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Sample records for cce faimbe facce

  1. Carcinoma Celular Escamoso (CCE felino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Lagarde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓNEl plano nasal blanco del felino es asiento frecuente del Carcinoma Celular Escamoso (CCE. Generalmente se produce a continuación de una dermatitis actínica recidivante estacional.Su incidencia es mayor en las regiones de clima templado y en felinos que tienen por costumbre “asolearse”crónicamente y durante períodos prolongados durante los meses del verano.Las radiaciones solares no ionizantes ultravioletas (UVB son más intensas y penetrantes a través de las capas superficiales de la piel durante los meses del verano y entre las 10 hs. y las 16 hs. (incidencia perpendicular de los rayos por lo que deberán ser evitadas.Siendo la nariz del gato una zona tan visible, llama la atención, que ciertas lesiones iniciales, algunas de regular tamaño (2mm, no sean advertidas por sus dueños y ocasionalmente, tenidas poco en cuenta por algunos profesionales.Posiblemente, el desconocimiento de la gravedad potencial de esta afección sea la causa de este proceder

  2. The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) Front Anti-Coincidence Counter (FACC) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqian

    The searching for proton decay (PDK) is going on current Water Cherenkov (WCh) detectors such as Super-Kamiokande. However, PDK-like backgrounds produced by the neutrino interactions will limit the sensitivity of the detectors. The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) is going to measure the neutron yield of neutrino interactions in gadolinium-loaded water by the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) with known characteristics. In this thesis, neutrino, neutrino oscillations, Dirac neutrino and Majorana neutrino and neutrino interactions are introduced. ANNIE experiment is also introduced. And two modes of proton decays are discussed. The ANNIE experiment requires detection of the neutrons produced by the BNB interactions with water. However, dirt muons produced by the interaction of the BNB with the rock and dirt upstream of the ANNIE hall will cause a correlated background. Therefore, the Front Anti-Coincidence Counter (FACC) was built to measure the rock muons. This thesis details the design, installation, and commissioning of the ANNIE FACC.

  3. FACC: A Novel Finite Automaton Based on Cloud Computing for the Multiple Longest Common Subsequences Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the multiple longest common subsequences (MLCS has significant applications in the areas of bioinformatics, information processing, and data mining, and so forth, Although a few parallel MLCS algorithms have been proposed, the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithms are not satisfactory with the increasing complexity and size of biologic data. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing MLCS algorithms, and considering that MapReduce parallel framework of cloud computing being a promising technology for cost-effective high performance parallel computing, a novel finite automaton (FA based on cloud computing called FACC is proposed under MapReduce parallel framework, so as to exploit a more efficient and effective general parallel MLCS algorithm. FACC adopts the ideas of matched pairs and finite automaton by preprocessing sequences, constructing successor tables, and common subsequences finite automaton to search for MLCS. Simulation experiments on a set of benchmarks from both real DNA and amino acid sequences have been conducted and the results show that the proposed FACC algorithm outperforms the current leading parallel MLCS algorithm FAST-MLCS.

  4. Mapping Critical Loads for Europe. CCE Technical Report no. 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh JP; Downing RJ; de Smet PAM; de Vries W; Schopp W; Chadwick MJ; Kuylenstierna JCI; Gough CA

    1991-01-01

    This first Technical report of the Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) presents European maps of critical loads of actual acidity, sulphur and nitrogen, and maps displaying European geographical patterns of exceedances of current deposition over critical loads. Methods and assumptions used to pro

  5. Consequence-driven cyber-informed engineering (CCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); St Michel, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Assante, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-18

    The Idaho National Lab (INL) is leading a high-impact, national security-level initiative to reprioritize the way the nation looks at high-consequence risk within the industrial control systems (ICS) environment of the country’s most critical infrastructure and other national assets. The Consequence-driven Cyber-informed Engineering (CCE) effort provides both private and public organizations with the steps required to examine their own environments for high-impact events/risks; identify implementation of key devices and components that facilitate that risk; illuminate specific, plausible cyber attack paths to manipulate these devices; and develop concrete mitigations, protections, and tripwires to address the high-consequence risk. The ultimate goal of the CCE effort is to help organizations take the steps necessary to thwart cyber attacks from even top-tier, highly resourced adversaries that would result in a catastrophic physical effect. CCE participants are encouraged to work collaboratively with each other and with key U.S. Government (USG) contributors to establish a coalition, maximizing the positive effect of lessons-learned and further contributing to the protection of critical infrastructure and other national assets.

  6. The AMPTE/CCE Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, E. G.; Ghielmetti, A.; Hertzberg, E.; Battel, S. J.; Altwegg-Von Burg, K.; Balsiger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) on the AMPTE-CCE spacecraft consists of an energetic ions-mass spectrometer and an electron background-environment monitor (EBEM). The mass spectrometer covers the entire mass per charge range from below 1 to greater than 150 amu/e and the energy per charge range from 0 eV/e (spacecraft potential) to 17 keV/e. The EBEM measures electrons between 50 eV and 25 keV in eight broad energy bands. The ion and electron data are processed into color spectrogram formats for the data pool.

  7. The AMPTE/CCE Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, E. G.; Ghielmetti, A.; Hertzberg, E.; Battel, S. J.; Altwegg-von Burg, K.; Balsiger, H.

    1985-05-01

    The Hot-Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) on the AMPTE-CCE spacecraft consists of an energetic ions-mass spectrometer and an electron background-environment monitor (EBEM). The mass spectrometer covers the entire mass per charge range from below 1 to greater than 150 amu/e and the energy per charge range from 0 eV/e (spacecraft potential) to 17 keV/e. The EBEM measures electrons between 50 eV and 25 keV in eight broad energy bands. The ion and electron data are processed into color spectrogram formats for the data pool.

  8. Use of lycorine and DAPI staining in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to differentiate between rho0 and rho- cells in a cce1/delta cce1 nuclear background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massardo, D R; Zweifel, S G; Gunge, N; Miyakawa, I; Sando, N; Del Giudice, A; Wolf, K; Del Giudice, L

    2000-11-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutants are viable with large deletions (rho-), or even complete loss of the mitochondrial genome (rho0). One class of rho- mutants, which is called hypersuppressive, is characterised by a high transmission of the mutated mitochondrial genome to the diploid progeny when mated to a wild-type (rho+) haploid. The nuclear gene CCE1 encodes a cruciform cutting endonuclease, which is located in the mitochondrion and is responsible for the highly biased transmission of the hypersuppressive rho- genome. CCE1 is a Holliday junction specific endonuclease that resolves recombination intermediates in mitochondrial DNA. The cleavage activity shows a strong preference for cutting after a 5'-CT dinucleotide. In the absence of the CCE1 gene product, the mitochondrial genomes remain interconnected and have difficulty segregating to the daughter cells. As a consequence, there is an increase in the fraction of daughter cells that are rho0. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of lycorine, together with staining by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), to assay for the mitotic stability of a variety of mitochondrial genomes. We have found that rho+ and rho- strains that contain CT sequences produce a large fraction of rho0 progeny in the absence of CCE1 activity. Only those rho- mitochondrial genomes lacking the CT recognition sequence are unaffected by the cce1 allele.

  9. Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE): a methodology for anticipating future user needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Muneo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE), a new study methodology for understanding people's in situ behavior selections in daily life. People select their next behavior to maximize their satisfaction for a given behavioral needs. They appropriately coordinate available cognitive resources to make the best decisions by using their knowledge of past experiences and by processing input from the environment and individual intrinsic state. When a study field is specified, CCE starts by defining critical parameters for understanding people's behavior by considering the nature of behavior selection processes in the field in question, and then designing ethnographical field observations by taking into account the fact that their results will be described in terms of the specified critical parameters. The participants' behavior is recorded, followed by a series of structured retrospective interviews for the purpose of describing their present behavior and obtaining their history of behavioral development. Analysis of the interview results aid in developing models of present behavior selections and their chronological changes in the past. These models serve as defining future needs of persons who follow the same developing paths with a certain amount of delay, e.g., a few years of delay. This paper describes a CCE study of spectators of professional baseball games at a ballpark who have become frequent visitors to a baseball stadium in 5 years.

  10. AMPTE/CCE observations of the plasma composition below 17 keV during the September 4, 1984 magnetic storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, E.G.; Klumpar, D.M.; Peterson, W.K.; Ghielmetti, A.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1985-05-01

    Observations from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft during the magnetic storm of 4-5 September 1984 reveal that significant injection of ions of terrestrial origin accompanied the storm development. The compression of the magnetosphere at storm sudden commencement carried the magnetopause inside the CCE orbit clearly revealing the shocked solar wind plasma. A build up of suprathermal ions is observed near the plasmapause during the storm main phase and recovery phase. Pitch angle distributions in the ring current during the main phase show differences between H(+) and O(+) that suggest mass dependent injection, transport and/or loss processes. 9 references.

  11. AMPTE/CCE observations of the plasma composition below 17 keV during the September 4, 1984 magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, E. G.; Klumpar, D. M.; Peterson, W. K.; Ghielmetti, A.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1985-05-01

    Observations from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft during the magnetic storm of 4-5 September 1984 reveal that significant injection of ions of terrestrial origin accompanied the storm development. The compression of the magnetosphere at storm sudden commencement carried the magnetopause inside the CCE orbit clearly revealing the shocked solar wind plasma. A build up of suprathermal ions is observed near the plasmapause during the storm main phase and recovery phase. Pitch angle distributions in the ring current during the main phase show differences between H(+) and O(+) that suggest mass dependent injection, transport and/or loss processes.

  12. Validación del Cuestionario de Creencias Centrales de los Trastornos de la Personalidad (CCE-TP en población colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Castrillón M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un cuestionario para evaluar creencias centrales asociadas con los trastornos de la personalidad, fundamentadas en el Modelo de la Terapia Cognitiva. Se realizó el análisis estructural y la validez de contenido de la prueba en población universitaria de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. La muestra fue representativa y elegida al azar a través de un procedimiento polietápico. Un número de 809 estudiantes universitarios contestaron el cuestionario de creencias centrales de los trastornos de la personalidad (CCE-TP. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio de la prueba, reagrupándose los ítems en 14 factores (F que representan el 61,3% de la varianza. F1: CCE-TP antisocial (8 ítems, a 0,839; F2: CCE-TP esquizotípico/límite (8 ítems, a 0,846; F3: CCE-TP histriónico/patrón seductor (6 ítems, a 0,833; F4: CCE-TP paranoide (6 ítems, a 0,836; F5: CCE-TP por evitación / autopercepción negativa (5 ítems, a 0,755; F6: CCE-TP por dependencia (5 ítems, a 0,797; F7: CCE-TP histriónico/dependencia emocional (4 ítems, a 0,755; F8: CCETP obsesivo-compulsivo/perfeccionista (4 ítems, a 0,808; F9: CCE-TP por evitación/hipersensible (4 ítems, a 0,766; F10: CCE-TP obsesivo-compulsivo/ crítico frente a los demás (3 ítems, a 0,851; F11: CCE-TP narcisista (4 ítems, a 0,717; F12: CCE-TP pasivo-agresivo / temor a ser dominado (3 ítems, a 0,719; F13: CCE-TP pasivo-agresivo/crítico frente a la autoridad (3 ítems, a 0,685, y F14: CCE-TP esquizoide (2 ítems, a 0,774. El alfa de Cronbach de la prueba fue de 0,931.

  13. Opposite effects of diazepam and beta-CCE on immobility and straw-climbing behavior of rats in a modified forced-swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H; Ida, Y; Tsuda, A; Tanaka, M

    1989-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine how two ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor, which possess anxiolytic or anxiogenic actions, affect both the duration of immobility and the incidence of straw-climbing behavior in rats in a modified forced-swim test. Rats were injected IP with either vehicle, diazepam (0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg), or beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (beta-CCE; 0.5, 1, 2, 5 mg/kg), or a combination of diazepam at 1 mg/kg and beta-CCE at 2 mg/kg. In addition, Ro 15-1788 (1 mg/kg), a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, was injected IP 20 min after diazepam injection and immediately after beta-CCE injection, respectively. In the first 5-min period of the forced-swim test, diazepam at 5 mg/kg prolonged the duration of immobility, whereas beta-CCE at 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg reduced its duration. Immediately after the first 5-min test period, 4 straws were suspended above the surface of the water, and the number of straw-climbing attempts and the duration of immobility were measured for a subsequent 5-min test period. Straw-suspension elicited straw-climbing behavior in forced swimming rats, resulting in a shortening of the duration of immobility in this period. All doses of diazepam inhibited straw-climbing attempts and prolonged the duration of immobility in a dose-dependent manner. beta-CCE at 1 or 2 mg/kg enhanced straw-climbing attempts, but did not significantly affect the duration of immobility. Furthermore, the combined administration of diazepam and beta-CCE antagonized the respective drug effects on the duration of immobility and the number of straw-climbing attempts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The charge-energy-mass spectrometer for 0.3-300 keV/e ions on the AMPTE CCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Studemann, W.; Wilken, B.; Hamilton, D. C.; Kremser, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Gliem, F.; Lundgren, R. A.; Rieck, W.; Tums, E. O.; Cain, J. C.; Masung, L. S.; Weiss, W.; Winterhof, P.

    1985-05-01

    The charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft is designed to measure the mass and charge-state compositions as well as the energy spectra and pitch-angle distributions of all major ions from H through Fe with energies from 0.3 to 300 keV/charge and a time resolution of less than 1 min in the Earth's magnetosphere and magnetosheath. It has the sensitivity and resolution to detect artificially injected Li ions. Complementing the hot-plasma composition experiment and the medium-energy particle analyzer, this experiment will provide essential information on outstanding problems related to dynamical processes of space plasmas and of suprathermal ions. The instrument uses a combination of electrostatic deflection, post acceleration, and time of flight versus energy measurements to determine the ionization state Q, mass M, and energy E of the ambient-ion population. Pitch angle and anisotropy measurements are made utilizing the spinning motion of the CCE spacecraft. Isotopes of hydrogen and helium are resolved as are individual elements up to neon and dominant elements up to iron. Because of the intrinsically low instrument background achieved by using fast coincidence techniques combined with electrostatic deflection, the instrument has a large dynamic range and can identify rare elements and ions even in the presence of high-intensity radiation background. To increase significantly the information returned from the experiment within the allocated telemetry, an intelligent on-board data system which is part of the CHEM instrument performs fast M versus M/Q classifications.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING CCE1_122W_33N and MOORING_CCE1_122W_33N in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-11-11 to 2014-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0144245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144245 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING CCE1_122W_33N and MOORING_CCE1_122W_33N in the North...

  16. Structural characterization of the protein cce_0567 from Cyanothece 51142, a metalloprotein associated with nitrogen fixation in the DUF683 family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Robinson, Howard; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2009-03-11

    The genome of many cyanobacacteria contain the sequence for a small protein (<100 amino acids) with a commom "domain of unknown function" grouped into the DUF683 protein family. While the biological function of DUF683 is still not known, their genomic location within nitrogen fixation clusters suggests that DUF683 proteins may play a role in the process. The diurnal cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 51142 contains a gene for a protein that fall into the DUF683 family, cce_0567 (78 aa, 9.0 kDa). In an effort to elucidate the biochemical role DUF683 proteins may play in nitrogen fixation, we have determined the first crystal structure for a protein in this family, cce_0567, to 1.84 Å resolution. Cce_0567 crystallized in space group P21 with two protein molecules and one Ni2+ cation per asymmetric unit. The protein is composed of two α-helices from residues P11 to G41 (α1) and L49-E74 (α2) with the second α-helix containing a short 310-helix (Y46 - N48). A four-residue linker (L42 - D45) between the helices allows them to form an anti-parallel bundle that cross over each other towards their termini. In solution it is likely that two molecules of cce_0567 form a rod-like dimer by the stacking interactions of ~1/2 of the protein. Histidine-36 is highly conserved in all known DUF683 proteins and the N2 nitrogen of the H36 side chain of each molecule in the dimer coordinate with Ni2+ in the crystal structure. The divalent cation Ni2+ was titrated into 15N-labelled cce_0567 and chemical shift perturbations were observed only in the 1H-15N HSQC spectra for residues at, or near, the site of Ni2+ binding observed in the crystal structure. There was no evidence for an increase in the size of cce_0567 upon binding Ni2+, even in large molar excess of Ni2+, indicating that a metal was not required for dimer formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that cce_0567 was extremely robust, with a melting temperature of ~62ºC that was reversible.

  17. Structural characterization of the protein cce_0567 from Cyanothece 51142, a metalloprotein associated with nitrogen fixation in the DUF683 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchko, Garry W; Robinson, Howard; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2009-04-01

    The genomes of many cyanobacteria contain the sequence for a small protein with a common "Domain of Unknown Function" grouped into the DUF683 protein family. While the biological function of DUF683 is still not known, their genomic location within nitrogen fixation clusters suggests that DUF683 proteins may play a role in the process. The diurnal cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 51142 contains a gene for a protein that falls into the DUF683 family, cce_0567 (78 aa, 9.0 kDa). In an effort to elucidate the biochemical role DUF683 proteins may play in nitrogen fixation, we have determined the first crystal structure for a protein in this family, cce_0567, to 1.84 A resolution. Cce_0567 crystallized in space group P2(1) with two protein molecules and one Ni(2+) cation per asymmetric unit. The protein is composed of two alpha-helices, residues P11 to G41 (alpha1) and L49-E74 (alpha2), with the second alpha-helix containing a short 3(10)-helix (Y46-N48). A four-residue linker (L42-D45) between the helices allows them to form an anti-parallel bundle and cross over each other towards their termini. In solution it is likely that two molecules of cce_0567 form a rod-like dimer by the stacking interactions of approximately 1/2 of the protein. Histidine-36 is highly conserved in all known DUF683 proteins and the N2 nitrogen of the H36 side chain of each molecule in the dimer is coordinated with Ni(2+) in the crystal structure. The divalent cation Ni(2+) was titrated into (15)N-labeled cce_0567 and chemical shift perturbations were observed only in the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra for residues at, or near, the site of Ni(2+) binding observed in the crystal structure. There was no evidence for an increase in the size of cce_0567 upon binding Ni(2+), even in large molar excess of Ni(2+), indicating that a metal was not required for dimer formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that cce_0567 was extremely robust, with a melting temperature of approximately 62 degrees C

  18. Structural Characterization of the Protein cce_0567 from Cyanothece 51142, a Metalloprotein Associated with Nitrogen Fixation in the DUF683 Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, G.; Robinson, H; Addlagatta, A

    2009-01-01

    The genomes of many cyanobacteria contain the sequence for a small protein with a common 'Domain of Unknown Function' grouped into the DUF683 protein family. While the biological function of DUF683 is still not known, their genomic location within nitrogen fixation clusters suggests that DUF683 proteins may play a role in the process. The diurnal cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 51142 contains a gene for a protein that falls into the DUF683 family, cce 0567 (78 aa, 9.0 kDa). In an effort to elucidate the biochemical role DUF683 proteins may play in nitrogen fixation, we have determined the first crystal structure for a protein in this family, cce 0567, to 1.84 A resolution. Cce 0567 crystallized in space group P2(1) with two protein molecules and one Ni(2+) cation per asymmetric unit. The protein is composed of two alpha-helices, residues P11 to G41 (alpha1) and L49-E74 (alpha2), with the second alpha-helix containing a short 3(10)-helix (Y46-N48). A four-residue linker (L42-D45) between the helices allows them to form an anti-parallel bundle and cross over each other towards their termini. In solution it is likely that two molecules of cce 0567 form a rod-like dimer by the stacking interactions of approximately 1/2 of the protein. Histidine-36 is highly conserved in all known DUF683 proteins and the N2 nitrogen of the H36 side chain of each molecule in the dimer is coordinated with Ni(2+) in the crystal structure. The divalent cation Ni(2+) was titrated into (15)N-labeled cce 0567 and chemical shift perturbations were observed only in the (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectra for residues at, or near, the site of Ni(2+) binding observed in the crystal structure. There was no evidence for an increase in the size of cce 0567 upon binding Ni(2+), even in large molar excess of Ni(2+), indicating that a metal was not required for dimer formation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that cce 0567 was extremely robust, with a melting temperature of approximately 62

  19. cDNA cloning and characterization of the carboxylesterase pxCCE016b from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-di; FENG Xia; LIN Qing-sheng; CHEN Huan-yu; LI Zhen-yu; YIN Fei; LIANG Pei; GAO Xi-wu

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylesterase is a multifunctional superfamily and can be found in almost all living organisms. As the metabolic enzymes, carboxylesterases are involved in insecticides resistance in insects for long time. In our previous studies, the enhanced carboxylesterase activities were found in the chlorantraniliprole resistance strain of diamondback moth (DBM). However, the related enzyme gene of chlorantraniliprole resistance has not been clear in this strain. Here, a ful-length cDNA of carboxylesterasepxCCE016b was cloned and exogenously expressed inEscherichia coliat the ifrst time, which contained a 1693 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encoded a protein of 542 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that this cDNA has a predicted mass of 61.56 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point value of 5.78. The sequence of deduced amino acid possessed the classical structural features: a type-B carboxylesterase signature 2 (EDCLYLNVYTK), a type-B carboxylesterase serine active site (FGGDPENITIFGESAG) and the catalytic triad (Ser186, Glu316, and His444). The real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the expression level of thepxCCE016b was signiifcantly higher in the chlorantraniliprole resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. Furthermore,pxCCE016b was highly expressed in the midgut and epidermis of the DBM larvae. When the 3rd-instar larvae of resistant DBM were exposed to abamectin, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb insecticides, the up-regulated expression of pxCCE016b was observed only in the group treated by chlorantraniliprole. In addition, recombinant vector pET-pxCCE016b was constructed with the most coding region (1293 bp) and large number of soluble recombinant proteins (less than 48 kDa) were expressed successfuly with prokaryotic cel. Western blot analysis showed that it was coded by pxCCE016b. Al the above ifndings provide important information for further functional study, although we are uncertainty

  20. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail - AMPTE/CCE observations at R less than 8.8 earth radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.

    1987-01-01

    The MPTE/CCE magnetic field experiment has been used to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the frequency and extent of magnetic field distortion in the near-tail region at less than 8.8 earth radii. The variation of this distortion with Kp, radial distance, longitude, and near-equatorial latitude is reported. It has been found that taillike distortions from the dipole field direction may reach 80 deg near the MPTE/CE apogee of 8.8 earth radii. The Bz field component in dipole coordinates was always positive within 0.5 earth radii of the equatorial current sheet, indicating the neutral lines were never seen inside of 8.8 earth radii. Fields were most taillike near midnight and during times of high Kp. At 8.5 earth radii the equatorial field magnitude depressions were roughly half the dipole field strength of 51 nT. These depressions are larger at lesser distances, reaching -40 nT at 3.4 earth radii for Kp of 2- or less and -80 nT and Kp of 3+ and greater.

  1. A statistical study of Pc 3-5 pulsations observed by the AMPTE/CCE magnetic fields experiment. I - Occurrence distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Rounds, S. P.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    A classification system based on dynamic power spectra of AMPTE/CCE magnetic field data has been developed which allows semiquantitative specification of pulsation activity at all times. Fifteen months of 6.24-s AMPTE/CCE magnetic field data have been analyzed using this scheme to generate a comprehensive data base of all pulsation activity observed from L = 5 to L = 9 at all local times in the frequency range 0-80 mHz. The pulsation divide naturally into five basic categories: toroidal fundamental mode resonances, toroidal harmonic resonances, compressional low-frequency waves, radially polarized waves, and disturbed intervals. Additional distinctions among members of these classes are made to arrive at 14 categories which describe 95 percent of the pulsations observed. Normal spatial distributions in local time and L shell are determined for each category. Magnetic latitude distributions are determined for four coherent categories of activity.

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other variables collected from time series profile and discrete observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V New Horizon and R/V Robert Gordon Sproul in the U.S. West Coast for calibration and validation of California Current Ecosystem (CCE) Moorings from 2009-12-15 to 2015-04-29 (NCEI Accession 0146024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California Current Ecosystem moorings (CCE1 and CCE2) are surface buoys equipped with interdisciplinary scientific sensors including NOAA PMEL pCO2 system,...

  3. Internal dosimetry of a chylomicron-like emulsion doubly-labeled with 3H-TG and {sup 14}C-CE in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcato, Larissa A.; Carvalho, Diego V.S.; Santos, Robinson A.; Hamada, Margarida M.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vinagre, Carmen [University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). The Heart Institute of the Medical School Hospital; Maranhao, Raul C. [University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper describes a research about the calculation of the effective equivalent doses to which participants are exposed when submitted to studies that use artificial lipid emulsions doubly-labeled with radioactive tracers {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H. Several studies have used these emulsions in order to improve the knowledge of the biodistribution parameters of plasma lipoproteins. In the particular case of studies with chylomicron-like emulsion doubly- labeled with radioactive cholesteryl esters ({sup 14}C-CE) and triacylglycerols ({sup 3}H-TG) the dosimetric calculations was estimated indirectly. Initially, the LIA limits suggested by ICRP no 26 for {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C were used, however the LIA parameter is dependent on the chemical form of the labeled product and these parameters have not been scheduled yet for artificial lipoproteins. In particular for the {sup 14}C-CE, the internal dose in humans was estimated from the allometric theory using data from the biodistribution in rats with approximately 0.4 kg. The purpose of this paper is to improve the estimation of the effective equivalent dose in humans in order to contribute to future studies that will utilize artificial lipoproteins. For this study, chylomicron-like emulsion containing radioactive lipids were injected intravenously in bolus into the volunteers and aliquots of blood were collected at predetermined intervals of time. The activity of each aliquot was measured in liquid scintillator using a spectrometer. The plasmatic radioactive decay curves were determined and subsequently the kinetic parameters and effective equivalent doses were calculated using the ANACOMP software. It was proposed a kinetic model consisting of eight compartments for the biodistribution of plasma lipoproteins in humans. (author)

  4. Origin, transport, and losses of energetic He(+) and He(2+) ions in the magnetosphere of the Earth - AMPTE/CCE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, G.; Wilken, B.; Gloeckler, G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Ipavich, F. M.; Kistler, L. M.; Tanskanen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the ion charge-energy-mass spectrometer CHEM flown on AMPTE/CCE spacecraft are used to investigate the origin, transport, and losses of energetic He(+) and He(2+) ions in the earth's magnetosphere. The L profiles of the average ion phase space density f were determined as a function of the magnetic momentum. It is shown that the L profiles have an inner part, where f increases with L for both He(+) adn He(2+) and where steady-state conditions are fulfilled. The outer boundary L(lim) of this region is located at a distance that depends on the ion species and the geomagnetic activity level. Steady-state conditions continue outside L(lim) for He(+) ions, while the He(2+) ion distribution outside L(lim) is strongly influenced by ion convection causing a lack of steady-state conditions. It is concluded that solar wind is the origin of the He(2+), while a mixed origin is suggested for the He(+) ions, in which the major contribution is from the solar wind via charge exchange production from the He(2+) ions.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL CLINICAL EXAMINATION (CCE V / S OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION (OSCE AS AN EVALUATION TOOL FOR MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: In India, there has been a considerable rethink on the curriculum of medical education, specially, on the teaching and assessment methodology. Subjective assessment is slowly giving way to objective structured assessment. The aim of undergoing clinical ex amination is to assess the students learning skill, knowledge, professionalism and attitude avoiding examiners variability and bias. OSCE has been advocated as it overcomes the flaws of conventional clinical examination. OBJECTIVE: To find out effective, E valuation tool where the assessment is Structured, Competency based, In - depth testing of skills is done, And higher levels of Millers Pyramid is tested. Method: A comparative study was conducted in Tagore Medical College and Hospital among the 9 th Semester students. Scores obtained under both the methods were compared using statistical methods. After undergoing both the examination, feedback was collected to assess the attitude of the students towards both the methods. RESULTS: By quantitative analysis, t he two - tailed P value is 0.000 which is considered to be extremely statistically significant. So, the null hypothesis was rejected. So, there is strong reason to believe that students are able to score better under a better examination methodology. By qualit ative analysis, attitude of the students towards OSCE method was better than CCE method. CONCLUSION: It is proved that Objective structured clinical examination a statistically significant better evaluation tool with comparison to conventional examination and it can be included in the undergraduate assessment method.

  6. Validation of a questionnaire on emotional eating for use in cases of obesity: the Emotional Eater Questionnaire (EEQ Validación de un cuestionario de comedores emocionales para uso en casos de obesidad: Cuestionario de Comedor Emocional (CCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garaulet

    2012-04-01

    étricas de un cuestionario para identificar la ingesta emocional en la obesidad de fácil aplicación en la práctica clínica. Material y métodos: Se ha desarrollado y administrado un cuestionario de diez ítems llamado Cuestionario-de-Comedor-Emocional (CCE a un total de 354 sujetos (Índice de Masa Corporal: 31 ± 5, (Edad: 39 ± 12 años, pertenecientes a un programa de reducción de peso. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de la estructura interna del cuestionario, de la consistencia interna, la fiabilidad testretest y la validez convergente con el Mindful-Eater-Questionnaire (MEQ. Resultados: El análisis de componentes principales del cuestionario encontró tres dimensiones diferentes que explicaban el 60% de la varianza: desinhibición, tipo de alimento y culpa. La consistencia interna mostró que el alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,773 para la subescala "Desinhibición", 0,656 para "Tipo de alimentos" y 0,612 para "culpa". La estabilidad test-retest fue de r = 0,70. Los datos mostraron que el porcentaje de acuerdo entre el CCE y MEQ era del 70% con un índice Kappa de 0,40, P < 0,0001. Conclusión: Hemos presentado un nuevo cuestionario, que clasifica a los individuos en función de la relación entre la ingesta de alimentos y las emociones. Esta información permitirá el diseño de tratamientos personalizados desde el inicio para la obesidad.

  7. Towards a Formative Assessment of Classroom Competencies (FACCs for postgraduate medical trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An assumption of clinical competency is no longer acceptable or feasible in routine clinical practice. We sought to determine the feasibility, practicability and efficacy of undertaking a formal assessment of clinical competency for all postgraduate medical trainees in a large NHS foundation trust. Methods FY1 doctors were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine prior experience and self reported confidence in performing the GMC core competencies. From this a consensus panel of key partners considered and developed an 8 station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE circuit to assess clinical competencies in all training grade medical staff... The OSCE was then administered to all training grade doctors as part of their NHS trust induction process. Results 106 (87.6% of all trainees participated in the assessment during the first 14 days of appointment. Candidates achieved high median raw percentage scores for the majority of stations however analysis of pre defined critical errors and omissions identified important areas for concern. Performance of newly qualified FY1 doctor was significantly better than other grades for the arterial blood gas estimation and nasogastric tube insertion stations. Discussion Delivering a formal classroom assessment of clinical competencies to all trainees as part of the induction process was both feasible and useful. The assessment identified areas of concern for future training and also served to reassure as to the proficiency of trainees in undertaking the majority of core competencies.

  8. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Tagging and Tracking of Physeter (T-TOP/T-TOP2) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was devoted to studying sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) behavior. The principal study area for T-TOP and T-TOP2 was the Pioneer Seamount, 50...

  9. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Leatherback Use of Temperate Habitat (LUTH) survey is an ecosystem assessment of temperate foraging habitats of endangered leatherback turtles off the coast of...

  10. The effect of construction cost estimating (CCE software on job performance: An improvement plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Mukelas M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive statistical research on the effect of construction cost estimating software’s features towards estimating job performance. The objectives of this study are identification of cost estimating software features, analyzing the significant relation of cost estimating software’s features towards job performance, Explore the problem faced during the implementation and lastly propose a plan to improve the cost estimating software usage among contractors in Malaysia. The study statistically reveals four features of cost estimating software that significantly impact towards changes in cost estimating job performance. These features were refined by performing interview to focus group of respondent to observe the actual possible problems during the implementation. Eventually, the proposed improvement plan was validated by the focus group of respondents to enhance the cost estimating software implementation among contractors in Malaysia.

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145355926 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17:150 predicted protein Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 MRRVASRVGKRASGARPARASDAARVASRVREATRGATDDFQRRDGNARRRESARAYAASTIEDDPHALLGVARG...ASADEVKRAYRREALKWHPDRHQGDAKARAEARFKRISAAYQALSAPGGGERRARASGGGGRGGGAEDFARRARAANARRGGE

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145345908 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36017:1154 predicted protein Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 MLVETHACAWDEKTATEAIEGEHWDCARYAARAGALGRDGGALTTA...ACARKGALDQLRWMRERGVAWDASTCWSACFNGHLHVLIWARENGCPWDTRVVTESAKKGYIGCLTYALDHDAPMPQGGDMKRLIKEVNKQIENENRGNGRNVVDEDA

  13. 2013-2014 California Current Ecosystem (CCE14): Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Coastal Pelagic Fishes (Legs I and II); and Investigations of hake survey methods, life history, and associated ecosystem (Legs III and IV) (SH1405, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 acoustic-trawl method (ATM) project aboard Bell M. Shimada represents a joint effort between the SWFSC and the NWFSC in investigating elements of the...

  14. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site CCE2 from 2010-01-17 to 2014-04-29 (NCEI Accession 0130029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, CURRENT SPEED - EAST/WEST...

  15. 2013-2014 California Current Ecosystem (CCE14): Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Coastal Pelagic Fishes (Legs I and II); and Investigations of hake survey methods, life history, and associated ecosystem (Legs III and IV) (SH1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 acoustic-trawl method (ATM) project aboard Bell M. Shimada represents a joint effort between the SWFSC and the NWFSC in investigating elements of the...

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145341746 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7:616 pentatrichopeptide repeat (PPR) protein Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 MDDDAFERLDKQKASRREKRTAVRAVREEAASGGARGGTDARLSFLYEEGVNAN...DAGAVTKCNDVLRRCASMEEVLGLVKEMRDAGLEPVESTYVAVMLVCQNVGSPERAVQVYDAMTEAQVRMTGRTFHLAIELAL

  17. An unusual case of a patient who lost his native kidneys and renal allograft from cholesterol crystal emboli

    OpenAIRE

    Wasim Ahmed; Abdulkareem Al Garni; Elbadri Abdelgadir; Khamess Obeid Khamees; Mohammed Ali Ahmed Ellouly; Abdul Haleem

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal emboli (CCE) syndrome involving native kidneys is an underdiagnosed condition. CCE is rare in renal allografts. It may present with acute kidney injury, but usually not acute graft loss. CCE should be considered in patients with a history of atherosclerosis and an invasive arterial procedure who present with acute or chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Therapy for CCE is mainly supportive and carries a high rate of mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the firs...

  18. Experimental Identification and Study of Coloured Conical Emission in Quadratic Nonlinear Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua; QIAN Lie-Jia; FU Xi-Quan; LUO Hang; YUAN Peng; ZHU He-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    We have explicitly identified coloured conical emission (CCE) and noncollinear optical parametric generation (OPG) by spectrum characterizations. With an experimental setup providing different pump pulse durations,CCE and noncollinear OPG are observed both alternatively and simultaneously. Comparisons between CCE and noncollinear OPG are studied. Accumulation behaviour of modulational instabilities is observed in our two-crystal cascaded configuration, which results in enhancement or depression of the CCE formation.

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145355221 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 436017:4609 distinct from photosynthetic electron transfer catalyst, CYC6, partial Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 RDLERNGVATKEDISNLIERGKGKMPGYGESCAPKGACTFGARLDAEEIDALATYVLDRAAVDW ...

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145350610 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7:71 predicted protein, partial Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 LFSASADKTIRAWDISSRRCVQVLEEHTRPVLCLAVCVKHDKLFSGS...YDCTVRVWNLSTYRRITYLPGHTDAVRALQVYNDTTLYTASYDHTIRAYDIESLELLKVLRGHNGPVRTLVTVNDYVFSGSYDRTVRVWPAYTADCVQELKGHG...DNVRVLTVDDRHLYSGSWDKTIRVWDLETFSCKHIINGHTEAVLALCVMGGHLVSGSYDTTVRLWGVQPETEFECVGVFQGHHDAVRVLTSAGRNATTVFSGSYDGSIGFWRL ...

  1. An unusual case of a patient who lost his native kidneys and renal allograft from cholesterol crystal emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wasim; Al Garni, Abdulkareem; Abdelgadir, Elbadri; Khamees, Khamess Obeid; Ellouly, Mohammed Ali Ahmed; Haleem, Abdul

    2015-09-01

    Cholesterol crystal emboli (CCE) syndrome involving native kidneys is an underdiagnosed condition. CCE is rare in renal allografts. It may present with acute kidney injury, but usually not acute graft loss. CCE should be considered in patients with a history of atherosclerosis and an invasive arterial procedure who present with acute or chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Therapy for CCE is mainly supportive and carries a high rate of mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient who lost his native kidneys and renal allograft due to CCE arising from his own vasculature.

  2. An unusual case of a patient who lost his native kidneys and renal allograft from cholesterol crystal emboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol crystal emboli (CCE syndrome involving native kidneys is an underdiagnosed condition. CCE is rare in renal allografts. It may present with acute kidney injury, but usually not acute graft loss. CCE should be considered in patients with a history of atherosclerosis and an invasive arterial procedure who present with acute or chronic renal allograft dysfunction. Therapy for CCE is mainly supportive and carries a high rate of mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient who lost his native kidneys and renal allograft due to CCE arising from his own vasculature.

  3. Research on Cold Core Eddy Change and Phytoplankton Bloom Induced by Typhoons: Case Studies in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 8 typhoons which passed by coldcore eddy (CCE areas in the South China Sea (SCS from 1997 to 2009 were observed and evaluated. The changes in the preexisting CCE acted upon by typhoons were described by eddy kinetic energy (EKE and eddy available gravitational potential energy (EAGPE. The mechanical energy of CCE was estimated from a two-layer reduced gravity model. Comparing with the scenario that typhoon passes by the region without CCEs, the preexisting CCE area plays an important role in the increase of chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentration in the CCEs impacted by the typhoons. The preexisting chl-a in CCE is about 25%~45% (8%~25% of postexisting chl-a in CCE for higher (slower transit speed typhoons. If the EAGPE of CCE increases greatly after typhoon passing by with slow transit speed, so does the chl-a in the CCE area. The EKE (EAGPE changes of the preexisting CCE are in the order of O(1014~1015 J. EKE and EAGPE of CCE are dominantly enhanced by typhoon with slow transit speed (<3 m/s and the posttyphoon EAGPE is always larger than posttyphoon EKE for 8 cases. The maximum EAGPE change of the preexisting CCE reaches 5.11×1015 J, which was induced by typhoon Hagibis.

  4. Determination of aggregation thresholds of UV absorbing anionic surfactants by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Thomas; Varenne, Anne; Gareil, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Aggregation of anionic surfactants was investigated by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis (FACCE), a method involving the continuous electrokinetic introduction of the surfactant sample into the separation capillary. This process results in a partial separation of the monomeric and aggregated forms without perturbing the monomer-aggregate equilibrium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) can then be easily derived from the height of the firstly detected migration front, corresponding to the monomeric form. This approach is exemplified with octyl and dodecylbenzenesulfonates and compared with conductimetry and surface tension measurements. FACCE turns out to be an effective method for the determination of CMC and intermediate aggregation phenomena with very small sample and short time requirements.

  5. Authority•Privacy•Responsibility•Justice--A Brief Introduction to Civic Education Texts of CCE in the United States%权威・隐私・责任・正义--美国公民教育中心公民教材述要及评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春娜

    2013-01-01

    The civic textbooks written by the Center for Civic Education introduce four ideas which are basic to the Constitution of the United States:"authority","privacy","responsibility"and"justice". The goal of the textbooks is to teach students knowledge, skills and values of the U.S. democracy.%  美国公民教育中心编写的公民教材每学段分为四册,分别以美国政府宪政模式中的四种基本观念——“权威”、“隐私”、“责任”和“正义”为主题,深入阐述了美国联邦宪法的精神,其教学目标是向学生传授维护美国民主政治所必备的知识、技能和价值观。美国宪法教育的成功经验,对进一步加强我国中小学的宪法教育,培养社会主义核心价值观,具有思想和方法上的双重借鉴作用。

  6. Ileus caused by cholesterol crystal embolization: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Shunjiro; Ikenouchi, Maiko; Akamatsu, Takuji; Seta, Takeshi; Urai, Shunji; Uenoyama, Yoshito; Yamashita, Yukitaka

    2016-03-28

    Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a rare systemic embolism caused by formation of cholesterol crystals from atherosclerotic plaques. CCE usually occurs during vascular manipulation, such as vascular surgery or endovascular catheter manipulation, or due to anticoagulation or thrombolytic therapy. We report a rare case of intestinal obstruction caused by spontaneous CCE. An 81-year-old man with a history of hypertension was admitted for complaints of abdominal pain, bloating, and anorexia persisting for 4 mo. An abdominal computed tomography revealed intestinal ileus. His symptoms were immediately relieved by an ileus tube insertion, and he was discharged 6 d later. However, these symptoms immediately reappeared and persisted, and partial resection of the small intestine was performed. A histopathological examination indicated that small intestine obstruction was caused by CCE. At the 12-mo follow-up, the patient showed no evidence of CCE recurrence. Thus, in cases of intestinal obstruction, CCE should also be considered.

