicopathological features. We also investigated the role of TRPM7 channels in pancreatic cancer cell invasion using the MatrigelTM-coated transwell assay. In normal pancreas, TRPM7 is expressed at a discernable level in the ductal cells and centroacinar cells and at a relatively high level in the islet endocrine cells. In chronic pancreatitis, pre-malignant tissues, and malignant neoplasms, there is variable expression of TRPM7. In the majority of pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens examined, TRPM7 is expressed at either moderate-level or high-level. Anti-TRPM7 immunoreactivity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma significantly correlates with the size and stages of tumors. In human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in which TRPM7 is highly expressed, short hairpin RNA-mediated suppression of TRPM7 impairs cell invasion. The results demonstrate that TRPM7 channels are over-expressed in a proportion of the pre-malignant lesions and malignant tumors of the pancreas, and they are necessary for invasion by pancreatic cancer cells. We propose that TRPM7 channels play important roles in development and progression of pancreatic neoplasm, and they may be explored as clinical biomarkers and targets for its prevention and treatment.

  12. Establishment of stable over-expressing human SIRT1 HEK293 cell line%稳定过表达人SIRT1基因的HEK293细胞系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓉; 张凯帆; 王维蓉; 林琴琴; 杨莉娜; 任峰; 张建丰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct a plasmid expressing human SIRT1 and to establish HEK293 cell line with stable over-expressing human SIRT1. Methods Full length of human SIRT1 gene cDNA was ligated into an expressing vector pcDNA3.1 ( + ). After confirmed by restriction analysis and sequencing, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into HEK293 cells mediated with liposome. G418-resistant clones of HEK293 cells were then detected by real-time PCR and Western blot for the expression level of SIRT1. Results The accuracy of constructed and selected plasmids was confirmed by restriction enzymatic analyses and DNA sequencing. As compared with untransfected HEK293 cells, the levels of SIRT1 mRNA and SIRT1 protein of transfected HEK293 cells were significantly increased (P<0.01). Conclusions The pcDNA3.1 ( + )-SIRTl plasmid is successfully constructed. HEK293 cell line with stable over-expressing SIRT1 is established, which provides a useful tool for further study on the effect of SIRT1 on cardiovascular diseases.%目的:构建人沉默信息调节因子2同源蛋白1(SIRT1)基因的真核表达载体,建立稳定过表达人SIRT1的HEK293细胞系.方法:将含有SIRT1的克隆载体pCRⅡ-TOPO-SIRT1双酶切后,连接至真核表达载体pcDNA3.1(+)中,连接产物经酶切鉴定后进行测序.构建的重组真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)-SIRT1转染HEK293细胞.G418进行筛选.Real-time PCR和Western Blot分别从mRNA和蛋白水平检测SIRTI的表达.结果:酶切分析和测序结果证实,SIRT1基因成功插入真核表达质粒pcDNA3.1(+)中.Real-time PCR和Western Blot结果显示稳定转染pc:DNA3.1(+)-SIRT1的HEK293细胞SIRT1的表达水平明显高于未转染细胞(P<0.01).结论:成功构建了真核表达载体pcDNA3.1(+)-SIRT1,并建立了稳定过表达SIRT1基因的HEK293细胞系.为进-步研究SIRT1基因在心血管疾病中的作用及其机制奠定了基础.

  13. Differences in gene expression and alterations in cell cycle of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines after treatment with JAK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunerka, Pawel; Dymek, Barbara; Stanczak, Aleksandra; Bujak, Anna; Grygielewicz, Paulina; Turowski, Pawel; Dzwonek, Karolina; Lamparska-Przybysz, Monika; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Wieczorek, Maciej

    2015-10-15

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are a promising treatment strategy in several hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. A number of inhibitors are in clinical development, and two have already reached the market. Unfortunately, all of them are burdened with different toxicity profiles. To check if the JAK inhibitors of different selectivity evoke different responses on JAK2-dependent and independent cells, we have used three acute myeloid leukemia cell lines with confirmed JAK2 mutation status. We have found that JAK inhibitors exert distinct effect on the expression of BCLXL, CCND1 and c-MYC genes, regulated by JAK pathway, in JAK2 wild type cells in comparison to JAK2 V617F-positive cell lines. Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that inhibitors alter the cycle by arresting cells in different phases. Our results suggest that observed effect of JAK2 inhibitors on transcription and cell cycle level in different cell lines are associated not with activity within JAK family, but presumably with other off-target activities. PMID:26300391

  14. High prevalence of immunoglobulin light chain gene aberrations as revealed by FISH in multiple myeloma and MGUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Seval; Binder, Anastasia; Gerlach, Antje; Niehage, Sylke; Theodora Melissari, Maria; Inandiklioglu, Nihal; Dörken, Bernd; Burmeister, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of aberrant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Chromosome aberrations in MM are complex and represent a hallmark of the disease, involving many chromosomes that are altered both numerically and structurally. Nearly half of the cases are nonhyperdiploid and show IGH translocations with the following partner genes: CCND1, FGFR3 and MMSET, MAF, MAFB, and CCND3. The remaining 50% are grouped into a hyperdiploid group that is characterized by multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, and 21. In this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin light chain kappa (IGK, 2p12) and lambda (IGL, 22q11) loci in 150 cases, mostly with MM but in a few cases monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), without IGH translocations. We identified aberrations in 27% (= 40 patients) including rearrangements (12%), gains (12%), and deletions (4.6%). In 6 of 18 patients with IGK or/and IGL rearrangements, we detected a MYC rearrangement which suggests that MYC is the translocation partner in the majority of these cases. PMID:24729354

  15. Over-expression of Slc30a8/ZnT8 selectively in the mouse α cell impairs glucagon release and responses to hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Solomou, Antonia; Philippe, Erwann; Chabosseau, Pauline; Migrenne-Li, Stephanie; Gaitan, Julien; Lang, Jochen; Magnan, Christophe; Rutter, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human SLC30A8 gene encodes the secretory granule-localised zinc transporter ZnT8 whose expression is chiefly restricted to the endocrine pancreas. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SLC30A8 gene have been associated, through genome-wide studies, with altered type 2 diabetes risk. In addition to a role in the control of insulin release, recent studies involving targeted gene ablation from the pancreatic α cell (Solomou et al., J Biol Chem 290(35):21432-42) have ...

  16. Exome sequencing of oral squamous cell carcinoma in users of Arabian snuff reveals novel candidates for driver genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hebshi, Nezar Noor; Li, Shiyong; Nasher, Akram Thabet; El-Setouhy, Maged; Alsanosi, Rashad; Blancato, Jan; Loffredo, Christopher

    2016-07-15

    The study sought to identify genetic aberrations driving oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development among users of shammah, an Arabian preparation of smokeless tobacco. Twenty archival OSCC samples, 15 of which with a history of shammah exposure, were whole-exome sequenced at an average depth of 127×. Somatic mutations were identified using a novel, matched controls-independent filtration algorithm. CODEX and Exomedepth coupled with a novel, Database of Genomic Variant-based filter were employed to call somatic gene-copy number variations. Significantly mutated genes were identified with Oncodrive FM and the Youn and Simon's method. Candidate driver genes were nominated based on Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The observed mutational spectrum was similar to that reported by the TCGA project. In addition to confirming known genes of OSCC (TP53, CDKNA2, CASP8, PIK3CA, HRAS, FAT1, TP63, CCND1 and FADD) the analysis identified several candidate novel driver events including mutations of NOTCH3, CSMD3, CRB1, CLTCL1, OSMR and TRPM2, amplification of the proto-oncogenes FOSL1, RELA, TRAF6, MDM2, FRS2 and BAG1, and deletion of the recently described tumor suppressor SMARCC1. Analysis also revealed significantly altered pathways not previously implicated in OSCC including Oncostatin-M signalling pathway, AP-1 and C-MYB transcription networks and endocytosis. There was a trend for higher number of mutations, amplifications and driver events in samples with history of shammah exposure particularly those that tested EBV positive, suggesting an interaction between tobacco exposure and EBV. The work provides further evidence for the genetic heterogeneity of oral cancer and suggests shammah-associated OSCC is characterized by extensive amplification of oncogenes. PMID:26934577

  17. Musashi1 modulates cell proliferation genes in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy

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    Hung Jaclyn Y

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musashi1 (Msi1 is an RNA binding protein with a central role during nervous system development and stem cell maintenance. High levels of Msi1 have been reported in several malignancies including brain tumors thereby associating Msi1 and cancer. Methods We used the human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy as model system in this study to knock down the expression of Msi1 and determine the effects upon soft agar growth and neurophere formation. Quantitative RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Msi1 depleted Daoy cells. Results We observed that MSI1 expression was elevated in Daoy cells cultured as neurospheres compared to those grown as monolayer. These data indicated that Msi1 might be involved in regulating proliferation in cancer cells. Here we show that shRNA mediated Msi1 depletion in Daoy cells notably impaired their ability to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as neurospheres in culture. Moreover, differential expression of a group of Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathway related genes including MYCN, FOS, NOTCH2, SMO, CDKN1A, CCND2, CCND1, and DKK1, was also found in the Msi1 knockdown, demonstrating that Msi1 modulated the expression of a subset of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Daoy. Conclusion Our data suggested that Msi1 may promote cancer cell proliferation and survival as its loss seems to have a detrimental effect in the maintenance of medulloblastoma cancer cells. In this regard, Msi1 might be a positive regulator of tumor progression and a potential target for therapy.

  18. Musashi1 modulates cell proliferation genes in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musashi1 (Msi1) is an RNA binding protein with a central role during nervous system development and stem cell maintenance. High levels of Msi1 have been reported in several malignancies including brain tumors thereby associating Msi1 and cancer. We used the human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy as model system in this study to knock down the expression of Msi1 and determine the effects upon soft agar growth and neurophere formation. Quantitative RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Msi1 depleted Daoy cells. We observed that MSI1 expression was elevated in Daoy cells cultured as neurospheres compared to those grown as monolayer. These data indicated that Msi1 might be involved in regulating proliferation in cancer cells. Here we show that shRNA mediated Msi1 depletion in Daoy cells notably impaired their ability to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as neurospheres in culture. Moreover, differential expression of a group of Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathway related genes including MYCN, FOS, NOTCH2, SMO, CDKN1A, CCND2, CCND1, and DKK1, was also found in the Msi1 knockdown, demonstrating that Msi1 modulated the expression of a subset of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Daoy. Our data suggested that Msi1 may promote cancer cell proliferation and survival as its loss seems to have a detrimental effect in the maintenance of medulloblastoma cancer cells. In this regard, Msi1 might be a positive regulator of tumor progression and a potential target for therapy

  19. Identification of target genes for wild type and truncated HMGA2 in mesenchymal stem-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørn Mølgaard; Stabell, Marianne; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A;

    2010-01-01

    The HMGA2 gene, coding for an architectural transcription factor involved in mesenchymal embryogenesis, is frequently deranged by translocation and/or amplification in mesenchymal tumours, generally leading to over-expression of shortened transcripts and a truncated protein....

  20. Co-Occurrence of Two Allelic Variants of CYP51 in Erysiphe necator and Their Correlation with Over-Expression for DMI Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Esther E Rallos; Baudoin, Anton B.

    2016-01-01

    Demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) have been an important tool in the management of grapevine powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator. Long-term, intensive use of DMIs has resulted in reduced sensitivity in field populations. To further characterize DMI resistance and understand resistance mechanisms in this pathogen, we investigated the cyp51 sequence of 24 single-spored isolates from Virginia and surrounding states and analyzed gene expression in isolates representing a wide range of sensiti...

  1. ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts over-express extra-cellular matrix components, display cell cycle delay and are resistant to apoptosis.

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    Elisabetta Zulato

    Full Text Available Alström Syndrome (ALMS is a rare genetic disorder (483 living cases, characterized by many clinical manifestations, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiomyopathy. ALMS is caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene, encoding for a large protein with implicated roles in ciliary function, cellular quiescence and intracellular transport. Patients with ALMS have extensive fibrosis in nearly all tissues resulting in a progressive organ failure which is often the ultimate cause of death. To focus on the role of ALMS1 mutations in the generation and maintenance of this pathological fibrosis, we performed gene expression analysis, ultrastructural characterization and functional assays in 4 dermal fibroblast cultures from ALMS patients. Using a genome-wide gene expression analysis we found alterations in genes belonging to specific categories (cell cycle, extracellular matrix (ECM and fibrosis, cellular architecture/motility and apoptosis. ALMS fibroblasts display cytoskeleton abnormalities and migration impairment, up-regulate the expression and production of collagens and despite the increase in the cell cycle length are more resistant to apoptosis. Therefore ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts showed a constitutively activated myofibroblast phenotype even if they do not derive from a fibrotic lesion. Our results support a genetic basis for the fibrosis observed in ALMS and show that both an excessive ECM production and a failure to eliminate myofibroblasts are key mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings suggest new roles for ALMS1 in both intra- and extra-cellular events which are essential not only for the normal cellular function but also for cell-cell and ECM-cell interactions.

  2. Cartilage-specific over-expression of CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF stimulates insulin-like growth factor expression and bone growth.

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    Nao Tomita

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that CCN family member 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 promotes the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of growth cartilage cells in vitro. To elucidate the specific role and molecular mechanism of CCN2 in cartilage development in vivo, in the present study we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCN2 and analyzed them with respect to cartilage and bone development. Transgenic mice were generated expressing a ccn2/lacZ fusion gene in cartilage under the control of the 6 kb-Col2a1-enhancer/promoter. Changes in cartilage and bone development were analyzed histologically and immunohistologically and also by micro CT. Primary chondrocytes as well as limb bud mesenchymal cells were cultured and analyzed for changes in expression of cartilage-related genes, and non-transgenic chondrocytes were treated in culture with recombinant CCN2. Newborn transgenic mice showed extended length of their long bones, increased content of proteoglycans and collagen II accumulation. Micro-CT analysis of transgenic bones indicated increases in bone thickness and mineral density. Chondrocyte proliferation was enhanced in the transgenic cartilage. In in vitro short-term cultures of transgenic chondrocytes, the expression of col2a1, aggrecan and ccn2 genes was substantially enhanced; and in long-term cultures the expression levels of these genes were further enhanced. Also, in vitro chondrogenesis was strongly enhanced. IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels were elevated in transgenic chondrocytes, and treatment of non-transgenic chondrocytes with recombinant CCN2 stimulated the expression of these mRNA. The addition of CCN2 to non-transgenic chondrocytes induced the phosphorylation of IGFR, and ccn2-overexpressing chondrocytes showed enhanced phosphorylation of IGFR. Our data indicates that the observed effects of CCN2 may be mediated in part by CCN2-induced overexpression of IGF-I and IGF-II. These findings indicate that CCN2

  3. Over-expression of hNGF in adult human olfactory bulb neural stem cells promotes cell growth and oligodendrocytic differentiation.

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    Hany E S Marei

    Full Text Available The adult human olfactory bulb neural stem/progenitor cells (OBNC/PC are promising candidate for cell-based therapy for traumatic and neurodegenerative insults. Exogenous application of NGF was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for traumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, however effective delivery of NGF into the CNS parenchyma is still challenging due mainly to its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and intolerable side effects if administered into the brain ventricular system. An effective method to ensure delivery of NGF into the parenchyma of CNS is the genetic modification of NSC to overexpress NGF gene. Overexpression of NGF in adult human OBNSC is expected to alter their proliferation and differentiation nature, and thus might enhance their therapeutic potential. In this study, we genetically modified adult human OBNS/PC to overexpress human NGF (hNGF and green fluorescent protein (GFP genes to provide insight about the effects of hNGF and GFP genes overexpression in adult human OBNS/PC on their in vitro multipotentiality using DNA microarray, immunophenotyping, and Western blot (WB protocols. Our analysis revealed that OBNS/PC-GFP and OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF differentiation is a multifaceted process involving changes in major biological processes as reflected in alteration of the gene expression levels of crucial markers such as cell cycle and survival markers, stemness markers, and differentiation markers. The differentiation of both cell classes was also associated with modulations of key signaling pathways such MAPK signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway for OBNS/PC-GFP, and axon guidance, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7 for OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF as revealed by GO and KEGG. Differentiated OBNS/PC-GFP-hNGF displayed extensively branched cytoplasmic processes, a significant faster growth rate and up modulated the expression of oligodendroglia

  4. Over Expression of a tRNALeu Isoacceptor Changes Charging Pattern of Leucine tRNAs and Reveals New Codon Reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Elf, J.; Bouakaz, E.;

    2005-01-01

    During mRNA translation, synonymous codons for one amino acid are often read by different isoaccepting tRNAs. The theory of selective tRNA charging predicts greatly varying percentages of aminoacylation among isoacceptors in cells starved for their common amino acid. It also predicts major changes...... in tRNA charging patterns upon concentration changes of single isoacceptors, which suggests a novel type of translational control of gene expression. We therefore tested the theory by measuring with Northern blots the charging of Leu-tRNAs in Escherichia coli under Leu limitation in response to over...

  5. Cyclin D1 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive system in non-alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Ines Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia Alice; Rogatto, Silvia Regina;

    2004-01-01

    sequencing. Significant odds ratio (OR) of the AA+GA genotypes [OR=7.5 (95% CI: 1.4-39.7)] was observed in non-drinkers but for non-smokers a non-significant [OR=5.4 (95% CI: 0.9-31.4)] was found in the adjusted model. These results suggest that allele A may be a risk factor for UADT cancer, especially......Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is associated with environmental factors, especially tobacco and alcohol consumption. Genetic factors, including cyclin D1 (CCND1) polymorphism have been suggested to play an important role in tumorigenesis and progression of UADT...... cancer. To investigate the relationship between CCND1 polymorphism on susceptibility for UADT cancers, 147 cancer and 135 non-cancer subjects were included in this study. CCND1 genotype at codon 242(G870A) in exon 4 was undertaken using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA...

  6. Over-expression of the β-carboxysomal CcmM protein in Synechococcus PCC7942 reveals a tight co-regulation of carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase (CcaA) and M58 content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Benedict M; Rae, Benjamin D; Badger, Murray R; Price, G Dean

    2011-09-01

    Carboxysomes, containing the cell's complement of RuBisCO surrounded by a specialized protein shell, are a central component of the cyanobacterial CO(2)-concentrating mechanism. The ratio of two forms of the β-carboxysomal protein CcmM (M58 and M35) may affect the carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase (CcaA) content. We have over-expressed both M35 and M58 in the β-cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942. Over-expression of M58 resulted in a marked increase in the amount of this protein in carboxysomes at the expense of M35, with a concomitant increase in the observed CcaA content of carboxysomes. Conversely, M35 over-expression diminished M58 content of carboxysomes and led to a decrease in CcaA content. Carboxysomes of air-grown wild-type cells contained slightly elevated CcaA and M58 content and slightly lower M35 content compared to their 2% CO(2)-grown counterparts. Over a range of CcmM expression levels, there was a strong correlation between M58 and CcaA content, indicating a constant carboxysomal M58:CcaA stoichiometry. These results also confirm a role for M58 in the recruitment of CcaA into the carboxysome and suggest a tight regulation of M35 and M58 translation is required to produce carboxysomes with an appropriate CA content. Analysis of carboxysomal protein ratios, resulting from the afore-mentioned over-expression studies, revealed that β-carboxysomal protein stoichiometries are relatively flexible. Determination of absolute protein quantities supports the hypothesis that M35 is distributed throughout the β-carboxysome. A modified β-carboxysome packing model is presented.

  7. The anti-aging gene KLOTHO is a novel target for epigenetic silencing in human cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Inchul

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klotho was originally characterized as an anti-aging gene that predisposed Klotho-deficient mice to a premature aging-like syndrome. Recently, KLOTHO was reported to function as a secreted Wnt antagonist and as a tumor suppressor. Epigenetic gene silencing of secreted Wnt antagonists is considered a common event in a wide range of human malignancies. Abnormal activation of the canonical Wnt pathway due to epigenetic deregulation of Wnt antagonists is thought to play a crucial role in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO in human cervical carcinoma. Results Loss of KLOTHO mRNA was observed in several cervical cancer cell lines and in invasive carcinoma samples, but not during the early, preinvasive phase of primary cervical tumorigenesis. KLOTHO mRNA was restored after treatment with either the DNA demethylating agent 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine or histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis of the promoter region of KLOTHO revealed CpG hypermethylation in non-KLOTHO-expressing cervical cancer cell lines and in 41% (9/22 of invasive carcinoma cases. Histone deacetylation was also found to be the major epigenetic silencing mechanism for KLOTHO in the SiHa cell line. Ectopic expression of the secreted form of KLOTHO restored anti-Wnt signaling and anti-clonogenic activity in the CaSki cell line including decreased active β-catenin levels, suppression of T-cell factor/β-catenin target genes, such as c-MYC and CCND1, and inhibition of colony growth. Conclusions Epigenetic silencing of KLOTHO may occur during the late phase of cervical tumorigenesis, and consequent functional loss of KLOTHO as the secreted Wnt antagonist may contribute to aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway in cervical carcinoma.