  7. The Observance of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the Soviet Union,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Information on injuries incurred as a result of wrecks or other accidents. New methods and means of cure and early diagnosis of malignant tumors in...CCE #33) and Cheremukhin (CCE-41. Solenieks was released when the malignant tumor on his lip had become inoperable (CCE #32,33). --17~ Article 12 1...note from Anatoly. It reads: Dear Mama ! I declare to the investigators and repeat to you that I am entrusting you and Natasha with the choice of a

  8. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Suk Kim; Min-Jin Kim; Young Hun Choi; Byung Kuk Kim; Kwang Sik Kim; Kyung Jin Park; Suk Man Park; Nam Ho Lee; Chang-Gu Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the suitability of citrus-press cakes, by-products of the juice industry as a source for the whitening agents for cosmetic industry. Methods:Ethylacetate extracts of citrus-press cakes (CCE) were examined for their anti-melanogenic potentials in terms of the inhibition of melanin production and mechanisim of melanogenesis by using Western Blot analysis with tyrosinese, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) proteins. To apply the topical agents, citrus-press cakes was investigated the safety in human skin cell line. Finally flavonoid analysis of CCE was also determined by HPLC analysis. Results: Results indicated that CCE were shown to down-regulate melanin content in a dose-dependent pattern. The CCE inhibited tyrosinase, TRP-2, and MITF expressions in a dose-dependent manner. To test the applicability of CCE to human skin, we used MTT assay to assess the cytotoxic effects of CCE on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The CCE exhibited low cytotoxicity at 50 µg/mL. Characterization of the citrus-press cakes for flavonoid contents using HPLC showed varied quantity of rutin, narirutin, and hesperidin. Conclusions:Considering the anti-melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.

  9. Fostering Social Cohesion and Cultural Sustainability: Character and Citizenship Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Tan, Chee Soon

    2014-01-01

    This article critically discusses the Singapore state's endeavor to balance social cohesion and cultural sustainability through the Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) curriculum. This article points out that underpinning the CCE syllabus are the state ideologies of communitarianism and multiracialism. It is argued that the ideology of…

  10. Real Language Meets Real Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  11. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to ...

  12. CRRES/SPACERAD (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite/Space Radiation Effects Program) Experiment Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-24

    A., Hertzberg, E., Battel, S.J., Altwegg-Von Burg, K., and Balsiger, H. (1984) AMPTE/CCE hot plasma composition experiment (HPCE), submitted to IEEE...CCE hot plasma composition experiment (HPCE), submitted to IEEE Trans. Remote Sensing. 151 iL Contents 1. Scientific Objectives 153 2. Applications 154

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0945 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0945 ref|XP_001418541.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO96834.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001418541.1 1e-48 38% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-09-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-09-0000 ref|XP_001421774.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00068.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421774.1 4e-08 31% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1705 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1705 ref|XP_001421089.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99382.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421089.1 2e-19 33% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-05-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-05-0032 ref|XP_001422399.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00716.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001422399.1 1e-18 24% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0049 ref|XP_001421089.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99382.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421089.1 7e-09 45% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0178 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0178 ref|XP_001420897.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99190.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420897.1 3.0 43% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-01-0040 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-01-0040 ref|XP_001422370.1| Amt family transporter: ammonium [Ostreococcus lucima...rinus CCE9901] gb|ABP00687.1| Amt family transporter: ammonium [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001422370.1 2e-57 40% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-07-0099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0099 ref|XP_001419118.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO97411.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001419118.1 5e-13 35% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1617 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1617 ref|XP_001421089.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99382.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421089.1 7e-08 37% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0114 ref|XP_001417637.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO95930.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001417637.1 0.012 30% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0158 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0158 ref|XP_001420897.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99190.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420897.1 2.0 36% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3360 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3360 ref|XP_001420118.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98411.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420118.1 3e-07 37% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-03-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-03-0067 ref|XP_001420774.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99067.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420774.1 3e-18 25% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2469 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2469 ref|XP_001415961.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94253.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415961.1 0.002 38% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0181 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0181 ref|XP_001420417.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98710.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420417.1 0.60 32% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1108 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1108 ref|XP_001420562.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98855.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420562.1 1.3 25% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0138 ref|XP_001421946.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00240.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421946.1 0.055 28% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0847 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0847 ref|XP_001416798.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO95091.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001416798.1 0.75 25% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2190 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2190 ref|XP_001422029.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00323.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001422029.1 1.9 39% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0263 ref|XP_001419448.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO97741.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001419448.1 5e-13 50% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-0166 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-0166 ref|XP_001419642.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO97935.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001419642.1 3.1 32% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-06-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-06-0035 ref|XP_001421859.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00153.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421859.1 8e-37 38% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-10-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-10-0022 ref|XP_001416230.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94523.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001416230.1 1e-102 50% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0443 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0443 ref|XP_001415961.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94253.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415961.1 9e-07 26% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1984 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1984 ref|XP_001422544.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00861.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001422544.1 3e-10 31% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-05-0038 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-05-0038 ref|XP_001416574.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94867.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001416574.1 6e-40 30% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-09-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-09-0000 ref|XP_001417737.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO96030.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001417737.1 1e-04 27% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0113 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0113 ref|XP_001418476.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO96769.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001418476.1 2.9 25% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1611 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1611 ref|XP_001421332.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99625.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001421332.1 0.091 32% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-02-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-02-0000 ref|XP_001420287.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98580.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420287.1 0.0 59% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-05-0117 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-05-0117 ref|XP_001415649.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO93941.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415649.1 2e-99 41% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0040 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0040 ref|XP_001420457.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98750.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420457.1 0.007 52% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-03-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-03-0001 ref|XP_001419097.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO97390.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001419097.1 1e-100 34% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0715 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0715 ref|XP_001420897.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO99190.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420897.1 4.3 36% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0238 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0238 ref|XP_001415560.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO93852.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415560.1 4e-06 28% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-02-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-02-0027 ref|XP_001420287.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO98580.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001420287.1 0.0 57% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0122 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0122 ref|XP_001415961.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94253.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415961.1 4e-25 32% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-1984 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-1984 ref|XP_001422545.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABP00862.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001422545.1 4e-09 33% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0212 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0212 ref|XP_001415961.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO94253.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001415961.1 0.48 30% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0065 ref|XP_001417012.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus C...CE9901] gb|ABO95305.1| predicted protein [Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901] XP_001417012.1 3e-80 40% ...

  13. Social and Rational: The Presentation of Nature of Science and the Uptake of Change in Evolution Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, Linda C.; Jackson, J. Kasi; Stoiko, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The nature of science (NOS) as described by education scholars is a critical component of scientific literacy and includes both rational and social aspects taught best in an explicit and reflective manner. NOS is frequently tied to a critical contextual empiricism (CCE) framework for knowledge production. Central to CCE is that objectivity is…

  14. Modelling and mapping of critical thresholds in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch M; de Smet PAM; Hettelingh JP; Downing RJ; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This report is the sixth in a bi-annual series prepared by the Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) to document the progress made in calculating and mapping critical loads in Europe. The CCE, as part of the Mapping Programme under the UN/ECE Working Group on Effects (WGE), develops methodologies a

  15. Calculation and mapping of Critical Thresholds in Europe: Status Report 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch M; Smet PAM de; Hettelingh JP; Downing RJ; MNV

    1995-01-01

    The present aim of the Coordination Center for Effects (CCE) is to give scientific and technical support to the development of the critical loads and level methodology, in collaboration with the Programme Centres under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Earlier CCE reports con

  16. Fostering Social Cohesion and Cultural Sustainability: Character and Citizenship Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Tan, Chee Soon

    2014-01-01

    This article critically discusses the Singapore state's endeavor to balance social cohesion and cultural sustainability through the Character and Citizenship Education (CCE) curriculum. This article points out that underpinning the CCE syllabus are the state ideologies of communitarianism and multiracialism. It is argued that the ideology of…

  17. Recent Trends in National Policy on Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessøe, Jeppe; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Climate change education (CCE) is a new phenomenon which is gaining increasing significance in the work of international organizations and international non-governmental organizations. Based primarily on a cross-national desk study of national policy documents relevant to CCE in 17 countries, which was commissioned by UNESCO to gain a robust…

  18. ("un")Doing the Next Generation Science Standards: Climate Change Education Actor-Networks in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Nicole M.; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research investigated how science education communities of practice in Oklahoma engage in translations of climate change education (CCE). Applications of actor-network theory to educational policymaking facilitate this analysis of the spaces of prescription and spaces of negotiation that characterize CCE in Oklahoma. Informed by…

  19. Geografilärares och niondeklassares syn på undervisningen om klimatförändringenClimate change education: Geography teachers’ and ninth-graders’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Hermans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been increasingly recognised that education plays a key role in addressing human-induced climate change. The ultimate goal of climate change education (CCE is positive impacts on the climate through both individual and collective actions. The aim of this study is to investigate geography teachers’ and their ninth-graders’ views about CCE. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with geography teachers (N = 13 and questionnaires for ninth-graders (N = 549 at eleven secondary schools from all parts of Swedish-speaking Finland. The results show that although the students’ attitudes to CCE is positive, it does not supply them with action competence. The geography teachers in this study largely miss the ultimate goal of CCE, pointing at the need for more effort to be made in the process of developing CCE at secondary school.

  20. Clinical Application of Colon Capsule Endoscopy%胶囊结肠镜的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟欣颖; 周长宏

    2013-01-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a newly developed capsule endoscopy to detect colonic mucosal lesion. Initially, CCE was applied for screening of colon cancer, but now it is also used to diagnose and evaluate inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) , especially ulcerative colitis ( UC ). CCE has advantages and disadvantages in compared with conventional colonoscope. This article reviewed the clinical application of CCE.%胶囊结肠镜(CCE)是一种检查结肠黏膜病变的新型胶囊内镜.最初用于结肠癌的筛查,目前逐渐用于炎症性肠病,尤其是溃疡性结肠炎的诊断和病情评估.CCE在临床应用方面与传统结肠镜相比各有优劣.本文就CCE的临床应用现状作一综述.

  1. Industrial collaborators honoured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Picture 01 : the winners gather after the ALICE Award ceremony (from left to right): Yuri Saveliev, Stanislav Burachas and Sergei Beloglovsky of North Crystals; Maximilian Metzger, CERN's secretary-general; Rang Cai of ATM; Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson; Erich Pamminger and Daniel Gattinger of FACC; and Tiejun Wang of ATM. The ALICE collaboration has presented its second round of awards to three companies for their novel and remarkable contributions to major detector systems: Advance Technology and Materials (ATM), Fischer Advanced Composite Components (FACC) and North Crystals. The awards presented to these three leaders in advanced, modern materials were beautifully sculpted from one of the oldest materials used by mankind to manufacture tools - Mexican Obsidian

  2. Characterisation of the Nevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin`s) syndrome (NBCCS) gene region on chromosome 9q22-q31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.J.; Digweed, M.; Sperling, K. [Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)] [and other

    1994-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited malignancy-associated disease of unknown etiology. The gene has been mapped to chromosome 9q22-q31 by us and other groups, using linkage analysis and loss of heterozygosity studies. Subsequent linkage and haplotype analyses from 133 meioses in NBCCS families has refined the position of the gene between D9S12 and D9S287. Since the gene for Fanconi`s Anaemia type C (FAAC) has been assigned to the same 9q region, we have performed linkage analysis between FACC and NBCCCS in NBCCS families. No recombination has been observed between NBCCS and FACC and maximum lod scores of 34.98 and 11.94 occur for both diseases at the markers D9S196/D9S197. Southern blot analysis using an FACC cDNA probe has revealed no detectable rearrangements in our NBCCS patients. We have established a YAC contig spanning the region from D9S12 to D9S176 and STS content mapping in 22 YACs has allowed the ordering of 12 loci in the region, including the xeroderma pigmentosum type A (XPAC) gene, as follows: D9S151/D9S12P1 - D9S12P2 - D9S197 - D9S196 - D9S280 - FACC - D9S287/XPAC - D9S180 - D9S6 - D9S176. Using the contig we have been able to eliminate the {alpha}1 type XV collagen gene and the markers D9S119 and D9S297 from the NBCCS candidate region. Twelve YACs have been used to screen a chromosome 9 cosmid library and more than 1000 cosmids from the region have been identified to be used for the construction of a cosmid contig. A selection of these cosmids will be used for the isolation of coding sequencing from the region.

  3. Accuracy of Colon Capsule Endoscopy in Detecting Colorectal Polyps in Individuals with Familial Colorectal Cancer: Could We Avoid Colonoscopies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Urturi, Cristina; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Ibáñez, Inés Ana; Rodríguez De Miguel, Cristina; Dedeu, Josep Maria; Bessa, Xavier; Córdova, Henry; Pellisé, Maria; Balaguer, Francesc; Ginés, Angels; Barranco, Luis; Araujo, Isis K.; Andreu, Montserrat; Llach, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Background. Individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased risk of CRC. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of CCE in the detection of lesions and also two different colon preparations. Methods. A prospective multicenter study was designed to assess CCE diagnostic yield in a cohort of asymptomatic individuals with a family history of CRC. CCE and colonoscopy were performed on the same day by 2 endoscopists who were blinded to the results of the other procedure. Results. Fifty-three participants were enrolled. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CCE for detecting advanced adenomas were 100%, 98%, 67%, and 100%. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of CCE for the diagnosis of individuals with polyps were 87%, 97%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. CCE identify 100% of individuals with significant or advanced lesions. Overall cleanliness was adequate by 60.7% of them. The PEG-ascorbic boost seems to improve colon cleanliness, with similar colonic transit time. Conclusion. CCE is a promising tool, but it has to be considered as an alternative technique in this population in order to reduce the number of colonoscopies performed. More studies are needed to understand appropriate screening follow-up intervals and optimize the bowel preparation regimen. PMID:28265285

  4. Measurement and assessment of carrying capacity of the environment in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R Z; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2011-08-01

    Carrying Capacity of the Environment (CCE) provides a useful measure of the sustainable development of a region. Approaches that use integrated assessment instead of measurement can lead to misinterpretation of sustainable development because of confusion between Environmental Stress (ES) indexes and CCE indexes, and the selection of over-simple linear plus models. The present paper proposes a comprehensive measurement system for CCE which comprises models of natural resources capacity, environmental assimilative capacity, ecosystem services capacity, and society supporting capacity. The corresponding measurable indexes are designed to assess CCE using a carrying capacity surplus ratio model and a vector of surplus ratio of carrying capacity model. The former aims at direct comparison of ES and CCE based on the values of basic indexes, and the latter uses a Euclidean vector to assess CCE states. The measurement and assessment approaches are applicable to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) and environmental planning and management. A case study is presented for Ningbo, China, whereby all the basic indexes of ECC are measured and the CCE states assessed for 2005 and 2010.

  5. Cortex cinnamomi extract prevents streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced β-cell damage by inhibiting NF-κB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-Beom Kwon; Eun-Kyung Kim; Eun-Sil Jeong; Young-Hoon Lee; Young-Rae Lee; Jin-Woo Park; Do-Gon Ryu; Byung-Hyun Park

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic activities of cortex cinnamomi extract (CCE).METHODS: To induce in vivo diabetes, mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) via a tail vein (100 mg STZ/kg body weight). To determine the effects of CCE,mice were administered CCE twice daily for 7 d by oral gavage starting 1 wk before the STZ injection. Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration were measured as an index of diabetes. Also, to induce cytotoxicity of RINm5F cells, we treated with cytokines (IL-1β (2.0 ng/mL) and IFN-γ (100 U/mL)). Cell viability and nitric oxide production were measured colorimetrically.Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of NF-KB was assayed by using gel mobility shift assays of nuclear extracts.RESULTS: Treatment of mice with STZ resulted in hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, which was further evidenced by immunohistochemical staining of islets. However, the diabetogenic effects of STZ were completely prevented when mice were pretreated with CCE. The inhibitory effect of CCE on STZ-induced hyperglycemia was mediated through the suppression of iNOS expression. In rat insulinoma RINm5F cells,CCE completely protected against interleukin-1β and interferon-y-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, RINm5F cells incubated with CCE showed significant reductions in interleukin-1β and interferon-y-induced nitric oxide production and in iNOS mRNA and protein expression,and these findings correlated well with in vivo observations.CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism by which CCE inhibits iNOS gene expression appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation. These results reveal the possible therapeutic value of CCE for the prevention of diabetes mellitus progression.

  6. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  7. Lateral IBIC characterization of single crystal synthetic diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, A Lo; Manfredotti, C; Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Picollo, F; Prestopino, G; Re, A; Rigato, V; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the charge collection efficiency (CCE) profile of single-crystal diamond devices based on a p type/intrinsic/metal configuration, a lateral Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) analysis was performed over their cleaved cross sections using a 2 MeV proton microbeam. CCE profiles in the depth direction were extracted from the cross-sectional maps at variable bias voltage. IBIC spectra relevant to the depletion region extending beneath the frontal Schottky electrode show a 100% CCE, with a spectral resolution of about 1.5%. The dependence of the width of the high efficiency region from applied bias voltage allows the constant residual doping concentration of the active region to be evaluated. The region where the electric field is absent shows an exponentially decreasing CCE profile, from which it is possible to estimate the diffusion length of the minority carriers by means of a drift-diffusion model.

  8. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  9. Down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2 and MITF expressions by citrus press-cakes in murine B16 F10 melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Suk Kim

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: Considering the anti–melanogenic activity and human safety, CCE is considered as a potential anti-melanogenic agent and may be effective for topical application for treating hyperpigmentation disorders.

  10. Binding of (/sup 3/H)ethyl-. beta. -carboline-3-carboxylate to brain benzodiazepine receptors. Effect of drugs and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.F.; Paul, S.M.; Rice, K.C.; Skolnick, P. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Cain, M. (Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-09-28

    It is reported that in contrast to the changes in affinity of (/sup 3/H)benzodiazepines elicited by halide ions, barbiturates, and pyrazolopyridines, the apparent affinity of ..beta..-(/sup 3/H)CCE (ethyl-..beta..-carboline-3-carboxylate) is unaffected by these agents. Furthermore, Scatchard analysis of ..beta..-(/sup 3/H)CCE binding to cerebral cortical and cerebellar membranes revealed a significantly greater number of binding sites than was observed with either (/sup 3/H)diazepam or (/sup 3/H)flunitazepam, suggesting that at low concentrations benzodiazepines selectively label a subpopulation of the receptors labelled with ..beta..-(/sup 3/H)CCE. Alternatively, ..beta..-(/sup 3/H)CCE may bind to sites that are distinct from those labelled with (/sup 3/H)-benzodiazepines.

  11. The benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain and its interaction with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, I.L.; Doble, A.

    1983-06-01

    (3H)Ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate ((3H) beta-CCE) binds to a homogeneous population of recognition sites in rat whole brain membranes with high affinity. The (3H)beta-CCE binding is completely displaceable by low concentrations of a number of benzodiazepines with similar potencies found when using a 3H-benzodiazepine as the ligand. This suggests that the recognition sites for beta-CCE and the benzodiazepines are identical or that they are involved in a close interaction. The binding of (3H)beta-CCE does not obey simple mass-action kinetics. (3H)Flunitrazepam dissociation from its receptor population is biphasic, and different methods of initiation of this dissociation indicate that cooperative interactions take place within the receptor population. We conclude that the benzodiazepine receptor is a single entity that can exist in two conformations, the equilibrium between which may be controlled by some as yet unidentified factor.

  12. Critical care ultrasonography in acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric

    2016-08-15

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript.

  13. A YAC contig spanning the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Fanconi anaemia group C, and xeroderma pigmentosum group A loci on chromosome 9q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.J.; Reis, A. [Freie Universtiaet, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized primarily by multiple basal cell carcinomas, epithelium-lined jaw cysts, and palmar and plantar pits, as well as various other features. Loss of heterozygosity studies and linkage analysis have mapped the NBCCS gene to chromosome 9q and suggested that it is a tumor suppressor. The apparent sensitivity of NBCCS patients to UV and X-irradiation raises the possibility of hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging reagents or defective DNA repair being etiological in the disorder. The recent mapping of the Fanconi anaemia group C (FACC) and xeroderma pigmentosum complementing group A (XPAC) genes to the same region on 9q has led us to begin the molecular dissection of the 9q22-q31 region. PCR analysis of the presence or absence of 10 microsatellite markers and exons 3 and 4 of the XPAC and FACC genes, respectively, allowed us to order 12 YACs into an overlapping contig and to order the markers as follows: D9S151/D9S12P1-D9S12P2-D9S197-D9S196-D9S280-FACC-D9S287/XPAC-D9S180-D9S6-D9S176. Sizing of the YACs has provided an initial estimate of the size of the NBCCS candidate region between D9S12 and D9S180 to be less than 1.65 Mb. 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. PillCam© Colon Capsule for the study of colonic pathology in clinical practice: Study of agreement with colonoscopy Capsula colónica PillCam© para el estudio de la patología del colon en la práctica clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herrerías-Gutiérrez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: several studies have pointed out the effectiveness of the PillCam© colon capsule endoscopy (CCE compared with the colonoscopy in the study of the colonic pathology. Aims and methods: the objective of our study was to assess the agreement in the diagnosis of CCE with conventional colonoscopy as well as its sensitivity and specificity, and to describe the findings of the CCE in our clinical practice. Consecutive patients with abdominal symptoms were included in the study. The CCE was performed as previously reported (with PEG and sodium phosphate as laxative agents. The nature and location of the findings, colonic transit time, complications, cleanliness degree and consistency with diagnostic colonoscopy, when performed, were analyzed. Results: a total of 144 subjects (67 women and 77 men; (52.17±16.71 years with the following indications were included: screening of Colorectal cancer (88 patients, control after polipectomy (24, incomplete colonoscopy (7, rectal bleeding (10, anemia (8, diarrhea (7. The CCE exploration was complete in 134/144 cases (93%, with no case of retention. The preparation was good-very good in 88/134 (65,6%, fair in 26/134 (19,4% and poor in 20/134 (15% of the cases. The average colonic transit was of 140.76 min (9-603. Any adverse effect was notified. In 44 cases a colonoscopy was carried out after CCE (results were hidden from another endoscopist. Compared to colonoscopy, the rate of agreement was 75,6%, the sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 62,5%, PPV was 77,7% and NPV was 71,4 %. The colonic findings in 134 CCE were: in 34 cases CCE it did not show lesions, diverticulosis in 63 explorations, polyps in 43, angiodysplasias in 15, Crohn's Disease in 9 and ulcerative colitis in other 8 cases. Conclusions: the CCE is an effective and reliable technique for the detection of lesions in colon, and because of its high agree-ment with the colonoscopy, it could be useful in clinical practice. Further studies

  15. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne [CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb{sup -1} corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the

  16. Charge collection characteristics of Frisch collar CdZnTe gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Mark J. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: harrison@ksu.edu; Kargar, Alireza; McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2007-08-21

    A collimated {sup 198}Au source was used to determine the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at several locations along the length of a 3.4x3.4x5.5 mm{sup 3} CdZnTe bar detector, both in planar configuration and with Frisch collars of varying length. For each configuration, a 0.50-mm-long region spanning the width of the device was irradiated with 411-keV gamma rays produced by a neutron-activated gold foil. Irradiation began at the cathode and stepped in 0.50-mm steps toward the anode, with a spectrum being collected at each location. By observing the channel location of the full-energy peak in each collected spectrum, an average CCE was determined for each irradiated region. The CCE was found to vary nearly linearly along the length of the device in the planar configuration, starting at a peak value of 89% and dropping to a minimum measured value of 26% near the anode. The addition of a Frisch collar covering the entire length of the crystal greatly altered the CCE profile, which remained near 87% for approximately two-thirds of the length, then sharply dropped near the anode. Results were confirmed by theoretical models. Further CCE mapping was also completed for devices with Frisch collars of various lengths. Those results are reported as well.

  17. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Jere; Martin, John; Bradley, Curtiss

    1987-01-01

    The compound cycle engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power-compounded, ultra-high-power-density, lightweight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate-pressure-ratio, free-power-turbine gas turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military helicopter applications. Cycle thermodynamic specific fuel consumption (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configurations are presented. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical 2-hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a contemporary gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31 percent lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16 percent reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb/hp-hr and installed wet weight is 0.43 lb/hp. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  18. Effects of microalgae chlorella species crude extracts on intestinal adaptation in experimental short bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Kerem; Bulent Salman; Hatice Pasaoglu; Abdulkadir Bedirli; Murat Alper; Hikmet Katircioglu; Tahir Atici; E Ferda Pertoin; Ebru Ofluoglu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of chlorella crude extract (CCE) on intestinal adaptation in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome (SBS).METHODS: Wistar rats weighing 230-260 g were used in the study. After anesthesia a 75% small bowel resection was performed. Rats were randomized and divided into groups. Control group (n = 10): where 5% dextrose was given through a gastrostomy tube, Enteral nutrition (EN) group (n = 10): Isocaloric and isonitrogen EN (Alitraq, Abbott, USA), study group (/7 = 10): CCE was administrated through a gastrostomy tube. Rats were sacrificed on the fifteenth postoperative day and blood and tissue samples were taken. Histopathologic evaluation, intestinal mucosal protein and DNA levels,intestinal proliferation and apoptosis were determined in intestinal tissues, and total protein, albumin and citrulline levels in blood were studied.RESULTS: In rats receiving CCE, villus lengthening,crypt depth, mucosal DNA and protein levels, intestinal proliferation, and serum citrulline, protein and albumin levels were found to be significantly higher than those in control group. Apoptosis in CCE treated rats was significantly reduced when compared to EN group rats.CONCLUSION: CCE has beneficial effects on intestinala daptation in experimental SBS.

  19. Colon capsule endoscopy: What we know and what we would like to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Cristiano; Barbaro, Federico; Andrisani, Gianluca; Minelli Grazioli, Leonardo; Hassan, Cesare; Costamagna, Isabella; Campanale, Mariachiara; Costamagna, Guido

    2014-12-01

    Colonoscopy is usually perceived as an invasive and potentially painful procedure, being also affected by a small, but definite, risk of major complications (cardiopulmonary complications, perforation, hemorrhage) and even mortality. To improve both acceptability and safety, PillCam Colon Capsule Endoscopy (CCE) (Given Imaging Ltd, Yoqneam, Israel) has been developed. CCE represents a non-invasive technique that is able to explore the colon without sedation and air insufflation. The Second Generation of Colon Capsule Endoscopy (PillCam Colon 2) (CCE-2) was proven to be an accurate tool to detect colonic neoplastic lesions when used in average risk individuals. To date, the evidence supports the use of CCE-2 in case of colonoscopy failure, in patients unwilling to perform colonoscopy and when colonoscopy is contraindicated. Other potential applications, such as colorectal cancer screening or diagnostic surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease need to be clarified. In this paper, the current "state of the art", potential application of CCE and future needs are evaluated.

  20. Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations.

  1. A family of excitatory peptide toxins from venomous crassispirine snails: using Constellation Pharmacology to assess bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperial, Julita S; Cabang, April B; Song, Jie; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Gajewiak, Joanna; Watkins, Maren; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Fedosov, Alexander; Concepcion, Gisela P; Terlau, Heinrich; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2014-10-01

    The toxinology of the crassispirine snails, a major group of venomous marine gastropods within the superfamily Conoidea, is largely unknown. Here we define the first venom peptide superfamily, the P-like crassipeptides, and show that the organization of their gene sequences is similar to conotoxin precursors. We provide evidence that one peptide family within the P-like crassipeptide superfamily includes potassium-channel (K-channel) blockers, the κP-crassipeptides. Three of these peptides were chemically synthesized (cce9a, cce9b and iqi9a). Using conventional electrophysiology, cce9b was shown to be an antagonist of both a human Kv1.1 channel isoform (Shaker subfamily of voltage-gated K channels) and a Drosophila K-channel isoform. We assessed the bioactivity of these peptides in native mammalian dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. We demonstrate that two of these crassipeptides, cce9a and cce9b, elicited an excitatory phenotype in a subset of small-diameter capsaicin-sensitive mouse DRG neurons that were also affected by κJ-conotoxin PlXIVA (pl14a), a blocker of Kv1.6 channels. Given the vast complexity of heteromeric K-channel isoforms, this study demonstrates that the crassispirine venoms are a potentially rich source for discovering novel peptides that can help to identify and characterize the diversity of K-channel subtypes expressed in native neurons and other cell types.

  2. Analysis of 133 meioses places the genes for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome and fanconi anemia group C in a 2.6-cM interval and contributes to the fine map of 9q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farndon, P.A.; Hardy, C.; Kilpatrick, M.W. [Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Four disease genes (NBCCS, ESS1, XPAC, FACC) map to 9q22.3-q31. A fine map of this region was produced by linkage and haplotype analysis using 12 DNA markers. The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin) has an important role in congenital malformations and carcinogenesis. Phase-known recombinants in a study of 133 meioses place NBCCS between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S176. Haplotype analysis in a two-generation family suggests that NBCCS lies in a smaller interval of 2.6 cM centromeric to D9S287. These flanking markers will be useful clinically for gene tracking. Recombinants also map FACC (Fanconi anemia, group C) to the same region, between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S287. The recombination rate between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S53 in males is 8.3% and 13.2% in females, giving a sex-specific male:female ratio of 1:1.6 and a sex-averaged map distance of 10.4 cM. No double recombinants were detected, in agreement with the apparently complete level of interference predicted from the male chiasmata map. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cell Control Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1996-01-01

    The engineering process of creating cell control systems is described, and a Cell Control Engineering (CCE) concept is defined. The purpose is to assist people, representing different disciplines in the organisation, to implement cell controllers by addressing the complexity of having many systems...... in physically and logically different and changing manufacturing environments. The defined CCE concept combines state-of-the-art of commercially available enabling technologies for automation system software development, generic cell control models and guidelines for the complete engineering process....... It facilitates the understanding of the task and structure of cell controllers and uses this knowledge directly in the implementation of the system. By applying generic models CCE facilitates reuse of software components and maintenance of applications. In many enterprises, software makes up an increasing part...

  4. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... wavelength. It is shown that it is possible to tune and modulate a DFB fiber laser with both strain from a piezoelectric transducer and by temperature through resistive heating of a methal film. Both a chemical deposited silver layer and an electron-beam evaporation technique has been investigated, to find...

  5. Community centers for elderly as leisure spaces (also for men: the coordinators look in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Mari dos Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate how Community Centers for the Elderly (CCEs in Florianópolis (SC are shaping up as leisure spaces for men. It’s an exploratory descriptive investigation with qualitative approach. Participated of this study four coordinators and a secretary (representing coordination five CCEs, one of each area of the city. One semi-structured interview was used to investigate the leisure understandings; understandings of CCEs as leisure facilities; and perceptions on the participation of men. The technique of content analysis was applied. Leisure understandings were marked by functionalist aspects (practical activities, fun, escape from problems, and extended the understanding of CCEs as leisure facilities. While the CCE Central and Continente participation of men is limited to married in CCE North and East there are no limitations. In South CCE coordinator has no interest in male participation and generally referred to in the female group.

  6. A statistical study of magnetic field magnitude changes during substorms in the near earth tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Mcentire, R. W.; Potemra, T. A.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Using AMPTE/CCE data taken in 1985 and 1986 when the CCE apogee (8.8 earth radii) was within 4.5 hours of midnight, 167 injection events in the near-earth magnetotail have been cataloged. These events are exactly or nearly dispersionless on a 72-sec time scale from 25 keV to 285 keV. The changes in the field magnitude are found to be consistent with the expected effects of the diversion/disruption of the cross-tail current during a substorm, and the latitudinal position of the current sheet is highly variable within the orbit of CCE. The local time variation of the magnetic-field changes implies that the substorm current wedge is composed of longitudinally broad Birkeland currents.

  7. Effect of Cerium on the Viscosity of Liquid Fe-C Alloy of Eutectic Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕新营; 叶以富; 刘含莲; 王焕荣; 石志强; 耿浩然

    2002-01-01

    The viscosities of liquid Fe-4.30C and Fe-4.30C-Ce alloys were measured by oscillating crucible viscometer. The results show that viscosity of Fe-4.30C alloy changes from 5.50 to 8.30 MPa*s when the liquid is cooled from 1425 ℃ to the melting point. The abnormity of viscosity of Fe-4.30C alloy near the melting point is reasonable due to the formation of graphite. The addition of cerium especially with content higher than 0.21% causes an evidently decrease in viscosity for eutectic alloy resulting from increase of free volume and size decrease of atom cluster in the liquids. It can be concended that the existence of C-Ce compound contributes to the discontinuous of viscosity at 1340~1370 ℃ for the Fe-4.30C-Ce alloy by experinments with differential scanning calorimeter.

  8. Cryogenic temperature performance of heavily irradiated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Casagrande, L; Granata, V; Palmieri, V G

    1999-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of silicon detectors, previously irradiated with high neutron fluences, has been measured at 4.2, 77 and 195 K. The CCE recovery measured after 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 is 100% at a bias voltage of 50 V. For 2x10 sup 1 sup 5 n/cm sup 2 the most probable signal collected for minimum ionising particles is 13 000 electrons, corresponding to 50% CCE, at a bias voltage of 250 V. Negligible difference has been observed between 77 and 4.2 K operation, while no recovery was measurable at 195 K. The timing of the signal was measured to be better than 5 ns. The samples were irradiated and stored at room temperature and cooled only when operated. Reproducible results were obtained after several weeks and several thermal cycles. (author)

  9. Ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S.; Easton, E.B. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Science

    2009-07-01

    A thermochemical cycle is a process by which water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions. The chemicals that are used in these reactions are regenerated and recycled during the process. Sol-gel chemistry is becoming more common for the synthesis of electrode materials. The sol-gel reaction can be conducted in the presence of a carbon black to form a ceramic carbon electrode (CCE). The resultant CCE structure contains electronically conductive carbon particle pathways that are bound together through the ceramic binder, which can also promote ion transport. The CCE structure also has a high active surface area and is chemically and thermally robust. This paper presented an investigation of CCE materials prepared using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane. Several electrochemical experiments including cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to characterize their suitability as anode electrode materials for use in the electrochemical step of the copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle. Subsequent experiments included the manipulation of the relative ratio of organosilane carbon precursors to gauge its impact on electrode properties and performance. An overview of the materials characterization and electrochemical measurements were also presented. Specifically, the paper presented the experiment with particular reference to the CCE preparation; electrochemical experiments; thermal analysis; and scanning electron microscopy. Results were also provided. These included TGA analysis; scanning electron microscopy analysis; electrochemical characterization; and anodic polarization. Characterization of these CCE material demonstrated that they had good thermal stability, could be used at high temperatures, and were therefore, very promising anode materials. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Dynamic interaction of hTRPC6 with the Orai1-STIM1 complex or hTRPC3 mediates its role in capacitative or non-capacitative Ca(2+) entry pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Isaac; Gómez, Luis J; Salido, Gines M; Rosado, Juan A

    2009-05-13

    TRPC (canonical transient receptor potential) channel subunits have been shown to assemble into homo- or hetero-meric channel complexes, including different Ca2+-handling proteins, required for the activation of CCE (capacitative Ca2+ entry) or NCCE (non-CCE) pathways. In the present study we found evidence for the dynamic interaction between endogenously expressed hTRPC6 (human TRPC6) with either both Orai1 and STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) or hTRPC3 to participate in CCE or NCCE. Electrotransjection of cells with an anti-hTRPC6 antibody, directed towards the C-terminal region, reduces CCE induced by TPEN [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine], which reduces the intraluminal free Ca2+ concentration. Cell stimulation with thrombin or extensive Ca2+-store depletion by TG (thapsigargin)+ionomycin enhanced the interaction between hTRPC6 and the CCE proteins Orai1 and STIM1. In contrast, stimulation with the diacylglycerol analogue OAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol) displaces hTRPC6 from Orai1 and STIM1 and enhances the association between hTRPC6 and hTRPC3. The interaction between hTRPC6 and hTRPC3 was abolished by dimethyl-BAPTA [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid] loading, which indicates that this phenomenon is Ca2+-dependent. These findings support the hypothesis that hTRPC6 participates both in CCE and NCCE through its interaction with the Orai1-STIM1 complex or hTRPC3 respectively.

  11. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, M. S., E-mail: mihailnovikov@yandex.ru; Ivanov, D. P., E-mail: Ivanov-DP@nrcki.ru, E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru; Novikov, S. I., E-mail: novikov-si@nrcki.ru; Shuvaev, S. A., E-mail: ser-shuvaev@yandex.ru, E-mail: sergey.shuvaev@phystech.edu [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20–30 kA, an operating temperature of 10–20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12–15 T (prospectively ∼20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet’s casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  12. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  13. Cerebellar clear cell ependymoma in a 10 year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinzar Aye Nyein; Moon, Ah Rim; Hwang, Sun Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Chin, Su Sie [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Sang [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is a histological rare variant (1–5%) of ependymoma, which is distinguished from other histological subtypes by the presence of fusiform cells arrayed radially around small blood vessels. These alleged perivascular pseudorosettes are significant characteristic features of ependymomas. About 95% of infratentorial ependymomas are found in the fourth ventricle and the remainder occurs as cerebellopontine angle lesions. In previous reports, the cerebellum is found to be a rare location for ependymoma. In this study we report one case of CCE originating from the cerebellar hemisphere, showing unusual morphology on 3T MRI.

  14. Temperature dependent IBIC study of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E. [Experimental Physics Department, Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS), Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy) and INFM, Research Unit of Torino - University, via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy)]. E-mail: vittone@to.infn.it; Rigato, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Olivero, P. [Experimental Physics Department, Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS), Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino (Italy) and INFN, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: p.olivero@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Nava, F. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via Campi, 213/A, 41100 Modena (Italy); Manfredotti, C. [Experimental Physics Department, Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS), Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFM, Research Unit of Torino - University, via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy); LoGiudice, A. [INFM, Research Unit of Torino - University, via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy); Garino, Y. [Experimental Physics Department, Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS), Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFM, Research Unit of Torino - University, via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy); Fizzotti, F. [INFM, Research Unit of Torino - University, via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    Ion beam induced charge collection measurements have been performed on an epitaxial 4H-SiC Schottky diode with a focussed 1.5 MeV H beam in the temperature range of 120-380 K. The experimental procedure consisted in measuring the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at different bias voltages (V) for each fixed temperature. The CCE versus V curves were analyzed in terms of the Schockley-Ramo-Gunn theory and the minority carrier (hole) diffusion length was obtained as a function of temperature.

  15. Colon capsule endoscopy: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, C; Hassan, C; Galmiche, J P; Neuhaus, H; Dumonceau, J M; Adler, S; Epstein, O; Gay, G; Pennazio, M; Rex, D K; Benamouzig, R; de Franchis, R; Delvaux, M; Devière, J; Eliakim, R; Fraser, C; Hagenmuller, F; Herrerias, J M; Keuchel, M; Macrae, F; Munoz-Navas, M; Ponchon, T; Quintero, E; Riccioni, M E; Rondonotti, E; Marmo, R; Sung, J J; Tajiri, H; Toth, E; Triantafyllou, K; Van Gossum, A; Costamagna, G

    2012-05-01

    PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an innovative noninvasive, and painless ingestible capsule technique that allows exploration of the colon without the need for sedation and gas insufflation. Although it is already available in European and other countries, the clinical indications for CCE as well as the reporting and work-up of detected findings have not yet been standardized. The aim of this evidence-based and consensus-based guideline, commissioned by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to furnish healthcare providers with a comprehensive framework for potential implementation of this technique in a clinical setting.

  16. Transfer of maternal immunity to piglets is involved in early protection against Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøl; Hagedorn-Olsen, Tine; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2017-01-01

    by immunoblotting and measurement of M. hyosynoviae-specific T-cell proliferation. The latter analysis may possibly indicate that M. hyosynoviae infection induces a T-cell response. The CCE piglets were significantly protected against development of lameness and pathology, as well as infection with M. hyosynoviae...... in tonsils, blood and joints, when compared to the two other groups. Raising the CCE pigs in an infected environment until weaning, with carrier sows as mothers, apparently made them resistant to M. hyosynoviae-arthritis when challenge-infected at 4½ weeks of age. More pigs in group NC had M. hyosynoviae...

  17. Coloured Conical Emission in BBO Crystal Pumped by Second Harmonic Femtosecond Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Jie; LI Yu-Hua; YIN Juan-Juan; LU Pei-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Coloured conical emission (CCE) is investigated experimentally in a β-barium borate crystal excited by intense second harmonic femtosecond pulses. Contrary sequences of green and red conical emission with variable di-ameters are observed at different incidence angles, which is consistent with the calculation results based on the phase matching condition. As its broad range spectrum, CCE offers an alternative means to produce an ultrafast broadband light source. It is found that the spectrum of green CE shifts toward longer wavelengths as the length of BBO crystal increased.

  18. Coupled-cluster theory of a gas of strongly-interacting electrons in the dilute limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaila, Bodgan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andres L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We study the ground-state properties of a dilute gas of strongly-interacting fermions in the framework of the coupled-cluster expansion (CCE). We demonstrate that properties such as universality, opening of a gap in the excitation spectrum and applicability of s-wave approximations appear naturally in the CCE approach. In the zero-density limit, we show that the ground-state energy density depends on only one parameter which in turn may depend at most on the spatial dimensionality of the system.

  19. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  20. Collaboration for Transformation: Community-Campus Engagement for Just and Sustainable Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkoe, Charles Z.; Andrée, Peter; Bhatt, Vikram; Brynne, Abra; Davison, Karen M.; Kneen, Cathleen; Nelson, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the collaborations between academics and community-based organizations seeking to fundamentally reorganize the way food is produced, distributed, and consumed as well as valued. The central research question investigates whether and how the growth of community--campus engagement (CCE) can strengthen food movements. Drawing…

  1. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  2. Frequent Collocates and Major Senses of Two Prepositions in ESL and ENL Corpora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemleke, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This contribution assesses in quantitative terms frequent collocates and major senses of "between" and "through" in the corpus of Cameroonian English (CCE), the corpus of East-African (Kenya and Tanzania) English which is part of the International Corpus of English (ICE) project (ICE-EA), and the London Oslo/Bergen (LOB) corpus of British English.…

  3. Arachidonic acid mediates non-capacitative calcium entry evoked by CB1-cannabinoid receptor activation in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuth, D.G.; Gkoumassi, Effimia; Droge, M.J.; Dekkers, B.G.J.; Esselink, H.J.; van Ree, Rutger; Parsons, M.E.; Zaagsma, Hans; Molleman, A; Nelemans, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1-receptor stimulation in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells induces a rise in [Ca2+](i), which is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and modulated by thapsigargin-sensitive stores, suggesting capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE), and by MAP kinase. Non-capacitative Ca2+ entry (NCCE) stimulated by ar

  4. Exposures in interventional radiology using Monte Carlo simulation coupled with virtual anthropomorphic phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, William S; Neves, Lucio P; Perini, Ana P; Belinato, Walmir; Caldas, Linda V E; Carvalho, Albérico B; Maia, Ana F

    2015-12-01

    In this work we investigated the way in which conversion coefficients from air kerma-area product for effective doses (CCE) and entrance skin doses (CCESD) in interventional radiology (IR) are affected by variations in the filtration, projection angle of the X-ray beam, lead curtain attached to the surgical table, and suspended shield lead glass in regular conditions of medical practice. Computer simulations were used to model an exposure scenario similar to a real IR room. The patient and the physician were represented by MASH virtual anthropomorphic phantoms, inserted in the MCNPX 2.7.0 radiation transport code. In all cases, the addition of copper filtration also increased the CCE and CCESD values. The highest CCE values were obtained for lateral, cranial and caudal projections. In these projections, the X-ray tube was located above the table, and more scattered radiation reached the middle and upper portions of the physician trunk, where most of the radiosensitive organs are located. Another important result of this study was to show that the physician's protection is 358% higher when the lead curtain and suspended shield lead glasses are used. The values of CCE and CCESD, presented in this study, are an important resource for calculation of effective doses and entrance skin doses in clinical practice.

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145343566 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_001416390.1 33090:1631 3041:2622 1035538:2020 13792:2020 70447:1095 242159:1296 436017:1296 circadian rhy...thm control Timeless-like protein Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 MSKYSEAHLLSLVSTI

  6. Objective measures of subjective experience: the use of therapist notes in process-outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Wilma; Maskit, Bernard; Hoffman, Leon

    2012-06-01

    Computerized linguistic measures of emotional engagement, and reflective and affective language, previously applied to session transcripts, were applied to notes of 14 treatments by candidates under supervision at the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute, covering the five decades from the 1950s to the 1990s. The findings indicate a strong relationship between candidates' subjective experience as represented unintentionally in the linguistic style of their case notes and the effectiveness of their clinical work. The treatments were evaluated for effectiveness by experienced clinicians using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Psychodynamic Functioning Scales of Høglend and colleagues; a Composite Clinical Effectiveness (CCE) measure was constructed based on level and change in these measures. The Mean High Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (MHW), a computerized measure of emotional engagement developed in the framework of Bucci's theory of multiple coding and the referential process, showed a positive correlation of .73 with CCE. The Hostility subcategory of the Negative Affect Dictionary (ANH) showed a negative correlation, -.48, with CCE. In a multiple regression analysis, these two variables accounted for over three-quarters of the variance in the CCE. Implications of the findings for process/outcome research and supervision and evaluation of trainees are discussed.

  7. Degradation of the charge collection efficiency of an n-type Fz silicon diode subjected to MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Nicolò; Forneris, Jacopo [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy); Grilj, Veljko; Jakšić, Milko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Räisänen, Jyrki [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Simon, Aliz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Skukan, Natko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vittone, Ettore, E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: •Study of charge collection efficiency degradation (CCE) in Si diode due to MeV H irradiation. •CCE evaluated by micro-IBIC using 4.5 MeV Li ions to probe the damaged region. •Generation of H-donors, which perturb the electrostatic properties of the diode. -- Abstract: We present the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation of float zone grown n-type silicon detectors irradiated with 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV protons. The analysis was carried out by irradiating small regions (50 × 50 μm{sup 2}) with a proton microbeam at fluences ranging from 10{sup 11} to 4·10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} and probing the effect of irradiation by measuring the 4.5 MeV Li ion induced charge in full depletion conditions. The CCE degradation as function of the proton fluence shows an unexpected deviation from the linear behavior predicted by the Shockley–Read–Hall model of carrier recombination. The build-up of excess hydrogen related donors due to proton irradiations is suggested to be the cause of a significant perturbation of the electrostatic properties of the diode, which drastically change the electron trajectories and hence the induced charge mechanism.

  8. Marketing Continuing Education: A Study of Price Strategies. Occasional Papers in Continuing Education, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    The objective of the study conducted at the Centre for Continuing Education (CCE) at the University of British Columbia was to determine that threshold pricing not only existed for continuing education courses, but also was applicable to an administrative decision-making structure. The first part of the three-part investigation analyzed consumer…

  9. Colon Capsule Endoscopy: Detection of Colonic Polyps Compared with Conventional Colonoscopy and Visualization of Extracolonic Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F Hagel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional colonoscopy (CC is the gold standard for diagnostic examination of the colon. However, the overall acceptance of this procedure is low due to patient fears of complications or embarrassment. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE represents a minimally invasive, patient-friendly procedure that offers complete visualization of the entire intestine.

  10. The CMV early enhancer/chicken beta actin (CAG) promoter can be used to drive transgene expression during the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into vascular progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexopoulou, Annika N; Couchman, John R; Whiteford, James

    2008-01-01

    . RESULTS: CCE mouse embryonic stem cells were differentiated on collagen type IV for 4-5 days, Flk1+ mesodermal cells were sorted and replated either on collagen type IV in the presence of VEGFA to give rise to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells or in collagen type I gels for the formation...

  11. The effects of chest expansion resistance exercise on chest expansion and maximal respiratory pressure in elderly with inspiratory muscle weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Beom; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chest expansion resistance exercises (CERE) on chest expansion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) in elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness. [Subjects] Thirty elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness (MIP < 80% of the predicted value) were randomly and equally assigned to a chest expansion resistance exercise (CERE) group, core conditioning exercise (CCE) group, and control group. [Methods] The intervention was applied to the CERE group and CCE group five times per week, 30 minutes each time, for six weeks. A tapeline was used to measure upper and lower chest expansion. MIP and MEP before and after the intervention were measured and compared. [Results] There was significant improvement in upper and lower chest expansion and MIP after the intervention in both the CERE group and the CCE group, whereas the control group did not show any significant difference. MEP did not significantly change in any of the three groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] The CERE group underwent greater changes than the CCE group, which proves that the CERE is more effective for improving elderly people’s chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people. Therefore, application of the CERE by therapists is recommended if the environment and conditions are appropriate for enhancement of chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people. PMID:25995570

  12. Balancing the Tensions and Meeting the Conceptual Challenges of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nicole; Nazir, Joanne; Breiting, Soren; Goh, Kim Chuan; Pedretti, Erminia

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses one of the key challenges for work on education, sustainable development and climate change: the overall conceptualisation of central ideas such as Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Climate Change Education (CCE). What do these concepts mean in diverse contexts and amongst diverse…

  13. Neutron detection performance of silicon carbide and diamond detectors with incomplete charge collection properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P.; Thomas, D.

    2017-03-01

    The benefits of neutron detection and spectroscopy with carbon based, wide band gap, semiconductor detectors have previously been discussed within the literature. However, at the time of writing there are still limitations with these detectors related to availability, cost, size and perceived quality. This study demonstrates that lower quality materials-indicated by lower charge collection efficiency (CCE), poor resolution and polarisation effect-available at wafer scale and lower cost, can fulfil requirements for fast neutron detection and spectroscopy for fluxes over several orders of magnitude, where only coarse energy discrimination is required. In this study, a single crystal diamond detector (D-SC, with 100% CCE), a polycrystalline diamond (D-PC, with ≈4% CCE) and semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI, with ≈35% CCE) have been compared for alpha and fast neutron performance. All detectors demonstrated alpha induced polarisation effects in the form of a change of both energy peak position and count rate with irradiation time. Despite these operational issues the ability to detect fast neutrons and distinguish neutron energies was observed. This performance was demonstrated over a wide dynamic range (500-40,000 neutrons/s), with neutron induced polarisation being demonstrated in D-PC and SiC-SI at high fluxes.

  14. 78 FR 25702 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Fisheries Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... funding fisheries and ecosystem research along the U.S. West Coast, throughout the Eastern Tropical... Current Ecosystem (CCE), throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) Ocean, and in the Scotia Sea area... activities occur in areas inhabited by species of marine mammals, birds, sea turtles, and fish listed...

  15. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano; Kawana, Ayako; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ogura, Kenichiro [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Akira, E-mail: hiratuka@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for a new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.

  16. Characteristics of rainfall triggering of debris flows in the Chenyulan watershed, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the variation in rainfall characteristics associated with debris flows in the Chenyulan watershed, central Taiwan, between 1963 and 2009. The maximum hourly rainfall Im, the maximum 24 h rainfall Rd, and the rainfall index RI (defined as the product RdIm were analysed for each rainfall event that triggered a debris flow within the watershed. The corresponding number of debris flows initiated by each rainfall event (N was also investigated via image analysis and/or field investigation. The relationship between N and RI was analysed. Higher RI of a rainfall event would trigger a larger number of debris flows. This paper also discusses the effects of the Chi-Chi earthquake (CCE on this relationship and on debris flow initiation. The results showed that the critical RI for debris flow initiation had significant variations and was significantly lower in the years immediately following the CCE of 1999, but appeared to revert to the pre-earthquake condition about five years later. Under the same extreme rainfall event of RI = 365 cm2 h−1, the value of N in the CCE-affected period could be six times larger than that in the non-CCE-affected periods.

  17. Original Long War: Supply-Side Strategy in the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    channels, bays, the Rio 11 Grande River, the Intracoastal Waterway, and Padre Island National Seashore – all service the drug trade.61 At least 30...forfeiture of drug organizations with legislative acts such as RICO (Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations) and CCE (Continuing Criminal

  18. Epitaxial Cubic Ce2O3 Films via Ce-CeO2 Interfacial Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetsovych, Vitalii; Pagliuca, Federico; Dvořák, Filip; Duchoň, Tomáš; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Aulická, Marie; Lachnitt, Jan; Schernich, Stefan; Matolínová, Iva; Veltruská, Kateřina; Skála, Tomáš; Mazur, Daniel; Mysliveček, Josef; Libuda, Jörg; Matolín, Vladimír

    2013-03-21

    Thin films of reduced ceria supported on metals are often applied as substrates in model studies of the chemical reactivity of ceria based catalysts. Of special interest are the properties of oxygen vacancies in ceria. However, thin films of ceria prepared by established methods become increasingly disordered as the concentration of vacancies increases. Here, we propose an alternative method for preparing ordered reduced ceria films based on the physical vapor deposition and interfacial reaction of Ce with CeO2 films. The method yields bulk-truncated layers of cubic c-Ce2O3. Compared to CeO2 these layers contain 25% of perfectly ordered vacancies in the surface and subsurface allowing well-defined measurements of the properties of ceria in the limit of extreme reduction. Experimentally, c-Ce2O3(111) layers are easily identified by a characteristic 4 × 4 surface reconstruction with respect to CeO2(111). In addition, c-Ce2O3 layers represent an experimental realization of a normally unstable polymorph of Ce2O3. During interfacial reaction, c-Ce2O3 nucleates on the interface between CeO2 buffer and Ce overlayer and is further stabilized most likely by the tetragonal distortion of the ceria layers on Cu. The characteristic kinetics of the metal-oxide interfacial reactions may represent a vehicle for making other metastable oxide structures experimentally available.

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145351044 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_001419897.1 33090:2001 3041:3767 1035538:2105 13792:2105 70447:4610 242159:712 436017:712 TRAP1, Heat Sho...ck Protein 90 Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 MLTVARACRRRAARAVRRGVADARATRGASTTTDRA

  20. Climate Change Education in the Context of Education for Sustainable Development: Rationale and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yoko; Bryan, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Although the role of education in addressing the challenges of climate change is increasingly recognized, the education sector remains underutilized as a strategic resource to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Education stakeholders in many countries have yet to develop a coherent framework for climate change education (CCE). This article…

  1. InterProScan Result: FS742309 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS742309 FS742309_4_ORF2 02541CCE20034F52 PFAM PF00361 Oxidored_q1 1.6e-15 T IPR001...750 NADH:ubiquinone/plastoquinone oxidoreductase Molecular Function: NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activit

  2. A Cultivated Form of a Red Seaweed (Chondrus crispus, Suppresses β-Amyloid-Induced Paralysis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Singh Sangha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report here the protective effects of a methanol extract from a cultivated strain of the red seaweed, Chondrus crispus, against β-amyloid-induced toxicity, in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, expressing human Aβ1-42 gene. The methanol extract of C. crispus (CCE, delayed β-amyloid-induced paralysis, whereas the water extract (CCW was not effective. The CCE treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of amy1; however, Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease of Aβ species, as compared to untreated worms. The transcript abundance of stress response genes; sod3, hsp16.2 and skn1 increased in CCE-treated worms. Bioassay guided fractionation of the CCE yielded a fraction enriched in monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG that significantly delayed the onset of β-amyloid-induced paralysis. Taken together, these results suggested that the cultivated strain of C. crispus, whilst providing dietary nutritional value, may also have significant protective effects against β-amyloid-induced toxicity in C. elegans, partly through reduced β-amyloid species, up-regulation of stress induced genes and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  3. Use of precision agriculture technologies in studying the relationships among soil pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, soybean cyst nematode population density, and soybean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovska, Natalia

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) and soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) infestation are major factors that contribute to soybean (Glycine max Merr.) yield reduction in the Midwest. The IDC is often associated with soybean grown on high pH, calcareous soils. In addition, it was documented that SCN population density is higher in high pH soils. The objectives of this paper were to assess the proportion of within-field soybean yield and SCN variability that could be explained by soil pH, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), and a previously defined alkalinity stress index (ASI). Aerial images from 21 fields planted to SCN-resistant or susceptible soybean varieties were collected from 2001 through 2005 and used as a guide for soil and grain sampling. Ten to 16 sampling sites were selected on each field. Regression analyses within and across sites were used to study relationships between the measured variables. The SCN population density increased and yield decreased with increasing pH, CCE, and ASI across the fields. The percentage of yield variability across fields explained by soil pH, CCE, ASI, and SCN was 13%, 15%, 18%, and 1%, respectively, for resistant soybean varieties and 37%, 24%, 39%, and 10%, respectively, for susceptible varieties. The yield reduction due to high pH, CCE, and ASI was greater for SCN-susceptible varieties in field areas heavily infested with SCN.

  4. Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Korea: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has officially declared its national vision of green growth, and actively develops and implements policies related to education for sustainable development (ESD), green growth education (GGE) and climate change education (CCE). Over the Decade of ESD, the ROK experienced three administrations which have taken different…

  5. Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education in China: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the significance of education in promoting sustainable development (SD), China has developed a number of policies and initiatives relating to education for sustainable development (ESD) and climate change education (CCE). The article first reviews China's national policies and initiatives with regard to SD, climate change, education,…

  6. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  7. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  8. OCT Study of Mechanical Properties Associated with Trabecular Meshwork and Collector Channel Motion in Human Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging platform to identify and quantify pressure-dependent aqueous outflow system (AOS) tissue relationships and to infer mechanical stiffness through examination of tissue properties in ex vivo human eyes. Five enucleated human eyes are included in this study, with each eye prepared with four equal-sized quadrants, each encompassing 90 degrees of the limbal circumference. In radial limbal segments perfusion pressure within Schlemm’s canal (SC) is controlled by means of a perfusion cannula inserted into the canal lumen, while the other end of the cannula leads to a reservoir at a height that can control the pressure in the cannula. The OCT system images the sample with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm from the trabecular meshwork (TM) surface. Geometric parameters are quantified from the 2D OCT images acquired from the sample subjected to controlled changes in perfusion pressures; parameters include area and height of the lumen of SC, collector channel entrances (CCE) and intrascleral collector channels (ISCC). We show that 3D OCT imaging permits the identification of 3-D relationships of the SC, CCE and ISCC lumen dimensions. Collagen flaps or leaflets are found at CCE that are attached or hinged at only one end, whilst the flaps are connected to the TM by cylindrical structures spanning SC. Increasing static SC pressures resulted in SC lumen enlargement with corresponding enlargement of the CCE and ISCC lumen. Pressure-dependent SC lumen area and height changes are significant at the 0.01 levels for ANOVA, and at the 0.05 for both polynomial curves and Tukey paired comparisons. Dynamic measurements demonstrate a synchronous increase in SC, CCE and ISCC lumen height in response to pressure changes from 0 to 10, 30 or 50 mm Hg, respectively, and the response time is within the 50-millisecond range. From the measured SC volume and corresponding IOP values, we demonstrate that an

  9. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2-10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton [Formula: see text], as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a 'greening' effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased

  10. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  11. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mansour Hédi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which

  12. Modelling the Central Constant Emission X-ray component of η Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher M. P.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Madura, Thomas I.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Hillier, D. John

    2016-05-01

    The X-ray emission of η Carinae shows multiple features at various spatial and temporal scales. The central constant emission (CCE) component is centred on the binary and arises from spatial scales much smaller than the bipolar Homunculus nebula, but likely larger than the central wind-wind collision region between the stars as it does not vary over the ˜2-3 month X-ray minimum when it can be observed. Using large-scale 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, we model both the colliding-wind region between the stars, and the region where the secondary wind collides with primary wind ejected from the previous periastron passage. The simulations extend out to one hundred semimajor axes and make two limiting assumptions (strong coupling and no coupling) about the influence of the primary radiation field on the secondary wind. We perform 3D radiative transfer calculations on the SPH output to synthesize the X-ray emission, with the aim of reproducing the CCE spectrum. For the preferred primary mass-loss rate dot{M}_A≈ 8.5× 10^{-4} M_{⊙} yr-1, the model spectra well reproduce the observation as the strong- and no-coupling spectra bound the CCE observation for longitude of periastron ω ≈ 252°, and bound/converge on the observation for ω ≈ 90°. This suggests that η Carinae has moderate coupling between the primary radiation and secondary wind, that both the region between the stars and the comoving collision on the backside of the secondary generate the CCE, and that the CCE cannot place constraints on the binary's line of sight. We also discuss comparisons with common X-ray fitting parameters.

  13. Avanços na abordagem do carcinoma precoce de esôfago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos países ocidentais, o carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago (CCE geralmente é detectado em estágio avançado, quando as possibilidades de cura são remotas e o prognóstico reservado. Entretanto, nos anos recentes, ocorreu uma série de avanços na abordagem do CCE de esôfago, tais como a identificação dos grupos de risco para o surgimento desta neoplasia; o uso da endoscopia de alta resolução e cromoendoscopia com lugol favorecendo o diagnóstico do CCE em estágios iniciais; e o desenvolvimento de técnicas endoscópicas de ressecção tumoral endoluminal em monobloco denominada dissecção endoscópica de submucosa. Este progresso tem possibilitado a aplicação do tratamento endoscópico minimamente invasivo com potencial curativo em pacientes selecionados com CCE superficial de esôfago. O presente artigo de revisão, elaborado por um grupo multicêntrico internacional, tem como objetivo primário contribuir para o entendimento dos principais avanços recentes ocorridos no manejo do CCE precoce de esôfago. Como objetivo secundário, pretende propiciar uma revisão detalhada e minuciosa da estratégia técnica de DES desenvolvida pelos experts japoneses, de forma a colaborar para a difusão deste conceito e a incorporação destas tecnologias na Medicina Brasileira e Latino-americana.

  14. Development of Field Methodology and Processes for Task Analysis and Training Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    3I 3n 4) 4r 4 7 4 4 4’ 4* 4 4 2 Ca 3 3I I vH~~ TO ~7. _ _ §47B~EF1I-.-. AR’E TAK/ODE’ MAUA -TASKS- ___IISW INTERFACEI ___ IKS flA" 155DWI QUALITY...R A cn I- - - ŗ 4 4 - .CC 4 i 3COMBAT~ RELTE FIG C 4- -8 ’DUTY POIIOSSLD ’ MAUA TAK (ADM IN I ST -ITE FACCE ~C -SUPPLY IMAINTENJANCE 4- Ci C1 ci...8217 - C- ME m a 0.- a) d) C C) 0C . £ O " " ,i ’’ ". 4J I C FIG 4ŝ TECNIAL)INERAC 68iI) in toI T B- DUT POIIN/OD- MAUA TAK (SIL LEVE I 68t TEHICL INERAC

  15. An Activity Driver Based Analysis of Hazardous Materials Usage at Wright-Patterson AFB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    IPC27A2 FACC11A SO SURE FLUORESCENT RED 1A RED 126280 0.62 2 CEG/CEFO Fire Station #1 IPC27A1 C163A1 CONCEPT TB DISINFECTANT DEODOR 133114 0.90 4 CEG... ALUMINUM 17178 14-160 118008 0.85 4 IPC27A1 CE B1-G 916, PVC CLEAR MEDIUM BODIED C 148039 0.80 4 IPC27A1 CE B1-I SO-SURE ENAM ID 24-190 G, GLOS 89893...SURE ALUMINUM 17178 14-160 118008 0.85 4 Shop IPC27A2 C22A4 TT-E-489H ENAMEL, ALKYD, GLOSS 107546 8.32 4 IPC27A2 C22A4 TT-S-190F SANDING SEALER, CODE

  16. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...... systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... strategies that seek to maintain the status quo through management actions that reduce perturbations due to CC; ii) Resilience strategies requiring systemic adaptation at field and farm level for increasing the adaptive capacity after a climate disturbance; iii) Transformative strategies addressing needs...

  17. 某高职院校教材管理系统的UML建模与设计%UML modeling and design on a higher vocational college teaching material management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志根

    2012-01-01

      Unified modeling language UML is an important graph visualization modeling tools facced object-oriented analysis and design process, Taken a higher vocational college teaching material management system development as the background, UML modeling analysis and process of the informatization construction in higher vocational colleges were introduced.%  统一建模语言UML是面向对象分析和设计过程中重要的图形可视化建模工具,文章以某高职院校教材管理系统的开发为背景,简单介绍了在高职院校信息化建设过程中的UML分析和建模过程。

  18. Interagency Collaboration in Support of Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Chambers, L. H.; Karsten, J. L.; McDougall, C.; Campbell, D.

    2011-12-01

    NASA, NOAA and NSF support climate change education (CCE) through their grant programs. As the agencies' investment in CCE has grown, coordination among the agencies has become increasingly important. Although the political landscape and budgets continue to change, the agencies are committed to continued coordination and collaboration. To date, this has taken the form of jointly hosted principal investigator (PI) meetings, the largest of which was held last February (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). The joint goals are: (1) increased collaboration among grantees and across programs; (2) building capacity among grantees in areas of mutual interest; (3) identification of gaps in investments to date; and (4) identification of opportunities for coordination of evaluation efforts. NOAA's primary funding opportunity for CCE projects is its Environmental Literacy Grant (ELG) Program. Although not exclusively focused on climate, there has been increased emphasis on this area since 2009. Through ELG, NOAA encourages the use of NOAA assets (data, facilities, educational resources, and people) in grantees' work. Thirty awards with a primary focus on CCE have been awarded to institutions of higher education, informal science education, and non-profit organizations involved in K-12 and informal/non-formal education. We anticipate this funding opportunity will continue to support the improvement of climate literacy among various audiences of learners in the future. NASA supported efforts in CCE in an ad hoc way for years. It became a focus area in 2008 with the launch of the NASA Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) Project. This project funded 57 awards in 2008-2010, the vast majority of them in teacher professional development, or use of data, models, or simulations. Beginning in FY11, NASA moved the project into the Minority University Research and Education Program. Fourteen awards were made to minority higher education institutions, non-profit organizations, and

  19. Charge collection efficiency mapping of interdigitated 4H-SiC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Vittone, E; Pastuovic, Z; Olivero, P; Jaksic, M

    2016-01-01

    The Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBIC) technique was used to map the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of a 4H-SiC photodetector with coplanar interdigitated Schottky barrier electrodes and a common ohmic contact on the back side. IBIC maps were obtained using focused proton beams with energies of 0.9 MeV and 1.5 MeV, at different bias voltages and different sensitive electrode configurations (charge collection at the top Schottky or at the back Ohmic contact). These different experimental conditions have been modeled using a two dimensional finite element code to solve the adjoint carrier continuity equations and the results obtained have been compared with experimental results. The excellent consistency between the simulated and experimental CCE maps allows an exhaustive interpretation of the charge collection mechanisms occurring in pixellated or strip detectors.

  20. IBIC characterization of an ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Olivero, P; Picollo, F; Skukan, N; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) has been used for the direct writing of buried graphitic regions in monocrystalline diamond with micrometric resolution. Aiming at the development and the characterization of a fully ion-beam-micromachined solid state ionization chamber, a device with interdigitated electrodes was fabricated by using a 1.8 MeV He+ ion microbeam scanning on a homoepitaxial, grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). In order to evaluate the ionizing-radiation-detection performance of the device, charge collection efficiency (CCE) maps were extracted from Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out by probing different arrangements of buried microelectrodes. The analysis of the CCE maps allowed for an exhaustive evaluation of the detector features, in particular the individuation of the different role played by electrons and holes in the formation of the induced charge pulses. Finally, a comparison of the performances of the detector with buried graphitic electrodes with those releva...

  1. ENSEÑANZA COMO PUENTE ENTRE CONOCIMIENTOS CIENTÍFICOS ESCOLARES Y CONOCIMIENTOS ECOLÓGICOS TRADICIONALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Molina Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se enriquece la idea de enseñanza como puente entre Conocimientos Ecológicos Tradicionales (CET y Conocimientos Científicos Escolares (CCE y se retoman otras investigaciones. Amplía la conceptualización de las perspectivas encontradas: asimilacionista (centrada en los CCE, moral y humanista (dirigida al reconocimiento del otro, plural epistémica y ontológica (enfocada en las epistemes alternas y el sujeto y contextual (orientada al sentido, la interpretación, los aspectos socioculturales, los CET. Se concluye que los puentes son de doble vía y tienen una mayor complejidad que la planteada por los profesores. Mayores conocimientos al respecto permiten deconstruir la perspectiva asimilacionista y orientar procesos de enseñanza que tengan en cuenta los demás puentes.

  2. Lateral IBIC analysis of GaAs Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E. [Experimental Physics Department, ' Nanostructured interfaces and surfaces' (NIS) Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN - Torino (Italy) and INFM, Research Unit of Torino-University, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: vittone@to.infn.it; Olivero, P. [Experimental Physics Department, ' Nanostructured interfaces and surfaces' (NIS) Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN - Torino (Italy) and INFM, Research Unit of Torino-University, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: p.olivero@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Nava, F. [INFN and Departimento di Fisica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi, 213/A - 41100 Modena (Italy); Manfredotti, C. [Experimental Physics Department, ' Nanostructured interfaces and surfaces' (NIS) Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN - Torino (Italy); INFM, Research Unit of Torino-University, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Lo Giudice, A. [INFM, Research Unit of Torino-University, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fizzotti, F. [Experimental Physics Department, ' Nanostructured interfaces and surfaces' (NIS) Centre of Excellence of the University of Torino, and INFN - Torino (Italy); INFM, Research Unit of Torino-University, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Egeni, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Pd) (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    Charge collection efficiency (CCE) profiles of a semi-insulating (SI) gallium arsenide LEC (Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski) Schottky diode have been investigated by lateral Ion Beam Induced Charge collection (IBIC) technique. A focussed 2.4 MeV proton microbeam was scanned over the cleaved surface of a SI-GaAs diode and the charge collection efficiency was evaluated as a function of the ion beam position at different bias voltages. By fitting the CCE profiles with the equations derived by the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn's theorem, drift lengths of electrons and holes were obtained. Experimental results are consistent with previous OBIC (Optical Beam Induced Current) and SP (Surface Potential) measurements and confirm the model based on the formation of a Mott barrier due to the enhanced electron capture cross section in high field conditions.

  3. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Prato and Fagre offer the first systematic, multi-disciplinary assessment of the challenges involved in managing the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE), an area of the Rocky Mountains that includes northwestern Montana, southwestern Alberta, and southeastern British Columbia. The spectacular landscapes, extensive recreational options, and broad employment opportunities of the CCE have made it one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and Canada, and have lead to a shift in its economic base from extractive resource industries to service-oriented recreation and tourism industries. In the process, however, the amenities and attributes that draw people to this “New West” are under threat. Pastoral scenes are disappearing as agricultural lands and other open spaces are converted to residential uses, biodiversity is endangered by the fragmentation of fish and wildlife habitats, and many areas are experiencing a decline in air and water quality.

  4. Quantum Zeno effect in a nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in a spin bath

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We study the longitudinal relaxation of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center surrounded by a $^{13}$C nuclear spin bath in diamond. By means of cluster-correlation expansion (CCE), we numerically demonstrate the decay process of electronic state induced by cross relaxation at low temperature. It is shown that the CCE method is not only capable of describing pure-dephasing effect at large-detuning regime, but it can also simulate the quantum dynamics of populations in the nearly resonant regime. We present a proposal to slow down the decay of NV center via implementing quantum Zeno effect (QZE). The numerical result shows that QZE can effectively inhibit the decay of NV center.

  5. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (PCactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis.

  6. Radiation hard position-sensitive cryogenic silicon detectors: the Lazarus effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, V. G.; Abreu, M. C.; Bell, W. H.; Berglund, P.; de Boer, W.; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Casagrande, L.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Viá, C. Da; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenço, C.; Mikuẑ, M.; Niinikoski, T. O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.; (RD39 Collaboration)

    2000-05-01

    The discovery of the so-called Lazarus effect, namely the recovery of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of irradiated silicon detectors by means of cryogenic cooling has entailed an increasing interest in the behavior of silicon detectors at cryogenic temperatures. We have measured the CCE of a silicon p-i-n diode detector previously irradiated with an equivalent fluence of 1×10 15 n/ cm2 neutrons of 1 MeV energy. The charge collection efficiency has been measured at 77 K, showing that the low-temperature operation considerably decreases the bias current. This is also the case when forward voltage bias is applied, which then becomes a suitable option. In this condition, the sample shows a charge collection efficiency in excess of 65% at 250 V corresponding to a most probable signal for a minimum ionizing particle of 21 000 e-.

  7. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  8. Information Assurance as a System of Systems in the Submarine Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    CAC Common Access Card CBT Computer Based Training CCE Contact Center Enterprise CEH Certified Ethical Hacking CISSP Certified...concepts and transforming them into custom graphics. Finally, a hearty thank-you to all of the PD-21 distance learning, library, TAC , and all of the...OCONUS) Navy Enterprise Network (ONE-Net) that use Common Access Cards ( CACs ) to authenticate users, almost all shipboard networks at the General

  9. AILA 2008—The 15th World Congress of Applied Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>AILA 2008-The 15th World Congress of Applied Linguistics will be held in Essen,Germany on August 24-29,2008.The congress is hosted by the German Association of Applied Linguistcs(GAL e.V)in co-operation with the University Duisburg-Essen and Congress Centre Essen(CCE).The Theme of AILA 2008 is Multilingualism:Challenges and Opportunities.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09533-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 000581 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901... 231 3e-59 AF252391_1( AF252391 |pid:none) Sporothrix s..._1( AF116453 |pid:none) Sporothrix schenckii cyclin-depend... 244 6e-63 AY815214_...ycle 2... 244 4e-63 A42823( A42823 )cell division control-related protein kinase p58cl... 244 4e-63 AF116453

  11. Intercultural Education for the Mississippi Air National Guard (Coronet Gyro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    CCE Info CS Info 4 SUPT Info SURNAME OF ACTION OFFICER AND GRADE SYMBOL PHONE TYPIST’S INIT SUSPENSE DATE Major Mitchell DFEGM 3067 dds SUBJECT Status...motorcycles, motor scooters , or other power-propelled conveyances are not permitted without prior approval of Greek Customs. New articles, up to a value of...pending an appeal, with or without the condition that the accused post bail (CPP 471, 497), A member of the NATO forces, whose request for suspension of

  12. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unlimited. June 2016 HDTRA1-11-1-0013 Lei Cao, et al. Prepared by: The Ohio State University ...number:  HDTRA1-­‐11-­‐1-­‐0013   Principal Investigator Prof. Lei Cao The Ohio State University E402, 201 W 19th Ave. Columbus, Ohio 43210...efficiency (CCE) etc. In addition, numerical simulations were carried out by using Sentaurus TCAD software package[5], which helped us to gain a deep

  13. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-01

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al. [1], improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of 6He at the breakup threshold, EB = 0.973 MeV.

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHH788 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK221976 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 111 1e-23 AK227321_1( AK227321 |pid:none) Arabidop.... 110 2e-23 AK230210_1( AK230210 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo......sis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 111 1e-23 CP000588_396( CP000588 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901..

  15. Dicty_cDB: SHL126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available o... 200 5e-50 AK221976_1( AK221976 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo...... 200 5e-50 AK227321_1( AK227321 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 200 5e-50 CP000588_396( ...CP000588 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901... 199 9e-50 AK230210_1( AK230210 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo.

  16. Dicty_cDB: SHG537 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 199 6e-50 CP000588_396( CP000588 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinu...s CCE9901... 199 8e-50 AK230210_1( AK230210 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 199 1e-49 CR954...76_1( AK221976 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 196 5e-49 protein update 2009. 4.19 PSORT ps

  17. High-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions at the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of high-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions obtained by the hot plasma composition experiment on AMPTE/CCE provide direct support for the single-particle approach to acceleration in current layers. These high-speed flows are attributed to single-fluid momentum balance across a magnetopause with a normal magnetic field and a tangential electric field. The flow speeds of the two ion species are found to be approximately equal.

  18. High-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions at the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-06-01

    Observations of high-speed flows of H(+) and He(2+) ions obtained by the hot plasma composition experiment on AMPTE/CCE provide direct support for the single-particle approach to acceleration in current layers. These high-speed flows are attributed to single-fluid momentum balance across a magnetopause with a normal magnetic field and a tangential electric field. The flow speeds of the two ion species are found to be approximately equal.

  19. Binary black hole waveform extraction at null infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, M C [Department of Physics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Winicour, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Zlochower, Y, E-mail: babiuc@marshall.edu [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation and School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2011-07-07

    In this paper, we present a work in progress toward an efficient and economical computational module which interfaces between Cauchy and characteristic evolution codes. Our goal is to provide a standardized waveform extraction tool for the numerical relativity community which will allow CCE to be readily applied to a generic Cauchy code. The tool provides a means of unambiguous comparison between the waveforms generated by evolution codes based upon different formulations of the Einstein equations and different numerical approximation.

  20. Spontaneous Parametric down Conversion in Type-I BBO Crystal Pumped by Femtosecond Pulses%飞秒激光泵浦Ⅰ类BBO晶体中自发参量下转换的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹娟娟; 俞侃; 包佳祺

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous parametric down conversion of the femtosecond pulse with a type-I p-barium borate (BBO) crystal was studied experimentally, which induced to the generation of colored conical emission (CCE). The influence of parametrics on the conversion efficiency and the characteristics of CCE was discussed in detail. Experimental results show that the green conical emission has the biggest divergence angle, which is consistent with the calculation results based on the phase matching condition. When the pumped beam is incident on-axis, the intensity of the CCE will become stronger with the increase of the pump intensity and the thickness of crysta, and the center wavelength of the biggest diverging angle conical emission will change toward long wave. CCE and super-continuum emission can also be observed with different polarization directions.%实验研究了飞秒脉冲激光泵浦Ⅰ类BBO晶体中自发参量下转换效应,以及产生的彩色锥形辐射现象.系统分析了各参量对二次谐波转换效率及彩色锥形辐射现象的影响.研究结果表明:蓝绿色锥形辐射具有最大的发散角,这与相位匹配理论模拟结果吻合;正入射时,增大泵浦光强及晶体厚度均会引起彩色锥形辐射亮度增加,且最大出射角中心波长往长波移动;不同光束偏振态下可依次观察到彩色锥形辐射、超连续现象.

  1. Social capital between family businesses and business associations in Celaya, Guanajuato

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Contreras Soto; Alberto Valdés Cobos; Alejandra López Salazar

    2012-01-01

    This work is part of a comprehensive study on family businesses held in Celaya, Guanajuato Mexico (year 2011) with a sample of 343 interviews with owners or managers responsible. This study examines the specific relationship capital with family businesses with various business associations, as is supposedly the social purpose of these associations. The analysis is based on the open question: Does your business communication with business associations (CCE, COPARMEX, CANACINTRA ...)and how the...

  2. Multivariable Linear Regression Model for Promotional Forecasting:The Coca Cola - Morrisons Case

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yiwei/Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a promotional forecasting model, built by linear regression module in Microsoft Excel. It intends to provide quick and reliable forecasts with a moderate credit and to assist the CPFR between the Coca Cola Enterprises (CCE) and the Morrisons. The model is derived from previous researches and literature review on CPFR, promotion, forecasting and modelling. It is designed as a multivariable linear regression model, which involves several promotional mix as variables includi...

  3. Promotion demand forecast: A Case Study of Coca Cola Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hoi-Yin Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    In this highly competitive business environment, forecasting becomes one of the hot topics. Every business organization uses forecasts for decision marking. Forecasting can help companies to determine the market strategy. It also helps in production planning and resources allocation. A good forecast can help the management team to make the best decision. Nowadays, it is important to develop a collaborative partnership within the supply chain. Coca Cola Enterprise (CCE) is working with its cus...

  4. Ley Abascal 2002. El nuevo dominio del capital sobre el trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Rendón Corona

    2003-01-01

    Del proyecto CCE-Abascal-CT abordamos tres dimensiones en este artículo y omitimos otros aspectos en razón al espacio disponible: legaliza la fragmentación y precarización del trabajo en las relaciones laborales individuales y colectivas, reafirma el control del gobierno sobre sindicatos y contratos, y refuerza el control de los dirigentes corporativos sobre los contratos, protegiéndolos de la competencia de las organizaciones y movimientos democráticos

  5. Defense-Related Calcium Signaling Mutants Uncovered via a Quantitative High-Throughput Screen in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanie Ranf; Julia Grimmer; Yvonne P(o)schl; Pascal Pecher; Delphine Chinchilla; Dierk Scheel; Justin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger for signaling to a variety of stimuli including MAMPs (Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns),such as flg22 and elf18 that are derived from bacterial flagellin and elongation factor Tu,respectively.Here,Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with changed calcium elevation (cce) in response to fig22 treatment were isolated and characterized.Besides novel mutant alleles of the flg22 receptor,FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensitive 2),and the receptor-associated kinase,BAK1 (Brassinosteroid receptor 1-Associated Kinase 1),the new cce mutants can be categorized into two main groups—those with a reduced or an enhanced calcium elevation.Moreover,cce mutants from both groups show differential phenotypes to different sets of MAMPs.Thus,these mutants will facilitate the discovery of novel components in early MAMP signaling and bridge the gaps in current knowledge of calcium signaling during plant-microbe interactions.Last but not least,the screening method is optimized for speed (covering 384 plants in 3 or 10 h) and can be adapted to genetically dissect any other stimuli that induce a change in calcium levels.

  6. Formulation of a Cooperative-Confinement-Escape problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose and formulate the Cooperative-Confinement-Escape (CCE) problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region, in which the defenders are moving on the circle with attempt to prevent possible escape of a single evader who is initially located inside the circle. The main contributions are summarized as follows: (1) we first provide an effective formulation of the CCE problem, which is an emphasis of this paper, with design of two nonlinear control strategies for the cooperative defenders and the adversarial evader, respectively. Particularly, we consider to include a proper interaction between each pair of the nearest-neighbor defenders, and an adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism in the strategies of the defenders to increase the chance of successful confinement. (2) For the first attempt on analyzing the CCE dynamics which is unavoidably strongly nonlinear, we analyze the minimum energy of the evader for possible escape. (3) For understanding of the behaviors of the system under different parameters, (i) we illustrate the effectiveness of the confinement strategy using the adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism, and (ii) the physical roles of the system parameters with respect to the system dynamics, some of which may be unexpected or not straightforward. A separate paper will be presented for systematic analysis of the agents' behaviors with respect to the large intervals of the parameter settings.

  7. MMPI-2 Clinical Scale 6 (Paranoia and Restructured Clinical Scale 6 (Ideas of Persecution in Child Custody Litigants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Semel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The MMPI-2 is the most frequently used psychological test with parents undergoing child custody evaluations (CCE's. Studies of parents who completed the MMPI-2 in the CCE context have consistently found that, on average, parents portray a very favorable image of themselves as both virtuous and psychologically well-adjusted. Also, on average, Clinical Scale 6 (Paranoia and its counterpart on the Restructured Clinical Scales, RC6, have been the most frequently elevated of the clinical scales on the MMPI-2 in samples of child custody litigants, albeit, the reported scores on these scales are well within the norm. This paper examines the significance of clinically elevated scores on Scale 6 (and RC6 in parents undergoing CCE's, with consideration of both contextual and psychometric features. Based on these considerations, this writer suggests that custody evaluators may encounter the paradox that some parents whose clinical profile suggests mistrust and suspiciousness in interpersonal relations may actually trust enough to report their perceptions in a candid and forthcoming manner. At least some of these parents are not mistrustful in general and are not inclined to model or influence their children toward the development of mistrust. In contrast, other parents may respond to the test in a more defensive and deceptive manner resulting in a "normal" clinical profile, which may be specific to the evaluation context, but may also reflect moral righteousness and a more insidious tactic. The custody evaluator is advised to use caution when interpreting clinically elevated scores on the MMPI-2.