  8. Losses of expression of the antigens A, Lea and Lex and over-expression of Ley in carcinomas and HG-SIL of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández Emilio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycosylation of a great number of molecules, glyco-protein or glycolipids, has been of interest for decades. Objective To compare the expressive patterns of the isoantigenic determinants of histo-blood groups ABH and Lewis in squamous and simple epithelium and in precursors and cancers of the cervix. Methods A total of 36 lesions and neoplasms (10 LG-SIL, 16 HG-SIL and 10 invasive carcinomas have been studied with immunohistochemical techniques, using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BG1 to BG8 for precursor chains, blood-group ABH and Lewis group Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley, and four types of lectins. In addition, we have studied the expression of p53 protein and PCNA, establishing the rate of proliferation of each lesion. Using PCR techniques, we have also detected part of the intron of the E6 gene of HPV-16. Results In the invasive cervical carcinomas, we observed a loss of expression of the Lex antigen (p y antigens. With PCNA, we established a proliferative rate which tended to be greater in relation to the progression of the cervix neoplasms. Conclusion These results indicate that there is a relation between the losses of histo-blood groups and the progression of the squamous intraepithelial lesions.

  9. Biological Mechanisms Underlying the Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Formation of Skin Wrinkling and Sagging II: Over-Expression of Neprilysin Plays an Essential Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genji Imokawa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies strongly indicated that the up-regulated activity of skin fibroblast-derived elastase plays a pivotal role in wrinkling and/or sagging of the skin via the impairment of elastic fiber configuration and the subsequent loss of skin elasticity. Fortunately, we succeeded in identifying human skin fibroblast-derived elastase as a previously known enzyme, neprilysin or neutral endopeptidase (NEP. We have also characterized epithelial-mesenchymal paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed-keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and found that interleukin-1α and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulatory factor (GM-CSF are intrinsic cytokines secreted by UVB-exposed keratinocytes that stimulate the expression of neprilysin by fibroblasts. On the other hand, direct UVA exposure of human fibroblasts significantly stimulates the secretion of IL-6 and also elicits a significant increase in the gene expression of matrix metallo-protease(MMP-1 as well as neprilysin (to a lesser extent, which is followed by distinct increases in their protein and enzymatic activity levels. Direct UVA exposure of human keratinocytes also stimulates the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF but not of IL-1 and endothelin-1. These findings suggest that GM-CSF secreted by UVA-exposed keratinocytes as well as IL-6 secreted by UVA-exposed dermal fibroblasts play important and additional roles in UVA-induced sagging and wrinkling by up-regulation of neprilysin and MMP-1, respectively, in dermal fibroblasts.

  10. Genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a pooled analysis of 42,510 cases and 40,577 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jieping; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B; Behrens, Sabine; Goode, Ellen L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; González-Neira, Anna; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Van Dijck, Laurien; Smeets, Ann; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Eilber, Ursula; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Winqvist, Robert; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul D P; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ambrosone, Christine B; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Gene-level associations were assessed based on principal component analysis. Gene expression analyses were conducted using RNA sequencing level 3 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 989 breast tumor samples and 113 matched normal tissue samples. SNP rs1905339 (A>G) in the STAT3 region was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per allele odds ratio 1.05, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-1.08; p value = 1.4 × 10(-6)). The association did not differ significantly by ER status. On the gene level, in addition to TGFBR2 and CCND1, IL5 and GM-CSF showed the strongest associations with overall breast cancer risk (p value = 1.0 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-3), respectively). Furthermore, STAT3 and IL5 but not GM-CSF were differentially expressed between breast tumor tissue and normal tissue (p value = 2.5 × 10(-3), 4.5 × 10(-4) and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3, IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry. PMID:26621531

  11. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set.

  12. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046

  13. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis and further intervention in cisplatin resistance

  14. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  15. High temperature, ultraviolet light and cisplatin caused apoptosis of H1299 cell line which over expressed cyclophilin A%亲环素A过表达对高温、紫外线和顺铂引起的H1299细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎瑾; 赵晓婷; 江妹; 顾勐; 岳文涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨人肺癌细胞株H1299过表达亲环素A(CyPA)后对高温、紫外线和顺铂作用引起的细胞凋亡的影响。方法:采用重组慢病毒介导构建CyPA过表达H1299细胞株H1299 CyPA OE,并用Western blot方法验证CyPA过表达细胞株是否成功构建。培养H 1299和H 1299 C y P A O E细胞株,分别进行高温(44℃处理60 m i n )、紫外线(90μW/c m 2处理60 m i n )和顺铂(37.5、75和150μg/m L作用2 h)处理后,用高内涵分析平台检测细胞的晚期凋亡。结果:H1299 CyPA OE细胞能检测到绿色荧光,且其CyPA蛋白表达较H1299细胞明显增高,表明H1299 CyPA OE细胞株构建成功。在不同顺铂浓度下,H1299 CyPA OE细胞凋亡率较H1299细胞均明显降低(P均0.05)。结论:CyPA过表达对顺铂诱导的凋亡有抵抗作用,表明CyPA可作为潜在的联合化疗的基因靶点,有望为临床个体化治疗提供新的思路。%OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to explore the effects of cyclophilin A (CyPA) over-expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1299 after treatments of high temperature,ultraviolet (UV) and cisplatin-induced apoptosis.METHODS:We set up H1299 CyPA over-expression cell lines via lentiviral transfection and used fluorescence microscope and Western blot analysis to analyze the expression of the target gene. H1299 and H1299 CyPA OE cell lines were cultured and exposed to treatments of high temperature,UV and cisplatin. High intension analysis platform was used to detect apoptosis of the two cell lines.RESULTS:Green fluorescent could be detected in H1299 CyPA OE cell line,and the protein CyPA expression was much higher than H1299 cell line,indicating that H1299 CyPA OE cell line was set up successfully. The apoptosis rate of H1299 CyPA OE cell line was much lower than H1299 cell line under different concentrations of cisplatin(P0.05).CONCLUSION:The over-expression of CyPA could confer resistance to apoptosis induced by cisplatin. CyPA may

  16. Gene expression changes as markers of early lapatinib response in a panel of breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neill Fiona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR and is approved, in combination with capecitabine, for the treatment of trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. In order to establish a possible gene expression response to lapatinib, a panel of breast cancer cell lines with varying sensitivity to lapatinib were analysed using a combination of microarray and qPCR profiling. Methods Co-inertia analysis (CIA, a data integration technique, was used to identify transcription factors associated with the lapatinib response on a previously published dataset of 96 microarrays. RNA was extracted from BT474, SKBR3, EFM192A, HCC1954, MDAMB453 and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines displaying a range of lapatinib sensitivities and HER2 expression treated with 1 μM of lapatinib for 12 hours and quantified using Taqman RT-PCR. A fold change ≥ ± 2 was considered significant. Results A list of 421 differentially-expressed genes and 8 transcription factors (TFs whose potential regulatory impact was inferred in silico, were identified as associated with lapatinib response. From this group, a panel of 27 genes (including the 8 TFs were selected for qPCR validation. 5 genes were determined to be significantly differentially expressed following the 12 hr treatment of 1 μM lapatinib across all six cell lines. Furthermore, the expression of 4 of these genes (RB1CC1, FOXO3A, NR3C1 and ERBB3 was directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity of the cell line to lapatinib and their expression was observed to “switch” from up-regulated to down-regulated when the cell lines were arranged in a lapatinib-sensitive to insensitive order. These included the novel lapatinib response-associated genes RB1CC1 and NR3C1. Additionally, Cyclin D1 (CCND1, a common regulator of the other four proteins, was also demonstrated to observe a proportional response to lapatinib exposure. Conclusions A panel of 5 genes were determined to

  17. Gene expression changes as markers of early lapatinib response in a panel of breast cancer cell lines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Neill, Fiona

    2012-06-18

    AbstractBackgroundLapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR and is approved, in combination with capecitabine, for the treatment of trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. In order to establish a possible gene expression response to lapatinib, a panel of breast cancer cell lines with varying sensitivity to lapatinib were analysed using a combination of microarray and qPCR profiling.MethodsCo-inertia analysis (CIA), a data integration technique, was used to identify transcription factors associated with the lapatinib response on a previously published dataset of 96 microarrays. RNA was extracted from BT474, SKBR3, EFM192A, HCC1954, MDAMB453 and MDAMB231 breast cancer cell lines displaying a range of lapatinib sensitivities and HER2 expression treated with 1 μM of lapatinib for 12 hours and quantified using Taqman RT-PCR. A fold change ≥ ± 2 was considered significant.ResultsA list of 421 differentially-expressed genes and 8 transcription factors (TFs) whose potential regulatory impact was inferred in silico, were identified as associated with lapatinib response. From this group, a panel of 27 genes (including the 8 TFs) were selected for qPCR validation. 5 genes were determined to be significantly differentially expressed following the 12 hr treatment of 1 μM lapatinib across all six cell lines. Furthermore, the expression of 4 of these genes (RB1CC1, FOXO3A, NR3C1 and ERBB3) was directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity of the cell line to lapatinib and their expression was observed to “switch” from up-regulated to down-regulated when the cell lines were arranged in a lapatinib-sensitive to insensitive order. These included the novel lapatinib response-associated genes RB1CC1 and NR3C1. Additionally, Cyclin D1 (CCND1), a common regulator of the other four proteins, was also demonstrated to observe a proportional response to lapatinib exposure.ConclusionsA panel of 5 genes were determined to be differentially

  18. The Effect of Over-expression of Pokemon gene onProliferation of MCF-7 Cells%Pokemon基因对MCF-7细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于玲玲; 张文光; 蒋宇扬; 徐威

    2011-01-01

    目的 转染Pokemon 表达载体到MCF-7 细胞中,探究Pokemon 对乳腺癌细胞增殖的影响.方法 构建Pokemon 基因表达质粒,瞬时转染Pokemon 表达质粒到乳腺癌细胞中,Western blot 检测pokemon 的蛋白水平表达情况,通过MTT 和平板克隆形成试验法观察Pokemon 对乳腺癌细胞增殖及克隆形成能力的影响.结果 MTT 法显示,随着培养时间的增加,MCF-7 细胞在转染Pokemon 后的生长速度明显增加;细胞平板克隆形成试验显示,MCF-7 细胞在转染Pokemon 后克隆数明显增加,由此可以说明Pokemon 能增强癌细胞MCF-7 克隆形成能力.结论 Pokemon 作为一个致癌基因,能促进乳腺癌MCF-7 细胞系的增殖并增加其克隆形成能力.

  19. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency. PMID:27193058

  20. Approximate Assertional Reasoning Over Expressive Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tserendorj, Tuvshintur

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, approximate reasoning methods for scalable assertional reasoning are provided whose computational properties can be established in a well-understood way, namely in terms of soundness and completeness, and whose quality can be analyzed in terms of statistical measurements, namely recall and precision. The basic idea of these approximate reasoning methods is to speed up reasoning by trading off the quality of reasoning results against increased speed.

  1. Over-expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme fusion proteins affects the cell cycle of mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells%鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶融合蛋白高表达对小鼠黑素瘤细胞B16-F1细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦瑶; 韩钰; 蔡富强; 何玲; 王艳林

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of over-expressed GFP-0AZ1 (green fluorescent protein-or-nithine decarboxylase antizyme-1) and GFP-OAZ2 (green fluorescent protein-omithine decarboxylase antizyme-2) fusion proteins on cell cycle of mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells. GFP-OAZ1 and GFP-OAZ2 fusion genes were constructed truly, then transiently transfected into B16-F1 cells by lipofectamine reagent. The expressions of GFP-OAZ1 and GFP-OAZ2 fusion proteins were confirmed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was applied to detect the effect of the fusion proteins on the cell cycle of B16-F1 cells; Western blot analysis was also used to detect the effect of GFP-0AZ1/2 on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in protein level. Results showed that over-expression of GFP-OAZ1 and GFP-0AZ2 fusion proteins in B16-F1 resulted in G1/G0 arrest in the cell cycle. When OAZ1 or OAZ2 gene was co-transfected with ODC gene into B16-F1 cells, over-expression of GFP-OAZ1 fusion protein, not GFP-OAZ2, demonstrated the ability to significantly decrease the total protein level of ODC. We concluded that over-expression of GFP-OAZ1 or GFP-OAZ2 fusion gene could lead to cell cycle arrest in Gl/GO phase, and GFP-0AZ1 fusion protein could stimulate ODC degradation efficiently, but no such function was found on OAZ2 fusion protein.%研究鸟氨酸脱羧酶抗酶(OAZ)与绿色荧光蛋白融合蛋白GFP-OAZ1和GFP-OAZ2高表达对小鼠黑色素瘤B16-F1细胞周期的影响.构建GFP-OAZ1和GFP-OAZ2融合基因的真核表达质粒并经脂质体法瞬时转染B16-F1细胞,然后用Western blot分析法和荧光显微镜下观察融合蛋白在B16-F1细胞中的表达.流式细胞分析用于检测GFP-OAZ融合蛋白高表达对B16-F1细胞周期的影响.Western blot分析法鉴定GFP-OAZ融合蛋白高表达对B16-F1细胞中鸟氨酸脱羧酶(ODC)酶蛋白水平的影响.结果成功构建的GFP-OAZ1和GFP-OAZ2融合基因B16-F1细胞中正确高效表达.

  2. Hint2促进乳腺癌细胞株MCF7对紫杉醇注射液的敏感性%Over-expression of Hint2 Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cell MCF7 to Taxol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡少鑫; 陈成; 杨熹; 邓豫; 李兆明; 李小兰; 胡俊波

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨高表达三联组氨酸核苷酸结合蛋白2 (Hint2)增强人乳腺癌细胞株MCF7对紫杉醇注射液敏感性的影响.方法 构建高表达Hint2的载体pCMV-HA-Hint2并转染MCF7细胞,通过免疫荧光和Western blot方法检测Hint2的表达,采用噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测高表达Hint2后MCF7细胞对紫杉醇注射液的敏感性,采用流式细胞AnnexinV方法检测细胞凋亡.结果 pCMV-HA-Hint2转染36 h后,细胞的Hint2基因表达明显增加,5μmol·L-1的紫杉醇注射液处理24 h后,Hint2高表达组细胞活性为33.78%,而对照组细胞活性为44.12%.结论 Hint2高表达能显著增加MCF7细胞对紫杉醇注射液的敏感性.%Objective To evaluate the effect of over-expression of Hint2 on sensitivity of breast cancer cell MCF7 to taxol . Methods The expression vector of pCMV-HA-Hint2 was constructed and transfected into MCF7 cells and the protein expression of Hint2 was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The changes of sensitivity to taxol after transfection were examined by MTT and flow cytometry respectively. Results In MCF7 cells, the protein levels of Hint2 were significantly increased after transfection, After exposed to 5 μmol · L-1 taxol for 24 h, cell viability of Hint2 over-expression group was 33. 78% , compared to 44. 12% in control group. Conclusion Over-expression of Hint2 can enhance the sensitivity of MCF7 to taxol.

  3. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53−/− NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53−/− NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53−/− NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53−/− NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53−/− NE4C cells. • Finding JMJD2

  4. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Amitabh, E-mail: amitabhdas.kn@gmail.com [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jin Choul, E-mail: jincchai@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyoung Hwa, E-mail: khjung2@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Das, Nando Dulal, E-mail: nando.hu@gmail.com [Clinical Research Centre, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Chul, E-mail: gujiju11@gmail.com [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seek, E-mail: yslee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyemyung, E-mail: hseo@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Young Gyu, E-mail: ygchai@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Ansan 426-791, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  5. 热休克蛋白70过表达对骨骼肌细胞内 ATP水平的影响%Effect of over-expression Hsp70 on the intracellular ATP level in C2C12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 王尊; 刘跃飞; 顾一煌

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of over-expression Hsp70 on the intracellular ATP level in C2C12 cells. Methods Hsp70 gene was amplified from pAT153 plasmids and then cloned into pTRE2hyg vector. After the transfection of recombinant plasmids of pTRE2hyg-Hsp70 into the C2C12 cells, the expression of Hsp70 was examined by Western blot. Furthermore, the intracellular ATP level was evaluated in C2C12 cells at different time points (0 d, 3 d, 7 d) during cell culture. Results Compared with controls, the intracellular ATP level was significantly increased (P<0.05) at different time points,(14.5 ± 2.87)nmol/mg protein (3 d), (15.3 ± 3.12) nmol/mg protein(7 d) after transfection. Conclusion The C2C12 cells of over-expression Hsp70 can increase the intracellular ATP level, indicating that Hsp70 may play a role in the metabolism in skeletal muscle cells.%目的:探讨热休克蛋白70(heat shock protein 70,Hsp70)过表达对骨骼肌细胞(C2C12)内ATP水平的影响。方法通过构建重组pTRE2hyg-Hsp70质粒,稳定转染C2C12细胞系,建立Hsp70过表达的C2C12细胞系。分别在转染后细胞培养的不同时间点(0 d,3 d,7 d),检测细胞内ATP的水平。结果 Hsp70过表达的C2C12细胞系在培养的3 d,7 d,细胞内ATP的水平分别达到(14.5±2.87)nmol/mg蛋白质、(15.3±3.12)nmol/mg 蛋白质,与对照组相比明显增高(P<0.05)。结论 Hsp70过表达的骨骼肌细胞可以提高细胞内的ATP水平,提示Hsp70对骨骼肌细胞的能量代谢产生影响。

  6. Gene manipulated peritoneal cell patch repairs infarcted myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Dongsheng; Millard, Ronald W.; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Tiemin; Fan, Guo-Chang; Ashraf, Atif; Xu, Meifeng; ASHRAF, Muhammad; Wang, Yigang

    2009-01-01

    A gene manipulated cell patch using a homologous peritoneum substrate was developed and applied after myocardial infarction to repair scarred myocardium. We genetically engineered male rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using adenoviral transduction to over-express CXCR4/green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MSCCXCR4) or MSCNull or siRNA targeting CXCR4 (MSCsiRNA). Gene expression was studied by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells were cultured on e...

  7. 马铃薯StERF3超量表达载体转基因植株矮化原因初探%Factors leading to dwarfism of transgenic potato plants transformed with StERF3 over expression vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影; 田振东; 宋波涛; 柳俊; 谢从华

    2011-01-01

    Several dwarf plants occurred in potato lines transformed with StERF3 over expression vector and the influencing factors of the dwarfism was investigated. Gene expression test revealed that StERF3 expression level in dwarf plants was lower than that of control. StERF3 gene expression decreased in the interference transgenic lines,but no dwarf plants appeared. The results indicated that the dwarfism was not related with the expression of StERF3 gene. Medium supplemented with 0. 5 mg/mL exogenous GA3 could improve the growth of dwarf plants in vitro to some extent. Most of the dwarf lines contained 3-4 copies. Multi-copy integration always led to transgenic silencing. In conclusion, the dwarf might be caused by multiple copies integration into the genomic DNA which interrupted the genes associated with GA3 pathway.%基于马铃薯StERF3超量表达载体转基因株系中出现了部分矮化植株,通过基因表达量检测、组织切片分析和转基因试管苗添加外源生长调节剂等方面对矮化原因进行了初步探讨.结果表明:矮化株中StERF3基因表达比对照降低;矮化株木质部和薄壁细胞明显变小,栅栏组织和海绵组织较致密;培养基中添加0.5 mg/mL GA3能够使矮化株明显增高,但添加IAA效果不明显;转基因矮化株含有3~4个拷贝,多拷贝导致了目标基因的沉默;在干涉株系中StERF3基因表达比对照降低,但并未出现矮化株;推测植株矮化并不是由于StERF3表达量引起,很可能是由于多拷贝插入导致与GA3合成或其调控有关基因受到干扰引起.