  8. A 3-dimensional interdigitated electrode geometry for the enhancement of charge collection efficiency in diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Olivero, P; Picollo, F; Re, A; Marinelli, M; Pompili, F; Verona, C; Rinati, G Verona; Benetti, M; Cannata, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a single crystal CVD diamond film with a novel three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated electrode geometry has been fabricated with the Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) technique in order to increase the charge collection efficiency (CCE) with respect to that obtained by standard superficial electrodes. The geometrical arrangement of the electric field lines due to the 3D patterning of the electrodes results in a shorter travel path for the excess charge carriers, thus contributing to a more efficient charge collection mech-anism. The CCE of the device was mapped by means of the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. A 1 MeV proton micro-beam was raster scanned over the active area of the diamond detector under different bias voltage conditions, enabling to probe the charge transport properties of the detector up to a depth of 8 {\\mu}m below the sample surface. The experimental results, supported by the numerical simulations, show a significant improvement in the 3D-detector performance (i.e. CCE, ene...

  9. Monte Carlo analysis of a lateral IBIC experiment on a 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, P. [Experimental Physics Dept./NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, and INFN-Sez. di Torino via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Forneris, J.; Gamarra, P. [Experimental Physics Dept./NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, and INFN-Sez. di Torino via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Jaksic, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Lo Giudice, A.; Manfredotti, C. [Experimental Physics Dept./NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, and INFN-Sez. di Torino via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z.; Skukan, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Experimental Physics Dept./NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, and INFN-Sez. di Torino via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The transport properties of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode have been investigated by the ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique in lateral geometry through the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) profile at a fixed applied reverse bias voltage. The cross section of the sample orthogonal to the electrodes was irradiated by a rarefied 4 MeV proton microbeam and the charge pulses have been recorded as function of incident proton position with a spatial resolution of 2 {mu}m. The CCE profile shows a broad plateau with CCE values close to 100% occurring at the depletion layer, whereas in the neutral region, the exponentially decreasing profile indicates the dominant role played by the diffusion transport mechanism. Mapping of charge pulses was accomplished by a novel computational approach, which consists in mapping the Gunn's weighting potential by solving the electrostatic problem by finite element method and hence evaluating the induced charge at the sensing electrode by a Monte Carlo method. The combination of these two computational methods enabled an exhaustive interpretation of the experimental profiles and allowed an accurate evaluation both of the electrical characteristics of the active region (e.g. electric field profiles) and of basic transport parameters (i.e. diffusion length and minority carrier lifetime).

  10. Monte Carlo analysis of a lateral IBIC experiment on a 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, P.; Forneris, J.; Gamarra, P.; Jakšić, M.; Giudice, A. Lo; Manfredotti, C.; Pastuović, Ž.; Skukan, N.; Vittone, E.

    2011-10-01

    The transport properties of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode have been investigated by the ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique in lateral geometry through the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) profile at a fixed applied reverse bias voltage. The cross section of the sample orthogonal to the electrodes was irradiated by a rarefied 4 MeV proton microbeam and the charge pulses have been recorded as function of incident proton position with a spatial resolution of 2 μm. The CCE profile shows a broad plateau with CCE values close to 100% occurring at the depletion layer, whereas in the neutral region, the exponentially decreasing profile indicates the dominant role played by the diffusion transport mechanism. Mapping of charge pulses was accomplished by a novel computational approach, which consists in mapping the Gunn's weighting potential by solving the electrostatic problem by finite element method and hence evaluating the induced charge at the sensing electrode by a Monte Carlo method. The combination of these two computational methods enabled an exhaustive interpretation of the experimental profiles and allowed an accurate evaluation both of the electrical characteristics of the active region (e.g. electric field profiles) and of basic transport parameters (i.e. diffusion length and minority carrier lifetime).

  11. Electric field deformation in diamond sensors induced by radiation defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Boegelspacher, Felix; Dierlamm, Alexander; Mueller, Thomas; Steck, Pia [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz [CERN (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The BCML system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors 32 poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are positioned in a ring around the beam pipe at a distance of ±1.8 m and ±14.4 m from the interaction point. The radiation hardness of the diamond sensors in terms of measured signal during operation was significantly lower than expected from laboratory measurements. At high particle rates, such as those occurring during the operation of the LHC, a significant fraction of the defects act as traps for charge carriers. This space charge modifies the electrical field in the sensor bulk leading to a reduction of the charge collection efficiency (CCE). A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the Transient Current Technique, the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model the rate dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software ''SILVACO TCAD''. This talk compares the experimental measurement results with the simulations.

  12. Improving Charge-Collection Efficiency of Kyoto's SOI Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Ito, Makoto; Ohmura, Syunichi; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takenaka, Ryota; Kohmura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing X-ray SOIPIXs for next-generation satellites for X-ray astronomy. Their high time resolution ($\\sim10~\\mu$s) and event-trigger-output function enable us to read out without pile-ups and to use anti-coincidence systems. Their performance in imaging spectroscopy is comparable to that in the CCDs. A problem in our previous model was degradation of charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. We measured the response in the sub-pixel scale, using finely collimated X-ray beams at $10~\\mu$m\\Phi$ at SPring-8, and investigated the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields shows that the isolated pixel-circuitry outside the BPW creates local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers. Thus, a part of signal charge is trapped there and is not collecte...

  13. Monte Carlo analysis of a lateral IBIC experiment on a 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Gamarra, P; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Manfredotti, C; Pastuovic, Z; Skukan, N; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    The transport properties of a 4H-SiC Schottky diode have been investigated by the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique in lateral geometry through the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) profile at a fixed applied reverse bias voltage. The cross section of the sample orthogonal to the electrodes was irradiated by a rarefied 4 MeV proton microbeam and the charge pulses have been recorded as function of incident proton position with a spatial resolution of 2 um. The CCE profile shows a broad plateau with CCE values close to 100% occurring at the depletion layer, whereas in the neutral region, the exponentially decreasing profile indicates the dominant role played by the diffusion transport mechanism. Mapping of charge pulses was accomplished by a novel computational approach, which consists in mapping the Gunn's weighting potential by solving the electrostatic problem by finite element method and hence evaluating the induced charge at the sensing electrode by a Monte Carlo method. The combina...

  14. Mefloquine-Induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells Is Similar to That Induced by Ionomycin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, D.; Yourick, D.; Cabezas, M.; Wolf, L.; Hudson, T. H.; Dow, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that mefloquine disrupts calcium homeostasis in neurons by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, followed by an influx of external calcium across the plasma membrane. In this study, we explore two hypotheses concerning the mechanism(s) of action of mefloquine. First, we investigated the possibility that mefloquine activates non-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors and the inositol phosphate 3 (IP3) signaling cascade leading to ER calcium release. Second, we compared the disruptive effects of mefloquine on calcium homeostasis to those of ionomycin in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Ionomycin is known to discharge the ER calcium store (through an undefined mechanism), which induces capacitative calcium entry (CCE). In radioligand binding assays, mefloquine showed no affinity for the known binding sites of several glutamate receptor subtypes. The pattern of neuroprotection induced by a panel of glutamate receptor antagonists was dissimilar to that of mefloquine. Both mefloquine and ionomycin exhibited dose-related and qualitatively similar disruptions of calcium homeostasis in both neurons and macrophages. The influx of external calcium was blocked by the inhibitors of CCE in a dose-related fashion. Both mefloquine and ionomycin upregulated the IP3 pathway in a manner that we interpret to be secondary to CCE. Collectively, these data suggest that mefloquine does not activate glutamate receptors and that it disrupts calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells in a manner similar to that of ionomycin. PMID:17999964

  15. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  16. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  17. Using High-Resolution Models to Predict the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Ecosystems in the Crown of the Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Muhlfeld, C.; Marshall, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate trends and projections have prompted interest in assessing the thermal sensitivity of aquatic species. How species will adapt and respond to these changes is uncertain, however, climatic and hydrologic changes may shift species habitat distributions and physiological functions both spatially and temporally. This is particularly true for salmonids (e.g., trout, char, and salmon), which are cold-water species strongly influenced by changes in temperature, flow, and physical habitat conditions. Therefore, understanding how habitats are likely to change and how species may respond to changes in climatic conditions is critical for developing conservation and management strategies. The purpose of this study is to develop a high-resolution stream temperature model for the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) to simulate potential climate change impacts on thermal regimes throughout the riverscape. A spatially explicit statistical regression model is coupled with high-resolution climate data such as air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, baseflow and surface runoff. This empirically based model is used to predict daily stream temperatures under historic, current and forecasted climate conditions. The model is parameterized with empirical stream temperature data, which has been gathered from agencies across the region. The current database of empirical stream temperature data consists of over 800 sites throughout the CCE, which provide time series data to the model application. The biological integration and application of this model is on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations within the CCE. The model will be used to assess species vulnerabilities caused by spatial and temporal changes in stream temperature and hydrology. By evaluating the magnitude, timing and duration of climatic changes on the riverscape, we can more accurately assess potential vulnerabilities of critical life history traits, such as growth potential, spawning migrations

  18. Suppressor screen and phenotype analyses revealed an emerging role of the Monofunctional peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 in compensated cell enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana eKatano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of seed nutrient reserves is crucial for germination and establishment of plant seedlings. Mobilizing seed oil reserves in Arabidopsis involves β-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis, which provide essential energy and the carbon skeletons needed to sustain seedling growth until photoautotrophy is acquired. We demonstrated that H+-PPase activity is required for gluconeogenesis. Lack of H+-PPase in fugu5 mutants increases cytosolic pyrophosphate (PPi levels, which partially reduces sucrose synthesis de novo and inhibits cell division. In contrast, post-mitotic cell expansion in cotyledons was unusually enhanced, a phenotype called compensation. Therefore, it appears that PPi inhibits several cellular functions, including cell cycling, to trigger compensated cell enlargement (CCE. Here, we mutagenized fugu5-1 seeds with 12C6+ heavy-ion irradiation and screened mutations that restrain CCE to gain insight into the genetic pathway(s involved in CCE. We isolated A#3-1, in which cell size was severely reduced, but cell number remained similar to that of original fugu5-1. Moreover, cell number decreased in A#3-1 single mutant (A#3-1sm, similar to that of fugu5-1, but cell size was almost equal to that of the wild type. Surprisingly, A#3-1 mutation did not affect CCE in other compensation exhibiting mutant backgrounds, such as an3-4 and fugu2-1/fas1-6. Subsequent map-based cloning combined with genome sequencing and HRM curve analysis identified enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 (ECH2 as the causal gene of A#3-1. The above phenotypes were consistently observed in the ech2-1 allele and supplying sucrose restored the morphological and cellular phenotypes in fugu5-1, ech2-1, A#3-1sm, fugu5-1 ech2-1 and A#3-1;fugu5-1. Taken together, these results suggest that defects in either H+-PPase or ECH2 compromise cell proliferation due to defects in mobilizing stored lipids. In contrast, ECH2 alone likely promotes CCE during the post-mitotic cell

  19. Cardiology in the young : where we have been. Where we are. Where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2014-12-01

    , Jeffrey P. Jacobs, MD, FACS, FACC, FCCP, became Editor-in-Chief of Cardiology in the Young . Jeffrey P. Jacobs, MD, FACS, FACC, FCCP is Director of the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program at Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute and Professor of Cardiac Surgery in the Division of Cardiac Surgery of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University. He is also Surgical Director of the Heart Transplantation Program and Director of the Extracorporeal Life Support Program at Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute. Dr Jacobs has been a cardiothoracic surgeon at All Children's Hospital since 1998.

  20. ACC/AHA 2006年非心脏手术围手术期心血管评估指南更新:关于围手术期β-受体阻滞剂使用的专题更新——美国心脏病学会/美国心脏协会医疗指南工作组报告(非心脏手术围手术期心血管评估2002指南更新编写委员会)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee A.Fleisher; Judy R.Kersten; Barbara Riegel; John F.Robb; 李恒; 阎哲; Joshua A.Beckman; Kenneth A.Brown; Hugh Calkins; Elliott L.Chaikof; Kirsten E.Fleischmann; William K.Freeman; James B.Froehlich; Edward K.Kasper

    2008-01-01

    美国心脏病学会/美国心脏协会(ACC/AHA)医疗指南工作组尽力避免因编写委员会成员与企业的关系或个人利益而导致的任何实际的、可能的,或者是已发现的利益冲突.编写委员会的所有成员以及本文件的同行评议人必须对可能被视为是实际上或是潜在的利益冲突进行声明.工作组对以上声明进行审查.在每次会议上,这些声明必须口头汇报给编写委员会的每位成员;当发生变动时,编写委员会对声明进行更新并再次核查.编写委员会成员和企业的关系见附表1,同行评议人与企业的关系见附表2.本指南旨在确定在大多数情形下满足大部分患者需求的方案.指南反映了对当前可获得的科学文献进行系统分析后专家们达成的共识,其目的在于提高医疗质量.如果将指南用于管理/投资决策,其终极目标应是医疗质量得到提高并服务于患者.关于具体患者的医疗问题,必须由医疗人员和患者根据具体情况共同做出最终决定.Sidney C.Smith,Jr.,MD,FACC,FAHA ACC/AHA医疗指南工作组主席 Elliot M.Antman,MD,FACC,FAHA ACC/AHA医疗指南工作组前任主席

  1. 基质金属蛋白酶9在宫颈柱状上皮异位及宫颈上皮内瘤变中不同表达的研究%The research on the different expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in cervical columnar ectopy and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原玮; 曹树军; 高丽萍; 杨道华; 秋承敏

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过研究基质金属蛋白酶9(MMP-9)在宫颈柱状上皮异位、正常光滑宫颈及宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)组织中的不同表达,探讨三者癌变几率的不同及治疗的必要性.方法 对2007-2012年收治的30例宫颈柱状上皮异位、28例CIN、30例正常光滑宫颈组织石蜡标本,应用免疫组织化学方法检测MMP-9的表达.结果 宫颈柱状上皮异位组织MMP-9表达总阳性率23.3%(7/30),正常光滑宫颈组织MMP-9表达总阳性率20.0%(6/30),CIN组织MMP-9表达总阳性率96.4%(27/28).宫颈柱状上皮异位组织和正常光滑宫颈组织MMP-9表达总阳性率均显著低于CIN组织,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而宫颈柱状上皮异位组织与正常光滑宫颈组织MMP-9表达总阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 宫颈柱状上皮异位是一种生理表现,不应过度治疗.但生育年龄妇女应定期进行宫颈癌筛查.%Objective To explore the different probability of carcinoma and the necessity of treatment in cervical columnar ectopy (CCE),normal smooth cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) by investigating the different expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9).Methods The expression of MMP-9 was detected by using immunohistochemical method in 30 cases of CCE,28 cases of CIN and 30 cases of normal smooth cervix from 2007 to 2012.Results The positive expression of MMP-9protein in CIN was 96.4% (27/28),CCE was 23.3% (7/30) and normal smooth cervix was 20.0% (6/30)respectively.The positive expression of MMP-9 protein was higher in CIN than CCE and normal smooth cervix,the difference has statistical significance (P< 0.01),there was no significant difference between CCE and normal smooth cervix (P > 0.05).Conclusions CCE,which was a physiological performance of cervical erosion,should not be overtreated.But the women of childbearing age should be routinely performed in cervical cancer screening.

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns of microbial community biomass and composition in the Southern California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew G.; Landry, Michael R.; Selph, Karen E.; Wokuluk, John J.

    2015-02-01

    As part of the California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program, samples for epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry (FCM) were collected at ten 'cardinal' stations on the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) grid during 25 quarterly cruises from 2004 to 2010 to investigate the biomass, composition and size-structure of microbial communities within the southern CCE. Based on our results, we divided the region into offshore, and inshore northern and southern zones. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the offshore had lower biomass (16±2 μg C L-1; all errors represent the 95% confidence interval), smaller size-class cells and biomass was more stable over seasonal cycles. Offshore phytoplankton biomass peaked during the winter months. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the northern and southern inshore zones had higher biomass (78±22 and 32±9 μg C L-1, respectively), larger size-class cells and stronger seasonal biomass patterns. Inshore communities were often dominated by micro-size (20-200 μm) diatoms; however, autotrophic dinoflagellates dominated during late 2005 to early 2006, corresponding to a year of delayed upwelling in the northern CCE. Biomass trends in mid and deep euphotic zone samples were similar to those seen in the mixed-layer, but with declining biomass with depth, especially for larger size classes in the inshore regions. Mixed-layer ratios of autotrophic carbon to chlorophyll a (AC:Chl a) had a mean value of 51.5±5.3. Variability of nitracline depth, bin-averaged AC:Chl a in the mixed-layer ranged from 40 to 80 and from 22 to 35 for the deep euphotic zone, both with significant positive relationships to nitracline depth. Total living microbial carbon, including auto- and heterotrophs, consistently comprised about half of particulate organic carbon (POC).

  3. K-nearest-neighbor conditional entropy approach for the assessment of the short-term complexity of cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Castiglioni, P; Bari, V; Bassani, T; Marchi, A; Cividjian, A; Quintin, L; Di Rienzo, M

    2013-01-01

    Complexity analysis of short-term cardiovascular control is traditionally performed using entropy-based approaches including corrective terms or strategies to cope with the loss of reliability of conditional distributions with pattern length. This study proposes a new approach aiming at the estimation of conditional entropy (CE) from short data segments (about 250 samples) based on the k-nearest-neighbor technique. The main advantages are: (i) the control of the loss of reliability of the conditional distributions with the pattern length without introducing a priori information; (ii) the assessment of complexity indexes without fixing the pattern length to an arbitrary low value. The approach, referred to as k-nearest-neighbor conditional entropy (KNNCE), was contrasted with corrected approximate entropy (CApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and corrected CE (CCE), being the most frequently exploited approaches for entropy-based complexity analysis of short cardiovascular series. Complexity indexes were evaluated during the selective pharmacological blockade of the vagal and/or sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. We found that KNNCE was more powerful than CCE in detecting the decrease of complexity of heart period variability imposed by double autonomic blockade. In addition, KNNCE provides indexes indistinguishable from those derived from CApEn and SampEn. Since this result was obtained without using strategies to correct the CE estimate and without fixing the embedding dimension to an arbitrary low value, KNNCE is potentially more valuable than CCE, CApEn and SampEn when the number of past samples most useful to reduce the uncertainty of future behaviors is high and/or variable among conditions and/or groups.

  4. Charge collection and charge sharing in heavily irradiated n-side read-out silicon microstrip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P.; Biagi, S.F.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Turner, P.R

    2003-09-21

    Hadron radiation damage of n-bulk silicon detectors leads to a change in the effective space charge from positive to negative. This effect is called type inversion. Type inversion occurs after exposure to a fluence of a few 10{sup 13} proton cm{sup -2} and is characterized by migration of the diode junction to the n{sup +} implanted side (n-side) of the detector. After inversion the charge collection efficiency (CCE) of segmented detectors at low voltage is higher when the n-side, rather than the p-side, is read out. A p-side read out (p-in-n) and an n-side read out (n-in-n) strip detector with identical strip geometry and a wafer thickness of 200 {mu}m were simultaneously and inhomogenously irradiated to a maximum fluence of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2} with 24 GeV c{sup -1} protons. A comparison of the CCE at very high irradiation doses is shown with these two read out geometries. The inhomogeneous irradiation induces an inhomogenous distribution of the effective space charge with a transverse component of the electric field that could in principle affect the resolution properties of the microstrip detector. The inter-strip charge sharing properties, as a function of dose, for the n-in-n detector have been measured. No systematic distortion of the reconstructed cluster position was detected within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The detectors were manufactured using oxygen enriched silicon substrates to limit the degradation of the full depletion voltage under charged hadron irradiation. The measured CCE confirms that the use of oxygenated n-in-n detectors is viable up to fluences of 7x10{sup 14} proton cm{sup -2}.

  5. GaN as a radiation hard particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Bates, R.; Cunningham, W.; Blue, A.; Melone, J.; McEwan, F.; Vaitkus, J.; Gaubas, E.; O'Shea, V.

    2007-06-01

    Semiconductor tracking detectors at experiments such as ATLAS and LHCb at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be subjected to intense levels of radiation. The proposed machine upgrade, the Super-LHC (SLHC), to 10 times the initial luminosity of the LHC will require detectors that are ultra-radiation hard. Much of the current research into finding a detector that will meet the requirements of the SLHC has focused on using silicon substrates with enhanced levels of oxygen, for example Czochralski silicon and diffusion oxygenated float zone silicon, and into novel detector structures such as 3D devices. Another avenue currently being investigated is the use of wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN). Both SiC and GaN should be intrinsically more radiation hard than silicon. Pad and guard ring structures were fabricated on three epitaxial GaN wafers. The epitaxial GaN thickness was either 2.5 or 12 μm and the fabricated detectors were irradiated to various fluences with 24 GeV/c protons and 1 MeV neutrons. Detectors were characterised pre- and post-irradiation by performing current-voltage ( I- V) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements. Devices fabricated on 12 μm epitaxial GaN irradiated to fluences of 1016 protons cm-2 and 1016 neutrons cm-2 show maximum CCE values of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to a maximum CCE of 53% of the unirradiated device.

  6. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt Tasaniyananda

    Full Text Available Cats (Felis domesticus are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE. BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1, L-cCE, or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35 and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β. In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients.

  7. Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiments: System Identification Rack Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.

  8. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  9. High efficiency digital cooler electronics for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Luong, T. T.; Shaw, L. S.; Murphy, J. B.; Moody, E. A.; Lisiecki, A. L.; Ellis, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for a wide range of aerospace applications, mostly related to infrared (IR) sensors. While the industry focus has tended to be on the mechanical cryocooler thermo mechanical unit (TMU) alone, implementation on a platform necessarily consists of the combination of the TMU and a mating set of command and control electronics. For some applications the cryocooler electronics (CCE) are technologically simple and low cost relative to the TMU, but this is not always the case. The relative cost and complexity of the CCE for a space-borne application can easily exceed that of the TMU, primarily due to the technical constraints and cost impacts introduced by the typical space radiation hardness and reliability requirements. High end tactical IR sensor applications also challenge the state of the art in cryocooler electronics, such as those for which temperature setpoint and frequency must be adjustable, or those where an informative telemetry set must be supported, etc. Generally speaking for both space and tactical applications, it is often the CCE that limits the rated lifetime and reliability of the cryocooler system. A family of high end digital cryocooler electronics has been developed to address these needs. These electronics are readily scalable from 10W to 500W output capacity; experimental performance data for nominally 25W and 100W variants are presented. The combination of a FPGA-based controller and dual H-bridge motor drive architectures yields high efficiency (>92% typical) and precision temperature control (+/- 30 mK typical) for a wide range of Stirling-class mechanical cryocooler types and vendors. This paper focuses on recent testing with the AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) SX030 and AIM SF100 cryocoolers.

  10. Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittone, E., E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Department of Physics, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pastuovic, Z. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Breese, M.B.H. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Sevilla University, J. Andalucia, CSIC, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jaksic, M. [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruder Boškovic Institute (RBI), P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland); Siegele, R. [Centre for Accelerator Science (ANSTO), Locked bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2234 (Australia); Simon, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Vizkelethy, G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • We study the electronic degradation of semiconductors induced by ion irradiation. • The experimental protocol is based on MeV ion microbeam irradiation. • The radiation induced damage is measured by IBIC. • The general model fits the experimental data in the low level damage regime. • Key parameters relevant to the intrinsic radiation hardness are extracted. - Abstract: This paper investigates both theoretically and experimentally the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation in silicon diodes induced by energetic ions. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out on n- and p-type silicon diodes which were previously irradiated with MeV He ions show evidence that the CCE degradation does not only depend on the mass, energy and fluence of the damaging ion, but also depends on the ion probe species and on the polarization state of the device. A general one-dimensional model is derived, which accounts for the ion-induced defect distribution, the ionization profile of the probing ion and the charge induction mechanism. Using the ionizing and non-ionizing energy loss profiles resulting from simulations based on the binary collision approximation and on the electrostatic/transport parameters of the diode under study as input, the model is able to accurately reproduce the experimental CCE degradation curves without introducing any phenomenological additional term or formula. Although limited to low level of damage, the model is quite general, including the displacement damage approach as a special case and can be applied to any semiconductor device. It provides a method to measure the capture coefficients of the radiation induced recombination centres. They can be considered indexes, which can contribute to assessing the relative radiation hardness of semiconductor materials.

  11. Mouse Model of Cat Allergic Rhinitis and Intranasal Liposome-Adjuvanted Refined Fel d 1 Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaniyananda, Natt; Chaisri, Urai; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Sookrung, Nitat

    2016-01-01

    Cats (Felis domesticus) are rich source of airborne allergens that prevailed in the environment and sensitized a number of people to allergy. In this study, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis caused by the cat allergens was developed for the first time and the model was used for testing therapeutic efficacy of a novel intranasal liposome-entrapped vaccines made of native Fel d 1 (major cat allergen) in comparison with the vaccine made of crude cat hair extract (cCE). BALB/c mice were sensitized with cCE mixed with alum intraperitoneally and intranasally. The allergic mice were treated with eight doses of either liposome (L)-entrapped native Fel d 1 (L-nFD1), L-cCE), or placebo on every alternate day. Vaccine efficacy evaluation was performed one day after provoking the treated mice with aerosolic cCE. All allergenized mice developed histological features of allergic rhinitis with rises of serum specific-IgE and Th2 cytokine gene expression. Serum IgE and intranasal mucus production of allergic mice reduced significantly after vaccination in comparison with the placebo mice. The vaccines also caused a shift of the Th2 response (reduction of Th2 cytokine expressions) towards the non-pathogenic responses: Th1 (down-regulation of the Th1 suppressive cytokine gene, IL-35) and Treg (up-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β). In conclusions, a mouse model of allergic rhinitis to cat allergens was successfully developed. The intranasal, liposome-adjuvanted vaccines, especially the refined single allergen formulation, assuaged the allergic manifestations in the modeled mice. The prototype vaccine is worthwhile testing further for clinical use in the pet allergic patients. PMID:26954254

  12. Leg muscle vibration modulates bodily self-consciousness: integration of proprioceptive, visual, and tactile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palluel, Estelle; Aspell, Jane Elizabeth; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Behavioral studies have used visuo-tactile conflicts between a participant's body and a visually presented fake or virtual body to investigate the importance of bodily perception for self-consciousness (bodily self-consciousness). Illusory self-identification with a fake body and changes in tactile processing--modulation of visuo-tactile cross-modal congruency effects (CCEs)--were reported in previous findings. Although proprioceptive signals are deemed important for bodily self-consciousness, their contribution to the representation of the full body has not been studied. Here we investigated whether and how self-identification and tactile processing (CCE magnitude) could be modified by altering proprioceptive signals with 80-Hz vibrations at the legs. Participants made elevation judgments of tactile cues (while ignoring nearby lights) during synchronous and asynchronous stroking of a seen fake body. We found that proprioceptive signals during vibrations altered the magnitude of self-identification and mislocalization of touch (CCE) in a synchrony-dependent fashion: we observed an increase of self-identification and CCE magnitude during asynchronous stroking. In a second control experiment we studied whether proprioceptive signals per se, or those from the lower limbs in particular, were essential for these changes. We applied vibrations at the upper limbs (which provide no information about the position of the participant's body in space) and in this case observed no modulation of bodily self-consciousness or tactile perception. These data link proprioceptive signals from the legs that are conveyed through the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway to bodily self-consciousness. We discuss their integration with bodily signals from vision and touch for full-body representations.

  13. Interannual variations in snowpack in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Reardon, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ecosystem changes such as glacier recession and alpine treeline advance have been documented over the previous 150 years in the Rocky Mountains of northern Montana and southern British Columbia and Alberta, a region known as the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE). Such changes are controlled, at least partially, by variations in snowpack. The CCE consists primarily of public lands, the majority of which is undeveloped or wilderness. Consequently, this region is well suited for an examination of long-term snowpack variation and associated ecosystem change. Data from nine SNOTEL sites provide an indication of the daily accumulation and ablation of snowpack over the period 1977-2001, as well as the relationship between precipitation, temperature and snowpack. 1 April data from 21 snow courses indicated the extent of regional snowpack variation and trends over the period 1950-2001, and 1 May data from three snow courses in Glacier National Park allow this record to be extended back to 1922. SNOTEL data suggest CCE snowpacks are larger and more persistent than in most regions of the western USA, and that water year precipitation is the primary control on 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE). Snow course data indicate that variations in both 1 April and 1 May mean SWE are closely tied to the Pacific decadal oscillation, an El Nino-southern oscillation-like interdecadal pattern of Pacific Ocean climate variability. Despite relatively stable snowpacks and summer temperatures since 1922, the glaciers in Glacier National Park have receded steadily during this period, implying a significant climatic shift between their Little Ice Age glacial maxima (ca 1860) and 1922. Published in 2002 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  14. Identification of carboxylesterase genes implicated in temephos resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Poupardin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thailand is currently experiencing one of its worst dengue outbreaks in decades. As in most countries where this disease is endemic, dengue control in Thailand is largely reliant on the use of insecticides targeting both immature and adult stages of the Aedes mosquito, with the organophosphate insecticide, temephos, being the insecticide of choice for attacking the mosquito larvae. Resistance to temephos was first detected in Aedes aegypti larvae in Thailand approximately 25 years ago but the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bioassays on Ae. aegypti larvae from Thailand detected temephos resistance ratios ranging from 3.5 fold in Chiang Mai to nearly 10 fold in Nakhon Sawan (NS province. Synergist and biochemical assays suggested a role for increased carboxylesterase (CCE activities in conferring temephos resistance in the NS population and microarray analysis revealed that the CCE gene, CCEae3a, was upregulated more than 60 fold in the NS population compared to the susceptible population. Upregulation of CCEae3a was shown to be partially due to gene duplication. Another CCE gene, CCEae6a, was also highly regulated in both comparisons. Sequencing and in silico structure prediction of CCEae3a showed that several amino acid polymorphisms in the NS population may also play a role in the increased resistance phenotype. SIGNIFICANCE: Carboxylesterases have previously been implicated in conferring temephos resistance in Ae aegypti but the specific member(s of this family responsible for this phenotype have not been identified. The identification of a strong candidate is an important step in the development of new molecular diagnostic tools for management of temephos resistant populations and thus improved control of dengue.

  15. Pilot power optimization for AF relaying using maximum likelihood channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kezhi

    2014-09-01

    Bit error rates (BERs) for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE) and cascaded channel estimation (CCE), are derived in Rayleigh fading channels. Based on these BERs, the pilot powers at the source and at the relay are optimized when their total transmitting powers are fixed. Numerical results show that the optimized system has a better performance than other conventional nonoptimized allocation systems. They also show that the optimal pilot power in variable gain is nearly the same as that in fixed gain for similar system settings. andcopy; 2014 IEEE.

  16. Identification of subpopulations in mesenchymal stem cell-like cultures from human umbilical cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majore Ingrida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of cell types can be identified in the adherent fraction of bone marrow mononuclear cells including more primitive and embryonic-like stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, lineage-committed progenitors as well as mature cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Different methods are described for the isolation of single bone marrow stem cell subpopulations – beginning from ordinary size sieving, long term cultivation under specific conditions to FACS-based approaches. Besides bone marrow-derived subpopulations, also other tissues including human umbilical cord (UC have been recently suggested to provide a potential source for MSC. Although of clinical importance, these UC-derived MSC populations remain to be characterized. It was thus the aim of the present study to identify possible subpopulations in cultures of MSC-like cells obtained from UC. We used counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE as a novel strategy to successfully address this question. Results UC-derived primary cells were separated by CCE and revealed differentially-sized populations in the fractions. Thus, a subpopulation with an average diameter of about 11 μm and a small flat cell body was compared to a large sized subpopulation of about 19 μm average diameter. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of certain MSC stem cell markers including CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, respectively, although these markers were expressed at higher levels in the small-sized population. Moreover, this small-sized subpopulation exhibited a higher proliferative capacity as compared to the total UC-derived primary cultures and the large-sized cells and demonstrated a reduced amount of aging cells. Conclusion Using the CCE technique, we were the first to demonstrate a subpopulation of small-sized UC-derived primary cells carrying MSC-like characteristics according to the presence of various mesenchymal stem cell markers. This is also supported by the

  17. EST Table: DC552020 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC552020 E_FL_phe-_26P21_F_0 10/09/28 64 %/173 aa ref|XP_001651472.1| l-allo-threon...Bpp0282793|DpseGA10138-PA 10/08/28 45 %/200 aa R102.4c#CE41254#WBGene00011291#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q2189...0#prot ein_id:CAL36512.2 10/09/10 60 %/173 aa AGAP003688-PA Protein|2R:42038950:420

  18. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum Na, Yong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-01

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an ‘on-demand’ basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture’s constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm2) from the Varian TrueBeamTM STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are identical

  19. El carácter como predictor de trastornos de la personalidad en adictos: la tipología caracterial de Cloninger y su abordaje psicosocial

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo J. Pedrero Pérez; Álvaro Olivar Arroyo; Carmen Puerta García

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio aborda las relaciones de las dimensiones caracteriales del modelo de Cloninger con los trastornos de la personalidad. Se obtiene una muestra de sujetos (N=565) que inician tratamiento por conductas adictivas en un centro ambulatorio (CAD 4 San Blas, Instituto de Adicciones, Madrid Salud), y cumplimentan el TCI-R, el MCMI-II, el VIP y el CCE-R. Según los criterios de Cloninger y, mediante análisis discriminante, son clasificados en los diferentes tipos caracteriales. Se com...

  20. Procesos para una Astronomía que le aporte a Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Se ha validado el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Tecnológico en Astronomía 2011-2030, para el Plan Estratégico 2009-2012 de la Comisión Colombiana del Espacio CCE, por el Grupo de Astronáutica, Astronomía y Medicina Aeroespacial. Esperamos que el grupo de astrónomos convocado, responsable de la investigación centrado en procesos científicos existentes y no en distractores, pueda señalar las acciones pertinentes e identificar los recursos necesarios, para hacer viable un desarrollo científico y t...

  1. Efficacy and the discriminative stimulus effects of negative GABAA modulators, or inverse agonists, in diazepam-treated rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2006-08-01

    In benzodiazepine (BZ)-dependent animals, the effects of negative GABA(A) modulators at BZ sites are not clearly related to differences in negative efficacy (i.e., inverse agonist activity). A flumazenil discriminative stimulus in diazepam (5.6 mg/kg/day)-treated rhesus monkeys was used to test the hypothesis that the effects of negative GABA(A) modulators at BZ sites do not vary as a function of efficacy in BZ-dependent animals. Negative GABA(A) modulators varying in efficacy were studied in combination with positive modulators acting at different modulatory sites (BZ, barbiturate, and neuroactive steroid sites). The negative modulators Ro 15-4513 (ethyl 8-azido-6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-alpha]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) and ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) substituted for the flumazenil discriminative stimulus. Acute pretreatment with diazepam (3.2 and 10 mg/kg s.c., in addition to 5.6 mg/kg/day p.o.), pentobarbital (3.2 and 10 mg/kg), or pregnanolone (1 and 3.2 mg/kg) attenuated the flumazenil discriminative stimulus and also attenuated the flumazenil-like discriminative stimulus effects of Ro 15-4513 and beta-CCE. Attenuation of the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, and beta-CCE did not systematically vary as a function of negative efficacy. Compared with their discriminative stimulus effects in untreated monkeys discriminating midazolam, both pregnanolone and pentobarbital were relatively more potent than diazepam in attenuating the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, and beta-CCE in diazepam-treated monkeys. These results show that the discriminative stimulus effects of BZ-site neutral and negative modulators are not different in BZ-dependent animals trained to discriminate flumazenil, and extend the results of a previous study showing that positive modulators acting at non-BZ sites are especially potent in attenuating the effects of flumazenil in diazepam-treated monkeys (i

  2. The mechanism of contribution to the taxes of the electricity public service; Le mecanisme de contribution aux Charges de Service Public d'Electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonde, G.; Poizat, F.; Triboulet, A. [IED, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    This report presents the results of an expertise realized by the Institute of the Energy and development for the CCE of EDF. The CSPE is a mechanism of mutualization of taxes of the electricity public service. These taxes concern the impact of the tariffs adjustment, the assistance to systems of energy conservation, the solidarity to poor households. the document presents the historical aspects and the bases of the mechanism, the cost of the global compensation, the foundations of this mutualization system, the forecasts and some recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  3. Toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yong Hum; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2013-09-21

    To exploit the potential dosimetric advantages of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), an in-depth approach is required to provide efficient computing methods. This needs to incorporate clinically related organ specific constraints, Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, and large-scale plan optimization. This paper describes our first steps toward a web-based real-time radiation treatment planning system in a cloud computing environment (CCE). The Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) with a master node (named m2.xlarge containing 17.1 GB of memory, two virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each, 420 GB of instance storage, 64-bit platform) is used as the backbone of cloud computing for dose calculation and plan optimization. The master node is able to scale the workers on an 'on-demand' basis. MC dose calculation is employed to generate accurate beamlet dose kernels by parallel tasks. The intensity modulation optimization uses total-variation regularization (TVR) and generates piecewise constant fluence maps for each initial beam direction in a distributed manner over the CCE. The optimized fluence maps are segmented into deliverable apertures. The shape of each aperture is iteratively rectified to be a sequence of arcs using the manufacture's constraints. The output plan file from the EC2 is sent to the simple storage service. Three de-identified clinical cancer treatment plans have been studied for evaluating the performance of the new planning platform with 6 MV flattening filter free beams (40 × 40 cm(2)) from the Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx linear accelerator. A CCE leads to speed-ups of up to 14-fold for both dose kernel calculations and plan optimizations in the head and neck, lung, and prostate cancer cases considered in this study. The proposed system relies on a CCE that is able to provide an infrastructure for parallel and distributed computing. The resultant plans from the cloud computing are

  4. Model of systemic characterization of the energy supply options; Modelo de caracterizacao sistemica das opcoes de oferta energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Galvao, Luiz C. Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mails: ricardo_fujii@pea.usp.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: udaeta@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative change of the traditional approach through a proposition of a model of energy resources by integrating all these dimensions. The objectives are: supplying a methodology for the evaluation of a global cost of the energy resources and another one to estimate such a resources potential. To facilitate the evaluation process, the model suggests the use of CCE - Completed Cost Evaluation, which allows the qualitative and quantitative costs, reducing the necessity of quantitative data limited in certain cases. The model can be applied jointly to portfolios selection and analysis tools for evaluation of the best offers for the expansion energy offers.

  5. Edge Detection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    PROJECT. T ASK0 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA It WORK UNIT NUMBERS V 545 Technology Square ( Cambridge, HA 02139 I I* CONTOOL1LIN@4OFFICE NAME...ARD-A1t62 62 EDGE DETECTION(U) NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE 1/1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB E C HILDRETH SEP 85 AI-M-8 N99SI4-8S-C-6595...used to carry out this analysis. cce~iO a N) ’.~" D LI’BL. P p ------------ Sj. t i MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY i ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHL257 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 679 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromoso... 103 1e-25 AK227321_1( AK227321 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo....lucimarinus CCE9901... 101 1e-25 AK230210_1( AK230210 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 103 2...e-25 AK221976_1( AK221976 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypo... 100 1e-24 AM494960_175( AM494960

  7. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA contract NAS5-31213 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire contract period from 8 May 1991 to 7 Jun. 1994. This is a contract under the NASA Guest Investigator Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft. These combined data sets have been used to survey the energetic ion environment in the earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there.

  8. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath. Final report, 8 May 1991-7 June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA contract NAS5-31213 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire contract period from 8 May 1991 to 7 Jun. 1994. This is a contract under the NASA Guest Investigator Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft. These combined data sets have been used to survey the energetic ion environment in the earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there.

  9. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA contract NAS5-31213 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire contract period from 8 May 1991 to 7 Jun. 1994. This is a contract under the NASA Guest Investigator Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft. These combined data sets have been used to survey the energetic ion environment in the earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there.

  10. Development of a sensitive and false-positive free PMA-qPCR viability assay to quantify VBNC Escherichia coli and evaluate disinfection performance in wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbee, Richard J; Örmeci, Banu

    2017-01-01

    The detection and quantification of viable Escherichia coli cells in wastewater treatment plant effluent is very important as it is the main disinfection efficacy parameter for assessing its public health risk and environmental impact. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and false-positive free propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assay to quantify the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) E. coli present in secondary wastewater effluent after chlorine disinfection. The qPCR target was the E. coli uidA gene, and native Taq was used to eliminate false positives caused by the presence of contaminant E. coli DNA in recombinant Taq polymerase reagents. Due to issues with qPCR inhibitors in wastewater, this study explored several pre-DNA extraction treatment methods for qPCR inhibitor removal. PMA-qPCR validation was done using salmon testes DNA (Sketa DNA) as an exogenous control added directly to the wastewater samples and amplified using a separate qPCR assay. After disinfection of secondary effluent with 2ppm chlorine at the plant, the mean Log10 CFU reduction in E. coli was 2.85 from a mean CFU of 3.48/10mL compared to 0.21 Log10 CCE mean reduction of the uidA gene from a mean CCE of 3.16/10mL. The VBNC cell concentrations were calculated as 2.32 Log10/10mL by subtracting the colony forming units (CFU) obtained from membrane filtration from the calculated CFU equivalent (CCE) values obtained from PMA-qPCR. These results demonstrate the effective use of a PMA-qPCR method for the quantification of the E. coli uidA gene and indicate there are high numbers (2.01×10(3)CCE/100mL) of VBNC E. coli cells leaving the wastewater treatment plant in the final effluent after chlorine treatment. VBNC bacterial cells are of concern as they have the potential to resuscitate and grow, regain virulence, affect natural microbiome in the discharge sites, and pass on antimicrobial resistant genes to other microorganisms.