  8. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  9. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane technical mixture regulates cell cycle and apoptosis genes through the activation of CAR and ERα in mouse livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Yarushkin, Andrei A. [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SB RAMS, Novosibirsk, Timakova str., 2, 630117 (Russian Federation); Pustylnyak, Vladimir O., E-mail: pustylnyak@ngs.ru [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics SB RAMS, Novosibirsk, Timakova str., 2, 630117 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Pirogova str., 2, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and a xenoestrogen that promotes rodent hepatomegaly and tumours. A recent study has shown significant correlation between DDT serum concentration and liver cancer incidence in humans, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesised that a mixture of DDT isomers could exert effects on the liver through pathways instead of classical ERs. The acute effects of a DDT mixture containing the two major isomers p,p′-DDT (85%) and o,p′-DDT (15%) on CAR and ERα receptors and their cell cycle and apoptosis target genes were studied in mouse livers. ChIP results demonstrated increased CAR and ERα recruitment to their specific target gene binding sites in response to the DDT mixture. The results of real-time RT-PCR were consistent with the ChIP data and demonstrated that the DDT was able to activate both CAR and ERα in mouse livers, leading to target gene transcriptional increases including Cyp2b10, Gadd45β, cMyc, Mdm2, Ccnd1, cFos and E2f1. Western blot analysis demonstrated increases in cell cycle progression proteins cMyc, Cyclin D1, CDK4 and E2f1 and anti-apoptosis proteins Mdm2 and Gadd45β. In addition, DDT exposure led to Rb phosphorylation. Increases in cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis proteins were accompanied by a decrease in p53 content and its transcriptional activity. However, the DDT was unable to stimulate the β-catenin signalling pathway, which can play an important role in hepatocyte proliferation. Thus, our results indicate that DDT treatment may result in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition through CAR- and ERα-mediated gene activation in mouse livers. These findings suggest that the proliferative and anti-apoptotic conditions induced by CAR and ERα activation may be important contributors to the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis as produced by DDT in rodent livers. - Highlights: • DDT activated both CAR and ERα and their cell

  10. Hypomethylation and Over-Expression of the Beta Isoform of BLIMP1 is Induced by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection of B Cells; Potential Implications for the Pathogenesis of EBV-Associated Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Vrzalikova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1 exists as two major isoforms, α and β, which arise from alternate promoters. Inactivation of the full length BLIMP1α isoform is thought to contribute to B cell lymphomagenesis by blocking post-germinal centre (GC B cell differentiation. In contrast, the shorter β isoform is functionally impaired and over-expressed in several haematological malignancies, including diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL. We have studied the influence on BLIMP1β expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, a human herpesvirus that is implicated in the pathogenesis of several GC-derived lymphomas, including a subset of DLBCL and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL. We show that BLIMP1β expression is increased following the EBV infection of normal human tonsillar GC B cells. We also show that this change in expression is accompanied by hypomethylation of the BLIMP1β-specific promoter. Furthermore, we confirmed previous reports that the BLIMP1β promoter is hypomethylated in DLBCL cell lines and show for the first time that BLIMP1β is hypomethylated in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS cells of HL. Our results provide evidence in support of a role for BLIMP1β in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated B cell lymphomas.

  11. Elevated glutathione level does not protect against chronic alcohol mediated apoptosis in recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A over-expressing alcohol metabolizing enzymes--alcohol dehydrogenase and Cytochrome P450 2E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Chatterjee, Suvro; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2011-06-01

    Chronic consumption of alcohol leads to liver injury. Ethanol-inducible Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays a critical role in alcohol mediated oxidative stress due to its ability to metabolize ethanol. In the present study, using the recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A that over-expresses the alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP2E1; and control HepG2 cells, the mechanism and mode of cell death due to chronic ethanol exposure were studied. Untreated VL-17A cells exhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress when compared with untreated HepG2 cells. Chronic alcohol exposure, i.e., 100 mM ethanol treatment for 72 h caused a significant decrease in viability (47%) in VL-17A cells but not in HepG2 cells. Chronic ethanol mediated cell death in VL-17A cells was predominantly apoptotic, with increased oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism. Chronic ethanol exposure of VL-17A cells resulted in 1.1- to 2.5-fold increased levels of ADH and CYP2E1. Interestingly, the level of the antioxidant GSH was found to be 3-fold upregulated in VL-17A cells treated with ethanol, which may be a metabolic adaptation to the persistent and overwhelming oxidative stress. In conclusion, the increased GSH level may not be sufficient enough to protect VL-17A cells from chronic alcohol mediated oxidative stress and resultant apoptosis. PMID:21414402

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene expression evaluation in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motalleb, G; Pourrahmat, E; Najafi, S; Rashki, A; Moghadam, A Yegane; Mazaheri, M; Jahantigh, M; Sabagh, K; Sanadgol, N; Najafi, S; Talaee, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world and third and fourth most common cancer among men and women in Iran respectively. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that shows over expression in epithelial tumors and regulates important processes in tumorigenesis. Incidence and characteristics of colorectal cancer are based on the geographic region and race. Aim: In this research work, the over expression of EGFR in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer tumor tissue of patients was studied. Materials and Methods: Fifteen FFPE colorectal cancer tumor tissues (10 women and 5 men; 25-65 years old and stage IV) and 15 non-patients (nine women and six men; 25-65 years old) that were collected during 2006-2012. EGFR gene expression level was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR reactions were performed in triplicate for both target gene and internal control (18s ribosomal ribonucleic acid) with the 2-ΔΔCT method. Gene expression differences in patients and controls were evaluated with t-test. Results: The results were showed EGFR gene over expression in 12 (80%) of 15 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of EGFR expression between patients and control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated EGFR gene over expression in colorectal cancer tumor tissue compared with controls. PMID:25494138

  13. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited

  14. Effect of Long-Term Intake of Y3+ in Drinking Water on Gene Expression in Brains of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The rats were fed with water dissolved Y3 + at different levels (0, 53.4, 5340 mg· L- 1 ) for 7 months. The gene expression in brain tissue was detected with oligonucleotide microarray. The results show that, compared to the control,789 genes express differentially, 507 over-expressed genes and 282 under-expressed genes in the high-dose group (5340found to express differentially including 32 over-expressed genes and 12 under-expressed genes in the low-dose group (53.sults suggest that Y3 + can change the expression of some genes, which may be responsible for the toxicity of rare earths on learning and memory.

  15. Extensive Sex- and/or Hormone-Dependent Expression of Rat Housekeeping Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rajat K.; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2012-01-01

    Using a commercially available qRT-PCR array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes, we found that the levels of 5 of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were over-expressed and one under-expressed in multi-hormone deficient hypophysectomized rats of both sexes. Only 3 genes fulfilled the stability criteria determined by geNorm and NormFinder as suitable housekeeping genes. Normalizing qRT-PCR data with either of these 3 genes alone, the geometric means of any...

  16. BCL10高表达与MALT淋巴瘤发生分子机制的探讨%Over-expressed BCL10 and mechanism of MALT lymphoma generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙闽; 陈彦; 闫卓红; 张权庚

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular mechanism of BCL10 over-expression on malignant phenotype of MALT lymphoma by using EμSR-BCLlO transgenic mice model. METHOD: Precursor of MALT lymphoma-marginal B cells were found highly expanded in EμSR-BCL10 transgenic mice. Signature markers for these cells were IgM+ / CD21hugh/CD23low, and MZ B cells in transgenic mice were evaluated by staining of these three anti-bodies followed by flow cytometry analysis. Those cells were also isolated by CD43 microbeads followed by CD23 microbeads double negative selection, and proliferation assays were performed on these separated cells. In vivo anti-apoptotic effect to MZ B cells of o-ver-expressed BCL10 were evaluated by injection of anti-IgM through tail vein. RESULTS: MZ B cell expanded in transgenic mice in a dose-dependent manner with BCL10 protein manner. Proliferation of MZ B cells from transgenic mice showed 2 - 5 times higher than those from FVB mice at the stimulation of anti-IgM, but no significant differences were observed on LPS and PMA + Ionomycin stimulation. Anti-IgM could induce apoptosis to MZ B cells of FVB mice but not transgenic mice in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Over-expression of BCL10 causes MZ B cell expansion in a dose-dependent manner, which exerts proliferation-promoting and anti-apoptotic effects through BCR receptor pathway of marginal zone B cells. Our results may explain high-grade MLAT lymphoma malignant phenotypes.%目的:运用EμSR-BCL10转基因小鼠模型研究BCL10高表达致黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)淋巴瘤的分子机制.方法:用IgM+/CD21 lugh/CD23 low荧光标记的抗体染色后进行流式细胞仪分析MZ B细胞;用CD43和CD23磁珠抗体双阴性分离方法获得MZ B细胞并用于体外增殖刺激实验;使用anti-IgM体内注射法研究BCL10体内抗凋亡.结果:MZB细胞增生与BCL10蛋白表达水平存在量效关系.细胞增殖实验结果显示,anti-IgM刺激时转基因小鼠的MZB细胞比FVB野生型

  17. The expression of TRMT2A, a novel cell cycle regulated protein, identifies a subset of breast cancer patients with HER2 over-expression that are at an increased risk of recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubbs Raymond

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over-expression of HER2 in a subset of breast cancers (HER2+ is associated with high histological grade and aggressive clinical course. Despite these distinctive features, the differences in response of HER2+ patients to both adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (e.g. trastuzumab suggests that unrecognized biologic and clinical diversity is confounding treatment strategies. Furthermore, the small but established risk of cardiac morbidity with trastuzumab therapy compels efforts towards the identification of biomarkers that might help stratify patients. Methods A single institution tissue array cohort assembled at the Clearview Cancer Institute of Huntsville (CCIH was screened by immunohistochemistry staining using a large number of novel and commercially available antibodies to identify those with a univariate association with clinical outcome in HER2+ patients. Staining with antibody directed at TRMT2A was found to be strongly associated with outcome in HER2+ patients. This association with outcome was tested in two independent validation cohorts; an existing staining dataset derived from tissue assembled at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF, and in a new retrospective study performed by staining archived paraffin blocks available at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI. Results TRMT2A staining showed a strong correlation with likelihood of recurrence at five years in 67 HER2+ patients from the CCIH discovery cohort (HR 7.0; 95% CI 2.4 to 20.1, p HER2+ patients from the CCF cohort (HR 3.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 10.2, p Conclusions Studies from three independent single institution cohorts support TRMT2A protein expression as a biomarker of increased risk of recurrence in HER2+ breast cancer patients. These results suggest that TRMT2A expression should be further studied in the clinical trial setting to explore its predictive power for response to adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy in combination with HER2 targeted

  18. Neurotensin (NTS) and its receptor (NTSR1) causes EGFR, HER2 and HER3 over-expression and their autocrine/paracrine activation in lung tumors, confirming responsiveness to erlotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamad; Wu, Zherui; Dupouy, Sandra; Lupo, Audrey Mansuet; Mourra, Najat; Takahashi, Takashi; Fléjou, Jean François; Trédaniel, Jean; Régnard, Jean François; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Forgez, Patricia

    2014-09-30

    Alterations in the signaling pathways of epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs) are associated with tumor aggressiveness. Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) are up regulated in 60% of lung cancers. In a previous clinical study, NTSR1 overexpression was shown to predict a poor prognosis for 5 year overall survival in a selected population of stage I lung adenocarcinomas treated by surgery alone. In a second study, shown here, the frequent and high expression of NTSR1 was correlated with a pejorative prognosis in 389 patients with stage I to III lung adenocarcinoma, and was an independent prognosis marker. Interactions between NTS and NTSR1 induce pro-oncogenic biological effects associated with neoplastic processes and tumor progression. Here we highlight the cellular mechanisms activated by Neurotensin (NTS) and its high affinity receptor (NTSR1) contributing to lung cancer cell aggressiveness. We show that the NTS autocrine and/or paracrine regulation causes EGFR, HER2, and HER3 over-expression and activation in lung tumor cells. The EGFR and HER3 autocrine activation is mediated by MMP1 activation and EGF "like" ligands (HB-EGF, Neuregulin 1) release. By establishing autocrine and/or paracrine NTS regulation, we show that tumor growth is modulated according to NTS expression, with a low growth rate in those tumors that do not express NTS. Accordingly, xenografted tumors expressing NTS and NTSR1 showed a positive response to erlotinib, whereas tumors void of NTSR1 expression had no detectable response. This is consistent with the presence of a NTS autocrine loop, leading to the sustained activation of EGFR and responsible for cancer aggressiveness. We propose the use of NTS/NTSR1 tumor expression, as a biomarker for the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients lacking EGFR mutation.

  19. Effects of twist over-expression on the transdifferentiation of human peritoneal mesothelial cells%Twist过表达在人腹膜间皮细胞转分化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠香; 孙世仁; 何丽洁; 杜锐; 娄未娟; 王汉民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of twist over-expression on the transdifferentiation of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs).Methods The HPMCs were treated separately with 50mmol/L (high glucose group) and 5.6mmol/L (control group) Dglucose for 48h.The protein expression of twist, E-cadherin, Fsp1 and α-SMA were detected by Western blotting.The mRNA and protein expression of twist, E-cadherin, Fsp1 and α-SMA were tested by qRT-PCR and Western blotting after transfecting the plasmids pcDNA3.1-twist and empty vector pcDNA3.1 into HPMCs with Lipofectamine 2000 in vitro.The protein expression of twist, E-cadherin,Fsp1 and α-SMA were tested by Western blotting after silencing the twist expression by siRNA, empty vector pSlience and the parental cells.Results Comparel with control group, the expression of twist, Fsp1 and α-SMA increased, and of E-cadherin decreased in high glucose group (P<0.05).Compared with the empty vector group, after the over-expression of twist in HPMCs, the expression of Ecadherin decreased, and of Fsp1 and α-SMA increased in high glucose group (P<0.05).Silencing the twist expression by siRNA, the expression of E-cadherin increased and of α-SMA and Fsp1 decreased in siTwist transfacted cells compared with pSlicencer-transfacted cell and parental cells (P<0.05), and finally reversed the phenotype of MMT.Conclusion The over-expression of twist may promote the mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition of HPMCs.%目的 探讨twist在人腹膜间皮细胞(HPMCs)转分化中的作用.方法 取HPMCs细胞,分别用50mmol/L右旋葡萄糖(高糖组)和5.6mmol/L右旋葡萄糖(对照组)刺激48h,采用Western blotting检测twist、E-钙黏素(E-cadherin)、成纤维细胞特异性蛋白1(Fspl)和α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)的表达情况.另采用质粒pcDNA3.1-twist(pcDNA3.1-twist组)和空载体pcDNA3.1(空载体组)分别转染常规培养的HPMCs,使HPMCs过表达twist后,采用qRT-PCR、Western blotting

  20. 颗粒结合型淀粉合成酶过量表达显著提高黄芪毛状根中黄芪甲苷含量%Enhanced Astragaloside IV Biosynthesis in Hairy Roots of Astragalus Membranceus by Over-Expression of Granule Bound Starch Synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓俊; 杜旻; 王子艳; 胡之璧

    2012-01-01

    Astragaloside Ⅳ (ASI) is one of the bioactive saponins isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus.Due to the limited knowledge of ASI metabolic pathway,it is unfeasible currently to increase its production in hairy roots of A.membranaceus by genetic manipulation of enzymes directly involved in the synthesis of agloycone of the molecule.However considering the glycosyl group,alteration of glucose influx might enhance the final transformation of ASI.To testify the hypothesis,granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS),one of the enzymes involved in ADP-glucose metabolism,was over-expressed in the hairy roots under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter.Molecular identification,enzyme activity assay,and PAS staining were used,respectively,to confirm the successful transformation and expression of GBSS.HPLC analysis was conducted to assess the effect of transformation on ASI biosythesis.Transgenic hairy roots differed from control roots in terms of phenotype.PCR results showed that rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes integrated into genomes of the transgenic hairy roots.Further southern blotting and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the integration of GBSS into hairy roots at both DNA and mRNA levels.GBSS enzyme activity assay suggested the successful expression of the enzyme.Transgenic hairy root lines had a 21.8-fold increase in enzyme activities on the average.PAS staining showed that polysaccharide components had been elevated significantly in the transgenic lines.Compared with control lines,transgenic hairy roots had accumulated 50% more biomass.Meanwhile,production of ASI was approximately 4-fold increased and reached 14.44 mg/g (w/w).These results indicated that over-expression of GBSS regulated ASI biosynthesis in hairy roots of A.membranaceus and possibly by influencing the metabolic influx of ADP-glucose and driving it towards the accumulation of ASI.The present study provides an alternative approach to modulate saponin productivity in plants by

  1. Targeted Gene Replacement in Fungal Pathogens via Agrobacterium tumefaciens- Mediated Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Frandsen, Mette; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequence data on fungal pathogens provide the opportunity to carry out a reverse genetics approach to uncover gene function. Efficient methods for targeted genome modifications such as knockout and in locus over-expression are in high demand. Here we describe two efficient single-step clon...

  2. RASSF1C modulates the expression of a stem cell renewal gene, PIWIL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Mark E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RASSF1A and RASSF1C are two major isoforms encoded by the Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1 gene through alternative promoter selection and mRNA splicing. RASSF1A is a well established tumor suppressor gene. Unlike RASSF1A, RASSF1C appears to have growth promoting actions in lung cancer. In this article, we report on the identification of novel RASSF1C target genes in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Over-expression and siRNA techniques were used to alter RASSF1C expression in human lung cancer cells, and Affymetrix-microarray study was conducted using NCI-H1299 cells over-expressing RASSF1C to identify RASSF1C target genes. Results The microarray study intriguingly shows that RASSF1C modulates the expression of a number of genes that are involved in cancer development, cell growth and proliferation, cell death, and cell cycle. We have validated the expression of some target genes using qRT-PCR. We demonstrate that RASSF1C over-expression increases, and silencing of RASSF1C decreases, the expression of PIWIL1 gene in NSCLC cells using qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and Western blot analysis. We also show that RASSF1C over-expression induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in lung cancer cells, and inhibition of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway suppresses the expression of PIWIL1 gene expression, suggesting that RASSF1C may exert its activities on some target genes such as PIWIL1 through the activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Also, PIWIL1 expression is elevated in lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung epithelial cells. Conclusions Taken together, our findings provide significant data to propose a model for investigating the role of RASSF1C/PIWIL1 proteins in initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  3. Clinicopathologic features of 112 cases with mantle cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Mei Zhou; Gang Chen; Xiong-Wei Zheng; Wei-Feng Zhu; Bao-Zhen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:hTis study aims to explore the clinicopathologic features of 112 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Methods:Data from 112 MCL cases were collected, and immunohistochemical assay was conducted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detected a break in the CCND1 gene. hTe t-test was used in the statistical analysis. Results:All tumor cells in the 112 cases expressed B cell-related antigen, including 1 blastoid subtype and 1 polymorphic subtype. Among all cases, 106 expressed CD5 and 104 expressed cyclin D1. A break in the CCND1 gene was not found in 3 cases with CD5-MCL. IgH/CCND1 polyploid was observed in 2 classic cases. Conclusion:MCL is a type of special immunophenotypic B-cell lymphoma. hTe prognoses of blastoid and polymorphic subtypes are poor. Special subtypes should be classiifed during diagnosis.

  4. Efficient four fragment cloning for the construction of vectors for targeted gene replacement in filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen Matilde B; Andersson Jens A; Frandsen Rasmus JN; Giese Henriette

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid increase in whole genome fungal sequence information allows large scale functional analyses of target genes. Efficient transformation methods to obtain site-directed gene replacement, targeted over-expression by promoter replacement, in-frame epitope tagging or fusion of coding sequences with fluorescent markers such as GFP are essential for this process. Construction of vectors for these experiments depends on the directional cloning of two homologous recombinat...

  5. Tetracycline-inducible system for regulation of skeletal muscle-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Mischala A.; Bales, Mark A.; Fought, Amber N.; Rosburg, Kristopher C.; Munger, Stephanie J.; Antin, Parker B.

    2003-01-01

    Tightly regulated control of over-expression is often necessary to study one aspect or time point of gene function and, in transgenesis, may help to avoid lethal effects and complications caused by ubiquitous over-expression. We have utilized the benefits of an optimized tet-on system and a modified muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter to generate a skeletal muscle-specific, doxycycline (Dox) controlled over-expression system in transgenic mice. A DNA construct was generated in which the codon optimized reverse tetracycline transactivator (rtTA) was placed under control of a skeletal muscle-specific version of the mouse MCK promoter. Transgenic mice containing this construct expressed rtTA almost exclusively in skeletal muscles. These mice were crossed to a second transgenic line containing a bi-directional promoter centered on a tet responder element driving both a luciferase reporter gene and a tagged gene of interest; in this case the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Compound hemizygous mice showed high level, Dox dependent muscle-specific luciferase activity often exceeding 10,000-fold over non-muscle tissues of the same mouse. Western and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated similar Dox dependent muscle-specific induction of the tagged calpastatin protein. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the tet-on system to provide a tightly regulated over-expression system in adult skeletal muscle. The MCKrtTA transgenic lines can be combined with other transgenic responder lines for skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of any target gene of interest.

  6. Increased resistance to 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) in Aspergillus niger by coexpression of the Penicillium itulicum eburicol 14 alpha-demethylase (cyp51) and the A-niger cytochromeP450 reductase (cprA) genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den J.M.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Waard, de M.A.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Gorcom, van R.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe the effects of over-expression of the Penicillium italicum gene encoding eburicol 14α-demethylase (cyp51), in Aspergillus niger strains with one or multiple copies of the gene encoding cytochrome P450 reductase (cprA), on the eburicol 14α-demethylase activity. Eburicol 14α-

  7. Ubiquitous Over-Expression of Chromatin Remodeling Factor SRG3 Ameliorates the T Cell-Mediated Exacerbation of EAE by Modulating the Phenotypes of both Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Won Lee; Hyun Jung Park; Sung Ho Jeon; Changjin Lee; Rho Hyun Seong; Se-Ho Park; Seokmann Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although SWI3-related gene (SRG3), a chromatin remodeling factor, is critical for various biological processes including early embryogenesis and thymocyte development, it is unclear whether SRG3 is involved in the differentiation of CD4+ T cells, the key mediator of adaptive immune responses. Because it is known that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development is determined by the activation of CD4+ T helper cells, here, we investigated the role of SRG3 in EAE development usin...

  8. Dimer of the peptide cycle (Ar-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) radiolabeled with 99mTc for the integrin s over-expression image: formulation, biokinetics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In breast cancer, α(v)β(3) and/or α(v)β(5) integrin s are over-expressed in both endothelial and tumour cells. Radiolabeled peptides based on the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence are radiopharmaceuticals with high affinity and selectivity for those integrin s. The RGD-dimer peptide (E-[c(RGDfK)]2) radiolabeled with 99mTc has been reported as a radiopharmaceutical with 10-fold higher affinity for the α(v)β(3) integrin as compared to the RGD-monomer. EDDA (Ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid) is a hydrophilic molecule that may favours renal excretion when used as coligand in the 99mTc labelling of HYNIC-peptides and can easily be formulated in a lyophilized kit. Aim: Establish a biokinetic model for 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from lyophilized kits and evaluate the dosimetry as breast cancer imaging agent. Methods: 99mTc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer ph 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation containing E-[c(RGDfK)]2, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were carried out by size-exclusion HPLC. In-vitro cell uptake was tested using breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in MCF7 tumour-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from seven healthy women were acquired at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 administration obtained with radiochemical purities of >94 %. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. Each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 time-activity curves in each organ in order to adjust the biokinetic model and to calculate the

  9. Biofuel Potential of Plants Transformed Genetically With NAC Family Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana eSingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NAC genes contribute to enhance survivability of plants under conditions of environmental stress and in secondary growth of the plants, thereby building biomass. Thus, genetic transformation of plants using NAC genes provides a possibility to tailor made biofuel plants. Over-expression studies have indicated that NAC family genes can provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, either by physiological or biochemical changes at the cellular level, or by affecting visible morphological and anatomical changes, for example by development of lateral roots in a number of plants. Over-expression of these genes also work as triggers for development of secondary cell walls. In our laboratory, we have observed a NAC gene from Lepidium latifolium contributing to both enhanced biomass as well as cold stress tolerance of model plants tobacco. Thus, we have reviewed all the developments of genetic engineering using NAC genes which could enhance the traits required for biofuel plants, either by enhancing the stress tolerance or by enhancing the biomass of the plants. KeywordsNAC, Genetically engineered plants, Abiotic stress tolerance, Secondary growth, Cell wall synthesis, Biomass

  10. A novel neuron-enriched protein SDIM1 is down regulated in Alzheimer's brains and attenuates cell death induced by DNAJB4 over-expression in neuro-progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Joy X

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular changes in multiple biological processes contribute to the development of chronic neurodegeneration such as late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. To discover how these changes are reflected at the level of gene expression, we used a subtractive transcription-based amplification of mRNA procedure to identify novel genes that have altered expression levels in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Among the genes altered in expression level in AD brains was a transcript encoding a novel protein, SDIM1, that contains 146 amino acids, including a typical signal peptide and two transmembrane domains. Here we examined its biochemical properties and putative roles in neuroprotection/neurodegeneration. Results QRT-PCR analysis of additional AD and control post-mortem human brains showed that the SDIM1 transcript was indeed significantly down regulated in all AD brains. SDIM1 is more abundant in NT2 neurons than astrocytes and present throughout the cytoplasm and neural processes, but not in the nuclei. In NT2 neurons, it is highly responsive to stress conditions mimicking insults that may cause neurodegeneration in AD brains. For example, SDIM1 was significantly down regulated 2 h after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, though had recovered 16 h later, and also appeared significantly up regulated compared to untreated NT2 neurons. Overexpression of SDIM1 in neuro-progenitor cells improved cells' ability to survive after injurious insults and its downregulation accelerated cell death induced by OGD. Yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation approaches revealed, both in vitro and in vivo, an interaction between SDIM1 and DNAJB4, a heat shock protein hsp40 homolog, recently known as an enhancer of apoptosis that also interacts with the mu opioid receptor in human brain. Overexpression of DNAJB4 alone significantly reduced cell viability and SDIM1 co-overexpression was capable of attenuating the cell death

  11. Absence of repellents in Ustilago maydis induces genes encoding small secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teertstra, Wieke R; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-08-01

    The rep1 gene of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis encodes a pre-pro-protein that is processed in the secretory pathway into 11 peptides. These so-called repellents form amphipathic amyloid fibrils at the surface of aerial hyphae. A SG200 strain in which the rep1 gene is inactivated (∆rep1 strain) is affected in aerial hyphae formation. We here assessed changes in global gene expression as a consequence of the inactivation of the rep1 gene. Microarray analysis revealed that only 31 genes in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain had a fold change in expression of ≥2. Twenty-two of these genes were up-regulated and half of them encode small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown functions. Seven of the SSP genes and two other genes that are over-expressed in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain encode proteins that can be classified as secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SCRPs). Interestingly, most of the SCRPs are predicted to form amyloids. The SCRP gene um00792 showed the highest up-regulation in the ∆rep1 strain. Using GFP as a reporter, it was shown that this gene is over-expressed in the layer of hyphae at the medium-air interface. Taken together, it is concluded that inactivation of rep1 hardly affects the expression profile of U. maydis, despite the fact that the mutant strain has a strong reduced ability to form aerial hyphae.

  12. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP) suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95): African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls) nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants). We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26). A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other studies. Our findings suggest that common coding

  13. Screening and association testing of common coding variation in steroid hormone receptor co-activator and co-repressor genes in relation to breast cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stallcup Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a limited number of studies have performed comprehensive investigations of coding variation in relation to breast cancer risk. Given the established role of estrogens in breast cancer, we hypothesized that coding variation in steroid receptor coactivator and corepressor genes may alter inter-individual response to estrogen and serve as markers of breast cancer risk. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of 17 genes (EP300, CCND1, NME1, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3, SMARCA4, SMARCA2, CARM1, FOXA1, MPG, NCOR1, NCOR2, CALCOCO1, PRMT1, PPARBP and CREBBP suggested to influence transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors in a multiethnic panel of women with advanced breast cancer (n = 95: African Americans, Latinos, Japanese, Native Hawaiians and European Americans. Association testing of validated coding variants was conducted in a breast cancer case-control study (1,612 invasive cases and 1,961 controls nested in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for allelic effects in ethnic-pooled analyses as well as in subgroups defined by disease stage and steroid hormone receptor status. We also investigated effect modification by established breast cancer risk factors that are associated with steroid hormone exposure. Results We identified 45 coding variants with frequencies ≥ 1% in any one ethnic group (43 non-synonymous variants. We observed nominally significant positive associations with two coding variants in ethnic-pooled analyses (NCOR2: His52Arg, OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.05; CALCOCO1: Arg12His, OR = 2.29; 95% CI, 1.00–5.26. A small number of variants were associated with risk in disease subgroup analyses and we observed no strong evidence of effect modification by breast cancer risk factors. Based on the large number of statistical tests conducted in this study, the nominally significant associations that we observed may be due to chance, and will need to be confirmed in other

  14. 胃癌17号染色体异倍体改变及TP53和拓扑异构酶Ⅱα蛋白过表达与病理诊断的相关性%Correlation between aneuploidy of chromosome 17,over-expression of TP53 and TOP Ⅱα,and the clinicopathoiogical features and diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁海珍; 吴玉鹏; 罗巍; 韩亚玲; 蔡岩; 徐昕; 梁晶; 刘尚梅; 王明荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the markers which can be used in auxiliary diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC),and their correlation with their clinicopathological features.Methods 122 surgical specimens including 99 gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC),18 adjacent mucosa and 5 distal normal mucosa were collected,and analyzed by in situ hybridization (FISH).The centromere probe cen17,specific for chromosome 17,which was reported to be frequently amplified in GAC,was selected for the FISH analysis.The clinicopathological features of the 99 GAC cases were reviewed,and the level of TP53 and TOP Ⅱα gene expression,located in chromosome 17,was detected using tissue microarray (TMA),compared with that of corresponding adjacent normal mucosa.Data were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 for Windows.Results The statistical results of FISH and TMA showed that 58.6% of cen17 in tumor tissues were aneuploid,and 45.5% of TP53 and 84.7% of TOP Ⅱα were over-expressed in GAC samples,significantly higher than those in non-tumor gastric mucosa (0,12.1% and 14.1%,respectively) (P =0.000).58 GAC tissues were aneuploid of cen 17,including 26 cases TP53-positive and 49 cases TOP Ⅱα-positive.The expression of TP53 in non-tumor gastric mucosa with dysplasia was significantly higher than that in the mucosa without dysplasia (P=0.009).Aneuploidy of cen17 was more frequent in grade 1 or 2 than in grade 3 GAC(P<0.05).Higher frequency of aneuploidy of cen17 was also observed in the gastric cardia than in pylorus (P<0.05),while no correlation was found between aneuploidy of cen17 and age,sex of patients,lymph node metastasis,and clinical stage of tumors.Over-expression of TP53 protein was associated with the size of tumors (P<0.05).In addition,a negative correlation was observed between over-expression of TOP Ⅱα and lymph node metastasis (LNM) as well as TNM classification (P<0.05).Conclusion Detection of aneuploidy of cen17 as well as over-expression of TP53 and

  15. Combination of Aβ Secretion and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer-Like Cell Line Leads to the Over-Expression of the Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins DDB2 and XPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Forestier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Repair of oxidative DNA damage, particularly Base Excision Repair (BER, impairment is often associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Here, we aimed at investigating the complete Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER, a DNA repair pathway involved in the removal of bulky DNA adducts, status in an Alzheimer-like cell line. The level of DNA damage was quantified using mass spectrometry, NER gene expression was assessed by qPCR, and the NER protein activity was analysed through a modified version of the COMET assay. Interestingly, we found that in the presence of the Amyloid β peptide (Aβ, NER factors were upregulated at the mRNA level and that NER capacities were also specifically increased following oxidative stress. Surprisingly, NER capacities were not differentially improved following a typical NER-triggering of ultraviolet C (UVC stress. Oxidative stress generates a differential and specific DNA damage response in the presence of Aβ. We hypothesized that the release of NER components such as DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2 and Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C protein (XPC following oxidative stress might putatively involve their apoptotic role rather than DNA repair function.

  16. 过表达巨噬细胞移动抑制因子对子宫颈癌SiHa细胞中白细胞介素8及基质金属蛋白酶9表达的影响%Effects of over-expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor on the expression of interleukin-8 and martix metalloproteinase-9 of human cervical cancer SiHa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红霞; 吴素慧; 贾睿; 尚海霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) overexpression on the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8),martix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion of human cervical cancer SiHa cells.Methods Chemical synthesis MIF eDNA gene,designed primer sequence including XhoI and BamHI enzyme sites,MIF gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR),constructed eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1/MIF and transfected into SiHa cells using Lipofectamine and won over-expression of MIF.The expression of MIF in supernatant fluid was detected by ELISA,the expression of MIF,IL-8,MMP-9 in both mRNA and protein levels were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively.The effect of over-expressed MIF on migration was detected by Boyden small chamber.Results The expression of protein in supernatant fluid transfected with pEGFP-N1/MIF was significantly increased (Fgroup =8267.564,P < 0.01),the expression of MIF,IL-8,MMP-9 in both mRNA and protein in SiHa cells transfected with pEGFP-N1/MIF were significantly increased (F values were 7019.619,2148.094,3303.540,1565.114,2807.300,523.466,P < 0.01),and there was a positive correlation among MIF,IL-8,MMP-9 expression in both mRNA and protein (r values were 0.865,0.895,0.934,0.908,P < 0.01).Invasion ability in SiHa cells transfected with pEGFP-N1/MIF was obviously increased (F=3430.898,P< 0.01).Conclusion The over-expression MIF gene in SiHa cells can promote cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis of ability,which could be associated with the upregulation of IL-8 and MMP-9 expression.%目的 研究过表达巨噬细胞移动抑制因子(MIF)对子宫颈癌SiHa细胞中白细胞介素8(IL-8)、基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)表达及细胞侵袭迁移能力的影响.方法 化学合成MIF cDNA,设计含Xhol和BamHI酶切位点的引物序列,利用聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法 扩增MIF基因片段,构建人pEGFP-N1/MIF真核表达载体,

  17. Effects of an inducible anti-sense c-myc gene transfer in a drug-resistant human small-cell-lung-carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waardenburg, R C; Meijer, C; Burger, H; Nooter, K; De Vries, E G; Mulder, N H; de Jong, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Small-cell-lung-cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid development of resistance to cytotoxic agents, such as cisplatin (cDDP) and anthracyclines. c-myc over-expression is one of the reported genetic alterations in this tumor. Amplification of the c-myc gene in this and other cancers is often corre

  18. Establishing quiescence in human bone marrow stem cells leads to enhanced osteoblast marker expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda; Rumman, Mohammad; Kassem, Moustapha;

    expression profiling of the cells demonstrated down-regulation of cyclin (CCNA2, CCND1, CCNE1, CCNB1) and proliferation markers (Ki67) markers during G0 and up-regulation of the osteogenic genes RUNX2 and OPN. RT-PCR analysis of osteogenic differentiation of cells post G0 demonstrated an increase...

  19. Transgenic mice with mammary gland targeted expression of human cortactin do not develop (pre-malignant) breast tumors: studies in MMTV-cortactin and MMTV-cortactin/-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, A.G.S.H.; van Bragt, M.P.A.; Schuuring-Scholtes, E.; van der Ploeg, J.C.M.; Van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Kluin, P.M.; Schuuring, E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In human breast cancers, amplification of chromosome 11q13 correlates with lymph node metastasis and increased mortality. To date, two genes located within this amplicon, CCND1 and EMS1, were considered to act as oncogenes, because overexpression of both proteins, respectively cyclin D1

  20. Transgenic mice with mammary gland targeted expression of human cortactin do not develop (pre-malignant) breast tumors: studies in MMTV-cortactin and MMTV-cortactin/-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, A.G. van; Bragt, M.P. van; Schuuring-Scholtes, E.; Ploeg, J.C. van der; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Kluin, P.M.; Schuuring, E.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In human breast cancers, amplification of chromosome 11q13 correlates with lymph node metastasis and increased mortality. To date, two genes located within this amplicon, CCND1 and EMS1, were considered to act as oncogenes, because overexpression of both proteins, respectively cyclin D1

  1. Transgenic mice with mammary gland targeted expression of human cortactin do not develop (pre-malignant) breast tumors : studies in MMTV-cortactin and MMTV-cortactin/-cyclin D1 bitransgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, AGSH; van Bragt, MPA; Scholtes, ES; van der Ploeg, JCM; van Krieken, JHJM; Kluin, PM; Schuuring, E

    2006-01-01

    Background: In human breast cancers, amplification of chromosome 11q13 correlates with lymph node metastasis and increased mortality. To date, two genes located within this amplicon, CCND1 and EMS1, were considered to act as oncogenes, because overexpression of both proteins, respectively cyclin D1

  2. Immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

  3. Pharmacogenetic profiling and cetuximab outcome in patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Laetitia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the influence of 8 germinal polymorphisms of candidate genes potentially related to EGFR signalling (EGFR, EGF, CCND1 or antibody-directed cell cytotoxicity (FCGR2A and FCGR3A on outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy. Methods Fifty-eight advanced CRC patients treated with cetuximab-irinotecan salvage therapy between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed (mean age 60; 50 PS 0-1. The following polymorphisms were analyzed on blood DNA: EGFR (CA repeats in intron 1, -216 G > T, -191C > A, R497K, EGF (A61G, CCND1 (A870G, FCGR2A (R131H, FCGR3A (F158V. Statistical analyses were conducted on the total population and on patients with wt KRas tumors. All SNPs were considered as ternary variables (wt/wt vs wt/mut vs mut/mut, with the exception of -191C > A EGFR polymorphism (AA patient merged with CA patients. Results Analysis of skin toxicity as a function of EGFR intron 1 polymorphism showed a tendency for higher toxicity in patients with a low number of CA-repeats (p = 0.058. CCND1 A870G polymorphism was significantly related to clinical response, both in the entire population and in KRas wt patients, with the G allele being associated with a lack of response. In wt KRas patients, time to progression (TTP was significantly related to EGFR -191C > A polymorphism with a longer TTP in CC patients as compared to others, and to CCND1 A870G polymorphism with the G allele being associated with a shorter TTP; a multivariate analysis including these two polymorphisms only retained CCND1 polymorphism. Overall survival was significantly related to CCND1 polymorphism with a shorter survival in patients bearing the G allele, and to FCGR3A F158V polymorphism with a shorter survival in VV patients (in the entire population and in KRas wt patients. FCGR3A F158V and CCND1 A870G polymorphisms were significant independent predictors of overall survival. Conclusions Present original data obtained in wt KRas

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in two new human bladder carcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To screen and identify differentially expressed genes in two new human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, BLS-211 and BLX. Methods Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to createa subtracted library, and clones were sequenced. Results Totally 13 over-expressed genes in BLX and 9 in BLS-211 cells were obtained, respectively. Among them, 18 were known genes and 4 were new ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tag), and were collected by GenBank dbEST database (The access number was EB390424-7). Conc...

  5. Gene-based and semantic structure of the Gene Ontology as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, Claudia; Tumminello, Michele; Miccichè, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The last decade has seen the advent and consolidation of ontology based tools for the identification and biological interpretation of classes of genes, such as the Gene Ontology. The Gene Ontology (GO) is constantly evolving over time. The information accumulated time-by-time and included in the GO is encoded in the definition of terms and in the setting up of semantic relations amongst terms. Here we investigate the Gene Ontology from a complex network perspective. We consider the semantic network of terms naturally associated with the semantic relationships provided by the Gene Ontology consortium. Moreover, the GO is a natural example of bipartite network of terms and genes. Here we are interested in studying the properties of the projected network of terms, i.e. a gene-based weighted network of GO terms, in which a link between any two terms is set if at least one gene is annotated in both terms. One aim of the present paper is to compare the structural properties of the semantic and the gene-based network. The relative importance of terms is very similar in the two networks, but the community structure changes. We show that in some cases GO terms that appear to be distinct from a semantic point of view are instead connected, and appear in the same community when considering their gene content. The identification of such gene-based communities of terms might therefore be the basis of a simple protocol aiming at improving the semantic structure of GO. Information about terms that share large gene content might also be important from a biomedical point of view, as it might reveal how genes over-expressed in a certain term also affect other biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components not directly linked according to GO semantics.

  6. Functional Analysis of Esterase TCE2 Gene from Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) involved in Acaricide Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Li Shi; Peng Wei; Xiangzun Wang; Guangmao Shen; Jiao Zhang; Wei Xiao; Zhifeng Xu; Qiang Xu; Lin He

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest of crops and vegetables worldwide, and it has the ability to develop resistance against acaricides rapidly. Our previous study identified an esterase gene (designated TCE2) over-expressed in resistant mites. To investigate this gene’s function in resistance, the expression levels of TCE2 in susceptible, abamectin-, fenpropathrin-, and cyflumetofen-resistant strains were knocked down (65.02%, 63.14%, 57.82%, and 63.99%, res...

  7. HSP70 Over Expression Protected Neurocyte in the Area of Dentate Gyrus(DG)of Rat's Hippocampus From Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis%HSP70高表达保护低氧诱导的大鼠海马DG区神经细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芳; 闫文; 杨银书; 卢娟; 徐强; 董大海; 徐文; 高琨; 高丽莉; 侯顺利; 左晶; 刘红

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of the over expression of HSP70 on neurocyte in the area of dentate gyrus(DG)of rat's hippocampus in hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Methods: Cells were either heated in 41℃ water for 2 hours or affected with 10μmol/L sodium arsenite for 18h to induced the over expression of HSP70. While the control cells are added HSP70 antisense oligomer which reduced the HSP70 expression or not induced before the cells heated. Then the cells were incubated in hypoxia. Fragmentation of DNA was quantities, and HSP70 was analyzed at various times by the Western blot. Results: Both heat and sodium arsenite can induce the over expression of HSP70, which can significantly decreased hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Introduction of the HSP70 antisense oligomer prior to heating reserved the protective effect of HSP70. Conclusions: The over expression of HSP70 can protect the pre-blood cells from radiation-induced apoptosis.%目的:研究诱导HSP70高表达对低氧引起的大鼠海马DG区神经细胞凋亡的保护作用.方法:大鼠海马DG区神经细胞分别在41℃温浴2h和加入砷酸钠诱导HSP70高表达.对照低氧而不预热,并用HSP70反义寡核苷酸链抑制HSP70合成,观察HSP70与低氧大鼠海马DG区神经细胞凋亡的关系.DNA碎片法检测细胞凋亡,Western Blotting检测HSP70.结果:预热和砷酸钠都可以诱导细胞HSP70高表达;HSP70高表达可以明显减少低氧诱导的细胞凋亡.在预热前导入HSP70反义核酸,可以降低HSP70抑制细胞凋亡的作用.结论:HSP70高表达可以保护细胞由于低氧引起的细胞凋亡.