  11. Workload-Driven Design and Evaluation of Large-Scale Data-Centric Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    search item [others] esb [others] [others] [others] 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 FB-2009 CC-a CC-b CC-c CC-d CC-e F ra c ti o n o f jo b s from...fraction of the ideal transfer time spent transmitting data, versus waiting for an RTT to acknowledge that the transmission completed. After incast... transmission time. The curves move vertically upwards as block size increases. 120 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 Goodput (Mbps) Number of

  12. The phylogeny graphs of doubly partial orders

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Boram

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a doubly partial order is known to be an interval graph. The CCE graph and the niche graph of a doubly partial order are also known to be interval graphs if the graphs do not contain a cycle of length four and three as an induced subgraph, respectively. Phylogeny graphs are variant of competition graphs. The phylogeny graph $P(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is the (simple undirected) graph defined by $V(P(D)):=V(D)$ and $E(P(D)):=\\{xy \\mid N^+_D(x) \\cap N^+_D(y) \

  13. GONÇALVES DIAS AND THE ETNOGRAPHIC AND NARRATIVE SECTION OF THE COMISSÃO CIENTÍFICA DE EXPLORAÇÃO (1859-1861)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Henrique Barbosa de Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Brazil should be known and studied by the Brazilians. This idea was the force that justified the constitution of the Comissão Científica de Exploração (CCE), founded by members of the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute and supported by the Brazilian imperial government, in order to motivate research on the “young” country. Within this ambitious scientific and political project, ethnographic knowledge and practices were embraced in the deeds assigned to the scientist and poet Gonçalve...

  14. National Guard and Reserve Equipment Report for Fiscal Year 2013 (NGRER FY 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Support Vehicles Tactical Trailers/ Dolly Sets 1,693,000 3,386,000 Truck, Dump, 20 ton (CCE) 14,000 Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) 139,542,000...Vehicles Tactical Trailers/ Dolly Sets 17,847,000 18,032,000 Semitrailers, Flatbed 9,486,000 9,486,000 Semitrailers, Tankers 23,405,000 23,325,000 Hi Mob...Vehicles Tactical Trailers/ Dolly Sets 1,693,000 3,386,000 Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) 84,659,000 63,628,000 Family of Heavy Tactical

  15. El pensamiento empresarial y el poder

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Montesinos; Griselda Martínez V.

    2001-01-01

    La transición mexicana nos permite observar cómo los discursos de los principales actores políticos van dando cuenta de la coyuntura, intentado refrendarse en el imaginario colectivo: es éste el complejo proceso que intentamos descubrir a partir del discurso empresarial que se plasma en el conjunto de mensajes cotidianamente emitidos por las principales organizaciones empresariales, como es el caso del CCE, Coparmex, Concamin, Canacintra y Concanaco, quienes, con su participación en el escena...

  16. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  17. Command History Calendar Year 1992 (Navy Personnel Research and Development Center)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    California 92152-7250 RE’ORT DOCUMEN T ATIQN PAS S Rtepoot, I ý.15 Jfferson Dave Hqnway, Suite 1204.Aru!ngtoP, VA 22.20 and to the Ofte a Manageet...plaxunig madel Bmra of N"va Pa & aielt ( EUPERS) (ADUIN) MsZ22= fbwe Andysis Sirw~isio Euiiaed iiwam~y pro.ecdori model SUPERS (PERS-22X 1~Tenqit (FAST...vuicma ficki Naval Educaion mid M~unmg Support Cc=e. Padfi& (NETSCPAC) flarni Systemsa Dcvcd mcm Depatmerlt Oyu 500 weeks of strctxio in aisnerung Service

  18. Evaluación paralela de sumas de puntos recionales sobre curvas elípticas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Los sistemas criptogr´aficos basados en curvas el´ıpticas fueron propuestos por vez primera de manera independiente por Miller [68] y Koblitz [49], despu´es del trabajo de Lenstra [56] en factorizaci´on de enteros. La caracter ´ıstica principal de los criptosistemas de curvas el´ıpticas (CCE) es la menor longitud de claves en relaci´on al RSA [82] as´ı como a otros sistemas basados en el logaritmo discreto sobre campos finitos. Se pueden construir sistemas criptogr´aficos ba...

  19. The Cut of the Scythe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Adolf Hitler, the German dictator, however, had different ideas. His Wehrmecht Adjutant, Colonel Rudolf Schmudt 2 , discussed the Fuehrer’s desire...fl A,- 1.. 4Wr uCCe a A ft nha Zf iao zar *s*wft 194I (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Yerleg GMBh, 1957), p. 9. 2Rudolf Schmunt vas born on Auguot 13, 1896...of Chief, Army Personnel Office. General of the Infantry, Rudolf Schmundt died from his wounds on October 10, 1944, In a field hospital at Ratzeburg

  20. Political Connections of the Boards of Directors and Defense Contractors Excessive Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    INC. $111,608,841 293 MOG.A 3728 11 ALON USA L.P. $111,102,800 296 ALJ 2911 11 COCA - COLA ENTERPRISES INC $93,991,833 343 CCE 2086 11 XEROX...demonstrate that the market responds positively (i.e., a positive abnormal stock return is observed) to the announcement of the nomination of a board...in Duchin and Sosyura (2012) takes several forms including lobbying, campaign contributions, and employment history of directors. = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå

  1. Manipulable objects facilitate cross-modal integration in peripersonal space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Elk

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that tool use often modifies one's peripersonal space--i.e. the space directly surrounding our body. Given our profound experience with manipulable objects (e.g. a toothbrush, a comb or a teapot in the present study we hypothesized that the observation of pictures representing manipulable objects would result in a remapping of peripersonal space as well. Subjects were required to report the location of vibrotactile stimuli delivered to the right hand, while ignoring visual distractors superimposed on pictures representing everyday objects. Pictures could represent objects that were of high manipulability (e.g. a cell phone, medium manipulability (e.g. a soap dispenser and low manipulability (e.g. a computer screen. In the first experiment, when subjects attended to the action associated with the objects, a strong cross-modal congruency effect (CCE was observed for pictures representing medium and high manipulability objects, reflected in faster reaction times if the vibrotactile stimulus and the visual distractor were in the same location, whereas no CCE was observed for low manipulability objects. This finding was replicated in a second experiment in which subjects attended to the visual properties of the objects. These findings suggest that the observation of manipulable objects facilitates cross-modal integration in peripersonal space.

  2. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  3. On the transport of ions released in the magnetotail by the AMPTE-IRM satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladis, J. B.; Francis, W. E.

    1988-01-01

    The Ba and Li ions releasd into the magnetotail in spring 1985 by the AMPTE-IRM satellite were not observed subsequently in the inner magnetosphere with the AMPTE-CCE satellite. These results were studied by using a Monte Carlo code to compute the transport of the ions. For each release several hundred ion guiding-center trajectories were computed under simulated magnetospheric conditions, using the Tsyganenko-Usmanov (1982) magnetic-field model and the Millstone Hill convection-electric-field model (Oliver et al., 1983). The corotation and convection electric fields were mapped to altitudes above the ionosphere, assuming the magnetic-field lines to be equipotentials. The initial conditions of the ions, at the times at which the ions were picked up by the electric field, were estimated by taking into consideration the release conditions and the early-time collective effects. The results indicate that the Ba(+) ions were not observed because the CCE satellite was not along the drift paths of the ions, and the Li(+) ions were not observed because their fluxes at the satellite were too low.

  4. Enseñanza como puente entre conocimientos científicos escolares y conocimientos ecológicos tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Molina-Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se enriquece la idea de enseñanza como puente entre Co - nocimientos Ecológicos t radicionales (CE t y Conocimientos Científicos Escolares (CCE y se retoman otras investigaciones. Amplía la conceptualización de las perspectivas encontradas: asimilacionista (centrada en los CCE, moral y humanista (diri - gida al reconocimiento del otro, plural epistémica y ontológi - ca (enfocada en las epistemes alternas y el sujeto y contextual (orientada al sentido, la interpretación, los aspectos sociocul - turales, los CE t . Se concluye que los puentes son de doble vía y tienen una mayor complejidad que la planteada por los profesores. Mayores conocimientos al respecto permiten de - construir la perspectiva asimilacionista y orientar procesos de enseñanza que tengan en cuenta los demás puentes. Este trabajo es importante para la práctica educativa, pues pone en discusión aspectos centrales de la enseñanza de las ciencias, construidos a partir de investigaciones basadas en las posturas y narraciones del profesorado de ciencias. Da elementos para orientar acciones docentes, proyectos y ense - ñanza de contenidos, en los cuales se reconoce la diversidad cultural de la sociedad y de los contextos en donde se encuen - tra la escuela.

  5. IBIC characterization of an ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: forneris@to.infn.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Grilj, V.; Jakšić, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Lo Giudice, A.; Olivero, P.; Picollo, F. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Skukan, N. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vittone, E. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) has been used for the direct writing of buried graphitic regions in monocrystalline diamond with micrometric resolution. As part of the development and the characterization of a fully ion-beam-micromachined solid-state ionization chamber, a device with interdigitated electrodes was fabricated by using a 1.8 MeV He{sup +} ion microbeam, which scanned a 40 μm thick homoepitaxial detector grade diamond sample grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In order to evaluate the ionizing-radiation-detection performance of the device, charge collection efficiency (CCE) maps were extracted from Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out by probing different arrangements of buried micro-electrodes. The analysis of the CCE maps allowed an exhaustive evaluation of the detector features, in particular the individuation of the different role played by electrons and holes in the formation of the induced charge pulses. Finally, a comparison of the performances of the detector with buried graphitic electrodes with those relevant to conventional metallic surface electrodes evidenced the formation of a dead layer overlying the buried electrodes as a result of the fabrication process.

  6. Differential transcription profiles in Aedes aegypti detoxification genes after temephos selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Strode, C; Flores, A E; Garcia-Luna, S; Reyes-Solis, G; Ranson, H; Hemingway, J; Black, W C

    2014-04-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever flaviviruses. The organophosphate insecticide temephos is a larvicide that is used globally to control Ae. aegypti populations; many of which have in turn evolved resistance. Target site alteration in the acetylcholine esterase of this species has not being identified. Instead, we tracked changes in transcription of metabolic detoxification genes using the Ae. aegypti 'Detox Chip' microarray during five generations of temephos selection. We selected for temephos resistance in three replicates in each of six collections, five from Mexico, and one from Peru. The response to selection was tracked in terms of lethal concentrations. Uniform upregulation was seen in the epsilon class glutathione-S-transferase (eGST) genes in strains from Mexico prior to laboratory selection, while eGSTs in the Iquitos Peru strain became upregulated after five generations of temephos selection. While expression of many carboxyl/cholinesterase esterase (CCE) genes increased with selection, no single esterase was consistently upregulated and this same pattern was noted in the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) genes and in other genes involved in reduction or oxidation of xenobiotics. Bioassays using glutathione-S-transferase (GST), CCE and CYP inhibitors suggest that various CCEs instead of GSTs are the main metabolic mechanism conferring resistance to temephos. We show that temephos-selected strains show no cross resistance to permethrin and that genes associated with temephos selection are largely independent of those selected with permethrin in a previous study.

  7. The Council on Chiropractic Education's New Wellness Standard: A call to action for the chiropractic profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Ronald

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chiropractic profession has long considered itself to be a preventive science. Recently the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE has defined a set of standards that must be implemented at all US chiropractic colleges as of January of 2007. These are specific to wellness measures and health promoting efforts that should be performed by chiropractors. This will mandate traditional health promotion and prevention methods be taught to students at accredited colleges and to practicing chiropractors. Objective To present the idea of performing traditional health promotion and wellness-concepts in chiropractic practice as a call to action for clinicians and generate discussion on the topic. Discussion This manuscript discusses relevant topics of health promotion and prevention for chiropractors and other practicing clinicians that should be made priorities with patients in order to enhance both patient health and community and population health. Conclusion All practicing chiropractors, as well as other clinicians should take these new standards from the CCE as a call to action to begin helping patients address the removable causes of morbidity, disability and premature mortality where they exist, in addition to treating their painful spinal conditions.

  8. Status of the Combined Cycle Engine Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Dave; Slater, John; Dippold, Vance

    2009-01-01

    Status for the past year is provided of the turbine-based Combined-Cycle Engine (CCE) Rig for the hypersonic project. As part of the first stage propulsion of a two-stage-to-orbit vehicle concept, this engine rig is designed with a common inlet that supplies flow to a turbine engine and a dual-mode ramjet / scramjet engine in an over/under configuration. At Mach 4 the inlet has variable geometry to switch the airflow from the turbine to the ramjet / scramjet engine. This process is known as inlet mode-transition. In addition to investigating inlet aspects of mode transition, the rig will allow testing of turbine and scramjet systems later in the test series. Fully closing the splitter cowl "cocoons" the turbine engine and increases airflow to the scramjet duct. The CCE Rig will be a testbed to investigate integrated propulsion system and controls technology objectives. Four phases of testing are planned to 1) characterize the dual inlet database, 2) collect inlet dynamics using system identification techniques, 3) implement an inlet control to demonstrate mode-transition scenarios and 4) demonstrate integrated inlet/turbine engine operation through mode-transition. Status of the test planning and preparation activities is summarized with background on the inlet design and small-scale testing, analytical CFD predictions and some details of the large-scale hardware. The final stages of fabrication are underway.

  9. The Production and Characterization of Ceramic Carbon Electrode Materials for CuCl-HCl Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Patrick

    Current H2 gas supplies are primarily produced through steam methane reforming and other fossil fuel based processes. This lack of viable large scale and environmentally friendly H2 gas production has hindered the wide spread adoption of H2 fuel cells. A potential solution to this problem is the Cu-Cl hybrid thermochemical cycle. The cycle captures waste heat to drive two thermochemical steps creating CuCl as well as O2 gas and HCl from CuCl2 and water. The CuCl is oxidized in HCl to produce H2 gas and regenerate CuCl2, this process occurs at potentials well below those required for water electrolysis. The electrolysis process occurs in a traditional PEM fuel-cell. In the aqueous anolyte media Cu(I) will form anionic complexes such as CuCl 2 - or CuCl32-. The slow transport of these species to the anode surface limits the overall electrolysis process. To improve this transport process we have produced ceramic carbon electrode (CCE) materials through a sol-gel method incorporating a selection of amine containing silanes with increasing numbers of primary and secondary amines. When protonated these amines allow for improved transport of anionic copper complexes. The electrochemical and physical characterization of these CCE materials in a half and full-cell electrolysis environment will be presented. Electrochemical analysis was performed using cell polarization, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  10. Ciclo de convesrión de efectivo en las grandes empresas de comercio al detal en Colombia (1998-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Moreno Meza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia las magnitudes y las implicaciones financieras del ciclo de conversión de efectivo (CCE, concepto desarrollado por Richards y Laughlin (1980 para integrar tres indicadores fundamentales del capital de trabajo y de la gestión del circulante en la empresa comercial, como son los días de inventario, los días de cartera y los días de crédito de proveedores. Estimado a partir de los estados financieros de una muestra de cinco grandes empresas del comercio minorista en Colombia (Almacenes Éxito-Cadenalco, Carulla- Vivero, Supertiendas y Droguerías Olímpica, Cacharrería La 14 y Carrefour, las cifras del CCE correspondientes al período 1998-2002 revelan la importancia del apalancamiento financiero basado en la cuenta de proveedores, así como sus implicaciones para el capital de trabajo y el equilibrio financiero de estas cadenas comerciales.

  11. Recent progress of CERN 39-cryogenic tracking detectors collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H(a)rk(o)nen

    2006-01-01

    Significant progress was made by the CERN RD39 collaboration in the development of super radiation-hard cryogenic silicon detectors for applications in experiments at LHC,in particular after its future luminosity upgrade. The detailed modeling shows that the electric field in irradiated silicon detectors can easily be manipulated by the filling state of two deep defect levels at cryogenic temperature. Advanced radiation hard detectors using charge or current injection and the current injected detectors(CID) were developed by RD39. The results show that CID detectors can be operated at the temperature of 100-200 K with much improved charge collection efficiency(CCE) as compared with RT operation. Future studies are developing ultra-hard cryogenic silicon detectors for the LHC upgrade,where the radiation hardness is required up to 1016 neq/cm2,at which trapping will limit the charge collection depth to the range of 20 to 50 μm regardless of the depletion depth. The key of our approach is to use freeze-out trapping to affect CCE.

  12. Modelling the Central Constant Emission X-ray component of eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher M P; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Madura, Thomas I; Owocki, Stanley P; Hillier, D John

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray emission of $\\eta$ Carinae shows multiple features at various spatial and temporal scales. The central constant emission (CCE) component is centred on the binary and arises from spatial scales much smaller than the bipolar Homunculus nebula, but likely larger than the central wind--wind collision region between the stars as it does not vary over the $\\sim$2-3 month X-ray minimum when it can be observed. Using large-scale 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, we model both the colliding-wind region between the stars, and the region where the secondary wind collides with primary wind ejected from the previous periastron passage. The simulations extend out to one hundred semimajor axes and make two limiting assumptions (strong coupling and no coupling) about the influence of the primary radiation field on the secondary wind. We perform 3D radiative transfer calculations on the SPH output to synthesize the X-ray emission, with the aim of reproducing the CCE spectrum. For the preferred pr...

  13. The joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland research program in charged particle and high energy photon detector technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipavich, F.M.

    1990-05-01

    The Univ. of Maryland portion investigated the following areas. The Space Physics Group performed studies of data from the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft CHEM experiment and found that the ratio of solar wind to photospheric abundances decreased rather smoothly with the first ionization potential (FIP) of the ion with the low FIP ion being about a factor of two overabundant. Carbon and hydrogen fit this trend particularly well. Several occurrences were analyzed of field aligned beams observed when CCE was upstream of the Earth's bow shock. Also using CHEM data, ring current intensity and composition changes during the main and recovery phases of the great geomagnetic storm that occurred in February 1986 was examined in detail. Still using CHEM data, ring current characteristics were examined in a survey of 20 magnetic storms ranging in size from -50 nT to -312 nT. A study was done of energetic ion anisotropy characteristics in the Earth's magnetosheath region using data from the UMD/MPE experiment on ISEE-1. The properties were analyzed of approx. 30 to 130 keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE-3 spacecraft during 1978 to 1979. Work from NASA-Goddard include studies from the High Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Gamma Ray Group, High Energy Astrophysics Theory Group, and the X ray Astronomy Group.

  14. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  15. Schottky barrier detectors on 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layer for alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, S.K.; Krishna, R.M.; Zavalla, K.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Mandal, K.C., E-mail: mandalk@cec.sc.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    Schottky barrier detectors have been fabricated on 50 μm n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 360 μm SiC substrates by depositing ∼10 nm nickel contact. Current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements were carried out to investigate the Schottky barrier properties. The detectors were evaluated for alpha particle detection using a {sup 241}Am alpha source. An energy resolution of ∼2.7% was obtained with a reverse bias of 100 V for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. The measured charge collection efficiency (CCE) was seen to vary as a function of bias voltage following a minority carrier diffusion model. Using this model, a diffusion length of∼3.5 μm for holes was numerically calculated from the CCE vs. bias voltage plot. Rise-time measurements of digitally recorded charge pulses for the 5.48 MeV alpha particles showed a presence of two sets of events having different rise-times at a higher bias of 200 V. A biparametric correlation scheme was successfully implemented for the first time to visualize the correlated pulse-height distribution of the events with different rise-times. Using the rise-time measurements and the biparametric plots, the observed variation of energy resolution with applied bias was explained.

  16. Long-Term Stable Surface Treatments on CdTe and CdZnTe Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarek, Jakub; Belas, Eduard; Zazvorka, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    The spectral resolution and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors are often limited by high surface leakage current due to conducting surface species created during detector fabrication. Surface treatments play a major role in reduction of this surface leakage current. The effect of various types of surface etching and passivation on the leakage current and thereby the spectral energy resolution, CCE, and internal electric field profile of CdTe/CZT detectors has been studied. The main aim of this work is preparation of long-term stable detectors with strongly reduced leakage current. The time stability of the current-voltage characteristic and spectral resolution was investigated during 21 days and 1 year, respectively, after performing surface treatments. Our results suggest that the optimal detector preparation method is chemomechanical polishing in bromine-ethylene glycol solution followed by chemical etching in bromine-methanol solution then surface passivation in potassium hydroxide or ammonium fluoride (NH4F/H2O2). Detectors prepared using this optimal treatment exhibited low leakage current, high spectral resolution, and long-term stability compared with those subjected to other surface preparation methods.

  17. An upgraded drift–diffusion model for evaluating the carrier lifetimes in radiation-damaged semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J., E-mail: fjgl@us.es [Dept of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M. [CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Forneris, J. [Physics Dept./NIS Centre, University of Torino, INFN-Sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ceballos, J. [Institute of Microelectronics of Seville, IMSE-CNM (CSIC/University of Seville), Seville 41092 (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    The transport properties of a series of n- and p-type Si diodes have been studied by the ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique using a 4 MeV proton microbeam. The samples were irradiated with 17 MeV protons at fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2} in order to produce a uniform profile of defects with depth. The analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) as a function of the reverse bias voltage has been carried out using an upgraded drift–diffusion (D–D) model which takes into account the possibility of carrier recombination not only in the neutral substrate, as the simple D–D model assumes, but also within the depletion region. This new approach for calculating the CCE is fundamental when the drift length of carriers cannot be considered as much greater that the thickness of the detector due to the ion induced damage. From our simulations, we have obtained the values of the carrier lifetimes for the pristine and irradiated diodes, which have allowed us to calculate the effective trapping cross sections using the one dimension Shockley–Read–Hall model. The results of our calculations have been compared to the data obtained using a recently developed Monte Carlo code for the simulation of IBIC analysis, based on the probabilistic interpretation of the excess carrier continuity equations.

  18. Comparative study by IBIC of Si and SiC diodes irradiated with high energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J., E-mail: fjgl@us.es [Dpto. Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M. [CNA (U. Sevilla, J. Andalucia, CSIC), Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ceballos, J. [Institute of Microelectronics of Seville, IMSE-CNM (CSIC/University of Seville), Seville 41092 (Spain); Linez, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Raisanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014 (Finland)

    2016-04-01

    The transport properties of a series of Si and SiC diodes have been studied using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. Structural defects were induced into the samples during the irradiation with 17 MeV protons. The experimental values of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) vs bias voltages have been analyzed using a modified drift-diffusion model, which takes into account the recombination of carriers in the neutral and depletion regions. From these simulations, we have obtained the values of the carrier’s lifetime for pristine and irradiated diodes, which are found to degrade faster in the case of the SiC samples. However, the decrease of the CCE at high bias voltages is more important for the Si detectors, indicative of the lower radiation hardness of this material compared to SiC. The nature of the proton-induced defects on Si wafers has been studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) and Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (DBS). The results suggest that the main defect detected by the positrons in p-type samples is the divacancy while for n-type at least a fraction of the positron annihilate in another defect. The concentration of defects is much lower than the number of vacancies predicted by SRIM.

  19. Radiation hardness of n-type SiC Schottky barrier diodes irradiated with MeV He ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastuović, Željko, E-mail: zkp@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Capan, Ivana [Material Physics Division, Institute Rudjer Boskovic, PO Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Forneris, Jacopo [Physics Department and NIS Excellence Centre, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Iwamoto, Naoya; Ohshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Siegele, Rainer [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Hoshino, Norihiro; Tsuchida, Hidekazu [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    We studied the radiation hardness of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBD) for the light ion detection and spectroscopy in harsh radiation environments. n-Type SBD prepared on nitrogen-doped (∼4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}) epitaxial grown 4H-SiC thin wafers have been irradiated by a raster scanning alpha particle microbeam (2 and 4 MeV He{sup 2+} ions separately) in order to create patterned damage structures at different depths within a sensitive volume of tested diodes. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis revealed the formation of two deep electron traps in the irradiated and not thermally treated 4H-SiC within the ion implantation range (E1 and E2). The E2 state resembles the well-known Z{sub 1/2} center, while the E1 state could not be assigned to any particular defect reported in the literature. Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) microscopy with multiple He ion probe microbeams (1–6 MeV) having different penetration depths in tested partly damaged 4H-SiC SBD has been used to determine the degradation of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) over a wide fluence range of damaging alpha particle. A non-linear behavior of the CCE decrease and a significant degradation of the spectroscopic performance with increasing He ion fluence were observed above the value of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}.

  20. Spatial and temporal snowpack variation in the crown of the continent ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Reardon, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Snowpack related ecosystem changes such as glacier recession and alpine treeline advance have been documented in the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem (CCE) over the course of the previous 150 years. Using data from the Natural Resource Conservation Service's SNOTEL sites and snow course surveys, we examined the spatial and temporal variation in snowpack in the region. SNOTEL data suggest CCE snowpacks are larger and more persistent than in most regions of the Western U.S., and that water year precipitation, rather than mean temperature, is the primary control on April 1 snow water equivalent (SWE). Snow course data indicate a statistically significant downward trend in mean April 1 SWE for the period 1950-2001 but no statistically significant trend in mean May 1 SWE for the longer period 1922-2001. Further analysis reveals that variations in both April 1 and May 1 mean SWE are closely tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, an ENSO-like interdecadal pattern of Pacific Ocean climate variability. Despite no significant trend in mean May 1 SWE between 1922-2001, glaciers in Glacier National Park receded steadily during this period, implying changing climatic conditions crossed a threshold for glacier mass balance maintenace sometime between the Little Ice Age glacial maxima and 1922.

  1. Induced thiacloprid insensitivity in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) is associated with up-regulation of detoxification genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, S; Bass, C; Nicholls, C; Paine, M J I; Clark, S J; Field, L; Moores, G D

    2016-04-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera, are markedly less sensitive to neonicotinoid insecticides containing a cyanoimino pharmacophore than to those with a nitroimino group. Although previous work has suggested that this results from enhanced metabolism of the former by detoxification enzymes, the specific enzyme(s) involved remain to be characterized. In this work, a pretreatment of honey bees with a sublethal dose of thiacloprid resulted in induced insensitivity to the same compound immediately following thiacloprid feeding. A longer pretreatment time resulted in no, or increased, sensitivity. Transcriptome profiling, using microarrays, identified a number of genes encoding detoxification enzymes that were over-expressed significantly in insecticide-treated bees compared with untreated controls. These included five P450s, CYP6BE1, CYP305D1, CYP6AS5, CYP315A1, CYP301A1, and a carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) CCE8. Four of these P450s were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and their ability to metabolize thiacloprid examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis.

  2. Learning to be a midwife in the clinical environment; tasks, clinical practicum hours or midwifery relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lyn; Tierney, Olivia; Jones, Donovan

    2016-01-01

    Discussions continue within the midwifery profession around the number of and type of clinical experiences required to ensure competent midwifery graduates. Introduction of the three year Bachelor of Midwifery in Australia, almost two decades ago, was intended to reduce the pressure students were under to complete their academic requirements whilst ensuring students developed midwifery practice that encapsulates the philosophical values of midwifery. Currently, midwifery students are mandated to achieve a minimum number of clinical skills and Continuity of Care Experience (CCE) relationships in order to register upon completion of their degree. To achieve these experiences, universities require students to complete a number of clinical practicum hours. Furthermore students are required to demonstrate competent clinical performance of a number of clinical skills. However, there is no evidence to date that a set number of experiences or hours ensures professional competence in the clinical environment. The aim of this paper is to promote discussion regarding the mandated requirements for allocated clinical practicum hours, specified numbers of clinical-based skills and CCE relationships in the context of learning to be a midwife in Australia.

  3. Long-Term Stable Surface Treatments on CdTe and CdZnTe Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarek, Jakub; Belas, Eduard; Zazvorka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    The spectral resolution and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors are often limited by high surface leakage current due to conducting surface species created during detector fabrication. Surface treatments play a major role in reduction of this surface leakage current. The effect of various types of surface etching and passivation on the leakage current and thereby the spectral energy resolution, CCE, and internal electric field profile of CdTe/CZT detectors has been studied. The main aim of this work is preparation of long-term stable detectors with strongly reduced leakage current. The time stability of the current-voltage characteristic and spectral resolution was investigated during 21 days and 1 year, respectively, after performing surface treatments. Our results suggest that the optimal detector preparation method is chemomechanical polishing in bromine-ethylene glycol solution followed by chemical etching in bromine-methanol solution then surface passivation in potassium hydroxide or ammonium fluoride (NH4F/H2O2). Detectors prepared using this optimal treatment exhibited low leakage current, high spectral resolution, and long-term stability compared with those subjected to other surface preparation methods.

  4. Avanços na abordagem do carcinoma precoce de esôfago Advances in the management of early esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos países ocidentais, o carcinoma de células escamosas de esôfago (CCE geralmente é detectado em estágio avançado, quando as possibilidades de cura são remotas e o prognóstico reservado. Entretanto, nos anos recentes, ocorreu uma série de avanços na abordagem do CCE de esôfago, tais como a identificação dos grupos de risco para o surgimento desta neoplasia; o uso da endoscopia de alta resolução e cromoendoscopia com lugol favorecendo o diagnóstico do CCE em estágios iniciais; e o desenvolvimento de técnicas endoscópicas de ressecção tumoral endoluminal em monobloco denominada dissecção endoscópica de submucosa. Este progresso tem possibilitado a aplicação do tratamento endoscópico minimamente invasivo com potencial curativo em pacientes selecionados com CCE superficial de esôfago. O presente artigo de revisão, elaborado por um grupo multicêntrico internacional, tem como objetivo primário contribuir para o entendimento dos principais avanços recentes ocorridos no manejo do CCE precoce de esôfago. Como objetivo secundário, pretende propiciar uma revisão detalhada e minuciosa da estratégia técnica de DES desenvolvida pelos experts japoneses, de forma a colaborar para a difusão deste conceito e a incorporação destas tecnologias na Medicina Brasileira e Latino-americana.Esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC has a dismal prognosis mainly because its recognition in Western countries usually occurs in late stages, when the possibilities of cure are minimal. However, in recent years, several advances have been observed in the management of ESSC, such as the identification of high-risk patients, the use of high-resolution endoscopy and lugol chromoscopy favoring the diagnosis of early stage ESCC, and the development of endoluminal techniques of en-block tumor resection, namely endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD. These factors have enabled the application of endoscopic minimally invasive curative interventions in

  5. Incorporating climate change trends to near future variability of crop yields in Iberia Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa-Morocho, Mirian; Baethgen, Walter E.; Fernandes, Kátia; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we analyze the effects of near future climate variability on cropping systems in Iberian Peninsula (IP). For this purpose, we generated climate sequences that simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, using statistical methods and and an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Then, the climate sequences are temporal downscaled into daily weather data and used as inputs to crop models. As case study, we evaluate the impacts of plausible future climate scenarios on rain-fed wheat yield two agricultural locations in IP. We adapted the method by Greene et al., (2012 and 2015) for informing climate projections for the coming decades with a combination of seasonal to interannual and anthropogenically forced climate change information for accounting the Near-term Climate Change. Long-term data containing solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall are needed to apply this method. The climate variability observed was decomposed into long-range trend, decadal and interannual variability to understand the relative importance of each time scale. The interannual variability was modeled based on the observational records. The results of this study may have important implications on public and private sectors to analyze the probabilistic projections of impacts and agronomic adaptations of near future climate variability in Iberian Peninsula. This study has been funded by MACSUR project from FACCE-JPI. References Greene, A.M., Goddard, L., Gonzalez, P.L., Ines, A.V. and Chryssanthacopoulos, J., 2015.A climate generator for agricultural planning in southeastern South America.Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 203: 217-228. Greene, A.M., Hellmuth, M. and Lumsden, T., 2012. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede water management areas, western Cape province, South Africa. Water Resources

  6. Finzione E Ambiguità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Hussein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Tabucchi è uno scrittore insonne, solleticato dalla notte e dalle ombre, attirato da spirali frammentate di immagini, sogni, viaggi e persone, il nostro percorso tende ad indicare una possibile chiave di lettura di quest’autore con l’ausilio di due temi: mistero e notte. Tabucchi ha un senso innato del tempo che è nascosto dentro le cose; degli eventi che tornano e si ripetono; e della parola ultima, che deve chiudere il racconto, gettando ogni cosa nel nulla. Ma è anche un narratore moderno, sa che nelle cose e nei pensieri, c’è un vuoto, un’assenza. Scrivere un racconto per lui significa esprimere questo vuoto senza colmarlo mai. Per questo in tutto quello che Tabucchi narra, c’è un’omissione, o una rete di omissioni, che getta una luce enigmatica sull’apparente pienezza degli eventi. Emblematico ed esplicativo per la nostra ricerca è Notturno indiano, che a nostro avviso, è uno dei testi più riusciti di Tabucchi. È la storia di una ricerca, e più esattamente della ricerca di sé. Ma, anche, la rivelazione di una condizione di estranietà da se stesso, alla scoperta di un altro sé, sparso nei territori dell'inappartenenza. Non è un caso che questo Notturno vaghi alla ricerca di un "Ombra", soprattutto se si pensa al valore simbolico che l'ombra riveste in tanta letteratura. Come suggerisce Rankè il nostro doppio, ma soprattutto la nostra anima, quella matassa di fili che misteriosi ed enigmatici si intrecciano confondendoci e, che pur cercando di dipanare, resteranno sempre le mille facce di una stessa medaglia.

  7. Topography of the complete corticopontine projection: From experiments to principal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve B Leergaard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian brain is characterized by orderly spatial distribution of its cellular components, commonly referred to as topographical organization. The topography of cortical and subcortical maps is thought to represent functional or computational properties. In the present investigation, we have studied map transformations and organizing principles in the projections from the cerebral cortex to the pontine nuclei, with emphasis on the mapping of the cortex as a whole onto the pontine nuclei. Following single or multiple axonal tracer injections into different cortical regions, three-dimensional (3-D distributions of anterogradely labeled axons in the pontine nuclei were mapped. All 3-D reconstructed data sets were normalized to a standardized local coordinate system for the pontine nuclei and uploaded in a database application (FACCS, Functional Anatomy of the Cerebro-Cerebellar System, available via The Rodent Brain Workbench, http://www.rbwb.org. The database application allowed flexible use of the data in novel combinations, and use of a previously published data sets. Visualization of different combinations of data was used to explore alternative principles of organization. As a result of these analyses, a principal map of the topography of corticopontine projections was developed. This map followed the organization of early spatiotemporal gradients present in the cerebral cortex and the pontine nuclei. With the principal map for corticopontine projections, a fairly accurate prediction of pontine target area can be made for any site of origin in the cerebral cortex. The map and the underlying shared data sets represent a basis for modeling of topographical organization and structure-function relationships in this system.

  8. Charge losses in silicon sensors and electric-field studies at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2013-07-15

    added to the accumulation layer and when the accumulation layer returns to steady state is investigated. Irradiated silicon pad sensors are used to study the charge-collection efficiency (CCE) of charge carriers generated using laser light of 1063 nm wavelength, as a function of bulk material, active sensor thickness, voltage, temperature, particle type (for the irradiation) and fluence. As a cross check the CCE is also determined for charge carriers generated by electrons from a {sup 90}Sr-source. A precision of 3 % in the CCE is achieved. Sensors of n-doped and p-doped silicon are compared, as well as sensors of different crystal-growing methods (magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and float zone (FZ)). The sensor thickness varies from 200 {mu}m (MCz and FZ) to 320 {mu}m (FZ). The 320 {mu}m thick FZ sensors underwent a dopant-diffusion process (dd-FZ) to reduce the active sensor thickness. For the irradiation both protons of different energies (23 MeV and 23 GeV) and reactor neutrons ({proportional_to}1 MeV) are used. The achieved fluences are between 3.10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 1.3.10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} 1 MeV-neutron equivalent. The CCE is used to calculate the signal corresponding to a minimum-ionising particle (mip) traversing the sensor and to calculate the effective distance the generated charge carriers drift. While little difference in CCE between the 200 m thick MCz and FZ materials is found, the dd-FZ materials of both {proportional_to}200 {mu}m and {proportional_to}300 {mu}m active thickness have a lower CCE, corresponding also to a shorter effective drift distance. The CCE and the effective drift distance are also calculated for eh pairs generated close to the sensor surface using laser light of 660 nm wavelength. The measurements are not compatible with a position-independent trapping probability, and qualitative agreement with a position-dependent occupation of radiation-induced trapping centres due to the dark current is found.

  9. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yi-hua [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Yong-quan [Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Feng, Shan-li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Ting-ting [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Yang, Bao-feng, E-mail: syh200415@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2010-04-16

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  10. Cryogenic Si detectors for ultra radiation hardness in SLHC environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; Ambrosio, N. D.'.; de Boer, W.; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Härkönen, J.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Luukka, P.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, Rita; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikosky, T. O.; Shea, V. O.'.; Pagano, S.; Paul, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pretzl, K.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rouby, X.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Verbitskaya, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-09-01

    Radiation hardness up to 10 16 neq/cm 2 is required in the future HEP experiments for most inner detectors. However, 10 16 neq/cm 2 fluence is well beyond the radiation tolerance of even the most advanced semiconductor detectors fabricated by commonly adopted technologies: the carrier trapping will limit the charge collection depth to an effective range of 20-30 μm regardless of depletion depth. Significant improvement of the radiation hardness of silicon sensors has been taken place within RD39. Fortunately the cryogenic tool we have been using provides us a convenient way to solve the detector charge collection efficiency (CCE) problem at SLHC radiation level (10 16 neq/cm 2). There are two key approaches in our efforts: (1) use of the charge/current injection to manipulate the detector internal electric field in such a way that it can be depleted at a modest bias voltage at cryogenic temperature range (⩽230 K); and (2) freezing out of the trapping centers that affects the CCE at cryogenic temperatures lower than that of the LN 2 temperature. In our first approach, we have developed the advanced radiation hard detectors using charge or current injection, the current injected diodes (CID). In a CID, the electric field is controlled by injected current, which is limited by the space charge, yielding a nearly uniform electric field in the detector, independent of the radiation fluence. In our second approach, we have developed models of radiation-induced trapping levels and the physics of their freezing out at cryogenic temperatures. In this approach, we intend to study the trapping effect at temperatures below LN 2 temperature. A freeze-out of trapping can certainly help in the development of ultra-radiation hard Si detectors for SLHC. A detector CCE measurement system using ultra-fast picosecond laser with a He cryostat has been built at CERN. This system can be used to find out the practical cryogenic temperature range that can be used to freeze out the

  11. Cryogenic Si detectors for ultra radiation hardness in SLHC environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Abreu, M. [LIP, Av. E. Garcia, P-1000 Lisbon (Portugal); Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T. [University of Vilnius, Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, 2040 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ambrosio, N.D' . [Instiuto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' , 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Boer, W. de [IEKP University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Borchi, E. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Firenze, I-50139 Florence (Italy); Borer, K. [Laboratorium fuer Hochenergiephysik der Universitaet Bern, Sidlerstarsse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bruzzi, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Firenze, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Buontempo, S. [Instiuto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' , 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Chen, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Exp. Particle Physics Department, PO. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dierlamm, A. [IEKP University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V. [University of Vilnius, Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, 2040 Vilnius (Lithuania); Grigoriev, E. [IEKP University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department de Radiologie, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Hauler, F. [IEKP University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heijne, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Heising, S. [IEKP University of Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2007-09-01

    Radiation hardness up to 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} is required in the future HEP experiments for most inner detectors. However, 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} fluence is well beyond the radiation tolerance of even the most advanced semiconductor detectors fabricated by commonly adopted technologies: the carrier trapping will limit the charge collection depth to an effective range of 20-30 {mu}m regardless of depletion depth. Significant improvement of the radiation hardness of silicon sensors has been taken place within RD39. Fortunately the cryogenic tool we have been using provides us a convenient way to solve the detector charge collection efficiency (CCE) problem at SLHC radiation level (10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}). There are two key approaches in our efforts: (1) use of the charge/current injection to manipulate the detector internal electric field in such a way that it can be depleted at a modest bias voltage at cryogenic temperature range ({<=}230 K); and (2) freezing out of the trapping centers that affects the CCE at cryogenic temperatures lower than that of the LN{sub 2} temperature. In our first approach, we have developed the advanced radiation hard detectors using charge or current injection, the current injected diodes (CID). In a CID, the electric field is controlled by injected current, which is limited by the space charge, yielding a nearly uniform electric field in the detector, independent of the radiation fluence. In our second approach, we have developed models of radiation-induced trapping levels and the physics of their freezing out at cryogenic temperatures. In this approach, we intend to study the trapping effect at temperatures below LN{sub 2} temperature. A freeze-out of trapping can certainly help in the development of ultra-radiation hard Si detectors for SLHC. A detector CCE measurement system using ultra-fast picosecond laser with a He cryostat has been built at CERN. This system can be used to find out the practical

  12. Renewable-surface sol-gel derived carbon ceramic electrode fabricated by [Ru(bpy)(tpy)Cl]PF6 and its application as an amperometric sensor for sulfide and sulfur oxoanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Pourbeyram, Sima; Amini, Mohamad Kazem

    2002-12-01

    A highly sensitive and fast responding sensor for the determination of thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfide and dithionite is described. It consists of a chemically modified carbon ceramic composite electrode (CCE) containing [Ru(bpy)(tpy)Cl]PF6 complex that was constructed by the sol-gel technique. A reversible redox couple of Ru(II)/Ru(III) was observed as a solute in acetonitrile solution and as a component of carbon based conducting composite electrode. Electrochemical behavior and stability of modified CCE were investigated by cyclic voltametry, the apparent electron transfer rate constant (kappa(S)) and transfer coefficient (a) were determined by cyclic voltametry which were about 28 s(-1) and 0.43 respectively. Electrocatalytic oxidation of S(2-), SO3(2-), S2O4(2-) and S2O3(2-) were effective at the modified electrode at significantly reduced overpotentials and in the pH range 1-11. Optimum pH values for amperometric detection of thiosulfate, dithionite, sulfide and sulfite are 7, 9, 2 and 2. Under the optimized conditions the calibration curves are linear in the concentration ranges 1-500, 3-80, 2-90 and 1-100 microM for S2O3(2-), SO3(2-), S2- and S2O4(2-) determination. The detection limit (signal to noise is 3) and sensitivity are 0.5 and 12, 2.8 and 6, 1.6 and 8, and 0.65 microM and 80 nA microM(-1) for thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfide and dithionite detection. The modified carbon ceramic electrode doped with Ru-complex shows good reproducibility, a short response time (t 6 month) and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing (RSD for eight successive polishing is 2%). The advantages of this sulfur compound amperometric detector based on ruthenium doped CCE are high sensitivity, inherent stability at a broader pH range, excellent catalytic activity, less expense and simplicity of preparation in comparison with recently published papers. This sensor can be used as a chromatographic detector for analysis of sulfur derivatives.