  8. Evaluation of efflux pump gene expression among drug susceptible and drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan Yamchi, Jalil; Haeili, Mehri; Gizaw Feyisa, Seifu; Kazemian, Hossein; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Zahednamazi, Fatemeh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Absence of mutations within the genes encoding drug targets in some phenotypically drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests possible involvement of alternative mechanisms such as over-expression of efflux pumps. We investigated the expression level of Rv1410c, Rv2459, Rv1218c and Rv1273c efflux pumps gene by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in 31 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Susceptibility to first-line drugs was performed using the proportion method. Twenty one isolates were characterized with drug resistance (DR), and among them 12 showed a significantly elevated level of expression (>4 fold) for at least one of the studied genes encoding for efflux pumps. Point mutations in the katG (codons 315 or 335) and rpoB (codons 456 and 441) genes were found in 42.85% and 66.6% of drug resistant isolates, respectively. Only one isolate showed mutation at position -15 of the inhA promoter region. Among the 7 isolates (33.33%) which had no mutation in the studied regions of drug target genes, 5 isolates showed over-expression for efflux pumps. Our results demonstrated that over-expression of efflux pumps can contribute to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  9. A gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins is predictive of oral carcinoma recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, which is mainly due to recurrence leading to treatment failure and patient death. Histological status of surgical margins is a currently available assessment for recurrence risk in OSCC; however histological status does not predict recurrence, even in patients with histologically negative margins. Therefore, molecular analysis of histologically normal resection margins and the corresponding OSCC may aid in identifying a gene signature predictive of recurrence. We used a meta-analysis of 199 samples (OSCCs and normal oral tissues) from five public microarray datasets, in addition to our microarray analysis of 96 OSCCs and histologically normal margins from 24 patients, to train a gene signature for recurrence. Validation was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using 136 samples from an independent cohort of 30 patients. We identified 138 significantly over-expressed genes (> 2-fold, false discovery rate of 0.01) in OSCC. By penalized likelihood Cox regression, we identified a 4-gene signature with prognostic value for recurrence in our training set. This signature comprised the invasion-related genes MMP1, COL4A1, P4HA2, and THBS2. Over-expression of this 4-gene signature in histologically normal margins was associated with recurrence in our training cohort (p = 0.0003, logrank test) and in our independent validation cohort (p = 0.04, HR = 6.8, logrank test). Gene expression alterations occur in histologically normal margins in OSCC. Over-expression of the 4-gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins was validated and highly predictive of recurrence in an independent patient cohort. Our findings may be applied to develop a molecular test, which would be clinically useful to help predict which patients are at a higher risk of local recurrence

  10. Identification of target genes for wild type and truncated HMGA2 in mesenchymal stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HMGA2 gene, coding for an architectural transcription factor involved in mesenchymal embryogenesis, is frequently deranged by translocation and/or amplification in mesenchymal tumours, generally leading to over-expression of shortened transcripts and a truncated protein. To identify pathways that are affected by sarcoma-associated variants of HMGA2, we have over-expressed wild type and truncated HMGA2 protein in an immortalized mesenchymal stem-like cell (MSC) line, and investigated the localisation of these proteins and their effects on differentiation and gene expression patterns. Over-expression of both transgenes blocked adipogenic differentiation of these cells, and microarray analysis revealed clear changes in gene expression patterns, more pronounced for the truncated protein. Most of the genes that showed altered expression in the HMGA2-overexpressing cells fell into the group of NF-κB-target genes, suggesting a central role for HMGA2 in this pathway. Of particular interest was the pronounced up-regulation of SSX1, already implicated in mesenchymal oncogenesis and stem cell functions, only in cells expressing the truncated protein. Furthermore, over-expression of both HMGA2 forms was associated with a strong repression of the epithelial marker CD24, consistent with the reported low level of CD24 in cancer stem cells. We conclude that the c-terminal part of HMGA2 has important functions at least in mesenchymal cells, and the changes in gene expression resulting from overexpressing a protein lacking this domain may add to the malignant potential of sarcomas

  11. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro. The

  12. Identification of a New Peptide Deformylase Gene From Enterococcus faecium and Establishment of a New Screening Model Targeted on PDF for Novel Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN-BING TANG; SHU-YI SI; YUE-QIN ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    To identify a new peptide deformylase (PDF) gene (Genebank Accession AY238515) from Enterococcus faecium and to establish a new screening model targeted on PDF. Methods A new PDF gene was identified by BLAST analysis and PCR and was subsequently over-expressed in the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Bl21(DE3). Over-expressed protein was purified for enzymatic assay by metal affinity chromatography and a new screening model was established for novel antibiotics. Result A new PDF gene of Enterococcus faecium was identified successfully. Ten positive samples were picked up from 8000 compound library and the microbial fermentation broth samples. Conclusion A new PDF of gene Enterococcus faecium was first identified and the model had a high efficacy. Positive samples screened may be antibacterial agents of broad spectrum.

  13. Dissection of the oncogenic MYCN transcriptional network reveals a large set of clinically relevant cell cycle genes as drivers of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Derek M; Buckley, Patrick G; Bryan, Kenneth; Watters, Karen M; Koster, Jan; van Sluis, Peter; Molenaar, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Stallings, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    Amplification of the oncogenic transcription factor MYCN plays a major role in the pathogenesis of several pediatric cancers, including neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, and rhabodomyosarcoma. For neuroblastoma, MYCN amplification is the most powerful genetic predictor of poor patient survival, yet the mechanism by which MYCN drives tumorigenesis is only partially understood. To gain an insight into the distribution of MYCN binding and to identify clinically relevant MYCN target genes, we performed an integrated analysis of MYCN ChIP-chip and mRNA expression using the MYCN repressible SHEP-21N neuroblastoma cell line. We hypothesized that genes exclusively MYCN bound in SHEP-21N cells over-expressing MYCN would be enriched for direct targets which contribute to the process of disease progression. Integrated analysis revealed that MYCN drives tumorigenesis predominantly as a positive regulator of target gene transcription. A high proportion of genes (24%) that are MYCN bound and up-regulated in the SHEP-21N model are significantly associated with poor overall patient survival (OS) in a set of 88 tumors. In contrast, the proportion of genes down-regulated when bound by MYCN in the SHEP-21N model and which are significantly associated with poor overall patient survival when under-expressed in primary tumors was significantly lower (5%). Gene ontology analysis determined a highly statistically significant enrichment for cell cycle related genes within the over-expressed MYCN target group which were also associated with poor OS. We conclude that the over-expression of MYCN leads to aberrant binding and over-expression of genes associated with cell cycle regulation which are significantly correlated with poor OS and MYCN amplification.

  14. Characteristics of carboxylesterase genes and their expression-level between acaricide-susceptible and resistant Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Shi, Li; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Jialu; Pan, Yu; He, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) play important roles in metabolism and detoxification of dietary and environmental xenobiotics in insects and mites. On the basis of the Tetranychuscinnabarinus transcriptome dataset, 23 CarE genes (6 genes are full sequence and 17 genes are partial sequence) were identified. Synergist bioassay showed that CarEs were involved in acaricide detoxification and resistance in fenpropathrin- (FeR) and cyflumetofen-resistant (CyR) strains. In order to further reveal the relationship between CarE gene's expression and acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus, we profiled their expression in susceptible (SS) and resistant strains (FeR, and CyR). There were 8 and 4 over-expressed carboxylesterase genes in FeR and CyR, respectively, from which the over-expressions were detected at mRNA level, but not DNA level. Pesticide induction experiment elucidated that 4 of 8 and 2 of 4 up-regulated genes were inducible with significance in FeR and CyR strains, respectively, but they could not be induced in SS strain, which indicated that these genes became more enhanced and effective to withstand the pesticides' stress in resistant T. cinnabarinus. Most expression-changed and all inducible genes possess the Abhydrolase_3 motif, which is a catalytic domain for hydrolyzing. As a whole, these findings in current study provide clues for further elucidating the function and regulation mechanism of these carboxylesterase genes in T. cinnabarinus' resistance formation. PMID:27265830

  15. Improved gene expression signature of testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Leffers, Henrik; Lothe, Ragnhild A;

    2007-01-01

    on global gene expression in testicular CIS have been previously published. We have merged the two data sets on CIS samples (n = 6) and identified the shared gene expression signature in relation to expression in normal testis. Among the top-20 highest expressed genes, one-third was transcription factors...... and the list included some 'novel' CIS markers (i.e. DOCK11 and ANXA3). Genes related to biological terms 'nucleic acid binding' and 'translational activity' (e.g. transcription factors and ribosomal proteins, respectively) were consistently and significantly over-represented. Some of the significantly over......-expressed genes in CIS cells were selected for validation by RT-PCR (IFI16, DOCK11, and ANXA3), immunohistochemistry (HLXB9), or in situ hybridization (IFI16). High-level analysis utilizing the Ingenuity pathway analysis tool indicated that networks relating to 'gene expression in cancer' and 'embryonic...

  16. Over-expression of EGFR in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Ai-hua; HOU Jin-chao; LAN Yong-hao; TIAN Ya-ting; ZHANG Jun-yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship of overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)in occurrence,development and treatment of breast cancer. Methods:Samples of 46 breast adenoma tissues and 86 breast cancer tissues were regularly dehydrate-fixed,embedded in paraffin,sliced in to 5 μm thick,stained with SABC immunohistochemistry and coloured with DAB. Results:The positive staining of EGFR was shown as brown- yellow and distributed in cytoplasm.The positive rates in the tissues of breast adenosis and breast cancer were 17.04%(6/46)and 56.98%(49/86)respectively.The positive rates of EGFR in the tissue of invasive ductal carcinoma was 64.49%(41/59),which was significantly higher than that in in situ carcinoma(P<0.05).The positive rate of lymph metastasis group was higher than that in non-lymph metastasis group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The overexpression of EGFR was related with occurrence,lymph metastasis and pathologic types of breast cancer.The examination of EGFR in the breast cancer can serve as a guidance for target chemotherapy.

  17. Association of cyclin D1 genotype with breast cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao Ou; Moore, Derek B; Cai, Qiuyin; Cheng, Jiarong; Wen, Wanqing; Pierce, Larry; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (CCND1) is a key cell cycle regulatory protein that governs cell cycle progression from the G(1) to S phase. A common polymorphism (A870G) in exon 4 of the CCND1 gene produces an alternate transcript (transcript-b) that preferentially encodes a protein with enhanced cell transformation activity and possible prolonged half-life. We evaluated the association of CCND1 A870G polymorphism with breast cancer risk and survival in 1,130 breast cancer cases and 1,196 controls who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Approximately 81% of cases and 79% of controls carried the A allele at A870G of the CCND1 gene [odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.4]. As lightly stronger but nonsignificant association was found for the A allele among younger women (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8). However, this polymorphism seems to modify the effect of hormonal exposures on postmenopausal breast cancer, as the positive associations of postmenopausal breast cancer with body mass index (Pfor interaction = 0.02) and waist-to-hip ratios (P for interaction < 0.03; all Ps are two sided) were only observed among women who carry the A allele at A870G of the CCND1 gene. Following up with this cohort of patients for an average of 4.84 years, we found that the CCND1 A870G polymorphism was inversely associated with overall and disease-free survival, particularly among women with late stage or estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios for disease-free survival associated with GA and AA genotypes were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.49-1.82) and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19-0.91) for tumor-node-metastasis stage III to IV breast cancer, and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.15-0.80) and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13-0.79) for estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer. This study suggests that CCND1 A870G polymorphism may modify the postmenopausal breast cancer risk associated with hormonal exposure and predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:15668481

  18. Characterization of NPR1 Genes from Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ming; NI Xi-lu; MA Hui-qin; Wenping Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) plays a significant role in the defense responses of plants to pathogens by regulating the expression of defense-related genes. In the present study, we isolated two NPR1 genes from Vitis aestivalis cv. Norton and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which were referred to as VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1. 1-CS, respectively. They encode a protein of 584 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 64.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.74. The predicted amino acid sequences of VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.1-CS differ by only one amino acid. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 gene in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants restores the transcriptional expression of AtPR-1 gene, though not to the full scale. This result demonstrated that a grapevine VaNPR1.1 possesses a similar function to the Arabidopsis NPR1 in the regulation of defense-related genes. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plant increased tolerance to salinity, but had no effect on the drought tolerance. We conclude that VaNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and also involved in grapevine’s response to the salt stress.

  19. Identification of a cis-regulatory element by transient analysis of co-ordinately regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs co-ordinately regulate target genes that are dispersed throughout the genome. This co-ordinate regulation is achieved, in part, through the interaction of transcription factors with conserved cis-regulatory motifs that are in close proximity to the target genes. While much is known about the families of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in plants, there are few well characterised cis-regulatory motifs. In Arabidopsis, over-expression of the MYB transcription factor PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 leads to transgenic plants with elevated anthocyanin levels due to the co-ordinated up-regulation of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. In addition to the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, there are a number of un-associated genes that also change in expression level. This may be a direct or indirect consequence of the over-expression of PAP1. Results Oligo array analysis of PAP1 over-expression Arabidopsis plants identified genes co-ordinately up-regulated in response to the elevated expression of this transcription factor. Transient assays on the promoter regions of 33 of these up-regulated genes identified eight promoter fragments that were transactivated by PAP1. Bioinformatic analysis on these promoters revealed a common cis-regulatory motif that we showed is required for PAP1 dependent transactivation. Conclusion Co-ordinated gene regulation by individual transcription factors is a complex collection of both direct and indirect effects. Transient transactivation assays provide a rapid method to identify direct target genes from indirect target genes. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoters of these direct target genes is able to locate motifs that are common to this sub-set of promoters, which is impossible to identify with the larger set of direct and indirect target genes. While this type of analysis does not prove a direct interaction between protein and DNA

  20. Transcriptional silencing of Dickkopf gene family by CpG island hypermethylation in human gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadateru Maehata; Fumio Itoh; Hiroaki Taniguchi; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Katsuhiko Nosho; Yasushi Adachi; Nobuki Miyamoto; Chic Miyamoto; Noriyuki Akutsu; Satoshi Yamaoka

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To clarify alterations of Dickkopfs (Dkks) and Kremen2 (Krm2) in gastrointestinal cancer.METHODS:We investigated the expression profiles and epigenetic alterations of Dkks and Krm2 genes in gastrointestinal cancer using RT-PCR,tissue microarray analysis,and methylation specific PCR (MSP).Cancer cells were treated with the demethylating agent and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor.WST-8 assays and in vitro invasion assays after treatment with specific siRNA for those genes were performed.RESULTS:Dkks and Krm2 expression levels were reduced in a certain subset of the gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and cancer tissues.This was correlated with promoter hypermethylation.There were significant correlations between Dkks over-expression levels and beta-catenin over-expression in colorectal cancer.In colorectal cancers with beta-catenin over-expression,Dkk-1 expression levels were significantly lower in those with lymph node metastases than in those without.Down-regulation of Dkks expression by siRNA resulted in a significant increase in cancer cell growth and invasiveness in vitro.CONCLUSION:Down-regulation of the Dkks associated to promoter hypermethylation appears to be frequently involved in gastrointestinal tumorigenesis.

  1. Activator protein-1 involved in growth inhibition by RASSF1A gene in the human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hao Deng; Ji-Fang Wen; Jing-He Li; De-Sheng Xiao; Jian-Hua Zhou

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of Ras association domain family protein 1 isoform A (RASSFIA) in gastric tumorigenesis.METHODS:Through over-expression of RASSFIA gene in the SGC7901 cell line which was induced by a lipofectamine-mediated gene transfer approach.Activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA).RESULTS:Compared with the control clones,cells over expressing RASSF1A exhibited significant inhibition of cell growth with G1 cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo.The over-expression of RASSF1A significantly inhibited AP-1activity in SGC7901 cells (0.981 + 0.011 vs 0.354 ± 0.053,P<0.001).In addition,both Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that RASSF1A down-regulated the expression of c-Fos (0.975±0.02 vs0.095+0.024,P<0.001) but not c-Jun.CONCLUSION:Over-expression of RASSF1A inhibits the growth of SGC7901 cells by negatively regulating the AP-1 activity,the latter in turn negatively signals cell proliferation.

  2. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  3. Ectopic Expression of Arabidopsis Phospholipase A Genes Elucidates Role of Phospholipase Bs in S. cerevisiae Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yan; Giblin, E Michael; Taylor, David C.

    2009-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae neither disruption of the phospholipase B triple knockout mutant (plb1plb2plb3; plb123) nor over-expression of phospholipase Bs (PLBs) result in a phenotype different from wild type. In performing experiments to characterize candidate plant phospholipase (PLA) genes, we found, surprisingly, that ectopic expression of either of two different A. thaliana PLA2 or PLA1 genes in the yeast plb123 mutant completely inhibited cell growth. We proposed that while PLBs might not be esse...

  4. Plant hemoglobin gene expression adjusts Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas synringae and Botrytis cinerea though scavenging of nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivakumaran, Anushen; Hebelstrup, Kim; Cristescu, Simona;

    2011-01-01

    NO has earlier been shown to influence ethylene production during Pseudomonas syringae elicited hypersensitive response in tobacco. In this work Arabidopsis plants with silencing or null mutation of hemoglobin genes (glb1 and glb2) and transgenic lines over-expressing Glb1 and Glb2 demonstrated a...... causal link between NO generation, hemoglobin-dependent NO scavenging, the production of ethylene and resistance to Botrytis or Pseudomonas....

  5. Analysis of gene expression of myo1c and inpp5k genes involved in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Inpp5k gene encodes a protein which plays a very vital role in a number of metabolic pathways. It is very significant in the glucose metabolism where it regulates the signalling of the insulin pathway. But the full molecular details of the pathways regulated by Inpp5k encoded protein are not known. It is speculated that Inpp5k gene expression is altered in case of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Myolc gene encodes for a protein called Myosin-lc which acts an actin-based molecular motor in the cells. II has been studied that this gene down-regulates during endometrial adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancers. In this study the expression analysis of these two was carried out using multiplex PCR. An endogenous control was used for this PCR. ACTS gene served as the endogenous control because of it being a house keeping gene. It thus shows a universal expression in all cells. Thus in this study the gene expression of Inpp5k and Myulc genes was comparatively analysed with ACTS gene. The results that came out of this study showed an over-expression of Inpp5k gene and down-regulation of myolc gene with respect to ACTS gene in cancer cell lines as was indicated by the previous studies with these genes. Expression of both genes i.e. Inpp5k and Myolc was statistically compared between normal and cancerous cell lines and was found statistically significant at a value of P< O.O I in most of the cases. (author)

  6. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Khalida; Armstrong, Terri S; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Raghunathan, Aditya; Ellison, David; Gilbertson, Richard; Vaillant, Brian; Goldman, Stewart; Packer, Roger J; Fouladi, Maryam; Pollack, Ian; Mikkelsen, Tom; Prados, Michael; Omuro, Antonio; Soffietti, Riccardo; Ledoux, Alicia; Wilson, Charmaine; Long, Lihong; Gilbert, Mark R; Aldape, Ken

    2012-05-01

    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that are currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior. Since recent data suggest that these tumors display biological characteristics according to their location (cerebral vs. infratentorial vs. spinal cord), rather than explore a broad spectrum of ependymoma, we focused on molecular alterations in ependymomas arising in the infratentorial compartment. Unsupervised clustering of available gene expression microarray data revealed two major subgroups of infratentorial ependymoma. Group 1 tumors over expressed genes that were associated with mesenchyme, Group 2 tumors showed no distinct gene ontologies. To assess the prognostic significance of these gene expression subgroups, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on genes defining the subgroups in a training set. This resulted in a 10-gene prognostic signature. Multivariate analysis showed that the 10-gene signature was an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for clinical factors. Evaluation of an external dataset describing subgroups of infratentorial ependymomas showed concordance of subgroup definition, including validation of the mesenchymal subclass. Importantly, the 10-gene signature was validated as a predictor of recurrence-free survival in this dataset. Taken together, the results indicate a link between clinical outcome and biologically identified subsets of infratentorial ependymoma and offer the potential for prognostic testing to estimate clinical aggressiveness in these tumors.

  7. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  8. CODON OPTIMIZATION OF THE POTENTIAL ANTIGENS ENCODING GENES FROM MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current approach for controlling of tuberculosis is going on by recommended doses of vaccines. Codon optimization and simulation techniques are used to improve the protein expression in living organism by increasing their translational efficiency of gene of interest. We have designed; optimized the codon and simulated in nineteen indigenous genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in the Escherichia coli. We minimized the G+C content in optimized genes from 64.75% to 59.67% of the studied genes as the richness of G+C content is reflected in a strong bias. CAI and AT of optimized DNA were enhanced by 1.9 (47.8% and 1.1 (12.5% fold more with respect to its native type. Our finding indicates the optimized genes can be useful for over expression in host and the study provides a new insight for the emerging research in synthetic biology.

  9. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells reveals important mechanisms associated with predisposition to Staphylococcus infections.