  13. Project Final Report: Building a Community Infrastructure for Scalable On-Line Performance Analysis Tools around Open|SpeedShop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James

    2014-01-06

    laboratories Los Alamos and Sandia leveraging co-funding for Krell by ASC’s Common Computing Environment (CCE) program as laid out in the original proposal. The ASC CCE co-funding, coordinated through LLNL, was for 50% of the total project funding, with the ASC CCE portion of the funding going entirely to Krell, while the ASCR funding itself was split between Krell and the funded partners. This report covers the entire project from both funding sources. Additionally, the team leveraged the expertise of software engineering researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, who specialize in software framework design, in order to achieve a broadly acceptable component framework. The Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) software has been released to the community. Information related to the project and the released software can be found on the CBTF wiki page at: http://sourceforge.net/p/cbtf/wiki/Home

  14. Hematologia e bioquímica sérica de equinos de concurso completo de equitação em treinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a hematologia e a bioquímica sérica em equinos de concurso completo de equitação (CCE em treinamento durante testes de esforço incremental em esteira ergométrica de alta velocidade. Foram utilizados 16 equinos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, utilizando-se como fontes de variação nos tratamentos a idade e o histórico de treinamento em CCE. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos testes incrementais realizados nas fases inicial e final do treinamento. As subparcelas foram representadas pelos tempos de avaliação e coletas. Os equinos do grupo experimental novos iniciantes apresentaram valor médio do hematócrito de 43,24%, sendo inferior ao hematócrito do grupo adultos iniciantes, 45,63%, novos experientes, 46,39%, e competidores, 47,74%. Houve diferença (P<0,05 entre os testes físicos realizados nas fases inicial e final do treinamento, com redução na concentração plasmática de glicose, de 112 para 98,88mg/dL, nas concentrações séricas de creatinina, de 1,41 para 1,29mg/dL, e de proteínas totais, de 6,52 para 6,38g/dL, na contagem de monócitos, de 0,54 para 0,48 10³/mm³, e com aumento na concentração plasmática de lactato, de 3,31 para 3,79mmol/L, na concentração sérica de ácido úrico, de 1,44 para 1,77mg/dL, no hematócrito, de 44,19 para 46,90%, na concentração de hemoglobina, de 14,33 para 15,10g/dL, e na contagem de leucócitos totais, de 9,26 para 9,61 10³/mm³. O treinamento dos equinos de CCE aumentou o condicionamento físico dos equinos, com maior capacidade de metabolização do lactato após o exercício e aumento nos valores basais do hematócrito e da concentração de hemoglobina.

  15. Rhodnius prolixus supergene families of enzymes potentially associated with insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schama, Renata; Pedrini, Nicolás; Juárez, M Patricia; Nelson, David R; Torres, André Q; Valle, Denise; Mesquita, Rafael D

    2016-02-01

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Once known as an endemic health problem of poor rural populations in Latin American countries, it has now spread worldwide. The parasite is transmitted by triatomine bugs, of which Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) is one of the vectors and a model organism. This species occurs mainly in Central and South American countries where the disease is endemic. Disease prevention focuses on vector control programs that, in general, rely intensely on insecticide use. However, the massive use of chemical insecticides can lead to resistance. One of the major mechanisms is known as metabolic resistance that is associated with an increase in the expression or activity of detoxification genes. Three of the enzyme families that are involved in this process - carboxylesterases (CCE), glutathione s-transferases (GST) and cytochrome P450s (CYP) - are analyzed in the R. prolixus genome. A similar set of detoxification genes to those of the Hemipteran Acyrthosiphon pisum but smaller than in most dipteran species was found in R. prolixus genome. All major CCE classes (43 genes found) are present but the pheromone/hormone processing class had fewer genes than usual. One main expansion was detected on the detoxification/dietary class. The phosphotriesterase family, recently associated with insecticide resistance, was also represented with one gene. One microsomal GST gene was found and the cytosolic GST gene count (14 genes) is extremely low when compared to the other hemipteran species with sequenced genomes. However, this is similar to Apis mellifera, a species known for its deficit in detoxification genes. In R. prolixus 88 CYP genes were found, with representatives in the four clans (CYP2, CYP3, CYP4 and mitochondrial) usually found in insects. R. prolixus seems to have smaller species-specific expansions of CYP genes than

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11136-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 ... 70 1e-09 AY501886_1( AY501886 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand...1e-08 AY833023_1( AY833023 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand M... 66 1e-08 JC6009( JC6009 ) surfac...22018 |pid:none) Candidatus Phytoplasma australie... 65 3e-08 AY833011_1( AY833011 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand...ne) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand I... 63 9e-08 L13723_1( L13723 |pid:none) Taenia solium paramyosin (AgB...chr... 60 6e-07 AY833021_1( AY833021 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand

  17. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  18. Current State and Development Trends for Integration Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The integration platform (IP) is an advanced support tool for application softwa re development and integration. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of traditio nal software programming methods, introduces the background and development of i ntegration platforms and presents the basic functions and system architecture of computer integrated manufacture computing environment (CCE) IP as well as the i ntegration framework. Computer integrated manufacturing system (CIMS) applicatio n IP is defined i n relation to the IP requirements for CIMS implementation within a company. The CIMS application IP is not only a support tool for application software developm ent, but also a support tool for software integration and system operation. Ther efore, the behavior and functions of a CIMS application IP must also include sof tware integration and system operation. The development trend for CIMS applicati on IPs is discussed in view of software technology development trends.

  19. Spacewound Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    1’ Analysis I The material properties are based on computer analysis inputting the fiber and resin properties , fiber volume ratio, fiber orientation...C K a E + 5 -.44 C 6 3.6LGE-CS .22CO .0524 �C00 ~ O *5 O4E~5~ 3*44EZ-. 3*30OE-05 *2200 .0524 380000 70000 .2500) lk) 4EtR𔄃/EPOXY4i --- RESIN ... PROPERTIES - RHO= *041? UR= .350 0 - ER= 4.7-CCE+05 GR= i.7441E+05 AR= 4.013OE-05 FIBER PPOPERTIES NO* ALPHA TF VF EvEFT GF AFAFT 2 t4.00 .8000 0500a i

  20. The physics of thermal plasma in the magnetosphere; Proceedings of Symposium 9 of the 26th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Toulouse, France, June 30-July 11, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, C. R. (Editor); Gringauz, K. I. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the shape, dynamics, and thermal structure of the plasmasphere and plasmapause; the ionosphere as a supplier of plasma to the earth's magnetosphere; the modeling and remote sensing of thermal plasma in the earth's magnetosphere; and magnetospheric cold plasmas as a medium for wave generation and propagation. Particular attention is given to whistler studies of plasmasphere shape and dynamics, plasmasphere thermal structure as measured by ISEE-1 and DE-1, low-energy ion flows into the magnetosphere, field-aligned flows of ionospheric plasma in the magnetosphere, and field-aligned plasmaspheric flows at moderate latitudes. Papers are also presented on the effects of a tailward stretching geomagnetic field on the drift motion of plasma particles in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, ion cyclotron waves observed near the plasmapause, and the response of energetic particles to nightside magnetic pulsations as seen by AMPTE/CCE.

  1. The anxiogenic action of FG 7142 in the social interaction test is reversed by chlordiazepoxide and Ro 15-1788 but not by CGS 8216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Pellow, S

    1984-10-01

    The effects of FG 7142 were examined in the social interaction test, alone and in combination with chlordiazepoxide, Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216. The anxiogenic action of FG 7142 (5 mg/kg) was reversed by chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg) and by Ro 15-1788 (10 mg/kg), but not by CGS 8216 (10 mg/kg). The profile of FG 7142 in this test and the pattern of its interactions with other compounds is similar to that of beta-CCE, but can be distinguished from that of Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216. It is concluded that FG 7142, Ro 15-1788 and CGS 8216 may act via different sites to produce their anxiogenic effects.

  2. Effects of the beta-carboline, FG 7142, in the social interaction test of anxiety and the holeboard: correlations between behaviour and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Pellow, S; Braestrup, C

    1985-06-01

    The behavioural effects of the beta-carboline FG 7142 were investigated in the social interaction test of anxiety and the holeboard test of exploration and locomotor activity. FG 7142 (5-20 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in the time spent in social interaction by pairs of rats, without an accompanying decrease in motor activity. This anxiogenic effect was highly correlated with the plasma concentrations of FG 7142 for the rats receiving 5 and 10 mg/kg doses, but not for those receiving the 20 mg/kg dose. In the holeboard, FG 7142 had no effect on exploratory head-dipping at the doses tested, but selectively reduced locomotor activity and the number of rears. The profile of FG 7142 in these tests is compared with those of the beta-carbolines, B-CCE and B-CCP.

  3. Students Involved in Animal Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Emilia Cadar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Romanian agriculture does not follow entirely the European and programs as concerns land exploitation and animal farming (SAPARD. Restrictive development projects (POS-MEDIU, POS-DRU, POS-CCE were active only in large private farms, which represent only 10.7% of the total registered farms in Romania. Was used a questionnaire for 36 students of our faculty, which have animal farms in 7 counties in Northwest of Transylvania. The study want to put into evidence the current problems of farmers in conditions of some private farms with small and middle number of animals. As small farms, they do not obtain important productions because of financial resource absence, limited professional education and absence of association in bigger exploitation farms. In these situations, the government must react providing a legal frame for rural agricultural development, supporting and supervising these small exploitations.

  4. Miofibroblastos e sua relação com o carcinoma de células escamosas oral Myofibroblasts and their relationship with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Suassuna Carneiro Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os miofibroblastos são células especializadas que exibem um fenótipo híbrido, com características de fibroblastos e células musculares lisas. Devido sua habilidade contrátil e capacidade de síntese de componentes da matriz extracelular, citocinas, proteases e fatores pró-angiogênicos, os miofibroblastos têm sido implicados na patogênese de doenças fibrocontráteis e na progressão de diversos tumores, incluindo o carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE oral. OBJETIVO: Fazer uma revisão da literatura sobre a origem dos miofibroblastos, seus principais aspectos morfofisiológicos e imuno-histoquímicos, assim como discutir sua relação com o CCE oral. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma busca eletrônica na base de dados PubMed, selecionando os principais artigos da literatura em língua inglesa relacionados ao tema, publicados entre janeiro de 1991 e dezembro de 2011. CONCLUSÃO: Os miofibroblastos representam um componente importante do estroma de CCE orais, embora não estejam presentes em todos os casos desta neoplasia. A presença abundante destas células pode estar associada com a recorrência local da doença e diminuição da sobrevida dos pacientes. No entanto, em virtude do número relativamente limitado de estudos sobre o assunto, pesquisas ainda são necessárias para esclarecer os mecanismos moleculares pelos quais os miofibroblastos são capazes de influenciar no comportamento biológico do CCE oral.Myofibroblasts are hybrid-phenotype differentiated cells in between fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Due to their contractile features and ability to synthesize extracellular matrix components, cytokines, proteases, and proangiogenic factors, myofibroblasts have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrocontractive diseases and in the progression of many tumors, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. OBJECTIVE: To perform a literature review on the origin of myofibroblasts, their main morpho-physiological and

  5. Synchrotron radiation studies of spectral response features caused by Te inclusions in a large volume coplanar grid CdZnTe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Conny C T; Quarati, Francesco; Kozorezov, Alexander; Gostilo, Vladimir; Lumb, David

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results from a synchrotron radiation study of Te inclusions in a large volume single crystal CdZnTe (CZT) coplanar-grid detector. The experiment was carried out by probing individual inclusions with highly collimated monochromatic X-and gamma-ray beams. It was found that for shallow X-ray interaction depths, the effect of an inclusion on measured energy loss spectra is to introduce a ~10% shift in the peak centroid energy towards lower channel numbers. The total efficiency is however not affected, showing that the net result of inclusions is a reduction in the Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). For deeper interaction depths, the energy-loss spectra shows the emergence of two distinct peaks, both downshifted in channel number. We note that the observed spectral behavior shows strong similarities with that reported in semiconductors which exhibit polarization effects, suggesting that the underlying mechanism is common.

  6. A High Temperature-Tolerant and Radiation-Resistant In-Core Neutron Sensor for Advanced Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Miller, Don [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The objectives of this project are to develop a small and reliable gallium nitride (GaN) neutron sensor that is capable of withstanding high neutron fluence and high temperature, isolating gamma background, and operating in a wide dynamic range. The first objective will be the understanding of the fundamental materials properties and electronic response of a GaN semiconductor materials and device in an environment of high temperature and intense neutron field. To achieve such goal, an in-situ study of electronic properties of GaN device such as I-V, leakage current, and charge collection efficiency (CCE) in high temperature using an external neutron beam will be designed and implemented. We will also perform in-core irradiation of GaN up to the highest yet fast neutron fluence and an off-line performance evaluation.

  7. "公民教育实践活动"的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉英

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、公民教育实践活动的诞生 美国公民教育中心(Center For Civic Education)简称CCE,成立于1965年,是一个独立的非营利性的教育组织,总部在美国洛杉矶.其主要工作是编制中小学公民教育的课程教材.组织相应的师资培训,对公民教育进行研究和评价.2002年5月,美国公民教育中心与中国教育部课程教材发展中心,在北京签署了在公民社会实践活动方面开展交流的合作协议.

  8. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  9. On the origins of energetic ions in the earth's dayside magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    Energetic ion events in the earth's dayside subsolar magnetosheath (0900 - 1300 Local Time) are surveyed using data from the AMPTE/CCE Hot Plasma Composition Experiment. Ion species carrying the signature of their origin O(+) and energetic He(2+) are used to distinguish between magnetospheric and solar wind origins for the energetic ion events. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of energetic (10-17 keV/e) H(+) and He(2+) ions observed in the dayside magnetosheath are accelerated from the solar wind population. The energetic He(2+) to H(+) density ratio in the magnetosheath is consistent with that predicted from first-order Fermi acceleration of solar wind ions in the turbulent regions upstream and downstream from the earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The simultaneous occurrence of both energetic He(2+) and magnetospheric O(+) indicates that, on occasion, both Fermi acceleration of solar wind ions and leakage of magnetospheric ions occurs in the dayside magnetosheath.

  10. Application of advanced computing techniques to the analysis and display of space science measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpar, D.M.; Lapolla, M.V.; Horblit, B.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype system has been developed to aid the experimental space scientist in the display and analysis of spaceborne data acquired from direct measurement sensors in orbit. The authors explored the implementation of a rule-based environment for semi-automatic generation of visualizations that assist the domain scientist in exploring one`s data. The goal has been to enable rapid generation of visualizations which enhance the scientist`s ability to thoroughly mine his data. Transferring the task of visualization generation from the human programmer to the computer produced a rapid prototyping environment for visualizations. The visualization and analysis environment has been tested against a set of data obtained from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE satellite creating new visualizations which provided new insight into the data.

  11. Composition Measurements at the Magnetopause and in the Plasma Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA grant NAGW-4049 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire period of the grant from 15 August 1994 to 31 January 1998. The original grant was for 3 years ending in August 1997; however the grant was extended 6 months to accomodate additional data analysis that added significantly to the scientific results. This is a grant under the NASA Supporting Research and Technology Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the ISEE-1 Plasma Composition Experiment and the AMPTE/CCE Hot Plasma Composition Experiment. These combined data sets were used in a study of the Earth's magnetopause to develop a fundamental understanding of plasma entry and dynamics at the boundary and formation and maintenance of the low latitude boundary layer under a variety of solar wind and magnetospheric conditions and at a wide range of local times.

  12. A Comparative Study of Five Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease: Cell Cycle Events Reveal New Insights into Neurons at Risk for Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic cell cycle events (CCEs in postmitotic neurons link the neurodegenerative process in human Alzheimer's disease (AD with the brain phenotype of transgenic mouse models with known familial AD genes. Most reports on the mouse models use the appearance of brain amyloid pathology as a key outcome measure. In the current paper, we focus on the induction of neurodegeneration using CCEs as markers for impending neuronal loss. We compare 5 mouse models of familial AD for the appearance of CCEs in subcortical regions—deep cerebellar nuclei, amygdala, locus coeruleus, hippocampus, and dorsal raphe. We find that the models differ in their CCE involvement as well as in the appearance of phosphorylated tau and amyloid deposition, suggesting that each model represents a different disease phenotype. Comparison with the pattern of neuron death in human AD suggests that each may represent a distinctly different disease model when used in preclinical trials.

  13. Application of advanced computing techniques to the analysis and display of space science measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Lapolla, M. V.; Horblit, B.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype system has been developed to aid the experimental space scientist in the display and analysis of spaceborne data acquired from direct measurement sensors in orbit. We explored the implementation of a rule-based environment for semi-automatic generation of visualizations that assist the domain scientist in exploring one's data. The goal has been to enable rapid generation of visualizations which enhance the scientist's ability to thoroughly mine his data. Transferring the task of visualization generation from the human programmer to the computer produced a rapid prototyping environment for visualizations. The visualization and analysis environment has been tested against a set of data obtained from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on the AMPTE/CCE satellite creating new visualizations which provided new insight into the data.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10832-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 282 3e-91 AB045223_1( AB045223 |pid:none) Homo sapiens CRR9 mRNA for cisplat... 278 2e-85 (Q5R7B1) RecName: Full=Cleft... lip and palate transmembrane protei... 277 3e-85 (A2VE61) RecName: Full=Cleft lip and palate t...e-83 (Q5ZKJ0) RecName: Full=Cleft lip and palate transmembrane protei... 276 3e-8...3 CP000589_183( CP000589 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901... 267 1e-82 (Q8BXA5) RecName: Full=Cleft...318_6( EU652318 |pid:none) Philodina roseola 7TM protein 66, ... 283 2e-74 (Q6DEL2) RecName: Full=Cleft lip

  15. Superconducting microstrip detectors Addendum to proposal DRDC-P-53

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, K; Palmieri, V G; Pretzl, Klaus P; Li, Z; Heijne, Erik H M; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; Ropotar, I; Sonderegger, P; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Pirollo, S; Chapuy, S; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; Bell, W; Smith, K; Berglund, P; Koivuniemi, J H; Valtonen, M J; Mukhanov, O; de Boer, Wim; Grigoriev, E; Heising, S; Casagrande, L; Cindro, V; Mikuz, M; Zavrtanik, M; Da Vià, C; Konorov, I; Paul, S; Buontempo, S; D'Ambrosio, N; Granata, V; Pagano, S; Ruggiero, G; Takada, S; Esposito, A P; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1999-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result. Several CERN experiments are potential users of cold radiation hard tracking devices. The first goal of the proposed extension of the RD39 programme is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particu...

  16. GONÇALVES DIAS AND THE ETNOGRAPHIC AND NARRATIVE SECTION OF THE COMISSÃO CIENTÍFICA DE EXPLORAÇÃO (1859-1861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Barbosa de Vasconcelos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil should be known and studied by the Brazilians. This idea was the force that justified the constitution of the Comissão Científica de Exploração (CCE, founded by members of the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute and supported by the Brazilian imperial government, in order to motivate research on the “young” country. Within this ambitious scientific and political project, ethnographic knowledge and practices were embraced in the deeds assigned to the scientist and poet Gonçalves Dias, chief of the section of ethnography and travel narrative, whom should have performed his activities in Ceará province throughout 3 years (1859-1961. To reflect on the deeds of the mentioned section during its execution is the goal of this paper.

  17. Social capital between family businesses and business associations in Celaya, Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Contreras Soto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a comprehensive study on family businesses held in Celaya, Guanajuato Mexico (year 2011 with a sample of 343 interviews with owners or managers responsible. This study examines the specific relationship capital with family businesses with various business associations, as is supposedly the social purpose of these associations. The analysis is based on the open question: Does your business communication with business associations (CCE, COPARMEX, CANACINTRA ...and how they perceive the relationship (positive and / or negative? With it, you want to know what they think micro, small and medium-sized family relationships If there are business associations?, Who or who have such relationships? And do you think of these relationships?. The analysis is based primarily on social capital theory of Bourdieu. The study is mixed, predominantly qualitative and exploratory. An analysis of the various testimonies to quantify and represent the descriptive factors of these relationships.

  18. Navy Technology Transfer Program FY 77 Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Of coc < . U> 4 0> U) (A I U)~~0 c -*- i~0 4 CL c .- 0 4 <)C 4 ) - U ’ 4 I C) - U U U Cl 4 1-: 0 0- tIC 4 U O-1 0 - C 0) C 0 0 C- 0- - C 00 ) C C w4...a.> zO I.- a) 8 U.mU . ~ 4 a a~ 0.0 a) a)>E-~a ~ 0 O 2 0 0 0- ’ > ~ . 0 aula - 0C O CE CCE C) cc) z z- - C) ~C 0- < 0 0 00 u. ZN N. 00 U" u 4) -C o ’m

  19. Development of cryogenic Si detectors by CERN RD39 Collaboration for ultra radiation hardness in SLHC environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Z; Anbinderis, P; Anbinderis, T; D’Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, M; Buontempo, S; Chen, W; Cindro, V; Dierlamm, A; Eremin, V; Gaubas, E; Gorbatenko, V; Grigoriev, E; Hauler, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Hempel, O; Herzog, R; Härkönen, J; Ilyashenko, I; Janos, S; Jungermann, L; Kalesinskas, V; Kapturauskas, J; Laiho, R; Luukka, P; Mandic, I; De Masi, R; Menichelli, D; Mikuz, M; Militaru, O; Niinikosky, T O; O’Shea, V; Pagano, S; Paul, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Pretzl, K; Rato-Mendes, P; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Sousa, P; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Verbitskaya, E; Vaitkus, J; Wobst, E; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    There are two key approaches in our CERN RD 39 Collaboration efforts to obtain ultra-radiation-hard Si detectors: (1) use of the charge/current injection to manipulate the detector internal electric field in such a way that it can be depleted at a modest bias voltage at cryogenic temperature range (150 K), and (2) freezing out of the trapping centers that affects the CCE at cryogenic temperatures lower than that of the liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. In our first approach, we have developed the advanced radiation hard detectors using charge or current injection, the current injected diodes (CID). In a CID, the electric field is controlled by injected current, which is limited by the space charge, yielding a nearly uniform electric field in the detector, independent of the radiation fluence. In our second approach, we have developed models of radiation-induced trapping levels and the physics of their freezing out at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR TABLE OLIVES IN TIRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Merkaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Table olive production sector is undergoing rapid changes, as the government is undertaking an ambitious program supporting the expansion of olive grove plantations. Despite the increase in domestic production, import of table olive is still high, due to constraints in quantity and quality of domestically supplied olives. In the context of import substitution strategy, embraced by producers and policy-makers, it is important to analyze the consumer preferences for table olives. The objective of this paper is to segment the table olive market according to preferences for table olives attributes applying Conjoint Choice Experiment (CCE and Latent Class Analysis to collect and analyze the data. The research results show a strong consumer preference for domestic table olives whereas preferences for other attributes vary between consumer groups.

  1. Determination and Distribution of Critical Loads: Application to the Forest Soils in the Autonomous Region of Madrid; Determinacion y Distribucion de Cargas Criticas: Aplicacion a los Suelos forestales de la comunidad Autonoma de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.; Schmid, T.; Rabago, I. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The critical loads of acidity and sulphur have been determined for forest soils within the north and north-west of the Autonomous Region of Madrid. The SMB-CCE and SMB-PROFILE Steady state models have been applied using a 1 km x 1 km resolution. the forest ecosystems have been characterised according to the soil and forest type, slope and climatic data using a Geographic Information System. In order to estimate the critical loads, processes such as weathering rate of the parent material, atmospheric deposition, critical alkalinity leaching rate and nutrients absorbed by the vegetation have been considered. In general the forest soils present high critical load values for acidity and sulphur. The more sensitive zones are found in the north of the Sierra of Guadarrama. Independent of the applied methods, the results are associated to the types of soils where Leptosols have the lowest. Cambisoles and Regosoles intermediate and luvisoles the most elevated values. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  3. IBIC analysis of CdTe/CdS solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, E; Calusi, S; Giuntini, L; Giudice, A Lo; Manfredotti, C; Massi, M; Olivero, P; Romeo, A; Romeo, N; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of the electronic properties of a thin film CdS/CdTe solar cell with the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) technique. The device under test is a thin film (total thickness around 10 um) multilayer heterojunction solar cell, displaying an efficiency of 14% under AM1.5 illumination conditions. The IBIC measurements were carried out using focused 3.150 MeV He ions raster scanned onto the surface of the back electrode. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) maps show inhomogeneous response of the cell to be attributed to the polycrystalline nature of the CdTe bulk material. Finally, the evolution of the IBIC signal vs. the ion fluence was studied in order to evaluate the radiation hardness of the CdS/CdTe solar cells in view of their use in solar modules for space applications.

  4. Counter-streaming electrons at the geomagnetic equator near 9 earth radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Quinn, J. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1988-01-01

    AMPTE/CEE observations are used to study short-lived, highly anisotropic electron distributions in the region of the equatorial magnetosphere bewtween 6.6 earth radii and the CCE apogee at 8.8 earth radii. Intense bursts of highly collimated counterstreaming electrons were observed at keV energies with durations of a few tens of seconds to a few minutes near the geomagnetic equator on L-shells that intersect the high-latitude ionosphere in the region normally associated with the auroral zone. It is found that the counterstreaming electrons at energies below the peak energy are accompanied by simultaneous deep depressions of the locally mirroring fluxes. It is suggested that these equatorial electrons may result from the release of auroral electrons trapped beneath the auroral accelerating potentials at lower altitudes along the same magnetic flux tubes.

  5. Analysis of dye-sensitized solar cells with current collecting electrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, with a finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitanda, Isao; Inoue, Kazuya; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The internal resistances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with and without current collecting electrodes (CCEs) were analyzed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with a finite element method (FEM). Three different DSC models with or without current collecting electrodes were designed. Theoretical values of the internal resistance were estimated by FEM on changing the position and size of the current collecting electrodes. Large DSCs with current collecting electrodes were fabricated using a screen-printing technique, and experimental values of the internal resistance were analyzed by EIS and compared with the theoretical values. The internal resistances obtained from the impedance measurements were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. The internal resistance was found to decrease with increasing width and thickness of the CCEs, below a threshold value. EIS was found to be extremely useful for evaluating CCE design for improved DSCs.

  6. Protective effect of keishi-bukuryo-gan and its constituent medicinal plants against nitric oxide donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Y; Yokoyama, K; Goto, H; Sekiya, N; Mantani, N; Tahara, E; Hikiami, H; Terasawa, K

    2004-07-01

    Keishi-bukuryo-gan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) (KBG) is a traditional Chinese/Japanese medical (Kampo) formulation that has been administered to patients with "Oketsu" (blood stagnation) syndrome. In the process of neuronal cell death induced by brain ischemia, excessive generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals is implicated in the neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the protective effects of KBG and its constituent medicinal plants against NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (NOC18)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). MTT assay showed cell viability to be significantly increased by the addition of KBG extract (KBGE) (100 microg/ml), Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) (3, 10 and 30 microg/ml), Paeoniae Radix extract (PRE) (100 microg/ml) and Moutan Cortex extract (MCE) (10 and 30 microg/ml) compared with exposure to SNP (30 microM, 24 h) only. Also, cell viability was significantly increased by the addition of KBGE (100 and 300 microg/ml), CCE (30 and 100 microg/ml), PRE (100 and 300 microg/ml) and MCE (30 and 100 microg/ml) compared with exposure to NOC 18 (100 microM, 48 h) only. Persicae Semen extract and Hoelen extract did not protect against NO donor-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that KBG has protective effect against NO-mediated neuronal death in cultured CGCs and that it is derived from Cinnamomi Cortex, Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Cortex.

  7. Stability of silicon and titanium carbide suspensions in electrolyte, poly(ethylene oxide), and PEO-surfactant solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor; Eremenko, Boris V; Malysheva, Mariya L

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that the coagulation values of counterions for SiC and TiC suspensions with particle radius from 0.5 to 5 microm obey a z(2.5-3.5) law and there is an insufficient change in the critical concentration of 1-1 electrolytes (CCE) when the surface potential of particles increases more than two times. Also, the CCE values hardly depend on the position of counterions in the lyotropic sequence. This is explained by aggregation of SiC and TiC particles at a secondary minimum, which is proved by calculations of the potential curves of interparticle interactions using the DLVO theory. The adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) on the surfaces studied does not cause--in contradiction to dispersions with smaller particles--an unlimited growth in the stability of suspensions. This is due to the aggregation of large particles with adsorbed PEO, as in polymer-free dispersions, under barrierless conditions in which the coordinates of the secondary minimum are determined by superposition of molecular attractive forces and steric repulsive forces of adsorbed polymeric chains, without a contribution from the electric repulsion term. PEO-anionic surfactant complexes possess higher stabilizing capacity compared to the individual components of the mixture. Our results show that the adsorbed polymer layers may hinder the aggregation both in the primary and in the secondary minimum for not very large particles only, the critical size of which depends on the dispersed phase nature and the molecular mass of the polymer.

  8. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  9. Environmental influences on Adelie penguin breeding schedules, endocrinology, and chick survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninnes, C E; Waas, J R; Ling, N; Nakagawa, S; Banks, J C; Bell, D G; Bright, A; Carey, P W; Chandler, J; Hudson, Q J; Ingram, J R; Lyall, K; Morgan, D K J; Stevens, M I; Wallace, J; Möstl, E

    2011-08-01

    To understand how the social and physical environment influences behaviour, reproduction and survival, studies of underlying hormonal processes are crucial; in particular, interactions between stress and reproductive responses may have critical influences on breeding schedules. Several authors have examined the timing of breeding in relation to environmental stimuli, while others have independently described endocrine profiles. However, few studies have simultaneously measured endocrine profiles, breeding behaviour, and offspring survival across seasons. We measured sex and stress hormone concentrations (oestrogens, testosterone, and corticosterone), timing of breeding, and chick survival, in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) at two colonies in two different years. Clutch initiation at Cape Bird South (CBS; year 1, ~14,000 pairs) occurred later than at Cape Crozier East (CCE; year 2, ~ 25,000 pairs); however, breeding was more synchronous at CBS. This pattern was probably generated by the persistence of extensive sea ice at CBS (year 1). Higher corticosterone metabolite and lower sex hormone concentrations at CBS correlated with later breeding and lower chick survival compared to at CCE - again, a likely consequence of sea ice conditions. Within colonies, sub-colony size (S, 50-100; M, 200-300; L, 500-600; XL, >1000 pairs) did not influence the onset or synchrony of breeding, chick survival, or hormone concentrations. We showed that the endocrine profiles of breeding Adelie penguins can differ markedly between years and/or colonies, and that combining measures of endocrinology, behaviour, and offspring survival can reveal the mechanisms and consequences that different environmental conditions can have on breeding ecology.

  10. Allosteric modulation by benzodiazepine receptor ligands of the GABAA receptor channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, E; Baur, R

    1988-01-01

    Chick brain mRNA was isolated and injected into Xenopus oocytes. This led to the expression in the surface membrane of functional GABA-activated channels with properties reminiscent of vertebrate GABAA channels. The GABA-induced current was analyzed quantitatively under voltage-clamp conditions. Picrotoxin inhibited this current in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 = 0.6 microM. The allosteric modulation of GABA currents by a number of drugs acting at the benzodiazepine binding site was characterized quantitatively. In the presence of the benzodiazepine receptor ligands diazepam and clorazepate, GABA responses were enhanced, and in the presence of the convulsant beta-carboline compound methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM), they were depressed. Maximal stimulation of the response elicited by 10 microM GABA was 160% with diazepam and 90% with clorazepate, and maximal inhibition was 42% with DMCM, 30% with methyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM), 15% with ethyl-8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo [1,5a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate (Ro 15-1788), and 12% with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE). Half-maximal stimulation was observed with 20 nM diazepam and 390 nM clorazepate, respectively, and half-maximal inhibition with 6 nM DMCM. beta-CCM had a similar effect to DMCM, whereas beta-CCE and Ro 15-1788 showed only small inhibition at low concentrations (less than 1 microM). All the tested carboline compounds and Ro 15-1788 showed a biphasic action and stimulated GABA current at concentrations higher than 1 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma in users or non users of tobacco and alcohol = Características do carcinoma bucal de células escamosas em usuários ou não usuários de tabaco e álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidt, Juliana Hintz Germanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tabaco e o álcool são os principais fatores etiológicos extrínsecos associados à gênese do carcinoma bucal de células escamosas (CCE, mas não está claro se estes fatores interferem nas características clínico-patológicas, moleculares ou no prognóstico da doença. No presente estudo, essas características foram revisadas, estabelecendo-se comparações entre as lesões de pacientes usuários ou não de tabaco e álcool. Observou-se que carcinomas bucais de não fumantes e não etilistas ocorrem, preferencialmente, em pacientes do sexo feminino, em faixa etária inferior a 50 ou superior 70 anos. Neste grupo de indivíduos, as lesões tendem a ser menos agressivas e apresentam melhor prognóstico. O tabagismo e o etilismo também parecem influenciar as características moleculares do carcinoma bucal, uma vez que mutações da proteína p53 nas lesões têm sido associadas a esses fatores de risco. A compreensão das diferenças entre os CCE bucais desses dois grupos de pacientes pode contribuir para uma melhor abordagem e avanços no desenvolvimento de medidas terapêuticas mais adequadas frente a esta neoplasia

  12. Climate Change Education Roundtable: A Coherent National Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksdieck, M.; Feder, M.; Climate Change Education Roundtable

    2010-12-01

    The Climate Change Education (CCE) Roundtable fosters ongoing discussion of the challenges to and strategies for improving public understanding of climate science and climate change among federal agencies, the business community, non-profit, and academic sectors. The CCE Roundtable is provides a critical mechanism for developing a coherent, national strategy to advance climate change education guided by the best available research evidence. Through its meetings and workshops, the roundtable brings together 30 federal and state policymakers, educators, communications and media experts, and members from the business and scientific community. The roundtable includes a number of ex officio members from federal agencies with dedicated interests in climate change education, including officials from the National Science Foundation’s EHR Directorate and its collaborating partner divisions, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Interior, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Education. The issues that are addressed by the roundtable include: - ways to incorporate knowledge about learning and understanding in developing informative programs and materials for decision-makers who must cope with climate change - the design of educational programs for professionals such as local planners, water managers, and the like, to enable them to better understand the implications of climate change for their decisions - development of training programs for scientists to help them become better communicators to decision-makers about implications of, and solutions to climate change - coordinated and collaborative efforts at the national level between federal agencies and other stakeholders This presenation will describe how the roundtable is fostering a coherent direction for climate change education.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling and Genetic Study Reveal Amplified Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance, in the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Grigoraki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aedes albopictus, a major vector for viral diseases, such as dengue fever and chikungunya, has been largely reliant on the use of the larvicide temephos for many decades. This insecticide remains a primary control tool for several countries and it is a potential reliable reserve, for emergency epidemics or new invasion cases, in regions such as Europe which have banned its use. Resistance to temephos has been detected in some regions, but the mechanism responsible for the trait has not been investigated.Temephos resistance was identified in an Aedes albopictus population isolated from Greece, and subsequently selected in the laboratory for a few generations. Biochemical assays suggested the association of elevated carboxylesterases (CCE, but not target site resistance (altered AChE, with this phenotype. Illumina transcriptomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of three transcripts encoding CCE genes in the temephos resistant strain. CCEae3a and CCEae6a showed the most striking up-regulation (27- and 12-folds respectively, compared to the reference susceptible strain; these genes have been previously shown to be involved in temephos resistance also in Ae. aegypti. Gene amplification was associated with elevated transcription levels of both CCEae6a and CCEae3a genes. Genetic crosses confirmed the genetic link between CCEae6a and CCEae3a amplification and temephos resistance, by demonstrating a strong association between survival to temephos exposure and gene copy numbers in the F2 generation. Other transcripts, encoding cytochrome P450s, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs, cuticle and lipid biosynthesis proteins, were upregulated in resistant mosquitoes, indicating that the co-evolution of multiple mechanisms might contribute to resistance.The identification of specific genes associated with insecticide resistance in Ae. albopictus for the first time is an important pre-requirement for insecticide resistance management. The genomic

  14. EFFECTS OF XYLAN IN EUCALYPTUS PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moreira Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a better use of wood in the pulp industry has fuelled interest in a more rational use of its components, particularly xylans. The impact of xylans removal and of xylans redeposition on pulp properties for tissue and P&W paper grades are discussed in this paper. Kraft pulp (15.6% xylans treatment with 10-70 g.L-1 NaOH resulted in pulps of 14.5-5.9% xylans. The treatments decreased pulp lignin and HexA contents and caused significant positive impact on subsequent oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching. Xylan removal decreased pulp beatability, water retention value and tensile index but increased drainability, water absorption capacity, capillarity Klemm and bulk. Overall, xylan depleted pulps showed almost ideal properties for tissue paper grade pulps. In a second step of the research, xylans extracted from unbleached (BXL and bleached eucalyptus pulps (WXL by cold caustic extraction (CCE were added to a commercial brown pulp in the oxygen delignification (O-stage and further bleached. Xylans deposition occurred at variable degree (up to 7% on pulp weight depending upon the O-stage reaction pH. Pulp bleachability was not impaired by WXL xylan deposition but slightly negatively affected by BXL xylans. Pulp beatability was improved by xylan deposition. The deposited xylans were quite stable across bleaching and beating, with the WXL xylans being more stable than the BXL ones. At low energy consumption, the deposited xylans improved pulp physical and mechanical properties. Xylans extraction by CCE with subsequent deposition onto pulp in the O-stage proved attractive for manufacturing high xylan P&W paper grades.

  15. Video capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has evolved to become an important tool for the non-invasive examination of the small bowel, which hitherto had been relatively inaccessible to direct visualisation. VCE has been shown to play a role in monitoring the activity of small bowel Crohn’s disease and can be used to assess the response to anti-inflammatory treatment in Crohn’s disease. For those patients with Crohn’s disease who have undergone an intestinal resection, VCE has been assessed as a tool to detect post-operative recurrence. VCE may also aid in the reclassification of patients with a diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unclassified to Crohn’s disease. The evolution of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) has expanded the application of this technology further. The use of CCE to assess the activity of ulcerative colitis has been described. This advance in capsule technology has also fuelled interest in its potential role as a minimally invasive tool to assess the whole of GI tract opening the possibility of its use for the panenteric assessment of Crohn’s disease. VCE is a safe procedure. However, the risk of a retained capsule is higher in patients with suspected or confirmed Crohn’s disease compared with patients having VCE examination for other indications. A retained video capsule is rare after successful passage of a patency capsule which may be utilised to pre-screen patients undergoing VCE. This paper describes the use of VCE in the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27499830

  16. SETI in the light of cosmic convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Martinez, Claudio L.

    2014-11-01

    Theodosius Dobzhansky, one of the founding fathers of the modern evolutionary synthesis, once famously stated that “nothing makes sense in biology except in the light of evolution”. Here it will be argued that nothing in astrobiology makes sense except in the light of “Cosmic Convergent Evolution” (CCE). This view of life contends that natural selection is a universal force of nature that leads to the emergence of similarly adapted life forms in analogous planetary biospheres. Although SETI historically preceded the rise of astrobiology that we have witnessed in the recent decade, one of its main tenets from the beginning was the convergence of life on a cosmic scale toward intelligent behavior and subsequent communication via technological means. The question of cultural convergence in terms of symbolic exchange, language and scientific capabilities between advanced interstellar civilizations has been the subject of ongoing debate. However, at the core of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence lies in essence a biological problem since even post-biological extraterrestrial intelligences must have had an origin based on self-replicating biopolymers. Thus, SETI assumes a propensity of the Universe towards biogenesis in accordance with CCE, a new evolutionary concept which posits the multiple emergence of life across the Cosmos. Consequently, we have to wonder about the biophilic properties the Universe apparently exhibits, as well as to try to find an encompassing theory that is able to explain this “fine-tuning” in naturalistic terms. The aims of this paper are as follows: 1) to emphasize the importance of convergent evolution in astrobiology and ongoing SETI research; 2) to introduce novel and biology-centered cosmological ideas such as the “Selfish Biocosm Hypothesis” and the “Evo Devo Universe” as valuable arguments in theorizing about the origin and nature of extraterrestrial intelligence and 3) to synthesize these findings within an

  17. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified. METHODOLOGY: In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components. CONCLUSION: We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile.

  18. Predictive Value of Cumulative Blood Pressure for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Xiu; Song, Lu; Xing, Ai Jun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Hai Yan; Li, Chun Hui; Zhao, Hua Ling; Chen, Shuo Hua; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-02-01

    The predictive value of cumulative blood pressure (BP) on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CCE) has hardly been studied. In this prospective cohort study including 52,385 participants from the Kailuan Group who attended three medical examinations and without CCE, the impact of cumulative systolic BP (cumSBP) and cumulative diastolic BP (cumDBP) on all-cause mortality and CCEs was investigated. For the study population, the mean (standard deviation) age was 48.82 (11.77) years of which 40,141 (76.6%) were male. The follow-up for all-cause mortality and CCEs was 3.96 (0.48) and 2.98 (0.41) years, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that for every 10 mm Hg·year increase in cumSBP and 5 mm Hg·year increase in cumDBP, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality were 1.013 (1.006, 1.021) and 1.012 (1.006, 1.018); for CCEs, 1.018 (1.010, 1.027) and 1.017 (1.010, 1.024); for stroke, 1.021 (1.011, 1.031) and 1.018 (1.010, 1.026); and for MI, 1.013 (0.996, 1.030) and 1.015 (1.000, 1.029). Using natural spline function analysis, cumSBP and cumDBP showed a J-curve relationship with CCEs; and a U-curve relationship with stroke (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke). Therefore, increases in cumSBP and cumDBP were predictive for all-cause mortality, CCEs, and stroke.

  19. Processing of n{sup +}/p{sup −}/p{sup +} strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, J., E-mail: jaakko.harkonen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Tuovinen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Junkes, A. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg (Germany); Wu, X. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Microsystems and Nanoelectronics (Finland); Picosun Oy, Tietotie 3, FI-02150 Espoo Finland (Finland); Li, Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2016-08-21

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n{sup +} segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current–voltage and capacitance−voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  20. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml).

  1. Restoration Science in New York Harbor: It takes a (large, diverse and engaged) village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R.; Birney, L.; Janis, S.; Groome, M.; Palmer, M.; Bone, E.; O'Neil, J. M.; Hill, J.; Dennison, W.; Malinowski, P.; Kohne, L.; Molina, M.; Moore, G.; Woods, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Curriculum + Community Enterprise for Restoration Science (CCE-RS) facilitates partnerships between scientists and middle school educators on ecological restoration and environmental monitoring projects. The educational model is designed to wrap around the student, including classroom instruction, field science, after-school programs and engagement with the student's community. Its pillars include: a teacher training fellowship at Pace University, student curriculum, a digital platform, afterschool and summer mentoring, and community exhibits. The digital platform includes a tablet app tailored to the project's field protocols and linked to a database shared across schools and partnering institutions. Through the digital platform, data is integrated into a single citizen-science monitoring project, teachers share curriculum and best practices, and students link directly to their peers at other schools. Curriculum development has been collaborative between scientists, science education specialists, and secondary school teachers. The CCE-RS is rooted in project-based learning: the New York Harbor School has engaged high school students in environmental monitoring and oyster restoration in the Harbor for about the last decade. The science partners (U. of Maryland and Columbia) have been working with students and other citizen scientists in outdoor science over about the last decade. Local partners in outside-the-classroom education include the New York Academy of Sciences, The River Project, which will provide field education services, and Good Shepherd Services, which provides after-school programming in schools serving primarily poor families. Scientists on the project engage directly with teachers and informal educators in curriculum development and citizen-science outreach. We present the lessons learned from our first cohort of Fellows, the pedagogical model, and the digital platform, which is extensible to other ecological restoration settings.

  2. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  3. Effect of spatial averaging on multifractal properties of meteorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Baranowski, Piotr; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Zubik, Monika

    2016-04-01

    by -29.1 % (precipitation; width of MS) up to >4 % (min. Temperature, Radiation; asymmetry of MS). Also, the spatial variability of MS parameters was strongly affected at the highest aggregation (100 km). Obtained results confirm that spatial data aggregation may strongly affect temporal scaling properties. This should be taken into account when upscaling for large-scale studies. Acknowledgements The study was conducted within FACCE MACSUR. Please see Baranowski et al. (2015) for details on funding. References Baranowski, P., Krzyszczak, J., Sławiński, C. et al. (2015). Climate Research 65, 39-52. Hoffman, H., G. Zhao, L.G.J. Van Bussel et al. (2015). Climate Research 65, 53-69. Zhao, G., Siebert, S., Rezaei E. et al. (2015). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 200, 156-171.

  4. Elaidate-Intercalated hydrotalcite as a sorbent material for metalaxyl immobilitzation in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cabeza, Rocío; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, María C.; Cox, Lucía; Celis, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    % reduced the leaching of S- and R-metalaxyl. The R-enantiomer of metalaxyl leached less than the S-enantiomer due to its faster degradation in the soil. Our results illustrate the ability of elaidate-modified hydrotalcite to enhance the retention of the two enantiomers of the fungicide metalaxyl in the tested soil, which may be useful in the design of immobilization strategies, particularly of the more persistent S-metalaxyl enantiomer, which may represent increased risk of ground water contamination. Acknowledgments: MINECO Project AGL2011-23779, FACCE-JPI Project Designchar4food, JA Research Group AGR-264 and FEDER-FSE (OP 2007-2013).

  5. Influence of biochar on the enantioselective behavior of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Hermosín, María Carmen; Cox, Lucía; Celis, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    columns was recovered in leachates, in contrast to significantly higher percentages leachedin unamended soil, being the process more enantioselective in the latter case. Finally, total recoveries of both enantiomers were greater for BC-amended soil columns than for unamended soil columns, indicating reduced degradation in BC- amended soil. Our findings illustrated the ability of biochar to modify the enantioselectivity behavior of metalaxyl in soil by its high sorption capacity. BC could contribute to reduce the current agronomic doses used for chiral pesticides to deplete the contamination problems associated with their use, and also to act as an immobilizing amendment in soil remediation strategies. Acknowledgments: MINECO (AGL2011-23779), FACCE-JPI (Designchar4food), JA (AGR-264) and FEDER-FSE (OP 2007-2013).

  6. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  7. [Capacitative Ca²⁺ entry is involved in ACh-induced distal colon smooth muscle contraction in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De-Hu; Zhou, Hua; Song, Jie; Ke, Dao-Ping; Hu, Jin-Lan; Li, Zhong-Wen; Ma, Rong

    2006-04-25

    Contraction of smooth muscle cells is triggered by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) upon agonist stimulation. Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane constitutes a major component of the agonist-induced response in smooth muscle cells. Traditionally, voltage-operated Ca(2+) channel (VOCC) is considered as the channel mediating the Ca(2+) entry. However, this view has been challenged by recent discoveries, which demonstrated that other types of ion channels, such as store-operated and/or receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC and/or ROCC), also participate in Ca(2+) response induced by agonists in smooth muscle cells. SOCC is defined as the channel activated in response to the depletion of the internal Ca(2+) stores, an event secondary to G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation. The Ca(2+) flow mediated by SOCC is termed as capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE). Previous study from other group has demonstrated that VOCC played a predominant role in ACh-induced contraction of distal colon smooth muscle in guinea pig. However, whether SOCC participates in the agonist-induced contractile response in this particular tissue is unknown. The present study was performed to investigate the role of CCE in ACh-induced mechanical activity of distal colon smooth muscle in rats. The contractile function of the smooth muscle was assessed by measuring isometric force of isolated rat distal colon rings. We showed that both high extracellular K(+) (40 mmol/L) and ACh (5 mumol/L) evoked striking contraction of the smooth muscle. The contractile responses were almost abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) with ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid (EGTA), suggesting a critical contribution of extracellular source of Ca(2+) to the contraction. Verapamil (5 mumol/L), an L-type VOCC blocker, significantly attenuated, but didn't completely eliminate the high K(+)- and ACh-induced contraction (74% and 41% for high K(+) and ACh

  8. Hematologia e bioquímica sérica de equinos de concurso completo de equitação em treinamento Hematology and serum biochemistry of event horses in training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a hematologia e a bioquímica sérica em equinos de concurso completo de equitação (CCE em treinamento durante testes de esforço incremental em esteira ergométrica de alta velocidade. Foram utilizados 16 equinos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, utilizando-se como fontes de variação nos tratamentos a idade e o histórico de treinamento em CCE. As parcelas foram constituídas pelos testes incrementais realizados nas fases inicial e final do treinamento. As subparcelas foram representadas pelos tempos de avaliação e coletas. Os equinos do grupo experimental novos iniciantes apresentaram valor médio do hematócrito de 43,24%, sendo inferior ao hematócrito do grupo adultos iniciantes, 45,63%, novos experientes, 46,39%, e competidores, 47,74%. Houve diferença (PWas evaluated the hematology and serum biochemistry in event horses (CCE in training during incremental treadmill tests. Sixteen horses were used in a completely randomized design with four treatments and four repetitions in subdivided parcels, using age and previous history of training in events as sources of treatment variation. The parcels constituted of incremental treadmill tests performed at the beginning and end of training. The subparcels were represented by the time of evaluation and collection of samples. The equines of new beginners group had mean hematocrit value of 43.24%, being lower than the hematocrit of adult beginners group, 45.63%, new experienced group, 46.39%, and competitors group, 47.74%. There were differences (P<0.05 between the tests performed at the beginning and end of training, with reduction in glucose plasma concentration, from 112 to 98,88mg/dL, in seric concentration of creatinine, 1.41 to 1.29mg/dL, and total protein, 6.52 to 6.38 g/dL, in monocyte count, 0.54 to 0.48 10³/mm³, and an increase of lactate plasma concentration, from 3.31 to

  9. Carcinoma de células escamosas perineal em cabras no Pará Perineal squamous cell carcinoma in goats in the State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE bem diferenciado em caprinos de duas propriedades no Estado do Pará. Foram observadas a prevalência, a correlação com a pigmentação da região perineal e as características macro e microscópica das lesões. As lesões consistiram em tumores no períneo, com grau de desenvolvimento, diâmetro e forma variados. Em uma propriedade no município de Viseu, dos 347 caprinos, 20 apresentaram CCE (5,8%. A neoplasia só foi observada em animais com a região perineal despigmentada. Em outra propriedade, no município de Garrafão do Norte, descreve-se a ocorrência de três casos em um rebanho de 400 caprinos (0,75%. A elevada ocorrência deste tumor deve-se, provavelmente, à despigmentação do períneo e à cauda curta e elevada das cabras, que expõe a região perineal à alta incidência de radiação ultravioleta naquela região.Squamous cell carcinoma in goats of two farms in the State of Pará is described. Prevalence, correlation with the pigmentation of the perineal area and macro and microscopic characteristics of the lesions were studied. The tumors on the perineum were of varied development degrees, diameters and forms. On one farm, in the county of Viseu, from a total of 347 goats, 20 presented the neoplasia (5.8%. On the second farm, in the county of Garrafão do Norte, three cases of squamous cell carcinoma in a herd of 400 goats (0.75% were observed. The tumor was only observed in animals in which the perineal area was despigmented. The high incidence of this tumor appears to be due to lack of pigmentation at the períneo and the high and short tail of the goats, that exposes the area to intense ultraviolet radiation in the tropics.

  10. [Crestal core elevation technique--case series and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolerman, R; Barnea, E

    2008-04-01

    Sinus floor augmentation is the most common surgical procedure for gaining bone volume in the posterior maxilla. The purpose of this procedure is to enable implant placement un edentulous ridges. The most common techniques for sinus augmentation are: 1. Bone added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE). 2. Crestal core elevation (CCE). 3. Lateral window technique (LWT). Since the early 80's many articles describing the successful use of different augmentation materials for sinus elevation have been published. Although many articles have been published on the lateral window technique and the osteotome technique as described by Summers, few articles have been published on the crestsal core sinus elevation technique. This technique, first described by Summers, includes the use of wide diameter osteotomes and trephine bur with a diameter of 6 m"m. This technique is implemented in situations when the available bone for implant placement is less than 6 m"m , which impairs the possibility of achieving primary stability of the implant. In those cases crestal core elevation is performed and implant placement is postponed 3-8 months later. Modification of the technique described by Summers was published by Fugazzoto, this technique is implemented concomitant with the extraction of the upper molars. The crestal core elevation technique (CCE), which is based on the BAOSFE (Bone Added Osteotome Sinus Floor Elevation), is based on the principle of hydraulic force acting on fluids and particles which transfer the vector of force to all direction, in this case the sinus membrane. The detached core of interradicular bone prior to osteotome placement and malleting significantly reduces surgical trauma to the patient especially in cases where a significant portion of the pre-disease interradicular bone remains. The concomitant placement of particulate material and a membrane at the time of tooth extraction offers the advantage of minimizing if not eliminating significant 3

  11. Cost-Benefit of the energy saving in the bioclimatic designs; Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble Dos Soluciones de Negocios, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Tools and criteria for the Cost-Benefit analysis from the energy saving in bioclimatic designs (BD) are presented, for which, a reference project is established and the costs and benefits of energy saving in BD with base in that project are evaluated. A case study is presented taking as reference the traditional design of the air conditioning of a building and with this base the estimation of cost-benefit of the same building is made, but with passive systems. The tools used are those that allow to consider related resources such as time and money; in that sense, are used criteria such as: Present value (PV), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the Conserved Energy (CCE). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into account. The differences between the reference design and the BD, established from the application of these criteria, allow to evaluate the economic margin of the BD as far as operation and maintenance is concerned. Finally the CCE of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative of energy saving and the present value is calculated of the energy saving in the entire useful life of a bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual, se establece un proyecto de referencia y se evaluan los costos y beneficios del ahorro de energia en DB con base en ese proyecto. Se presenta el estudio de un caso tomando como referencia el dise tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con base en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio, pero con sistemas pasivos. Las herramientas usadas, son aquellas que permiten considerar recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero; en ese sentido, se usan criterios como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia Conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados

  12. 重组组织型纤溶酶原激活剂静脉溶栓治疗心源性脑栓塞的临床研究%Study of Thrombolytic Therapy with Intravenous Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Acute Cardiogenic Cerebral Embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志革; 尤年兴; 刘晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety and efifcacy of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator(rt-PA) in the treatment of acute cardiogenic cerebral embolism(CCE).Methods 25 cases were included in the thrombolysis group,and 25 cases in the control group.In the thrombolytsis group,the patients within an onset within 3 hours were given rt-PA(0.9mg/kg) for intravenouss thrombolytic therapy. The NIHSS scores were used before thrombolysis and at 24h,7d.Barthel Index(BI) were used to evaluate the neurological functions 90 days after receiving rt-PA.The occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage of cerebral edema was recorded.Results The NIHSS scores were improved at 7d(P<0.05).BI score of thrombolysis group was higher than that of control group at 90d.There was no significant difference between thrombolysis group and control group in the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.The occurrence of severe brain edema in thrombolysis group was lower than that in control group.Conclusions It could be safe and efifcient for patients with CCE to receive the intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA within 3 hours of the onset.%目的探讨重组组织型纤溶酶原激活剂(rt-PA)静脉溶栓治疗心源性脑栓塞(CCE)的疗效及安全性。方法符合入选标准的患者,溶栓组25例,对照组25例。发病3h内行rt-PA(0.9mg/kg)静脉溶栓治疗,评定治疗后24h、7d NIHSS评分,90d Barthel指数评分。观察颅内出血转化、脑水肿发生情况。结果溶栓后7d时NIHSS评分显著改善(P<0.05)。溶栓组90d生活质量评分高于对照组。溶栓组症状性脑出血发生率与对照组无差异。溶栓组严重脑水肿发生率低于对照组。结论3h内对心源性脑栓塞患者实施rt-PA静脉溶栓治疗安全有效。

  13. Refining Soil Organic Matter Determination by Loss-on-Ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. H. SALEHI; O. HASHEMI BENI; H. BEIGI HARCHEGANI; I. ESFANDIARPOUR BORUJENI; H. R. MOTAGHIAN

    2011-01-01

    Wet oxidation procedure,i.e.,Walkley-Black (WB) method,is a routine,relatively accurate,and popular method for the determination of soil organic matter (SOM) but it is time-consuming,costly and also has a high potential to cause environmental pollution because of disposal of chromium and strong acids used in this analysis.Therefore,loss-on-ignition (LOI) procedure,a simple and cheap method for SOM estimation,which also avoids chromic acid wastes,deserves more attention.The aims of this research were to study the statistical relationships between SOM determined with the LOI (SOMLoI) and WB (SOMWB) methods to compare the spatial variability of SOM in two major plains,Shahrekord and Koohrang plains,of Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari Province,Iran.Fifty surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were randomly collected in each plain to determine SOM using the WB method and the LOI procedure at 300,360,400,500 and 550 ℃ for 2 h. The samples covered wide ranges of soil texture and calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE).The general linear form of the regression equation was calculated to estimate SOMLOI from SOM obtained by the WB method for both overall samples and individual plains.Forty soil samples were also randomly selected to compare the SOM and CCE before and after ignition at each temperature.Overall accuracy of the continuous maps generated for the LOI and WB methods was considered to determine the accordance of two procedures.Results showed a significant positive linear relationship between SOMLOI and SOMWB.Coefficients of determination (R2) of the equations for individual plains were higher than that of the overall equation.Coefficients of determination and line slopes decreased and root mean square error (RMSE) increased with increasing ignition temperature,which may be due to the mineral structural water loss and destruction of carbonates at higher temperatures.A temperature around 360 ℃ was identified as optimum as it burnt most organic carbon,destroyed less inorganic carbon

  14. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  15. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Lorena; Frías, Laura; Creus, Gloria; Parejo, Juana; Urzola, Carmen; Ashbaugh, Rosana; Pérez-Portabella, Cleofé; Cuerda, Cristina

    2014-07-01

    The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor) with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ) to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C). Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE) and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA) of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal.

  16. Investigation of ruthenium promoted palladium catalysts for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurzinsky, Tilman; Kammerer, Patricia; Cremers, Carsten; Pinkwart, Karsten; Tübke, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the investigation of binary palladium based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in alkaline media is reported. For this purpose, electrocatalysts with a loading of 20wt% metal on VulcanXC72-R were synthesized via wet chemical reduction with various compositions of palladium and ruthenium. Physical characterization via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was done and verified the synthesis of nanoparticles on carbon support. Electrochemical evaluation of the catalytic behavior of Pd/C, Ru/C and PdXRu/C (X = 1, 3, 5) via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry was conducted in a 3-electrode setup. These measurements suggested that Pd3Ru/C is a promising material for methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline media with an onset potential of 0.465 VRHE and a peak current density of over 1 A mg-1Pd. To further investigate the oxidation of methanol on Pd/C and Ru promoted catalysts, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) measurements were done. From these results a higher CO2 current efficiency (CCE) of 86% for Pd3Ru/C compared to 65% for Pd/C was found. Moreover, fuel cell tests verified the results and showed that Pd3Ru/C has the better performance.

  17. Linear-drive cryocoolers for the Department of Defense standard advanced dewar assembly (SADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Garin S.

    2005-05-01

    The Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA) is the critical module in the Department of Defense (DoD) standardization of scanning second-generation thermal imaging systems. The DoD has established a family of SADAs to fulfill a range of performance requirements for various platforms. The SADA consists of the Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), Dewar, Command & Control Electronics (C&CE), and the cryogenic cooler, and is used in platforms such as the Apache helicopter, the M1A2 Abrams main battle tank, the M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle, and the Javelin Command Launch Unit (CLU). In support of the family of SADAs, the DoD defined a complementary family of tactical linear drive cryocoolers. The Stirling cycle linear drive cryocoolers are utilized to cool the Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) in the SADAs. These coolers are required to have low input power, a quick cool-down time, low vibration output, low audible noise, and a higher reliability than currently fielded rotary coolers. These coolers must also operate in a military environment with its inherent high vibration level and temperature extremes. This paper will (1) outline the characteristics of each cryocooler, (2) present the status and results of qualification tests, (3) present the status of production efforts, and (4) present the status of efforts to increase linear drive cooler reliability.

  18. Directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Maria C; Lu, Min; Kubo, Atsushi; Keller, Gordon; Davies, Terry F; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2006-06-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms leading to the induction and specification of thyroid follicular cells is important for our understanding of thyroid development. To characterize the key events in this process, we previously established an experimental embryonic stem (ES) cell model system, which shows that wild-type mouse CCE ES cells can give rise to thyrocyte-like cells in vitro. We extend our analysis in this report by using a genetically manipulated ES cell line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA is targeted to the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene, linking GFP expression to the transcription of the endogenous TSHR gene. The appearance of GFP-positive cells was dependent on the formation of embryoid bodies from undifferentiated ES cells and was greatly enhanced by TSH treatment during the first 2-4 d of differentiation. With the support of Matrigel, highly enriched ES cell-derived GFP-positive cells formed thyroid follicle-like clusters in a serum-free medium supplemented with TSH. Importantly, these clusters display the characteristics of thyroid follicular cells. Immunofluorescent studies confirmed the colocalization of TSHR with the Na+/I- symporter in the clusters and indicated that Na+/I- symporter was expressed exclusively in the plasma membrane. In addition, I- uptake activity was observed in these cells. Our results indicate that ES cells can be induced to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells, providing a powerful tool to study embryonic thyroid development and function.

  19. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfaure, C.; Pomorski, M.; de Sanoit, J.; Bergonzo, P.; Saada, S.

    2016-06-01

    A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. It enables to drive a high short-circuit current Isc up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power Pmax of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.

  20. Document of standardization of enteral nutrition access in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Arribas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The group of standardization and protocols of the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE published in 2011 a consensus document SENPE/SEGHNP/ANECIPN/SECP on enteral access for paediatric nutritional support. Along the lines of this document, we have developed another document on adult patients to homogenize the clinical practice and improve the quality of care in enteral access in this age group. The working group included health professionals (nurses, dietitians and doctor with extensive experience in enteral nutrition and access. We tried to find scientific evidence through a literature review and we used the criteria of the Agency for Health-care Research and Quality (AHRQ to classify the evidence (Grade of Recommendation A, B or C. Later the document was reviewed by external experts to the group and requested the endorsement of the Scientific and Educational Committee (CCE and the group of home artificial nutrition (NADYA of the SENPE. The full text will be published as a monograph number in this journal.

  1. Chlordiazepoxide enhances the anxiogenic action of CGS 8216 in the social interaction test: evidence for benzodiazepine withdrawal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, S E; Pellow, S

    1985-07-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor 'inverse agonist' CGS 8216 has a specific anxiogenic action in the social interaction test that cannot be reversed by other compounds acting at the benzodiazepine site: Ro 15-1788, FG 7142 or beta-CCE. We tried to reverse the anxiogenic effect with chlordiazepoxide, which is able to antagonise the anxiogenic effects of several other compounds acting at benzodiazepine or related sites. Chlordiazepoxide given acutely (10-20 mg/kg) was unable to antagonise the anxiogenic action of CGS 8216 (5-10 mg/kg); instead there was a tendency to enhance its effects. The effects of chlordiazepoxide after 5 days pretreatment were then assessed, since chronic treatment is necessary to reverse the anxiogenic actions of Ro 15-1788 and Ro 5-4864. At 5 mg/kg chronically, chlordiazepoxide was unable to antagonise the anxiogenic effect of CGS 8216, and at 20 mg/kg there was a significant enhancement of the effects of CGS 8216 on social interaction without an effect on locomotor activity. These results are discussed in terms of withdrawal from benzodiazepine treatment.

  2. Behavioral-analytic research of cultural selection and the complexity of cultural Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Zagury Tourinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Varios trabajos conceptuales y experimentales en la literatura analítico-conductual han considerado que es posible hacer frente a los fenómenos sugeridos por BF Skinner como selección cultural de manera heurística. Los conceptos de metacontingencia, contingencias conductuales entrelazadas (CCE, entorno cultural, producto agregado, consecuencias culturales y sistema receptor son herramientas útiles para aplicar el nivel cultural de análisis. El artículo examina las sugerencias de Glenn y Malott (2004 sobre la complejidad en las organizaciones y sugiere que ésta podría ser complementada por las dimensiones: (a conflicto entre las consecuencias individuales y culturales; (b la concurrencia de las contingencias que afectan el conducta de cada miembro de un grupo, (c la especialización de las funciones ejecutadas por cada participante en el sistema. Sugerimos que cuanto más complejo es un sistema social, más mediación social es necesario para seleccionar las CCEs y más diferenciadas son las consecuencias culturales del producto agregado.

  3. A module concept for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel system using the novel SLID-ICV vertical integration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Beimforde, M; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12025

    2010-01-01

    The presented R&D activity is focused on the development of a new pixel module concept for the foreseen upgrades of the ATLAS detector towards the Super LHC employing thin n-in-p silicon sensors together with a novel vertical integration technology. A first set of pixel sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm has been produced using a thinning technique developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (MPP) and the MPI Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL). Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements of these sensors irradiated with 26 MeV protons up to a particle fluence of 1016neqcm−2 have been performed, yielding higher values than expected from the present radiation damage models. The novel integration technology, developed by the Fraunhofer Institut EMFT, consists of the Solid-Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection, being an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding, and Inter-Chip Vias (ICVs) for routing signals vertically through electronics. This allows for extracting the ...

  4. Improving the radiation hardness properties of silicon detectors using oxygenated n-type and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, G L; Hanlon, M

    2000-01-01

    The degradation of the electrical properties of silicon detectors exposed to 24 GeV/c protons were studied using pad diodes made from different silicon materials. Standard high-grade p-type and n-type substrates and oxygenated n-type substrates have been used. The diodes were studied in terms of reverse current (I/sub r/) and full depletion voltage (V/sub fd/) as a function of fluence. The oxygenated devices from different suppliers with a variety of starting materials and techniques, all show a consistent improvement of the degradation rate of V/sub fd/ and CCE compared to un- oxygenated substrate devices. Radiation damage of n-type detectors introduces stable defects acting as effective p-type doping and leads to the change of the conductivity type of the silicon bulk (type inversion) at a neutron equivalent fluence of a few 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -2/. The diode junction after inversion migrates from the original side to the back plane of the detector. The migration of the junction is avoided using silicon detec...

  5. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilj, V., E-mail: vgrilj@irb.hr [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M. [Division for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers’ traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers’ capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  6. Development of an innovative approach for management of coal processing waste with natural resource utilization byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Raju, C.B.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The paper summarizes studies to develop and demonstrate suitable bulk mixes of tailings or fine coal processing waste (FCPW) and coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) that will minimize environmental impacts on the land, water and air in the short-term as well as in the long-term. Samples of FCPW and slurry pond water were characterized for total and pyritic sulfur, trace elements, and water chemistry. Important characteristics of desired mixes were also identified based on planned use at each study mine. Tailings were characterized for particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) oxide composition, and ASTM leaching characterization tests. A series of mixes were developed. The test data was developed using standardized test procedures. These studies were first conducted on a small scale (100-200 gm sample size) and then scaled up to 500-1000 gm size samples. The final developed mixes were tested for their environmental properties in columns developed accounting to ASTM standards. Vegetation studies on the developed mixes were initiated in ice-cube trays and eventually upscaled to 2-gallon size aquariums. The studies involved plant-height growth, soil studies, water-pH and changes in soil mineralogy. 5 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  8. Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Marcelo H S; Lovin, Diane D; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Severson, David W; Ayres, Constância F J

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations.

  9. Rethinking the Thinking on Democracy in Education: What Are Educators Thinking (and Doing About Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zyngier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines perspectives and perceptions of democracy of pre- and in-service teachers as well as teacher-education academics in Australia in order to develop a robust and critical democratic education. Using data from an on-line survey the paper presents the quantitative analyses, and the qualitative responses of contrasting understandings of democracy, citizenship and the role of education in the promotion and development of an active and thick democracy the paper critiques the neo-liberal (thin democratic discourse of contemporary Australian academic research that suggests that the Civics and Citizenship Education project only requires some augmentation highlighting issues like sustainability and globalization while ignoring social justice issues. It begins by outlining the concepts of thick and thin democracy, and revisits the state of civics and citizenship education (CCE in Australia. It is argued that while the pre-service teachers in this study may have a more critical and thicker understanding of democracy that is mirrored in the views of their teacher-education professors, the practicing teachers, on the other hand, have largely adopted the mainstream neo-liberal discourse, presenting a tendency to view democracy in a very narrow or thin way that may impact on their classroom practice. The paper concludes with recommendations related to what a thick democracy might actually look like in school education.

  10. Effects of aging on figure-ground perception: Convexity context effects and competition resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Jordan W; Bennett, Patrick J; Peterson, Mary A; Sekuler, Allison B

    2017-02-01

    We examined age-related differences in figure-ground perception by exploring the effect of age on Convexity Context Effects (CCE; Peterson & Salvagio, 2008). Experiment 1, using Peterson and Salvagio's procedure and black and white stimuli consisting of 2 to 8 alternating concave and convex regions, established that older adults exhibited reduced CCEs compared to younger adults. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that this age difference was found at various stimulus durations and sizes. Experiment 4 compared CCEs obtained with achromatic stimuli, in which the alternating convex and concave regions were each all black or all white, and chromatic stimuli in which the concave regions were homogeneous in color but the convex regions varied in color. We found that the difference between CCEs measured with achromatic and colored stimuli was larger in older than in younger adults. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the senescent visual system is less able to resolve the competition among various perceptual interpretations of the figure-ground relations among stimulus regions.

  11. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism and HDL lipid transfers are equally altered in metabolic syndrome and in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vanessa M; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Dallan, Luis A O; Chacra, Ana P M; Maranhão, Raul C

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [(3)H]-triolein ([(3)H]-TAG) and [(14)C]-cholesteryl esters ([(14)C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. 义务教育满意度量表的构建%Establishment of the Satisfaction Scale of Compulsory Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志峰; 王录平

    2012-01-01

    依据义务教育的特点,建立由顾客期望、质量感知、价值感知、顾客满意、消费情感五个维度构成的义务教育满意度量表。其中,质量感知包括环境与设施、师资与管理、教学过程、教学成果、素质教育五个指标。研究结果表明,该量表可用于义务教育满意度的测量,对推动教育质量的提高提供科学依据。%Based on the feature of compulsory education, this paper aims to establish a Customer Satisfaction Index Mode] of Chinese Compulsory Education E CCE - -CSI] composed of five structural variables such as customer expecta- tions, perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, consumer sentiment. Quality perception consists of five indicators, including environment and facilities, faculty and management, teaching process, teaching achievement, and quality education. The research data shows that the scale can be used for the measurement of the satisfaction of compulsory education, which can provide sound scientific evidence for the promotion of education quality.

  13. (-)-Catechin in cocoa and chocolate: occurrence and analysis of an atypical flavan-3-ol enantiomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofink, Michael; Papagiannopoulos, Menelaos; Galensa, Rudolf

    2007-07-04

    Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE) was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol x L(-1) borate buffer (pH 8.5) with 12 mmol x L(-1) (2-hydroxypropyl)-gamma-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 microm I.D.), +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20 degrees C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin in unfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (-)-catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (-)-epicatechin to its epimer (-)-catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products.

  14. Detection of Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria from Surface Waters by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR)%环境水体中肠道病原细菌的定量PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永军; 张崇淼; 王晓昌; 吕英俊; 左丽丽

    2008-01-01

    采用通用引物,通过实时荧光定量PCR方法(QPCR),对西安市5处地表水体中肠道病原细菌的细胞密度进行4个月的连续检测,并将QPCR检测结果与滤膜法测得的大肠菌群CFU值进行比较分析.结果显示, QPCR法可信度为94%,最小检测值为每管未稀释DNA提取物含2.7个大肠杆菌细胞.5个水体(N=60)检测结果表明, QPCR检测结果是大肠菌群CPU的2.2~5倍.病原细菌的几何平均值范围, QPCR法在25~67 000 CCE/100 mL之间, MF法大肠菌群为3~45 000 CFU/100 mL之间.2种方法的离散和回归分析表明, QPCR检测结果与大肠菌群CFU显著正相关,秩相关系数为r=0.983.

  15. Genome-scale modeling of light-driven reductant partitioning and carbon fluxes in diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang T Vu

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When growth is limited by the flux through photosystem I, terminal respiratory oxidases are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess reductant. Similarly, under photosystem II flux limitation, excess electron carriers must be removed via cyclic electron transport. Furthermore, in silico calculations were in good quantitative agreement with the measured growth rates whereas predictions of reaction usage were qualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, which we used to further improve the resolution of intracellular flux values.

  16. Preparation,Electrochemical Behavior and Electrocatalytic Activity of a Copper Hexacyanoferrate Modified Ceramic Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Hao; ZHENG,Jian-Bin

    2007-01-01

    A copper hexacyanoferrate modified ceramic carbon electrode(CuHCF/CCE)had been prepared by two-step sol-gel technique and characterized using electrochemical methods.The resulting modified electrode showed a pair of well-defined surface waves in the potential range of 0.40 to 1.0 V with the formal potential of 0.682 V (vs.SCE)in 0.050 mol·dm-3 HOAc-NaOAc buffer containing 0.30 mol·dm-3 KCI.The charge transfer coefficient (α) and charge transfer rate constant(Ks)for the modified electrode were calculated.The electrocatalytic activity of this modified electrode to hydrazine was also investigated,and chronoamperometry was exploited to conveniently determine the diffusion coefficient(D)of hydrazine in solution and the catalytic rate constant(Kcat).Finally,hydrazine was determined with amperometry using the resulting modified electrode.The calibration plot for hydrazine determination was linear in 3.0×10-6-7.5×10-4 mol·dm-3 with the detection limit of 8.0×10-7 mol·dm-3.This modified electrode had some advantages over the modified film electrodes constructed by the conventional methods,such as renewable surface,good long-term stability,excellent catalytic activity and short response time to hydrazine.

  17. Physical and chemical properties of soils under some wild Pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf) canopies in a semi-arid ecosystem, southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owliaie, Hamidreza

    2010-05-01

    Pistacia atlantica Desf. is one of the most important wild species in Zagros forests which is of high economical and environmental value. Sustainability of these forests primarily depends on soil quality and water availability. Study the relationships between trees and soil is one of the basic factors in management and planning of forests. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the effect of tree species on soil physical and chemical properties in a semi-arid region (Kohgilouye Province) in the southwestern part of Iran. The experimental design was a factorial 4×2 (4 depths and 2 distances) in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Soil samples (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm depth) were taken from beneath the tree crowns and adjacent open areas. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. The results showed that wild pistachio canopy increased mostly organic carbon, hydraulic conductivity, total N, SP, available K+, P (olsen), EC, EDTA extractable Fe2+ and Mn2+, while bulk density, CCE and DTPA extractable Cu2+ were decreased. Pistachio canopy had no significant effect on soil texture, Zn2+ and pH.

  18. Genome-scale modeling of light-driven reductant partitioning and carbon fluxes in diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang T; Stolyar, Sergey M; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Hill, Eric A; Kucek, Leo A; Brown, Roslyn N; Lipton, Mary S; Osterman, Andrei; Fredrickson, Jim K; Konopka, Allan E; Beliaev, Alexander S; Reed, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When growth is limited by the flux through photosystem I, terminal respiratory oxidases are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess reductant. Similarly, under photosystem II flux limitation, excess electron carriers must be removed via cyclic electron transport. Furthermore, in silico calculations were in good quantitative agreement with the measured growth rates whereas predictions of reaction usage were qualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, which we used to further improve the resolution of intracellular flux values.

  19. Evaluation of freestanding GaN as an alpha and neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu

    2013-08-11

    The wide bandgap (3.39) eV and large dislocation energy of the III–V semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN) make this a desirable material for charged particle spectroscopy in high temperature, high radiation environments. While other research groups have established that charged particle detectors can be fabricated from high quality, thin films of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN, this work demonstrates the feasibility of ionizing radiation detectors created from significantly thicker freestanding n-type GaN, grown via hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Detectors were fabricated by depositing Ni/Au pads on n-type GaN, forming a Schottky barrier diode. Capacitance–voltage measurements on the detectors showed an intrinsic carrier concentration in the range of 10{sup −16} cm{sup −3}–10{sup –15} cm{sup −3}, and indicated an inhomogeneous distribution between diodes on the same wafer. The radiation sensitivity of the fabricated detectors was analyzed using alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source. Charge collection efficiency (CCE) calculations from these experiments indicate an efficiency of 100 percent. The detectors were also successfully used to detect neutron induced charged particles using a Li{sub 2}O foil in a neutron beam.

  20. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  1. On the origins of energetic ions in the Earth's dayside magnetosheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuselier, S.A.; Klumpar, D.M.; Shelley, E.G. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Energetic ion events in the Earth's dayside subsolar magnetosheath (0900 - 1300 Local Time) are surveyed using data from the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Charge Composition Explorer (AMPTE/CCE) Hot Plasma Composition Experiment. Ion species carrying the signature of their origin (O{sup +} and energetic He{sup 2+}) are used to distinguish between magnetospheric and solar wind orgins for the energetic ion events. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of energetic (10-17 keV/e) H{sup +} and He{sup 2+} ions observed in the dayside magnetosheath are accelerated from the solar wind population. The energetic He{sup 2+} to H{sup +} density ratio in the magnetosheath is consistent with that predicted from first-order Fermi acceleration of solar wind ions in the turbulent regions upstream and downstream from the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. Although the majority of the energetic ions appear to be of solar wind origin, magnetospheric O{sup +} is also occasionally present in the magnetosheath. The simultaneous occurence of both energetic He{sup 2+} and magnetospheric O{sup +} indicates that, on occasion, both Fermi acceleration of solar wind ions and leakage of magnetospheric ions occurs in the dayside magnetosheath.

  2. High-speed flows of H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ ions at the magnetopause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschmann, G.; Fuselier, S. A.; Klumpar, D. M.

    1989-06-01

    During a crossing of the subsolar magnetopause into the boundary layer the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment on AMPTE/CCE has provided the first observations of high-speed flows of both H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ ions. Furthermore, the flow velocities of the two species showed good agreement. When considered as a single fluid, the ion flow obeys the MHD momentum balance relation for a rotational discontinuity, and thus is consistent with expectations for magnetic reconnection. This balance test does not, however, predict that the flow speeds of H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/ should be equal. Thus our observations provide information not contained in the fluid description. The observed agreement between the flow velocities of different ion species follows if one considers the motion of individual ions across the magnetopause current sheet. Assuming that the motion conserves the particles' pitch-angle, or changes it by an equal amount, as for adiabatic motion, all particles will gain the same amount in speed regardless of mass. The particles gain their energy by sliding along the magnetopause in the direction of the tangential electric field intrinsic to the reconnection process. To preserve equality of speed, the He/sup + +/ ions must move twice the distance of the H/sup +/ ions. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

  3. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath. Final Report, 8 May 1991 - 5 Jun. 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuselter, S.A.; Shelley, E.G.; Klumpar, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    The analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Experiment (AMPTE) Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft are discussed. These combined data sets have and will be used to survey the energetic ion environment in the Earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there. A computer code was developed to analyze and interpret the data sets. The focus of the first year was on the determination of the contribution of leaked magnetospheric protons to the total energetic proton population. Emphasis was placed on intervals when the AMPTE spacecraft was in the plasma depletion layer because it was argued that in this region, only the leaked population contributes to the energetic ion population. Manipulation of the CHEM data and comparison of the CHEM and HPCE data over their common energy range near the magnetopause also contributed directly to a second study of that region.

  4. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10 - 50 keV protons in the Earth's equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. We examine H(+) and He(+) distribution functions from approx. equals 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicular heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90 deg pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He(+) temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He(+) ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He(+) distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He(+) relative to H(+) is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He(+) accounts for the apparent increase in relative He(+) concentration by increasing the proportion of He(+) detected by the ion instrument.

  5. Cost Overruns and Cost Estimation in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Emhjellen, Kjetil; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-10-01

    Recently, a Norwegian government report on the cost overruns of projects in the North Sea was presented (NOU 1999:11). It concluded that there was a 25% increase in development costs from project sanction (POD, Plan for Operation and Development) to last CCE (Capital Cost Estimate) for the 11 oil field projects investigated. Many reasons like unclear project assumptions in early phase, optimistic interpolation of previous project assumptions, too optimistic estimates, and underestimation of uncertainty were given as reasons for overruns. In this article we highlight the possibility that the cost overruns are not necessarily all due to the reasons given, but also to an error in the estimation and reporting of the capital expenditure cost (CAPEX). Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. The oil companies report, and are required to do so by government authorities, the estimated 50/50 (median) cost estimate instead of the estimated expected value cost estimate. We demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX estimate for the 11 projects when the cost uncertainty distributions are asymmetric, may explain at least part of the ''overruns''. Hence, we advocate changing the practice of using 50/50 cost estimates instead of expected value cost estimates for project management and decision purposes. (author)

  6. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale--A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39 MJ m(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87 wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar.

  7. Origin of the pre-peak in the structure factor of liquid Fe-4.30C-0.21Ce alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The liquid structure of Fe-4.30C and Fe-4.30C-0.21Ce alloys was studied by high temperature X-ray diffractometer. Theresults show that for Fe-C alloy the nearest neighbor distance of the eutectic alloy is 0.259-0.260 nm at the temperature range of1200-1400℃, which increases to 0.269-0.271 nm with the addition of 0.21% (mass fraction) Ce in the Fe-C alloy at the same tem-perature range. There is a pre-peak at Q = 15.5 nm-1 on the original intensity curve and structure factor S(Q) of the liquid Fe-4.30C-0.21Ce alloy, which was caused by the Ce atoms in the C-Ce clusters. Combined with the shared face, the tetragonal structure canmeet the requirement for the distance of Ce-Ce atoms. It also shows that the cluster size in the liquid Fe-4.30C-0.21Ce alloy in-creases with the decreasing temperature.

  8. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  9. 2 pi-Steradian, Energetic-Ion Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Because energetic particles populate both planetary magnetospheres and interplanetary space in significant quantities, energetic-ion sensors have been flown since the beginning of the space age. Early sensors were solid-state detector (SSD) telescopes, with conical fields of view, often swept through a circle by virtue of the spin motion of the spacecraft (e.g., IMP 7 and 8, ISEE 1 and 2). In the 1980s and 1990s, foil/microchannel plate (MCP) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements were added to the energy measurement provided by the SSD (eg, AMPTE/CCE MEPA, Geotail EPIC/ICS, Galileo EPD). The resulting energy and velocity uniquely identified ion mass. More recently, we have developed a 2-D fan acceptance angle sensor that includes both energy and TOF. When mounted on a spinning spacecraft, this 160^\\circ x 12^\\circ FOV sweeps out nearly 4\\pi steradians in one spin. This sensor, dubbed the "hockey puck" for its shape, is currently in flight on MESSENGER (EPS) and New Horizons Pluto (PEPPSI).Increasingly, energetic-...