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    Mehdi Toufeer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals and emerging antibiotic-resistant strains have further increased the concern of this health issue. Host genetics influence susceptibility to S. aureus infections, and the genes determining the outcome of infections should be identified to find alternative therapies to treatment with antibiotics. Here, we used outbred animals from a divergent selection based on susceptibility towards Staphylococcus infection to explore host immunogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated how dendritic cells respond to heat-inactivated S. aureus and whether dendritic cells from animals showing different degrees of susceptibility had distinct gene expression profiles. We measured gene expression levels of in vitro S. aureus-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at three different time points (0, 3 and 8 hrs by using 15 k ovine Agilent microarrays. Furthermore, differential expression of a selected number of genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Gene signatures of stimulated DCs were obtained and showed that genes involved in the inflammatory process and T helper cell polarization were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Moreover, a set of 204 genes were statistically differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant animals, and grouped them according to their predisposition to staphylococcal infection. Interestingly, over-expression of the C1q and Ido1 genes was observed in the resistant line and suggested a role of classical pathway of complement and early regulation of inflammation pathways, respectively. On the contrary, over expression of genes involved in the IL1R pathway was observed in susceptible animals. Furthermore, the leucocyte extravasation pathway was also found to be dominant in the susceptible line. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We successfully obtained Staphylococcus aureus associated gene expression of ovine BM-DC in an 8-hour kinetics experiment

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Dendritic Cells Reveals Important Mechanisms Associated with Predisposition to Staphylococcus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufeer, Mehdi; Bonnefont, Cécile M. D.; Foulon, Eliane; Caubet, Cécile; Tasca, Christian; Aurel, Marie-Rose; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Rupp, Rachel; Foucras, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals and emerging antibiotic-resistant strains have further increased the concern of this health issue. Host genetics influence susceptibility to S. aureus infections, and the genes determining the outcome of infections should be identified to find alternative therapies to treatment with antibiotics. Here, we used outbred animals from a divergent selection based on susceptibility towards Staphylococcus infection to explore host immunogenetics. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated how dendritic cells respond to heat-inactivated S. aureus and whether dendritic cells from animals showing different degrees of susceptibility had distinct gene expression profiles. We measured gene expression levels of in vitro S. aureus-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at three different time points (0, 3 and 8 hrs) by using 15 k ovine Agilent microarrays. Furthermore, differential expression of a selected number of genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Gene signatures of stimulated DCs were obtained and showed that genes involved in the inflammatory process and T helper cell polarization were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Moreover, a set of 204 genes were statistically differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant animals, and grouped them according to their predisposition to staphylococcal infection. Interestingly, over-expression of the C1q and Ido1 genes was observed in the resistant line and suggested a role of classical pathway of complement and early regulation of inflammation pathways, respectively. On the contrary, over expression of genes involved in the IL1R pathway was observed in susceptible animals. Furthermore, the leucocyte extravasation pathway was also found to be dominant in the susceptible line. Conclusion/Significance We successfully obtained Staphylococcus aureus associated gene expression of ovine BM-DC in an 8-hour kinetics experiment. The distinct

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  12. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  13. Computational identification of transcriptionally co-regulated genes, validation with the four ANT isoform genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of gene promoters is essential to understand the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation required under the effects of physiological processes, nutritional intake or pathologies. In higher eukaryotes, transcriptional regulation implies the recruitment of a set of regulatory proteins that bind on combinations of nucleotide motifs. We developed a computational analysis of promoter nucleotide sequences, to identify co-regulated genes by combining several programs that allowed us to build regulatory models and perform a crossed analysis on several databases. This strategy was tested on a set of four human genes encoding isoforms 1 to 4 of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier ANT. Each isoform has a specific tissue expression profile linked to its role in cellular bioenergetics. Results From their promoter sequence and from the phylogenetic evolution of these ANT genes in mammals, we constructed combinations of specific regulatory elements. These models were screened using the full human genome and databases of promoter sequences from human and several other mammalian species. For each of transcriptionally regulated ANT1, 2 and 4 genes, a set of co-regulated genes was identified and their over-expression was verified in microarray databases. Conclusions Most of the identified genes encode proteins with a cellular function and specificity in agreement with those of the corresponding ANT isoform. Our in silico study shows that the tissue specific gene expression is mainly driven by promoter regulatory sequences located up to about a thousand base pairs upstream the transcription start site. Moreover, this computational strategy on the study of regulatory pathways should provide, along with transcriptomics and metabolomics, data to construct cellular metabolic networks.

  14. Correlation of CDK2-AP1 gene over-expression with proliferation and cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cell line MCF-7%乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖及周期与CDK2-AP1基因的表达的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高双全; 高双荣; 肖高芳; 丁宇; 王林辉; 黄伟; 李静

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的增殖及周期与CDK2-AP1基因的表达的相关性研究,为临床乳腺癌的分子治疗提供基础.方法 取我院研究所保存的人乳腺癌细胞MCF-7进行培养,并构建CDK2-AP1基因编码的病毒表达载体,应用实时定量PCR验证CDK2-AP1基因mRNA和蛋白的表达率.利用流式细胞仪检测MCF-7细胞周期的改变.结果 过表达CDK2-AP1基因的慢病毒感染MCF-7细胞可上调其mRNA表达6.87倍.MCF-7细胞过表达CDK2-AP1基因后,增殖能力显著降低,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).流式细胞仪检测证实MCF-7细胞过表达CDK2-AP1能够使细胞周期出现G1期阻滞.结论 CDK2-AP1基因具有抑癌基因的功能,在乳腺癌MCF-7细胞过表达该基因能够抑制细胞的生长和克隆形成能力,并且使细胞阻滞于G1期.

  15. Therapeutic effects of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 in human gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in males and the fourth in females. Traditional treatment has poor prognosis because of recurrence and systemic side effects. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies is an important issue. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA stably inhibits target genes and can efficiently transduce most cells. Since overexpressed cyclin D1 is closely related to human gastric cancer progression, inhibition of cyclin D1 using specific targeting could be an effective treatment method of human gastric cancer. The therapeutic effect of lentivirus-mediated shRNA targeting of cyclin D1 (ShCCND1) was analyzed both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, NCI-N87 cells with downregulation of cyclin D1 by ShCCND1 showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell motility, and clonogenicity. Downregulation of cyclin D1 in NCI-N87 cells also resulted in significantly increased G1 arrest and apoptosis. In vivo, stable NCI-N87 cells expressing ShCCND1 were engrafted into nude mice. Then, the cancer-growth inhibition effect of lentivirus was confirmed. To assess lentivirus including ShCCND1 as a therapeutic agent, intratumoral injection was conducted. Tumor growth of the lentivirus-treated group was significantly inhibited compared to growth of the control group. These results are in accordance with the in vitro data and lend support to the mitotic figure count and apoptosis analysis of the tumor mass. The lentivirus-mediated ShCCND1 was constructed, which effectively inhibited growth of NCI-N87-derived cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The efficiency of shRNA knockdown and variation in the degree of inhibition is mediated by different shRNA sequences and cancer cell lines. These experimental results suggest the possibility of developing new gastric cancer therapies using lentivirus-mediated shRNA

  16. GENE IMPRINTING: ENGRAVING THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERIDETARY DISEASES

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    Sandeep Satapathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene imprinting has conduited the scope of our understanding of phenotypic expression and its corelation with constituent genotype. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone modulation to attain monoallelic gene expression without altering the genetic sequences. A distinctive model of non-mendelian genetics, imprinting extends the control over expression of traits and selection of the allele that would direct the same, in a manner decided by the parent of origin. The constitutive existence of this imprinting even after gametogenesis, throughout the somatic development extends a clue for its regulatory hold on several heridetary traits. Several heridetary diseases like Cancers, Russell-Silver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes and Neurodegenration have shown to be a subsequent error in the genomic impriting process. So, understanding these epigenetic regulations can be a therapeutic strategy for disease modelling and especially targeting their patterns of heridetary inheritance.

  17. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela; Goedegebuur, Frits; Van Solingen, Pieter; Ward, Michael

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  18. Gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  19. The orphan gene ybjN conveys pleiotropic effects on multicellular behavior and survival of Escherichia coli.

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    Dongping Wang

    Full Text Available YbjN, encoding an enterobacteria-specific protein, is a multicopy suppressor of temperature sensitivity in the ts9 mutant strain of Escherichia coli. In this study, we further explored the role(s of ybjN. First, we demonstrated that the ybjN transcript was about 10-fold lower in the ts9 strain compared to that of E. coli strain BW25113 (BW. Introduction of multiple copies of ybjN in the ts9 strain resulted in over-expression of ybjN by about 10-fold as compared to that of BW. These results suggested that temperature sensitivity of the ts9 mutant of E. coli may be related to expression levels of ybjN. Characterization of E. coli ybjN mutant revealed that ybjN mutation resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including increased motility, fimbriation (auto-aggregation, exopolysaccharide production, and biofilm formation. In contrast, over-expression of ybjN (in terms of multiple copies resulted in reduced motility, fimbriation, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation and acid resistance. In addition, our results indicate that a ybjN-homolog gene from Erwinia amylovora, a plant enterobacterial pathogen, is functionally conserved with that of E. coli, suggesting similar evolution of the YbjN family proteins in enterobacteria. A microarray study revealed that the expression level of ybjN was inversely correlated with the expression of flagellar, fimbrial and acid resistance genes. Over-expression of ybjN significantly down-regulated genes involved in citric acid cycle, glycolysis, the glyoxylate shunt, oxidative phosphorylation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, over-expression of ybjN up-regulated toxin-antitoxin modules, the SOS response pathway, cold shock and starvation induced transporter genes. Collectively, these results suggest that YbjN may play important roles in regulating bacterial multicellular behavior, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions in E. coli. These results also suggest that ybjN over-expression

  20. Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Y. Chuang

    2006-08-31

    It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose γ-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

  1. A disulphide isomerase gene (PDI-V) from Haynaldia villosa contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Muhammad; Li, Yingbo; Arshad, Muhammad; Jiangyue, Cheng; Jia, Zhao; Wang, Zongkuan; Xiao, Jin; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Yu, Feifei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we report the contribution of a PDI-like gene from wheat wild relative Haynaldia villosa in combating powdery mildew. PDI-V protein contains two conserved thioredoxin (TRX) active domains (a and a') and an inactive domain (b). PDI-V interacted with E3 ligase CMPG1-V protein, which is a positive regulator of powdery mildew response. PDI-V was mono-ubiquitinated by CMPG1-V without degradation being detected. PDI-V was located on H. villosa chromosome 5V and encoded for a protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Bgt infection in leaves of H. villosa induced PDI-V expression. Virus induced gene silencing of PDIs in a T. durum-H. villosa amphiploid compromised the resistance. Single cell transient over-expression of PDI-V or a truncated version containing the active TXR domain a decreased the haustorial index in moderately susceptible wheat cultivar Yangmai 158. Stable transgenic lines over-expressing PDI-V in Yangmai 158 displayed improved powdery mildew resistance at both the seedling and adult stages. By contrast over-expression of point-mutated PDI-V(C57A) did not increase the level of resistance in Yangmai 158. The above results indicate a pivotal role of PDI-V in powdery mildew resistance and showed that conserved TRX domain a is critical for its function.

  2. Identification of multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1 in equine ileum

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    Natalini Cláudio Corrêa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (P-gp is a membrane transporter encoded in the Multi-drug Resistance (MDR1 gene expressed in several normal tissues and over expressed in tumor cells. P-gp was already identified in different species but not yet in equine. MDR1 gene and P-gp are able to interfere with bioavailability and disposition of several drugs, altering pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic of drugs. The presence of the MDR1 and P-gp in the central nervous system blocks the entry of certain drugs in this tissue and reduces drug absorption and enhances drug elimination when P-gp and MDR1 are presented in the gastrointestinal tract. This study showed that the MDR1 gene is present in equine ileum. Future studies on the impact of the P-glycoprotein encoded gene MDR1 on drugs pharmacologic effects in horses are granted.

  3. Duplicate dmbx1 genes regulate progenitor cell cycle and differentiation during zebrafish midbrain and retinal development

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    Chang Belinda SW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dmbx1 gene is important for the development of the midbrain and hindbrain, and mouse gene targeting experiments reveal that this gene is required for mediating postnatal and adult feeding behaviours. A single Dmbx1 gene exists in terrestrial vertebrate genomes, while teleost genomes have at least two paralogs. We compared the loss of function of the zebrafish dmbx1a and dmbx1b genes in order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which dmbx1 regulates neurogenesis, and to begin to understand why these duplicate genes have been retained in the zebrafish genome. Results Using gene knockdown experiments we examined the function of the dmbx1 gene paralogs in zebrafish, dmbx1a and dmbx1b in regulating neurogenesis in the developing retina and midbrain. Dose-dependent loss of dmbx1a and dmbx1b function causes a significant reduction in growth of the midbrain and retina that is evident between 48-72 hpf. We show that this phenotype is not due to patterning defects or persistent cell death, but rather a deficit in progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation. Analyses of the morphant retina or anterior hindbrain indicate that paralogous function is partially diverged since loss of dmbx1a is more severe than loss of dmbx1b. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Dmbx1 genes suggest that while this gene family is conservative in its evolution, there was a dramatic change in selective constraint after the duplication event that gave rise to the dmbx1a and dmbx1b gene families in teleost fish, suggestive of positive selection. Interestingly, in contrast to zebrafish dmbx1a, over expression of the mouse Dmbx1 gene does not functionally compensate for the zebrafish dmbx1a knockdown phenotype, while over expression of the dmbx1b gene only partially compensates for the dmbx1a knockdown phenotype. Conclusion Our data suggest that both zebrafish dmbx1a and dmbx1b genes are retained in the fish genome due to their requirement

  4. [Language gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  5. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  6. TIMP-1高表达系膜细胞模型的建立及其对CXCL10的调控作用∗%Establishment of Mesangial Cell Model with the Over-expression TIMP-1 and its Regulation on Chemokine CXCL10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦曌; 吕杨; 谢院生; 陈香美

    2015-01-01

    目的:利用慢病毒转染方法建立组织金属蛋白酶抑制剂-1(TIMP-1)的高表达系膜细胞模型,研究TIMP-1对趋化因子CXCL10的调控作用。方法:利用第三代慢病毒系统,制备TIMP-1慢病毒,将制备好的TIMP-1慢病毒转染到原代大鼠系膜细胞,建立TIMP-1高表达模型,利用Taqman探针技术检测TIMP-1和CXCL10的表达量。结果:(1)利用TIMP-1慢病毒感染系膜细胞,可以显著促进TIMP-1表达量升高(P<0.05);(2)TIMP-1能显著促进CXCL10的表达量升高(P <0.05)。结论:成功建立大鼠系膜细胞的 TIMP -1过表达细胞模型,为研究 TIMP -1功能提供了实验工具。TIMP-1能正向调控CXCL10,提示TIMP-1在肾脏疾病炎症反应的发生发展中可能起到一定的作用。%Objective:To establish the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 ( TIMP-1 ) over-expression model in primary mesangial cells and study its regulation effect on chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine 10 ( CXCL10 ) . Methods:Using the third generation of lenti virus system to prepare TIMP-1 lenti virus, TIMP-1 lenti virus transfected into primary rat mesangial cell so as to establish the high expression of TIMP-1 model, and the mRNA level of TIMP-1 and CXCL10 was detected by Taqman probe technique. Results:(1)Expression of TIMP-1was significantly promoted in primary mesangial cells infected with TIMP-1 lenti vi-rus (P<0. 05);(2)Expression of CXCL10 was significantly promoted when TIMP-1 was increased (P<0. 05). Conclusion:The success of construction an over-expression of TIMP-1 cell model provides an experimental tool for further study in the function of TIMP-1. TIMP-1 has a promoting effect on CXCL10 which means TIMP-1 may play a role in the process of inflammation reaction in kidney diseases.

  7. The over expression of IGF-1 receptor by orbital fibroblasts in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy patients%甲状腺相关性眼病患者眼眶成纤维细胞高度表达胰岛素样生长因子1受体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德禄; 王一玮; 王韧琰; 钟勇; 董方田

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察胰岛素样生长园子1受体(IGF-1R)在甲状腺相关性眼病(TAO)患者眼眶成纤维细胞(OFs)的表达及其在TAO发病机制中的作用.方法 取确诊为TAO并行眶减压术的患者及外伤眼球摘除术且无其他免疫疾病的正常人眼眶球后结缔组织,培养OFs.通过共聚焦显微镜观察,流式细胞仪检测IGF-1R的表达,并用统计学方法分析比较该受体在TAO患者与正常人之间表达的差异.结果 TAO患者OFs表达IGF-1R为(72.6±10.4)%,正常组为(27.8±10.7)%,两组差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).通过共聚焦显微镜观察及定量分析发现,TAO患者OFs的IGF-1R较正常对照组明显表达增多(P<0.05),且IGF-1R主要位于OFs的细胞核周围以及细胞质内.结论 与正常人相比,体外培养的TAO患者OFs高度表达IGF-1R.%Objective To explore the expression of IGF-1 receptor by orbital fibroblasts (Ofs) from patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and its effect in the pathogenesis of TAO. Methods Human Ofs were harvested and cultured from the connective tissue of patients who were finally diagnosed as TAO undergoing orbital decompression surgery and some ordinary patients without any inflammatory disease undergoing eye enucleate surgery because of trauma . The expression of IGF-1R of Ofs was detected by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry , then comparing and analyzing the expression of IGF-1 R between patients with TAO and controls by statistical method . Results The expression of IGF-1 R by Ofs from patients with TAO [(72.6 ± 10.4)%] was significantly different comparing with controls [(27.8 ±10.7)%] (P<0.05). After observation and quantitative analysing by confocal microscopy , we found IFG-1R was over expressed by Ofs of TAO patients than normal controls and this receptor was mainly located in the ambient of nucleus and cytoplasm . Conclusions IGF-1 R is over expressed by Ofs from patients with TAO compared with control donors in vitro.

  8. A primary study of high performance transgenic rice through maize UBI-1 promoter fusing selective maker gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the expression vector pBI121, we successfully constructed a plant over-expression vector of Hspa4 gene fusing with selective maker gene (hygromycin-resistance gene) driven by the Ubi-1 promoter (pBI121-Ubi-Hpt-Hspa4, p121UHH). The plant expression vectors p121UHH and pCAMBIA1301-Ubi-Hspa4 (p1301UH) were transformed into the rice callus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We screened 17 p121UHH-positive transgenic plants and 15 p1301UH-positive transgenic plants by the hygromycin-resistance gene. The pick-up rate of the resistance callus was 51.7% and 42.5%, respectively, and the rate of regeneration for the resistance callus was 51.2% and 49.1%, respectively. The result of polymerase chain reaction (P CR) identification indicated that the pick-up rate of positive transgenic plants was 51.7% and 42.5% and the total transformation efficiency was 16.5% and 6.2%, and the former was 2.66 time s of the later. The results of the experiment indicate that the possibility of the appearance of false positive results in the fusing of a plant over-expression vector with a selective maker gene is much less. (author)

  9. Cross-species comparison of biological themes and underlying genes on a global gene expression scale in a mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis and in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmacher Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion-related genes over-expressed by tumor cells as well as by reacting host cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. Results This study examined the suitability of a murine model (CT26/Balb/C of colorectal liver metastasis to represent clinical liver metastasis specimens using a global gene expression approach. Cross-species similarity was examined between pure liver, liver invasion, tumor invasion and pure tumor compartments through overlap of up-regulated genes and gene ontology (GO-based biological themes on the level of single GO-terms and of condensed GO-term families. Three out of four GO-term families were conserved in a compartment-specific way between the species: secondary metabolism (liver, invasion (invasion front, and immune response (invasion front and liver. Among the individual GO-terms over-represented in the invasion compartments in both species were "extracellular matrix", "cell motility", "cell adhesion" and "antigen presentation" indicating that typical invasion related processes are operating in both species. This was reflected on the single gene level as well, as cross-species overlap of potential target genes over-expressed in the combined invasion front compartments reached up to 36.5%. Generally, histopathology and gene expression correlated well as the highest single gene overlap was found to be 44% in syn-compartmental comparisons (liver versus liver whereas cross-compartmental overlaps were much lower (e.g. liver versus tumor: 9.7%. However, single gene overlap was surprisingly high in some cross-compartmental comparisons (e.g. human liver invasion compartment and murine tumor invasion compartment: 9.0% despite little histolopathologic similarity indicating that invasion relevant genes are not necessarily confined to histologically defined compartments. Conclusion In summary, cross

  10. AI-2-dependent gene regulation in Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Sturdevant Daniel E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoinducer 2 (AI-2, a widespread by-product of the LuxS-catalyzed S-ribosylhomocysteine cleavage reaction in the activated methyl cycle, has been suggested to serve as an intra- and interspecies signaling molecule, but in many bacteria AI-2 control of gene expression is not completely understood. Particularly, we have a lack of knowledge about AI-2 signaling in the important human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Results To determine the role of LuxS and AI-2 in S. epidermidis, we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in an S. epidermidis luxS mutant and after addition of AI-2 synthesized by over-expressed S. epidermidis Pfs and LuxS enzymes. Genes under AI-2 control included mostly genes involved in sugar, nucleotide, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism, but also virulence-associated genes coding for lipase and bacterial apoptosis proteins. In addition, we demonstrate by liquid chromatography/mass-spectrometry of culture filtrates that the pro-inflammatory phenol-soluble modulin (PSM peptides, key virulence factors of S. epidermidis, are under luxS/AI-2 control. Conclusion Our results provide a detailed molecular basis for the role of LuxS in S. epidermidis virulence and suggest a signaling function for AI-2 in this bacterium.

  11. Overexpression Analysis of emv2 gene coding for Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Vigna radiata (Wilczek

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    Rajesh S.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are speculated to protect against water stress deficit in plants. An over expression system for mungbean late embryogenesis abundant protein, emv2 was constructed in a pET29a vector, designated pET-emv2 which is responsible for higher expression under the transcriptional/translational control of T7/lac promoter incorporated in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3.Induction protocol was optimized for pET recombinants harboring the target gene. Overexpressed EMV2 protein was purified to homogeneity and the protein profile monitored by SDS-PAGE.

  12. Disulphide cross linked pullulan based cationic polymer for improved gene delivery and efflux pump inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Priya S; R, Rekha M

    2016-10-01

    Multidrug resistance is a hurdle to successful cancer chemotherapy. Over expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a prime contributing factor for drug resistance. In this study, a disulphide cross-linked pullulan-based cationic polymer (PPSS) was synthesized to act simultaneously as gene delivery vehicle and efflux pump inhibitor. The PPSS nanoplexes were of size p53/PPSS/DOX nanoplexes was attributed to the synergistic effect of P-gp inhibition and p53 transfection efficiency. Therefore, this multifunctional polymeric system may have significant promise for therapeutic application against cancer drug resistance. PMID:27459414

  13. Multidrug resistance 1 gene expression and AgNOR in childhood acute leukemias

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, S.; Sugapriya, D.; Shanthi, P.; Thilaka, V.; Venkatadesilalu, S.; Pushpa, V.; Madhavan, M.

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp/p170) is a membrane protein, which acts as an ATP dependant efflux pump that expels a wide variety of organic compounds including chemotherapeutic agents from the cell. Pgp over expression has been demonstrated to be linked with poor treatment outcome and poor prognosis in a number of malignant tumors. AgNORs is a simple, reliable and inexpensive method of evaluating the proliferative activity of a tumor. We have studied MDR1...

  14. FAT10, a gene up-regulated in various cancers, is cell-cycle regulated

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Dongwei; Lim Chuan-Bian; Lee Caroline GL

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background FAT10 is a member of the ubiquitin-like-modifier family of proteins. Over-expression of the FAT10 gene was observed in the tumors of several epithelial cancers. High FAT10 expression was found to lead to increased chromosome instability via the reduction in the kinetochore localization of MAD2 during the prometaphase stage of the cell-cycle. FAT10 expression was also previously reported to be regulated by cytokines and p53. Results Here, we report that FAT10 expression is ...

  15. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Djordjevic

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks (GRNs play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect, which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference

  16. How difficult is inference of mammalian causal gene regulatory networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Djordje; Yang, Andrian; Zadoorian, Armella; Rungrugeecharoen, Kevin; Ho, Joshua W K

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) play a central role in systems biology, especially in the study of mammalian organ development. One key question remains largely unanswered: Is it possible to infer mammalian causal GRNs using observable gene co-expression patterns alone? We assembled two mouse GRN datasets (embryonic tooth and heart) and matching microarray gene expression profiles to systematically investigate the difficulties of mammalian causal GRN inference. The GRNs were assembled based on > 2,000 pieces of experimental genetic perturbation evidence from manually reading > 150 primary research articles. Each piece of perturbation evidence records the qualitative change of the expression of one gene following knock-down or over-expression of another gene. Our data have thorough annotation of tissue types and embryonic stages, as well as the type of regulation (activation, inhibition and no effect), which uniquely allows us to estimate both sensitivity and specificity of the inference of tissue specific causal GRN edges. Using these unprecedented datasets, we found that gene co-expression does not reliably distinguish true positive from false positive interactions, making inference of GRN in mammalian development very difficult. Nonetheless, if we have expression profiling data from genetic or molecular perturbation experiments, such as gene knock-out or signalling stimulation, it is possible to use the set of differentially expressed genes to recover causal regulatory relationships with good sensitivity and specificity. Our result supports the importance of using perturbation experimental data in causal network reconstruction. Furthermore, we showed that causal gene regulatory relationship can be highly cell type or developmental stage specific, suggesting the importance of employing expression profiles from homogeneous cell populations. This study provides essential datasets and empirical evidence to guide the development of new GRN inference methods for

  17. Integrative analysis of RUNX1 downstream pathways and target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Marjorie

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RUNX1 transcription factor gene is frequently mutated in sporadic myeloid and lymphoid leukemia through translocation, point mutation or amplification. It is also responsible for a familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD-AML. The disruption of the largely unknown biological pathways controlled by RUNX1 is likely to be responsible for the development of leukemia. We have used multiple microarray platforms and bioinformatic techniques to help identify these biological pathways to aid in the understanding of why RUNX1 mutations lead to leukemia. Results Here we report genes regulated either directly or indirectly by RUNX1 based on the study of gene expression profiles generated from 3 different human and mouse platforms. The platforms used were global gene expression profiling of: 1 cell lines with RUNX1 mutations from FPD-AML patients, 2 over-expression of RUNX1 and CBFβ, and 3 Runx1 knockout mouse embryos using either cDNA or Affymetrix microarrays. We observe that our datasets (lists of differentially expressed genes significantly correlate with published microarray data from sporadic AML patients with mutations in either RUNX1 or its cofactor, CBFβ. A number of biological processes were identified among the differentially expressed genes and functional assays suggest that heterozygous RUNX1 point mutations in patients with FPD-AML impair cell proliferation, microtubule dynamics and possibly genetic stability. In addition, analysis of the regulatory regions of the differentially expressed genes has for the first time systematically identified numerous potential novel RUNX1 target genes. Conclusion This work is the first large-scale study attempting to identify the genetic networks regulated by RUNX1, a master regulator in the development of the hematopoietic system and leukemia. The biological pathways and target genes controlled by RUNX1 will have considerable importance in disease

  18. cDNA microarray in isolation of novel differentially expressed genes related to human glioma and clone of a novel full-length gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhen-yu; HUI Guo-zhen; LI Yao; ZHOU Zong-xiang; GU Shao-hua; YING Kang; XIE Yi

    2005-01-01

    Background This investigation was undertaken to obtain differentially expressed genes related to human glioma using cDNA microarray and the characterization of one novel full-length gene. Methods Total RNA was extracted from human glioma tissues and normal brain tissues, and mRNA was used to make probes. After hybridization and washing, the results were scanned using a computer system. The gene named 681F05 clone was an expressed gene to human glioma through four-time hybridization and scanning. Subsequently northern blot analysis was performed by northern blot, 5'RACE and bioinformatics. Results Fifteen differentially expressed genes to human glioma were obtained through four-time hybridization and scanning. Northern blot analysis confirmed that 681F05 clone was low-expressed in human brain tissues and over-expressed in human glioma tissues. The analysis of BLASTn and BLASTx showed that 681F05 clone is two cDNA clones encoding two novel proteins that are highly identified to the cyclophilin isoform 10 of C. Elgans, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed the two cDNA clones are two different splicing variants of a novel cycophilin-like gene (PPIL3a and PPIL3b).Conclusions cDNA microarray technology can be successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes. The novel full-length gene of human PPIL3 may be correlated with the formation of human glioma.

  19. Fat accumulation in differentiated brown adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Barui, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Datta, Tirtha K

    2016-03-01

    Homeobox (Hox) genes are involved in body plan of embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. Presence of several Hox genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is indicative of involvement of Hox genes in adipogenesis. We propose that differentiation inducing agents viz. isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), indomethacin, dexamethasone (DEX), triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin may regulate differentiation in brown adipose tissue through Hox genes. In vitro culture of brown fat stromalvascular fraction (SVF) in presence or absence of differentiation inducing agents was used for establishing relationship between fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes and expression of Hox genes. Relative expression of Pref1, UCP1 and Hox genes was determined in different stages of adipogenesis. Presence or absence of IBMX, indomethacin and DEX during differentiation of proliferated pre-adipocytes resulted in marked differences in expression of Hox genes and lipid accumulation. In presence of these inducing agents, lipid accumulation as well as expression of HoxA1, HoxA5, HoxC4 &HoxC8 markedly enhanced. Irrespective of presence or absence of T3, insulin down regulates HoxA10. T3 results in over expression of HoxA5, HoxC4 and HoxC8 genes, whereas insulin up regulates expression of only HoxC8. Findings suggest that accumulation of fat in differentiated adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

  20. Exploration of geosmin synthase from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 by deletion of doxorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2009-10-01

    Thorough investigation of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952 genome revealed a sesquiterpene synthase, named spterp13, which encodes a putative protein of 732 amino acids with significant similarity to S. avermitilis MA-4680 (SAV2163, GeoA) and S. coelicolor A3(2) (SCO6073). The proteins encoded by SAV2163 and SCO6073 produce geosmin in the respective strains. However, the spterp13 gene seemed to be silent in S. peucetius. Deletion of the doxorubicin gene cluster from S. peucetius resulted in increased cell growth rate along with detectable production of geosmin. When we over expressed the spterp13 gene in S. peucetius DM07 under the control of an ermE* promoter, 2.4 +/- 0.4-fold enhanced production of geosmin was observed.

  1. Nocvel potential targets and related genes of transcription factor Caplp in Candida albicans 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YahWANG; Yong-bingCAO; Xin-mingJIA; De-junWANG; ZhengXU; HuiSHEN; KangYING; Wan-shengCHEN; Yuan-yingJIANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM Capl p, encoded by CAP1 in Candida albicans, is highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yapl p. It has been associated with tolerance to oxidative stress and resistance to a variety of toxicants previously. We used homemade microarray to reveal Capl p related genes in a broad spectrum as well as to lucubrate the functions of Capl p. METHODS Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes between CAP1 deletion strain CJD21 and its parental strain CAI4. CAP1 over-expression strain was constructed to confirm the relationship between CAP1 and some differentially expressedgenes. Bioinformatics was applied to reveal promoters with Capl p binding site as well as the clusters of differentially expressed genes. RT-PCR and drug efflux analysis were used to lucubrate the functions of Caplp in Candida albicans.

  2. Cloning of smac gene and its overexpression effects on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To clone smac gene and construct eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNA3.1/ smac. The smac gene was transfected into HeLa cells to explore the effects of over-expression of extrinsic smac gene on radiosensitivity to γ-rays of HeLa cells. Methods: The full-length smac gene was amplified from total RNA of HeLa cells by RTPCR. The RTPCR product was ligated with the vector pcDNA3.1 and sequenced. The correct pcDNA3.1/smac was transfected into HeLa cells. The expression of smac gene was tested by RTPCR and Western blot. The cellular growth inhibition rates were evaluated by MTT 48 horns after irradiation with different doses of γ-rays. Results: Recombinant eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNA3.1/smac was successfully constructed. RTPCR and Western blot results indicated that the expression of smac gene of HeLa/smac cells was significantly enhanced compared with the expression of smac gene of HeLa/pcDNA3.1 and HeLa cells. 48 hours after different doses of γ-ray irradiation was significantly higher in pcDNA3.1/smac transfected HeLa/smac cells than those of non-transfected HeLa cells or pcDNA3.1 transfected HeLa/pcDNA3.1 cells, inhabitation rates were 38.85%, 17.64% and 20.32%, respectively. Conclusions: smac gene was successfully cloned. Extrinsic smac gene over-expression could significantly enhance radiosensitivity to γ-ray of HeLa cells, which would herald a new approach to improve radiosensitivity of cervical cancer. (authors)

  3. 胃癌组织中miR-181a和miR-27a高表达及意义%Over-expression and significance of miR-181a and miR-27a in gastric carcinoma tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈熙; 聂玉强; 叶敏; 杜艳蕾; 林泳

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate expression levels of the miR-181a and miR-27a in gastric cancers, and their correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods: Fifty pairs of surgically resected specimens of gastric carcinoma and adjacent tissue (at least 5cm from the lesions) were obtained. Another 25 mucosa samples from patients with chronic superficial gastritis were included as controls. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed to detect the expressions of miR-181a and miR-27a in these samples. Results;The miR-181a and miR-27a expression in gastric cancers was up-regulated compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues and mucosa in chronic superficial gastritis (both P <0. 05). Both miR-181a and miR-27a expressions were not statistically associated with patient age, gender, pathology and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion; Both miR-181a and miR-27a are over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and may play a role in development of the disease.%目的:分析miR-181a与miR-27a两种miRNAs在胃癌中的表达及其与胃癌临床病理特征的关系.方法:选取广州市第一人民医院胃癌外科手术切除的胃癌标本50例和对应的距离胃癌病灶5 cm以上的癌旁组织,以及25例慢性浅表性胃炎黏膜为对照,采用实时荧光定量-PCR(qRT-PCR)对miR-181a和miR-27a作定量分析.结果:相对于自身癌旁组织和他人的慢性浅表性胃炎组织,miR-181a和miR-27a在胃癌组织中表达上调,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).胃癌者的性别、年龄、病例分型和淋巴结转移与miR-181a和miR-27a表达无显著相关性.结论:miR-181a和miR-27a在胃癌组织中显著表达,可能参与胃癌的发生过程.

  4. Identification of a novel gene family that includes the interferon-inducible human genes 6–16 and ISG12

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    Parker Nadeene

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human 6–16 and ISG12 genes are transcriptionally upregulated in a variety of cell types in response to type I interferon (IFN. The predicted products of these genes are small (12.9 and 11.5 kDa respectively, hydrophobic proteins that share 36% overall amino acid identity. Gene disruption and over-expression studies have so far failed to reveal any biochemical or cellular roles for these proteins. Results We have used in silico analyses to identify a novel family of genes (the ISG12 gene family related to both the human 6–16 and ISG12 genes. Each ISG12 family member codes for a small hydrophobic protein containing a conserved ~80 amino-acid motif (the ISG12 motif. So far we have detected 46 family members in 25 organisms, ranging from unicellular eukaryotes to humans. Humans have four ISG12 genes: the 6–16 gene at chromosome 1p35 and three genes (ISG12(a, ISG12(b and ISG12(c clustered at chromosome 14q32. Mice have three family members (ISG12(a, ISG12(b1 and ISG12(b2 clustered at chromosome 12F1 (syntenic with human chromosome 14q32. There does not appear to be a murine 6–16 gene. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, genomic organisation and intron-alignments we suggest that this family has arisen through divergent inter- and intra-chromosomal gene duplication events. The transcripts from human and mouse genes are detectable, all but two (human ISG12(b and ISG12(c being upregulated in response to type I IFN in the cell lines tested. Conclusions Members of the eukaryotic ISG12 gene family encode a small hydrophobic protein with at least one copy of a newly defined motif of ~80 amino-acids (the ISG12 motif. In higher eukaryotes, many of the genes have acquired a responsiveness to type I IFN during evolution suggesting that a role in resisting cellular or environmental stress may be a unifying property of all family members. Analysis of gene-function in higher eukaryotes is complicated by the possibility of

  5. The Impact of Altered Gravity and Vibration on Endothelial Cells During a Parabolic Flight

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    Markus Wehland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial cells (EC cultured under altered gravity conditions show a cytoskeletal disorganization and differential gene expression (short-term effects, as well as apoptosis in adherently growing EC or formation of tubular 3D structures (long-term effects. Methods: Investigating short-term effects of real microgravity, we exposed EC to parabolic flight maneuvers and analysed them on both protein and transcriptional level. The effects of hypergravity and vibration were studied separately. Results: Pan-actin and tubulin proteins were elevated by vibration and down-regulated by hypergravity. β-Actin was reduced by vibration. Moesin protein was reduced by both vibration and hypergravity, ezrin potein was strongly elevated under vibration. Gene expression of ACTB, CCND1, CDC6, CDKN1A, VEGFA, FLK-1, EZR, ITBG1, OPN, CASP3, CASP8, ANXA2, and BIRC5 was reduced under vibration. With the exception of CCNA2, CCND1, MSN, RDX, OPN, BIRC5, and ACTB all investigated genes were downregulated by hypergravity. After one parabola (P CCNA2, CCND1, CDC6, CDKN1A, EZR, MSN, OPN, VEGFA, CASP3, CASP8, ANXA1, ANXA2, and BIRC5 were up-, while FLK1 was downregulated. EZR, MSN, OPN, ANXA2, and BIRC5 were upregulated after 31P. Conclusions: Genes of the cytoskeleton, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation were affected by parabolic flight maneuvers. We show that the microgravity stimulus is stronger than hypergravity/vibration.

  6. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Intan H; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  7. Expanding the molecular toolbox for Lactococcus lactis: construction of an inducible thioredoxin gene fusion expression system

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  8. Oncogene and therapeutic target analyses in atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Katharina; Tantcheva-Poor, Iliana; Mauch, Cornelia; Büttner, Reinhard; Quaas, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Until now, almost nothing is known about the tumorigenesis of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS). Our hypothesis is that AFX is the non-infiltrating precursor lesion of PDS. Materials and Methods We performed the world-wide most comprehensive immunohistochemical and mutational analysis in well-defined AFX (n=5) and PDS (n=5). Results In NGS-based mutation analyses of selected regions by a 17 hotspot gene panel of 102 amplicons we could detect TP53 mutations in all PDS as well as in the only analyzed AFX and PDS of the same patient. Besides, we detected mutations in the CDKN2A, HRAS, KNSTRN and PIK3CA genes. Performing immunohistochemistry for CTNNB1, KIT, CDK4, c-MYC, CTLA-4, CCND1, EGFR, EPCAM, ERBB2, IMP3, INI-1, MKI67, MDM2, MET, p40, TP53, PD-L1 and SOX2 overexpression of TP53, CCND1 and CDK4 was seen in AFX as well as in PDS. IMP3 was upregulated in 2 AFX (weak staining) and 4 PDS (strong staining). FISH analyses for the genes FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 revealed negative results in all tumors. Conclusions UV-induced TP53 mutations as well as CCND1/CDK4 changes seem to play essential roles in tumorigenesis of PDS. Furthermore, we found some more interesting mutated genes in other oncogene pathways (activating mutations of HRAS and PIK3CA). All AFX and PDS investigated immunohistochemically presented with similar oncogene expression profiles (TP53, CCND1, CDK4 overexpression) and the single case with an AFX and PDS showed complete identical TP53 and PIK3CA mutation profiles in both tumors. This reinforces our hypothesis that AFX is the non-infiltrating precursor lesion of PDS. PMID:26943575

  9. Functional gene silencing mediated by chitosan/siRNA nanocomplexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, A M; Su, D; Che, O; Li, W S; Sun, L; Zhang, Z Y; Xu, F [Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282 (China); Yang, B, E-mail: andrewfxu1998@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University-Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2009-10-07

    Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to knock down FHL2 gene expression were reported in this work. The physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface charge, morphology and complex stability of chitosan nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA were evaluated. Nanoparticles which were formulated with chitosan/siRNA exhibited irregular, lamellar and dendritic structures with a hydrodynamic radius size of about 148 nm and net positive charges with zeta-potential value of 58.5 mV. The knockdown effect of the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles on gene expression in FHL2 over-expressed human colorectal cancer Lovo cells was investigated. The result showed that FHL2 siRNA formulated within chitosan nanoparticles could knock down about 69.6% FHL2 gene expression, which is very similar to the 68.8% reduced gene expression when siRNA was transfected with liposome Lipofectamine. Western analysis further showed significant FHL-2 protein expression reduced by the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. The results also showed that blocking FHL2 expression by siRNA could also inhibit the growth and proliferation of human colorectal cancer Lovo cells. The current results demonstrated that chitosan-based siRNA nanoparticles were a very efficient delivery system for siRNA in vivo as previously reported.

  10. Functional gene silencing mediated by chitosan/siRNA nanocomplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles to knock down FHL2 gene expression were reported in this work. The physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface charge, morphology and complex stability of chitosan nanoparticle-incorporated siRNA were evaluated. Nanoparticles which were formulated with chitosan/siRNA exhibited irregular, lamellar and dendritic structures with a hydrodynamic radius size of about 148 nm and net positive charges with zeta-potential value of 58.5 mV. The knockdown effect of the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles on gene expression in FHL2 over-expressed human colorectal cancer Lovo cells was investigated. The result showed that FHL2 siRNA formulated within chitosan nanoparticles could knock down about 69.6% FHL2 gene expression, which is very similar to the 68.8% reduced gene expression when siRNA was transfected with liposome Lipofectamine. Western analysis further showed significant FHL-2 protein expression reduced by the chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. The results also showed that blocking FHL2 expression by siRNA could also inhibit the growth and proliferation of human colorectal cancer Lovo cells. The current results demonstrated that chitosan-based siRNA nanoparticles were a very efficient delivery system for siRNA in vivo as previously reported.

  11. The Expression of Embryonic Liver Development Genes in Hepatitis C Induced Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Martha, E-mail: mbehnke@mcvh-vcu.edu [Transplant Program Administration, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, 1200 E. Broad St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Reimers, Mark [Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 800 E Leigh St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Fisher, Robert [Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1200 E. Broad St., Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2012-09-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a difficult disease to study even after a decade of genomic analysis. Patient and disease heterogeneity, differences in statistical methods and multiple testing issues have resulted in a fragmented understanding of the molecular basis of tumor biology. Some researchers have suggested that HCC appears to share pathways with embryonic development. Therefore we generated targeted hypotheses regarding changes in developmental genes specific to the liver in HCV-cirrhosis and HCV-HCC. We obtained microarray studies from 30 patients with HCV-cirrhosis and 49 patients with HCV-HCC and compared to 12 normal livers. Genes specific to non-liver development have known associations with other cancer types but none were expressed in either adult liver or tumor tissue, while 98 of 179 (55%) genes specific to liver development had differential expression between normal and cirrhotic or HCC samples. We found genes from each developmental stage dysregulated in tumors compared to normal and cirrhotic samples. Although there was no single tumor marker, we identified a set of genes (Bone Morphogenetic Protein inhibitors GPC3, GREM1, FSTL3, and FST) in which at least one gene was over-expressed in 100% of the tumor samples. Only five genes were differentially expressed exclusively in late-stage tumors, indicating that while developmental genes appear to play a profound role in cirrhosis and malignant transformation, they play a limited role in late-stage HCC.

  12. Endothelial differentiation gene-1, a new downstream gene is involved in RTEF-1 induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping He

    Full Text Available Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 (RTEF-1 has been suggested to induce angiogenesis through regulating target genes. Whether RTEF-1 has a direct role in angiogenesis and what specific genes are involved in RTEF-1 driven angiogenisis have not been elucidated. We found that over-expressing RTEF-1 in Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1 significantly increased endothelial cell aggregation, growth and migration while the processes were inhibited by siRNA of RTEF-1. In addition, we observed that Endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1 expression was up-regulated by RTEF-1 at the transcriptional level. RTEF-1 could bind to Edg-1 promoter and subsequently induce its activity. Edg-1 siRNA significantly blocked RTEF-1-driven increases in endothelial cell aggregation in a Matrigel assay and retarded RTEF-1-induced endothelial cell growth and migration. Pertussis Toxin (PTX, a Gi/Go protein sensitive inhibitor, was found to inhibit RTEF-1 driven endothelial cell aggregation and migration. Our data demonstrates that Edg-1 is a potential target gene of RTEF-1 and is involved in RTEF-1-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells. Gi/Go protein coupled receptor pathway plays a role in RTEF-1 driven angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

  13. Expression profile of genes during resistance reversal in a temephos selected strain of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti.

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    Clare Strode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors because it transmits two major arboviruses, dengue and yellow fever, which cause significant global morbidity and mortality. Chemical insecticides form the cornerstone of vector control. The organophosphate temephos a larvicide recommended by WHO for controlling Ae. aegypti, however, resistance to this compound has been reported in many countries, including Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify genes implicated in metabolic resistance in an Ae. aegypti temephos resistant strain, named RecR, through microarray analysis. We utilized a custom 'Ae. aegypti detox chip' and validated microarray data through RT-PCR comparing susceptible and resistant individuals. In addition, we analyzed gene expression in 4(th instar larvae from a reversed susceptible strain (RecRev, exposed and unexposed to temephos. The results obtained revealed a set of 13 and 6 genes significantly over expressed in resistant adult mosquitoes and larvae, respectively. One of these genes, the cytochrome P450 CYP6N12, was up-regulated in both stages. RT-PCR confirmed the microarray results and, additionally, showed no difference in gene expression between temephos exposed and unexposed RecRev mosquitoes. This suggested that the differences in the transcript profiles among the strains are heritable due to a selection process and are not caused by immediate insecticide exposure. Reversal of temephos resistance was demonstrated and, importantly, there was a positive correlation between a decrease in the resistance ratio and an accompanying decrease in the expression levels of previously over expressed genes. Some of the genes identified here have also been implicated in metabolic resistance in other mosquito species and insecticide resistant populations of Ae. aegypti. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of gene expression signatures associated to

  14. Genes and Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet Tips" to find out more! Email * Zipcode Genes and Psoriasis Genes hold the key to understanding ... is responsible for causing psoriatic disease. How do genes work? Genes control everything from height to eye ...

  15. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  16. Autism associated gene, engrailed2, and flanking gene levels are altered in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous genetic studies demonstrated association between the transcription factor engrailed2 (EN2 and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Subsequent molecular analysis determined that the EN2 ASD-associated haplotype (rs1861972-rs1861973 A-C functions as a transcriptional activator to increase gene expression. EN2 is flanked by 5 genes, serotonin receptor5a (HTR5A, insulin induced gene1 (INSIG1, canopy1 homolog (CNPY1, RNA binding motif protein33 (RBM33, and sonic hedgehog (SHH. These flanking genes are co-expressed with EN2 during development and coordinate similar developmental processes. To investigate if mRNA levels for these genes are altered in individuals with autism, post-mortem analysis was performed. METHODS: qRT-PCR quantified mRNA levels for EN2 and the 5 flanking genes in 78 post-mortem cerebellar samples. mRNA levels were correlated with both affection status and rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype. Molecular analysis investigated whether EN2 regulates flanking gene expression. RESULTS: EN2 levels are increased in affected A-C/G-T individuals (p = .0077. Affected individuals also display a significant increase in SHH and a decrease in INSIG1 levels. Rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype is correlated with significant increases for SHH (A-C/G-T and CNPY1 (G-T/G-T levels. Human cell line over-expression and knock-down as well as mouse knock-out analysis are consistent with EN2 and SHH being co-regulated, which provides a possible mechanism for increased SHH post-mortem levels. CONCLUSIONS: EN2 levels are increased in affected individuals with an A-C/G-T genotype, supporting EN2 as an ASD susceptibility gene. SHH, CNPY1, and INSIG1 levels are also significantly altered depending upon affection status or rs1861972-rs1861973 genotype. Increased EN2 levels likely contribute to elevated SHH expression observed in the post-mortem samples.

  17. Sleep Disturbance Induced by Cocaine Abstinence Involving in A2A Receptor over-Expression in Rat Hypothalamus%可卡因戒断致大鼠睡眠结构失调涉及下丘脑腺苷A2A受体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪芬芳; 刘晓军; 贺长生; 杨树龙

    2012-01-01

    control group, no significant changes existed among adenosine Al, A2A and A2B receptors in rat cerebellum on cocaine withdrawal day 1, day 8 and day 14, Our findings suggest that sleep disorder caused by subacute and subchronic cocaine abstinence may be associated with over-expression of adenosine A2A receptor in rat hypothalamus to some extent.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of SET domain gene family in foxtail millet identifies the putative role of SiSET14 in abiotic stress tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Dangi, Anand; Shweta, Shweta; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    SET domain-containing genes catalyse histone lysine methylation, which alters chromatin structure and regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The present study identified 53 SET domain-containing genes in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and the genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses classified SiSET proteins into five classes (I–V). RNA-seq derived expression profiling showed that SiSET genes were differentially expressed in four tissues namely, leaf, root, stem and spica. Expression analyses using qRT-PCR was performed for 21 SiSET genes under different abiotic stress and hormonal treatments, which showed differential expression of these genes during late phase of stress and hormonal treatments. Significant upregulation of SiSET gene was observed during cold stress, which has been confirmed by over-expressing a candidate gene, SiSET14 in yeast. Interestingly, hypermethylation was observed in gene body of highly differentially expressed genes, whereas methylation event was completely absent in their transcription start sites. This suggested the occurrence of demethylation events during various abiotic stresses, which enhance the gene expression. Altogether, the present study would serve as a base for further functional characterization of SiSET genes towards understanding their molecular roles in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27585852

  19. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10−9; LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  20. Prediction of Associations between microRNAs and Gene Expression in Glioma Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wuchty

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the determination of miR interactions, their regulatory role in cancer is only beginning to be unraveled. Utilizing gene expression data from 27 glioblastoma samples we found that the mere knowledge of physical interactions between specific mRNAs and miRs can be used to determine associated regulatory interactions, allowing us to identify 626 associated interactions, involving 128 miRs that putatively modulate the expression of 246 mRNAs. Experimentally determining the expression of miRs, we found an over-representation of over(under-expressed miRs with various predicted mRNA target sequences. Such significantly associated miRs that putatively bind over-expressed genes strongly tend to have binding sites nearby the 3'UTR of the corresponding mRNAs, suggesting that the presence of the miRs near the translation stop site may be a factor in their regulatory ability. Our analysis predicted a significant association between miR-128 and the protein kinase WEE1, which we subsequently validated experimentally by showing that the over-expression of the naturally under-expressed miR-128 in glioma cells resulted in the inhibition of WEE1 in glioblastoma cells.

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a mouse gene upregulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment reveals alternative splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of mouse cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) potently initiates an inflammatory response, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We therefore sought to characterize cDNA sequences of a new mouse LPS-responsive gene, and to evaluate the effects of MLrg. Full-length cDNAs were obtained from LPS-treated NIH3T3 cells. We report that the MLrg gene produces two alternative splice products (GenBank Accession Nos. (DQ316984) and (DQ320011)), respectively, encoding MLrgW and MLrgS polypeptides. Both proteins contain zinc finger and leucine zipper domains and are thus potential regulators of transcription. Expression of MLrgW and MLrgS were robustly upregulated following LPS treatment, and the proteins were localized predominantly in the nuclear membrane and cytoplasm. In stable transfectants over-expressing MLrgW the proportion of cells in G1 phase was significantly reduced, while in cells over-expressing MLrgS the proportion of cells in G2 was significantly increased; both proteins are thus potential regulators of cell cycle progression. Upregulation of MLrgW and MLrgS may be an important component of the LPS inflammatory pathway and of the host response to infection with GNB.

  2. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies L3MBTL4 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hu, Cheng; Bao, Minghui; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuerui; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Yequn; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Rong; Jiang, Feng; Jia, Weiping; Wang, Xingyu; Yang, Xinchun; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health burden and a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although its heritability has been documented previously, contributing loci identified to date account for only a small fraction of blood pressure (BP) variation, which strongly suggests the existence of undiscovered variants. To identify novel variants, we conducted a three staged genetic study in 21,990 hypertensive cases and normotensive controls. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three new genes (L3MBTL4 rs403814, Pmeta = 6.128 × 10(-9); LOC729251, and TCEANC) and seven SNPs at five previously reported genes were identified as being significantly associated with hypertension. Through functional analysis, we found that L3MBTL4 is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and up-regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Rats with ubiquitous over-expression of L3MBTL4 exhibited significantly elevated BP, increased thickness of the vascular media layer and cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, L3MBTL4 over-expression could lead to down-regulation of latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein 1 (LTBP1), and phosphorylation activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway, which is known to trigger the pathological progression of vascular remodeling and BP elevation. These findings pinpointed L3MBTL4 as a critical contributor to the development and progression of hypertension and uncovers a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27480026

  3. Disruption of phospholipase B gene, PLB1, increases the survival of baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Imai, K; Oishi, H; Tamai, Y

    1996-12-15

    An uracil auxotrophic mutant of baker's yeast Torulaspora delbrueckii, which is resistant to 5-fluoro-orotic acid, was complemented by transformation with YEp24 which harbors 2 microns origin and URA3 derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phospholipase B in T. delbrueckii cells is active in both acidic and alkaline conditions. However, activity of phospholipase B gene (PLB1) in cells of disruption mutant (plb1:: URA3) was lost in both conditions, which indicates that all phospholipase B activity is encoded by a single gene (or a single polypeptide) in these yeast cells. Over-expression of PLB1 with YEp plasmid vector in T. delbrueckii cells showed approximately 2.5-fold increase in phospholipase B activity, comparing with that in wild-type cells. Cells of plb1 delta mutant showed increased survival when cells of plb1 delta mutant and wild-type strain were incubated in water at 30 degrees C. Cells of PLB1-over-expressed strain died rapidly even during the cultivation period, indicating that phospholipase B activity may be a determinant for the survival of this yeast.

  4. Involvement of GATA transcription factors in the regulation of endogenous bovine interferon-tau gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hanako; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Kim, Min-Su; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Nakajima, Hiromi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2009-12-01

    Expression of interferon-tau (IFNT), necessary for pregnancy establishment in ruminant ungulates, is regulated in a temporal and spatial manner. However, molecular mechanisms by which IFNT gene transcription is regulated in this manner have not been firmly established. In this study, DNA microarray/RT-PCR analysis between bovine trophoblast CT-1 and Mardin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was initially performed, finding that transcription factors GATA2, GATA3, and GATA6 mRNAs were specific to CT-1 cells. These mRNAs were also found in Days 17, 20, and 22 (Day 0 = day of estrus) bovine conceptuses. In examining other bovine cell lines, ovary cumulus granulosa (oCG) and ear fibroblast (EF) cells, GATA2 and GATA3, but not GATA6, were found specific to the bovine trophoblast cells. In transient transfection analyses using the upstream region (-631 to +59 bp) of bovine IFNT gene (bIFNT, IFN-tau-c1), over-expression of GATA2/GATA3 did not affect the transcription of bIFNT-reporter construct in human choriocarcinoma JEG3 cells. Transfection of GATA2, GATA3, ETS2, and/or CDX2, however, was effective in the up-regulation of the bIFNT construct transfected into bovine oCG and EF cells. One Point mutation studies revealed that among six potential GATA binding sites located on the upstream region of the bIFNT gene, the one next to ETS2 site exhibited reduced luciferase activity. In CT-1 cells, endogenous bIFNT gene transcription was up-regulated by over-expression of GATA2 or GATA3, but down-regulated by siRNA specific to GATA2 mRNA. These data suggest that GATA2/3 is involved in trophoblast-specific regulation of bIFNT gene transcription. PMID:19598245

  5. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

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    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  6. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  7. Inhibitory Effect of HCPT on Expression of HIF-1α and Downstream Genes in Hypoxic Human Cervical SiHa Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei; YU Shining

    2007-01-01

    The hypoxic model to simulate hypoxic microenvironment in solid tumors was estab-lished and the effect of hydrocamptothecin (HCPT) on the hypoxia-induced over-expression of HIF-1α and VEGF genes was explored. Human cervical cancer SiHa cells were cultured in vitro un- der hypoxic conditions (37℃, 5% CO2, 1% O2) and treated with different concentrations of HCPT for 24 h. The mRNA and. protein expression levels of HIF-1α, VEGF and Glutl in SiHa cells were de-tected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Normoxic control groups were exposed to normoxic conditions for 24 h. Under normoxic conditions, HCPT had no obvious effects on the HIF-1α and VEGF gene expression. Hypoxia induced the up-regulation of HIF-1α protein and downstream VEGF gene, and HCPT showed a dose-dependently inhibitory effect on the hy-poxia-induced over-expression of HIF-1α protein and VEGF gene expression in SiHa cells, whereas HCPT had no significant effect on the HIF-1α mRNA expression. No difference in HCPT cytotoxic-ity was observed between hypoxic groups and normoxic control groups. It was suggested that HCPT could inhibite the expression of HIF-1α protein and downstream VEGF gene in hypoxic SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was not related with HCPT cytotoxicity.

  8. Functional analyses of Src-like adaptor (SLA), a glucocorticoid-regulated gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansha, Muhammad; Carlet, Michela; Ploner, Christian; Gruber, Georg; Wasim, Muhammad; Wiegers, Gerrit Jan; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan; Kofler, Reinhard

    2010-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lymphoid cells and are used in the therapy of lymphoid malignancies. SLA (Src-like-adaptor), an inhibitor of T- and B-cell receptor signaling, is a promising candidate derived from expression profiling analyses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Over-expression and knock-down experiments in ALL in vitro model revealed that transgenic SLA alone had no effect on survival or cell cycle progression, nor did it affect sensitivity to, or kinetics of, GC-induced apoptosis. Although SLA is a prominent GC response gene, it does not seem to contribute to the anti-leukemic effects of GC.

  9. HLXB9 gene expression, and nuclear location during in vitro neuronal differentiation in the SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giovanna Leotta

    Full Text Available Different parts of the genome occupy specific compartments of the cell nucleus based on the gene content and the transcriptional activity. An example of this is the altered nuclear positioning of the HLXB9 gene in leukaemia cells observed in association with its over-expression. This phenomenon was attributed to the presence of a chromosomal translocation with breakpoint proximal to the HLXB9 gene. Before becoming an interesting gene in cancer biology, HLXB9 was studied as a developmental gene. This homeobox gene is also known as MNX1 (motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1 and it is relevant for both motor neuronal and pancreatic beta cells development. A spectrum of mutations in this gene are causative of sacral agenesis and more broadly, of what is known as the Currarino Syndrome, a constitutional autosomal dominant disorder. Experimental work on animal models has shown that HLXB9 has an essential role in motor neuronal differentiation. Here we present data to show that, upon treatment with retinoic acid, the HLXB9 gene becomes over-expressed during the early stages of neuronal differentiation and that this corresponds to a reposition of the gene in the nucleus. More precisely, we used the SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cell line as an in vitro model and we demonstrated a transient transcription of HLXB9 at the 4th and 5th days of differentiation that corresponded to the presence, predominantly in the cell nuclei, of the encoded protein HB9. The nuclear positioning of the HLXB9 gene was monitored at different stages: a peripheral location was noted in the proliferating cells whereas a more internal position was noted during differentiation, that is while HLXB9 was transcriptionally active. Our findings suggest that HLXB9 can be considered a marker of early neuronal differentiation, possibly involving chromatin remodeling pathways.

  10. Gene amplification, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450s: unraveling the molecular basis of pyrethroid resistance in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Bariami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid insecticides are widely utilized in dengue control. However, the major vector, Aedes aegypti, is becoming increasingly resistant to these insecticides and this is impacting on the efficacy of control measures. The near complete transcriptome of two pyrethroid resistant populations from the Caribbean was examined to explore the molecular basis of this resistance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two previously described target site mutations, 1016I and 1534C were detected in pyrethroid resistant populations from Grand Cayman and Cuba. In addition between two and five per cent of the Ae. aegypti transcriptome was differentially expressed in the resistant populations compared to a laboratory susceptible population. Approximately 20 per cent of the genes over-expressed in resistant mosquitoes were up-regulated in both Caribbean populations (107 genes. Genes with putative monooxygenase activity were significantly over represented in the up-regulated subset, including five CYP9 P450 genes. Quantitative PCR was used to confirm the higher transcript levels of multiple cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP9J family and an ATP binding cassette transporter. Over expression of two genes, CYP9J26 and ABCB4, is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. SIGNIFICANCE: These results, and those from other studies, strongly suggest that increases in the amount of the CYP9J cytochrome P450s are an important mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. The genetic redundancy resulting from the expansion of this gene family makes it unlikely that a single gene or mutation responsible for pyrethroid resistance will be identified in this mosquito species. However, the results from this study do pave the way for the development of new pyrethroid synergists and improved resistance diagnostics. The role of copy number polymorphisms in detoxification and transporter genes in providing protection against insecticide exposure requires further investigation.

  11. Efficient four fragment cloning for the construction of vectors for targeted gene replacement in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Matilde B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid increase in whole genome fungal sequence information allows large scale functional analyses of target genes. Efficient transformation methods to obtain site-directed gene replacement, targeted over-expression by promoter replacement, in-frame epitope tagging or fusion of coding sequences with fluorescent markers such as GFP are essential for this process. Construction of vectors for these experiments depends on the directional cloning of two homologous recombination sequences on each side of a selection marker gene. Results Here, we present a USER Friendly cloning based technique that allows single step cloning of the two required homologous recombination sequences into different sites of a recipient vector. The advantages are: A simple experimental design, free choice of target sequence, few procedures and user convenience. The vectors are intented for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and protoplast based transformation technologies. The system has been tested by the construction of vectors for targeted replacement of 17 genes and overexpression of 12 genes in Fusarium graminearum. The results show that four fragment vectors can be constructed in a single cloning step with an average efficiency of 84% for gene replacement and 80% for targeted overexpression. Conclusion The new vectors designed for USER Friendly cloning provided a fast reliable method to construct vectors for targeted gene manipulations in fungi.

  12. Characterization of a bZIP gene highly expressed during ripening of the peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Tadiello, Alice; Confortin, Enrico; Pavanello, Anna; Botton, Alessandro; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    A ripening specific bZIP gene of peach was studied by ectopically expressing it in tomato. Two lines, with either a mild or a strong phenotype, respectively, were analyzed in detail. Transgenic fruit morphology was normal, yet the time spent to proceed through the various ripening stages was longer compared to wild type. In agreement with this finding the transgenic berries produced less ethylene, and also had a modified expression of some ripening-related genes that was particularly evident in berries with a strong phenotype. In particular, in the latter fruits polygalacturonase and lipoxygenase genes, but also genes coding for transcription factors (TFs) important for tomato ripening (i.e. TAGL1, CNR, APETALA2a, NOR) did not show the expected decreased expression in the red berries. As regards the RIN gene, its expression continued to increase in both mild and strong lines, and this is in agreement with the dilated ripening times. Interestingly, a metabolomic analysis of berries at various stages of ripening showed that the longer time spent by the transgenic berries to proceed from a stage to another was not due to a slackened metabolism. In fact, the differences in amount of stage-specific marker metabolites indicated that the transgenic berries had a very active metabolism. Therefore, the dilated ripening and the enhanced metabolism of the berries over-expressing the bZIP gene suggest that such gene might regulate ripening by acting as a pacemaker for some of the ripening metabolic pathways.

  13. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crabs Claw (CRC YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and characterized from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. and Zucc. Maxim. A phylogenetic analysis of EsCRC and pr