  10. Can Network Linkage Effects Determine Return? Evidence from Chinese Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Haishu; Xia, Yue; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study used the dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) method to identify the linkage effects of Chinese stock market, and further detected the influence of network linkage effects on magnitude of security returns across different industries. Applying two physics-derived techniques, the minimum spanning tree and the hierarchical tree, we analyzed the stock interdependence within the network of the China Securities Index (CSI) industry index basket. We observed that that obvious linkage effects existed among stock networks. CII and CCE, CAG and ITH as well as COU, CHA and REI were confirmed as the core nodes in the three different networks respectively. We also investigated the stability of linkage effects by estimating the mean correlations and mean distances, as well as the normalized tree length of these indices. In addition, using the GMM model approach, we found inter-node influence within the stock network had a pronounced effect on stock returns. Our results generally suggested that there appeared to be greater clustering effect among the indexes belonging to related industrial sectors than those of diverse sectors, and network comovement was significantly affected by impactive financial events in the reality. Besides, stocks that were more central within the network of stock market usually had higher returns for compensation because they endured greater exposure to correlation risk.

  11. Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

    This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

  12. Antibodies against ribosomal protein S29 (RPS29) fused with glutathione's transferase specially react with native RPS29 in mouse and human cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jia; Zhang Junlei; Han Junfeng; Li Dongying; Jian Rui; Rao XianCai; Chen Wei; Wang Jiali; Xu Xiaofeng; Hu Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The ribosomal protein S29 also known as RPS29,is not only a component of the 40S subunit of ribosome,but also involved in embryonic development,oncogenesis and other pathologic conditions. However,rare commercial antibody against RPS29 restricts the discovery of precise physiological and pathological function of this protein. In this study,the whole RPS29 gene was inserted into plasmid pGEX-6p-1 to express glutathione's transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21. High yields of soluble recombinant proteins were obtained. Mice were immunized with the recombinant RPS29 protein. The serum from the immunized mice could specially react with purified recombinant RPS29 proteins and native RPS29 proteins in CCE cells by western blotting,immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometric analysis. Further more the polyclonal antibodies also reacted specifically with human cell strain ECV304,which showed typical cytoplasmatic fluorescence. The polyclonal antibodies we prepared would be an available tool for studying the roles of RPS29 in embryonic development and human diseases.

  13. (--Catechin in Cocoa and Chocolate: Occurence and Analysis of an Atypical Flavan-3-ol Enantiomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Galensa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa contains high levels of different flavonoids. In the present study, the enantioseparation of catechin and epicatechin in cocoa and cocoa products by chiral capillary electrophoresis (CCE was performed. A baseline separation of the catechin and epicatechin enantiomers was achieved by using 0.1 mol·L−1 borate buffer (pH 8.5 with 12 mmol·L-1 (2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, a fused-silica capillary with 50 cm effective length (75 μm I.D., +18 kV applied voltage, a temperature of 20°C and direct UV detection at 280 nm. To avoid comigration or coelution of other similar substances, the flavan-3-ols were isolated and purified using polyamide-solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS analysis. As expected, we found (--epicatechin and (+-catechin inunfermented, dried, unroasted cocoa beans. In contrast, roasted cocoa beans and cocoa products additionally contained the atypical flavan-3-ol (--catechin. This is generally formed during the manufacturing process by an epimerization which converts (--epicatechin to its epimer (--catechin. High temperatures during the cocoa bean roasting process and particularly the alkalization of the cocoa powder are the main factors inducing the epimerization reaction. In addition to the analysis of cocoa and cocoa products, peak ratios were calculated for a better differentiation of the cocoa products.

  14. A study on zinc distribution in calcareous soils for cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) and barely ( Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Maleki, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Compared to other cereals, such as wheat and barley cultivars which have low sensitivity to Zn deficiency, cowpea is sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency, however it extensively grows even in soils with deficient in Zn. A 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea and barely to Zn in calcareous soils with different DTPA- Zn. The soil samples were taken from soil surface up to 0.3 m in which their DTPA- Zn ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 mg kg-1. Shoot dry matter, concentration and uptake of Zn were found to be significantly correlated with soil DTPA- Zn in cowpea and barely. Critical deficiency level of Zn in cowpea was 1.3 mg kg-1 in soil and 28.5 mg kg-1 in shoot dry matter, however, to barely symptoms of Zn deficiency was not observed and concentration of Zn was higher than the critical level reported in literatures. Organic carbon (OC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), pH and field capacity soil moisture content(FC) were significantly correlated with plant responses to Zn which were the most influenced characteristics to Zn uptake by plants.

  15. Quantifying the effect of Tmax extreme events on local adaptation to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldon, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Lizaso, Jon; Dosio, Alessandro; Sanchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE - JPI) of EU and is financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Gabaldón C, Lorite IJ, Mínguez MI, Dosio A, Sánchez-Sánchez E and Ruiz-Ramos M, 2013. Evaluation of local adaptation strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century. Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 15, EGU2013-13625, 2013. EGU General Assembly 2013, April 2013, Vienna, Austria. Jones C.A. and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. Ruiz-Ramos M., E. Sanchez, C. Galllardo, and M.I. Minguez. 2011. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11: 3275-3291. Teixeira EI, Fischer G, van Velthuizen H, Walter C, Ewert F. Global hotspots of heat stress on agricultural crops due to climate change. Agric For Meteorol. 2013;170(15):206-215.

  16. A statistical study of plasmawaves and energetic particles in the outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyungguk

    The Earth magnetosphere contains energetic particles undergoing specific motions around Earth's magnetic field, and interacting with a variety of waves. The dynamics of energetic particles are often described in terms of three kinds of adiabatic invariants. Energetic electrons are often unstable to the whistler-mode chorus waves, and ions, to the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability. These waves play an important role in the dynamics of the magnetosphere by energizing electrons to form a radiation belt, extracting energy from the hot, anisotropic ions and causing pitch angle scattering of energetic ions and relativistic electrons into the loss cone. EMIC waves correspond to the highest frequency waves in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) spectral regime, and field line resonances at the lower frequency may serve as diagnostics for the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere. This dissertation investigates (1) a rapid, efficient way of specifying particle's adiabatic motion in the magnetosphere, (2) source of the whistler-mode chorus waves, (3) physical properties and coherent spatial dimensions of the EMIC waves and (4) a diagnostic use of the toroidal mode Alfven waves on the plasma density distribution in the Earth magnetosphere. The studies presented in this dissertation have significantly been benefited from the comprehensive data obtained by several space missions, including the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft, Cluster mission, the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellites (GOES), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) satellites, the Polar spacecraft and the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE), and from ground-based Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGO). The main findings and achievements in this dissertation are as follows: (1) A method of rapidly and efficiently computing the magnetic drift invariant (L*) was developed. This new

  17. Biomassa e atividade microbiana em solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo na região fisiográfica Campos das Vertentes - MG Soil biomass and microbial activity under different management systems in the physiographic region Campos das Vertentes - Minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Ribeiro da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A biomassa e a atividade microbiana têm sido apontadas como indicadores adequados de alterações provocadas por diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na biomassa e na atividade microbiana de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo ácrico típico, sob Cerrado nativo e diferentes sistemas de manejo, na região fisiográfica Campos das Vertentes, Minas Gerais. Os sistemas avaliados foram: cultivo convencional com batata (CCB; cultivo com batata, sucedido por aveia e rotação com milho (CBAM; cultivo convencional com milho (CCM; plantio direto com milho (PDM; cultivo convencional com eucalipto (CCE; e o Cerrado nativo (CN como referência. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, analisados o C microbiano (Cmic e a respiração basal e calculados o quociente metabólico (qCO2 e a relação Cmic/C orgânico. A biomassa e a atividade microbiana foram influenciadas pelos diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, e as condições mais satisfatórias para a microbiota do solo ocorreram no Cerrado nativo. O manejo mais intensivo do solo e o uso frequente de agrotóxicos, característicos dos sistemas CCB e CBAM, determinaram redução nos teores de Cmic, menores valores da relação Cmic/C orgânico e maiores valores de qCO2, indicando uma provável condição de estresse para a biomassa microbiana.Biomass and microbial activity have been suggested as appropriate indicators of changes caused by different land use and management systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in biomass and microbial activity of a typic acric Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol, under native Cerrado and different management systems, in the physiographic region Campos das Vertentes, state of Minas Gerais. The evaluated systems were: conventional tillage with potato (CCB; potato followed by oat in rotation with corn (CBAM; conventional tillage with corn (CCM; no-till with corn

  18. The Climate Change Education Evidence Base: Lessons Learned from NOAA's Monitoring and Evaluation Framework Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J.

    2012-12-01

    Federal science mission agencies are under increased pressure to ensure that their STEM education investments accomplish several objectives, including the identification and use of evidence-based approaches. Climate change education and climate literacy programs fall under these broader STEM initiatives. This paper is designed as a primer for climate change education evaluators and researchers to understand the policy context on the use of evidence. Recent initiatives, that include the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), point to a need for shared goals and measurements amongst the climate change education community. The Tri-agency Climate Change Education (CCE) collaboration, which includes NSF, NASA, and NOAA, developed the Tri-Agency Climate Change Education Common Evaluation Framework Initiative Stakeholder Statement (2012). An excerpt: From the perspective of the tri-agency collaboration, and its individual agency members, the goal of the common framework is not to build a required evaluation scheme or a set of new requirements for our funded climate change education initiatives. Rather, the collaboration would be strengthened by the development of a framework that includes tools, instruments, and/or documentation to: ● Help the agencies see and articulate the relationships between the individual pieces of the tri-agency CCE portfolio; ● Guide the agencies in reporting on the progress, lessons learned, and impacts of the collaboration between the three agencies in developing a coordinated portfolio of climate education initiatives; and ● Help the individual projects, as part of this broader portfolio, understand where they fit into a larger picture. The accomplishments of this initiative to date have been based on the collaborative nature of evaluators the climate change education community within the tri-agency portfolio. While this

  19. Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianlan; Zhang, Guowei; Shi, Ling; Pan, Shanqing; Liu, Wei; Pan, Hiabo

    2016-08-01

    The formation of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene uses hydrothermal method with urea as reducing agent and nitrogen source. The surface elemental composition of the catalyst was analyzed through XPS, which showed a high content of a total N species (7.12at.%), indicative of the effective N-doping, present in the form of pyridinic N, pyrrolic N and graphitic N groups. Moreover, Au nanoparticles deposited on ZnO nanocrystals surface, forming Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts, undergo a super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic conversion. Herein, we present Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene sheets through sonication technique of the Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructures. The as-prepared Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructure modified glassy carbon electrode (Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE) was first employed for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AC). The oxidation over-potentials of AA, DA and AC decreased dramatically, and their oxidation peak currents increased significantly at Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE compared to those obtained at the N-doped graphene/GCE and bare CCE. The peak separations between AA and DA, DA and AC, and AC and AA are large up to 195, 198 and 393mV, respectively. The calibration curves for AA, DA and AC were obtained in the range of 30.00-13.00×10(3), 2.00-0.18×10(3) and 5.00-3.10×10(3)μM, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were 5.00, 0.40 and 0.80μM for AA, DA and AC, respectively.

  20. Those are your legs: The effect of visuo-spatial viewpoint on visuo-tactile integration and body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona ePozeg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing a body part as one’s own, i.e. body ownership, depends on the integration of multisensory bodily signals (including visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information with the visual top-down signals from peripersonal space. Although it has been shown that the visuo-spatial viewpoint from where the body is seen is an important visual top-down factor for body ownership, different studies have reported diverging results. Furthermore, the role of visuo-spatial viewpoint (sometime also called first-person perspective has only been studied for hands or the whole body, but not for the lower limbs. We thus investigated whether and how leg visuo-tactile integration and leg ownership depended on the visuo-spatial viewpoint from which the legs were seen and the anatomical similarity of the visual leg stimuli. Using a virtual leg illusion, we tested the strength of visuo-tactile integration of leg stimuli using the cross-modal congruency effect (CCE as well as the subjective sense of leg ownership (assessed by a questionnaire. Fifteen participants viewed virtual legs or non-corporeal control objects, presented either from their habitual first-person viewpoint or from a viewpoint that was rotated by 90° (third-person viewpoint, while applying visuo-tactile stroking between the participants legs and the virtual legs shown on a head-mounted display. The data show that the first-person visuo-spatial viewpoint significantly boosts the visuo-tactile integration as well as the sense of leg ownership. Moreover, the viewpoint-dependent increment of the visuo-tactile integration was only found in the conditions when participants viewed the virtual legs (absent for control objects. These results confirm the importance of first person visuo-spatial viewpoint for the integration of visuo-tactile stimuli and extend findings from the upper extremity and the trunk to visuo-tactile integration and ownership for the legs.

  1. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  2. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  3. Capacidad de carga turÍstica como base para el manejo sustentable de actividades ecoturísticas en Unidades de Manejo Ambiental (UMA de Baja California Sur (BCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Ibañez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen zonas ejidales con UMA ́s, que desean incursionar en el turismo alternativo; tal es el caso del Nuevo Centro Poblacional Ejidal (NCPE, Ley Federal de Aguas Número 3, que se extiende a tres municipios de Baja California Sur (BCS, posee una UMA y se destaca por buscar opciones para reactivar su economía. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio de Capacidad de Carga Turística (CCT, realizada en dos senderos de ese ejido, mediante la aplicación de la metodología de Cifuentes, que busca establecer el número máximo de visitas que puede recibir un área con base en sus condiciones físicas, biológicas y de manejo; cuya estimación, requirió de la revisión de censos de flora y fauna, de información geológica, climatológica, geográfica, ambiental, social, económica, turística, así como trabajo de campo. Los resultados indican que, en el NCPE, Ley Federal de Aguas Número 3, existen dos senderos con potencialidad turística para los cuales, se ha estimado una Capacidad de Carga Efectiva (CCE de 18 visitantes/día para el sendero del arroyo El Camarón y de 10 visitantes/día sendero del arroyo El Saucito. Las cifras anteriores, son un referente para el establecimiento de medidas de control de las visitas en ambos senderos

  4. Gallium Nitride Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Min, E-mail: mlu2006@sinano.ac.c [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Zhang Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Fu Kai; Yu Guohao [Su zhou Institute of Nano-technology and Nano-bionics, CAS, Su zhou 215125 (China); Su Dan; Hu Jifeng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Gallium Nitride nuclear batteries with Ni-63 are demonstrated for the first time. {yields} Open circuit voltage of 0.1 V and conversion efficiency of 0.32% have been obtained. {yields} The limited performance is due to thin effective energy deposition layer. {yields} The output power is expected to greatly increase with growing thick GaN films. -- Abstract: Gallium Nitride (GaN) Schottky betavoltaic nuclear batteries (GNBB) are demonstrated in our work for the first time. GaN films are grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and then GaN Schottky diodes are fabricated by normal micro-fabrication process. Nickel with mass number of 63 ({sup 63}Ni), which emits {beta} particles, is loaded on the GaN Schottky diodes to achieve GNBB. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) are carried out to investigate the crystal quality for the GaN films as grown. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics shows that the GaN Schottky diodes are not jet broken down at -200 V due to consummate fabrication processes, and the open circuit voltage of the GNBB is 0.1 V and the short circuit current density is 1.2 nA cm{sup -2}. The limited performance of the GNBB is due to thin effective energy deposition layer, which is only 206 nm to absorb very small partial energy of the {beta} particles because of the relatively high dislocation density and carrier concentration. However, the conversion efficiency of 0.32% and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 29% for the GNBB have been obtained. Therefore, the output power of the GNBB are expected to greatly increase with growing high quality thick GaN films.

  5. Detection of Catechol by TiO2-graphene-modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%TiO2-石墨烯修饰玻碳电极测定邻苯二酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小琴; 王兰; 张丽媛

    2011-01-01

    制备了Ti02 -石墨烯修饰玻碳电极,利用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了邻苯二酚在该修饰电极的电化学行为.结果表明:在pH值为6.0的磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)中,该修饰电校对邻苯二酚具有良好的电催化作用.邻苯二酚氧化峰电流与其浓度(1.0×10-6~ 1.0×10-5 mol/L)呈现良好的线性关系,线性相关系数为0.993,检出限为1×10-7 mol/L.该电极显著提高了检测的灵敏度,并表现出良好的选择性和重现性.%novel TiO2-graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2-Gr/GCE) was fabricated. The electrochemical behaviors of catechol at the modified electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry ( CV) and differential pulse voltammetry ( DPV). In pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution ( PBS) , the composite film showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the redox of catechol. The results of DPV indicated that the oxidation peak currents was linear with catechol concentrations in the range of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L to 1. 0 × 10 -5 mol/L. The detection limit of catechol is 1.0 × 10 -7 mol/L (S/iV = 3). This modified CCE showed good sensitivity and selectivity and reproducibility.

  6. Deltamethrin Resistance Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti Populations from Three French Overseas Territories Worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dusfour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolite mosquito, vector of arboviruses. The worldwide studies of its insecticide resistance have demonstrated a strong loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids, the major class of insecticide used for vector control. French overseas territories such as French Guiana (South America, Guadeloupe islands (Lesser Antilles as well as New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean, have encountered such resistance.We initiated a research program on the pyrethroid resistance in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Aedes aegypti populations were tested for their deltamethrin resistance level then screened by an improved microarray developed to specifically study metabolic resistance mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 genes were implicated in conferring resistance. CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, CYP6N12, CYP9J9, CYP9J10 and CCE3 genes were upregulated in the resistant populations and were common to other populations at a regional scale. The implication of these genes in resistance phenomenon is therefore strongly suggested. Other genes from detoxification pathways were also differentially regulated. Screening for target site mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene demonstrated the presence of I1016 and C1534.This study highlighted the presence of a common set of differentially up-regulated detoxifying genes, mainly cytochrome P450 genes in all three populations. GUA and GUY populations shared a higher number of those genes compared to CAL. Two kdr mutations well known to be associated to pyrethroid resistance were also detected in those two populations but not in CAL. Different selective pressures and genetic backgrounds can explain such differences. These results are also compared with those obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed in the context of integrative research on vector competence.

  7. Enhancement of the analytical properties and catalytic activity of a nickel hexacyanoferrate modified carbon ceramic electrode prepared by two-step sol-gel technique: application to amperometric detection of hydrazine and hydroxyl amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Abdi, Kamaleddin

    2004-05-28

    The electroless sol-gel technique was used for the construction of nickel hexacyanoferrat (NiHCF) modified carbon composite electrodes (CCEs).This involves two steps: formation of a carbon ceramic electrode fabricated by nickel powder and then immersing the electrode into a sodium- hexacyanoferate solution for the immobilization of NiHCF films. The cyclic voltammety of the resulting modified CCEs prepared under optimum conditions, shows a well defined surface redox couple due to the [Ni(II)Fe(III/II)(CN)(6)](-2/-1) system. The effect of different alkali metal cations in supporting electrolyte on the behavior of the modified electrode were studied. The charge transfer coefficient (alpha) and charge transfer rate constant (k(s)) for modified films were calculated. Hydrazine and hydroxylamine have been chosen as a model to elucidate the electocatalytic ability and analytical parameters of NiHCF modified CCE prepared by one and two-step sol-gel techniques and these compounds determined amperometically at the surface of modified electrodes. The latter shows a good electocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine in the pH range 3-8 in comparison with CCEs modified by homogeneous mixture of graphite powder, Ni(NO(3))(2) and Na(2)[Fe(CN)(6)], (one-step sol-gel technique). Furthermore, the catalytic rate constant, linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and sensitivity for hydrazine and hydroxylamine detections were evaluated and compared with CCEs prepared with one-step sol-gel method. The modified CCEs containing NiHCF shows good repeatability, short response time, t 90%<3s, long term stability (3 months) and excellent catalytic activity. Furthermore, the method of preparation is rapid and simple and the modified electrodes are renewed by simple mechanical polishing and immersing in [Na(3)Fe(CN](6)] solution.

  8. In-situ transmission electron microscopy study of oxygen vacancy ordering and dislocation annihilation in undoped and Sm-doped CeO2 ceramics during redox processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Chen, Yu; Pradel, Ken C.; Liu, Meilin; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Ceria (CeO2) based ceramics have been widely used for many applications due to their unique ionic, electronic, and catalytic properties. Here, we report our findings in investigating into the redox processes of undoped and Sm-doped CeO2 ceramics stimulated by high-energy electron beam irradiation within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The reduced structure with oxygen vacancy ordering has been identified as the CeO1.68 (C-Ce2O3+δ) phase via high-resolution TEM. The reduction of Ce4+ to Ce3+ has been monitored by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The decreased electronic conductivity of the Sm-doped CeO2 (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) is revealed by electron holography, as positive electrostatic charges accumulated at the surfaces of SDC grains under electron beam irradiation, but not at CeO2 grains. The formation of the reduced CeO1.68 domains corresponds to lattice expansion compared to the CeO2 matrix. Therefore, the growth of CeO1.68 nuclei builds up strain inside the matrix, causing annihilation of dislocations inside the grains. By using in-situ high-resolution TEM and a fast OneView camera recording system, we investigated dislocation motion inside both CeO2 and SDC grains under electron beam irradiation. The dislocations prefer to dissociate into Shockley partials bounded by stacking faults. Then, the partials can easily glide in the {111} planes to reach the grain surfaces. Even the Lomer-Cottrell lock can be swept away by the phase change induced strain field. Our results revealed the high mobility of dislocations inside CeO2 and SDC grains during their respective redox processes.

  9. De novo assembly, gene annotation, and marker discovery in stored-product pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein using transcriptome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a major stored-product pest insect, Liposcelis entomophila has developed high levels of resistance to various insecticides in grain storage systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and environmental stress have not been characterized. To date, there is a lack of genomic information for this species. Therefore, studies aimed at profiling the L. entomophila transcriptome would provide a better understanding of the biological functions at the molecular levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied Illumina sequencing technology to sequence the transcriptome of L. entomophila. A total of 54,406,328 clean reads were obtained and that de novo assembled into 54,220 unigenes, with an average length of 571 bp. Through a similarity search, 33,404 (61.61% unigenes were matched to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant (Nr protein database. These unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene ontology (GO, cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. A large number of genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance were manually curated, including 68 putative cytochrome P450 genes, 37 putative glutathione S-transferase (GST genes, 19 putative carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE genes, and other 126 transcripts to contain target site sequences or encoding detoxification genes representing eight types of resistance enzymes. Furthermore, to gain insight into the molecular basis of the L. entomophila toward thermal stresses, 25 heat shock protein (Hsp genes were identified. In addition, 1,100 SSRs and 57,757 SNPs were detected and 231 pairs of SSR primes were designed for investigating the genetic diversity in future. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a comprehensive transcriptomic database for L. entomophila. These sequences and putative molecular markers would further promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying

  10. Development of beam halo monitors for the European XFEL using radiation hard sensors and demonstration of the technology at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatenko, Alexandr

    2015-05-15

    The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (E-XFEL), currently under construction in Hamburg, Germany, is intended to be an international linear accelerator (linac) based user facility. Its electron beam can carry maximal average power of 600 kW. A beam with such a high power needs to be carefully transmitted through the machine and safely dumped after utilization. This is supported by various diagnostics tools. A Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) based on synthetic diamond and sapphire sensors has been designed. Diamond sensors are developed by the company element6 for the detection of ionizing radiation and used previously elsewhere. Sapphire sensors are in this thesis applied for the first time. The BHM concept has been applied already at the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). A module with four diamond and four sapphire sensors was designed, installed inside the beam pipe, commissioned, calibrated and has been successfully operated for 4 years. The system contributed significantly to safe and efficient operation of FLASH. Both types of the sensors for the BHM were characterized. Measurements of radiation tolerance are done in a 10 MeV electron beam for polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond sensors for the first time up to a dose of 10 MGy and for sapphire sensors up to 5 MGy. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) drops as a function of the absorbed dose, is however still sufficient for application as a BHM. To improve a main sensor characteristic, the charge collection efficiency, for sapphire sensors the impurity concentration was reduced and different growth techniques were compared. Finally, charge collection efficiency of about 5 % for a bias voltage of 500 V was reached. The BHM concept for the XFEL is designed and in the construction phase.

  11. Factores psicosociales, cognitivos y de personalidad asociados a la adherencia al tratamiento en comunidades terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández Serrano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes investigaciones han relacionado la adherencia al tratamiento con el éxito y no éxito en la terapia, junto con características tales como el tiempo de permanencia, la motivación previa y estilos de afrontamiento más eficaces. Este estudio identificó factores psicosociales, cognitivos y de personalidad asociados a la adherencia al tratamiento en comunidades terapéuticas en Colombia. Muestra: 443 participantes (373 hombres y 70 mujeres, edad media de 18 años (D.E. 5.9; rango 11-50 años. Instrumentos: Escala de adherencia CMRS, Escala de acontecimientos vitales, Cuestionario de esquema YSQ, Cuestionario de creencias de trastornos de la personalidad CCE-TP, Escala de estrategias de afrontamiento EEC-M, Cuadro Toxicológico. Procedimiento: para el análisis estadístico se dividió el grupo en dos: alta adherencia y menor adherencia. Resultados: alta asociación de adherencia y tiempo de permanencia. La función discriminante predictora para alta adherencia estuvo compuesta por las siguientes variables: estrategia de búsqueda de apoyo profesional, personalidad obsesivo-compulsiva, reevaluación positiva, la edad, vulnerabilidad al daño y la enfermedad, solución de problemas y de manera negativa la autonomía.El porcentaje de pronóstico de la función discriminante fue del 67,72%.

  12. Silicon microstrip detectors in 3D technology for the sLHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-08-01

    The projected luminosity upgrade of the large hadron collider (LHC), the sLHC, will constitute a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors. Massive improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. In the layout for the new ATLAS tracker, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSDs will be exposed to fluences up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, hence radiation resistance is the major concern. It is advantageous to fuse the superior radiation hardness of the 3D design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the well-known planar technology for strip detectors. This is achieved by ganging rows of 3D columns together to form strips. Several prototype sLHC detector modules using 3D SSD with short strips, processed on p-type silicon, and LHC-speed front-end electronics from the present ATLAS semi-conductor tracker (SCT) were built. The modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency (CCE), a Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particles (MIPs), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the performance of these 3D modules, and draws conclusions about options for using 3D strip sensors as tracking detectors at the sLHC.

  13. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrysargyris, Antonios; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  14. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  15. Cyclic mechanical strain maintains Nanog expression through PI3K/Akt signaling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Rie [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Akimoto, Takayuki, E-mail: akimoto@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Hong, Zhang [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Ushida, Takashi [Division of Regenerative Medical Engineering, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Mechanical strain has been reported to affect the proliferation/differentiation of many cell types; however, the effects of mechanotransduction on self-renewal as well as pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. To investigate the effects of mechanical strain on mouse ES cell fate, we examined the expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency as well as Nanog-associated intracellular signaling during uniaxial cyclic mechanical strain. The mouse ES cell line, CCE was plated onto elastic membranes, and we applied 10% strain at 0.17 Hz. The expression of Nanog was reduced during ES cell differentiation in response to the withdrawal of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF); however, two days of cyclic mechanical strain attenuated this reduction of Nanog expression. On the other hand, the cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling, which is reported as an upstream of Nanog transcription. The cyclic mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Furthermore, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, also inhibited the mechanical strain-induced increase in phospho-Akt. These findings imply that mechanical force plays a role in regulating Nanog expression in ES cells through the actin cytoskeleton-PI3K-Akt signaling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of Nanog, which is an essential regulator of 'stemness' was reduced during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain attenuated the reduction of Nanog expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclic mechanical strain promoted PI3K-Akt signaling and mechanical strain-induced Akt phosphorylation was blunted by the PI3K inhibitor and an inhibitor of actin polymerization.

  16. Response of thermal ions to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States); Fuselier, S.A. [Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves generated by 10-50 keV protons in the Earth`s equatorial magnetosphere will interact with the ambient low-energy ions also found in this region. The authors examine H{sup +} and He{sup +} distribution functions from {approx} 1 to 160 eV using the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment instrument on AMPTE/CCE to investigate the thermal ion response to the waves. A total of 48 intervals were chosen on the basis of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave activity: 24 with prevalent EMIC waves and 24 with no EMIC waves observed on the orbit. There is a close correlation between EMIC waves and perpendicularly heated ion distributions. For protons the perpendicular temperature increase is modest, about 5 eV, and is always observed at 90{degrees} pitch angles. This is consistent with a nonresonant interaction near the equator. By contrast, He{sup +} temperatures during EMIC wave events averaged 35 eV and sometimes exceeded 100 eV, indicating stronger interaction with the waves. Furthermore, heated He{sup +} ions have X-type distributions with maximum fluxes occurring at pitch angles intermediate between field-aligned and perpendicular directions. The X-type He{sup +} distributions are consistent with a gyroresonant interaction off the equator. The concentration of He{sup +} relative to H{sup +} is found to correlate with EMIC wave activity, but it is suggested that the preferential heating of He{sup +} accounts for the apparent increase in relative He{sup +} concentration by increasing the proportion of He{sup +} detected by the ion instrument. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles; Recherche et developpement de capteurs actifs monolithiques CMOS pour la detection de particules elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    2007-09-15

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a {sup 55}Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 {mu}m x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 {mu}W) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 {mu}m OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  18. Impact of irradiations by protons with different energies on silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubueser, Coralie

    2013-06-15

    In the frame of the CMS tracker upgrade campaign the radiation damage of oxygenrich n-type silicon pad diodes induced by 23 MeV and 23 GeV protons was investigated. The diodes were manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics. After irradiation with 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences between 1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and 1.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}, the sensors were electrically characterized by means of capacitance-voltage (CV) and current-voltage (IV) measurements. Current pulses recorded by the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements show a dependence of the bulk damage on the proton energy. At a fluence of {Phi}{sub eq}{approx}3 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} oxygen-rich n-type diodes demonstrate clear Space Charge Sign Inversion (SCSI) after 23 MeV proton irradiation. This effect does not appear after the irradiation with 23 GeV protons. Moreover, RD50 pad diodes were irradiated with 23 MeV protons, electrically characterized and compared to results obtained after 23 GeV irradiations. Our previous observation on the energy dependence of the radiation damage could be confirmed. In order to get a deeper understanding of the differences of the radiation induced defects, the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) and Thermally Stimulated Current Technique (TSC) were utilized. Defects with impact on the space charge could be identified and characterized and it was possible to find some hints for the reason of the SCSI after 23 MeV proton irradiation. Moreover, a dependence on the oxygen concentration of the sensors could be observed.

  19. Program Development Tools and Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M

    2012-03-12

    Exascale class machines will exhibit a new level of complexity: they will feature an unprecedented number of cores and threads, will most likely be heterogeneous and deeply hierarchical, and offer a range of new hardware techniques (such as speculative threading, transactional memory, programmable prefetching, and programmable accelerators), which all have to be utilized for an application to realize the full potential of the machine. Additionally, users will be faced with less memory per core, fixed total power budgets, and sharply reduced MTBFs. At the same time, it is expected that the complexity of applications will rise sharply for exascale systems, both to implement new science possible at exascale and to exploit the new hardware features necessary to achieve exascale performance. This is particularly true for many of the NNSA codes, which are large and often highly complex integrated simulation codes that push the limits of everything in the system including language features. To overcome these limitations and to enable users to reach exascale performance, users will expect a new generation of tools that address the bottlenecks of exascale machines, that work seamlessly with the (set of) programming models on the target machines, that scale with the machine, that provide automatic analysis capabilities, and that are flexible and modular enough to overcome the complexities and changing demands of the exascale architectures. Further, any tool must be robust enough to handle the complexity of large integrated codes while keeping the user's learning curve low. With the ASC program, in particular the CSSE (Computational Systems and Software Engineering) and CCE (Common Compute Environment) projects, we are working towards a new generation of tools that fulfill these requirements and that provide our users as well as the larger HPC community with the necessary tools, techniques, and methodologies required to make exascale performance a reality.

  20. Multiscale Joint Symbolic Transfer Entropy for Quantification of Causal Interactions Between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability Under Postural Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Saini, B. S.; Singh, D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, joint symbolic transfer entropy (JSTE) is explored to quantify causal interactions between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and RR intervals (peak-to-peak distance between consecutive R-peaks) at multiple time scales. SBP→RR coupling (Cs-r) and RR→SBP coupling (Cr-s) coupling is analyzed at multiple time scales and delays. The ability of the approach based on JSTE to detect SBP-RR causal coupling is tested on 42 healthy subjects in supine and upright position along with 21 subjects of EUROBAVAR dataset. In addition, lack of causal coupling from SBP to RR was assessed on 20 post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Results demonstrate that (i) standard deviation (SD) of RR interval series and SBP series decreases with time scale τ = 1 to 10 for all types of subjects. (ii) SD in supine is more than that of upright position at each time scale irrespective of types of subjects. (iii) JSTE decreases with time delay for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for baroflex sensitivity BRS failure patients. (iv) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position irrespective of time delay. (v) JSTE decreases with time scale for healthy and AMI patients but does not follow decreasing trend for BRS failure patients. (vi) JSTE in supine position is more than that of upright position only at finer scales. (vii) Enhanced feed-forward (FF) coupling and suppressed feedback (FB) coupling found at supine position within low frequency band (0.04-0.15 Hz) as well as high frequency band (0.151-0.4 Hz) indicated prevalence on non-baroreflex mechanisms. (viii) FB coupling recovered in the upright position which was stronger than FF coupling. Upon comparison with cross conditional entropy (CCE), it is found that JSTE provides more significant differences between supine and upright position.

  1. 基于可计算一般均衡模型的农业政策模拟研究%Agricultural Policy Simulation Based on Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To examine the simulated effect of Computable General Equilibrium (CCE) based agricultural policy simulation system. [ Method] The policy simulation platform based on CGE model was constructed by integrating policy simulation, CGE model and Decision Supporting System {DS5). The scenario analysis method was used to analyze the agricultural subsidies policy simulation with examples in the prototype of the designed policy simulation platform. [ Result] The main beneficiaries of increasing agricultural production subsidies are farmers, increasing farmers' income and improving the export of agriculture products. The prototype system van solve the problems in actual policy simulation. [Conclusion] The results laid the foundation for the quantitative study on agricultural subsidy policy in China.%[目的]针对定量研究国内农业补贴政策的需要,探讨基于可计算一般均衡模型(Computable General Equilibrium,CGE)的农业政策模拟系统模拟效果.[方法]将政策模拟、CGE模型以及DSS决策系统进行集成研究,构造一个基于CGE模型的政策模拟系统平台,并在所设计的模拟平台原型中,通过情景分析方法对农业补贴政策模拟进行实证分析.[结果]农业生产补贴的上调主要收益者是农民,增加了农民收入,提高了农业产品的出口;模拟系统在一定程度上能够解决实际政策模拟问题.[结论]该研究结果为国内农业补贴政策的定量研究奠定了基础.

  2. SU-E-J-163: A Biomechanical Lung Model for Respiratory Motion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Belcher, AH; Grelewicz, Z; Wiersma, RD [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This work presents a biomechanical model to investigate the complex respiratory motion for the lung tumor tracking in radiosurgery by computer simulation. Methods: The models include networked massspring-dampers to describe the tumor motion, different types of surrogate signals, and the force generated by the diaphragm. Each mass-springdamper has the same mechanical structure and each model can have different numbers of mass-spring-dampers. Both linear and nonlinear stiffness parameters were considered, and the damping ratio was tuned in a range so that the tumor motion was over-damped (no natural tumor oscillation occurs without force from the diaphragm). The simulation was run by using ODE45 (ordinary differential equations by Runge-Kutta method) in MATLAB, and all time courses of motions and inputs (force) were generated and compared. Results: The curvature of the motion time courses around their peaks was sensitive to the damping ratio. Therefore, the damping ratio can be determined based on the clinical data of a high sampling rate. The peak values of different signals and the time the peaks occurred were compared, and it was found that the diaphragm force had a time lead over the tumor motion, and the lead time (0.1–0.4 seconds) depended on the distance between the tumor and the diaphragm. Conclusion: We reported a model based analysis approach for the spatial and temporal relation between the motion of the lung tumor and the surrogate signals. Due to the phase lead of the diaphragm in comparing with the lung tumor motion, the measurement of diaphragm motion (or its electromyography signal) can be used as a beam gating signal in radiosurgery, and it can also be an additional surrogate signal for better tumor motion tracking. The research is funded by the American Cancer Society (ACS) grant. The grant name is: Frameless SRS Based on Robotic Head Motion Cancellation. The grant number is: RSG-13-313-01-CCE.

  3. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: flux variability analysis in relation to ¹³C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan; Schwender, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior ¹³C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH₄⁺ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO₂ efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the ¹³C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  4. 基于 EPICS 的冗余方法在反应堆控制系统中的应用研究%Application Study of EPICS-based Redundant Method for Reactor Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 尹聪聪; 韩立峰; 陈永忠; 郭冰

    2013-01-01

    In the reactor control system prototype development of TMSR ( Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system , CAS) project, EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System ) is adopted as Instrument and Con-trol software platform .For the aim of IOC ( Input/Output Controller ) redundancy and data synchronization of the system , the EPICS-based RMT ( Redundancy Monitor Task ) software package and its data -synchroniza-tion component CCE ( Continuous Control Executive ) were introduced .By the development of related IOC driv-er, redundant switch -over control of server IOC was implemented .The method of redundancy implementation using RMT in server and redundancy performance test for power control system are discussed in this paper .%在中科院钍基熔盐核能项目[1](Thorium Molten Salt Reactor system, TMSR)的反应堆控制系统样机开发中,使用了EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System )[2]作为仪器与控制平台软件。为了实现控制系统的IOC ( Input/Output Controller )级冗余及服务器间的数据同步,使用了基于EPICS环境的RMT(Redundancy Monitor Task)冗余软件包[3]及其数据同步组件CCE(Continuous Control Executive )。通过开发相关的IOC驱动程序,实现了对服务器的IOC冗余切换控制。论文讨论了RMT冗余功能在服务器中的实现方法及在功率控制系统中的冗余性能实验情况。

  5. FAD-linked Presenilin-1 V97L mutation impede tranport regulation and intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis under ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yankun; Li, Miao; Wu, Miao; Shi, Kai; Fang, Boyan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We report a PS1 gene mutation (Val 97Leu) in a Chinese familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigree and a cell model of FAD built by transfecting PS1 v97L mutants into human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To test our hypothesis that the PS1 v97L mutation is pathogenic, we investigated possible alterations in transport regulation and intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Grp78 is an ER-resident chaperone mediating the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is a key regulator of ER stress transducers. KDEL is a 4-amino-acid retention sequence made of Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu-COO. KDEL is a "resident" sequence as protein residence in ER is consistently associated with KDEL at the C-extremity. Our group used KDEL recognizing anti-Grp78 monoclonal antibody to detect the level of Grp78. We found increased KDEL level in all the transfected cells including cells transfected with PS1 V97L genes, wild-type and the mock. However cells with PS1 V97L mutation expressed a relatively lower KDEL compared with the wild-type and the mock, and a significantly lower Grp78 level compared with the wild-type, the mock and control. These results suggest that PS1 V97L mutation impedes intracellular transport regulation in ER. PS1 V97L mutation mediates increased ER Ca(2+) content in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The increased intracellular Ca(2+) release is due to depleted Ca(2+) storing content of ER but not due to extracellular environment as capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE) is invariant. PS1 V97L mutation interferes with intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Abnormal transport regulation and Ca(2+) homeostasis attributed to PS1 V97L mutation may be associated with the pathology of Chinese familial FAD.

  6. Highlights from a Mach 4 Experimental Demonstration of Inlet Mode Transition for Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Saunders, John D., Jr.; Sanders, Bobby W.; Weir, Lois J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is focused on technologies for combined cycle, air-breathing propulsion systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments along with improved safety. Among the most critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development and 3) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address these challenges, NASA initiated an experimental mode transition task including analytical methods to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. One effort has been the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE-LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flowpath sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment was tested in the NASA GRC 10 by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle engine issues including: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues-unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, and controls, (2) mode-transition sequence elements caused by switching between the turbine and the ramjet/scramjet flowpaths (imposed variable geometry requirements), and (3) turbine engine transients (and associated time scales) during transition. Testing of the initial inlet and dynamic characterization phases were completed and smooth mode transition was demonstrated. A database focused on a Mach 4 transition speed with limited off-design elements was developed and will serve to guide future TBCC system studies and to validate higher level analyses.

  7. Evaluation of acute radiation effects on mandibular movements of patients with head and neck cancer Avaliação dos efeitos agudos da radioterapia sobre os movimentos mandibulares de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline C. Bragante

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate radiotherapy effects (RT on mandibular movements of patients with head and neck cancer (H&NC and associate them to the variables: functional capacity, radiation field, disease staging, type of feeding, concomitant chemotherapy and total dose of RT. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with H&NC were followed up at the RT service. Physical examination was performed in 3 follow up time points: before the beginning of RT (T0, between 14th and 17th session of RT (T1 and after the last session of RT (T2. The physical examination consisted of the assessment of the following variables: mouth opening without pain (MO, maximum mouth opening (MMO, right lateral excursion (RLE, left lateral excursion (LLE and protrusion (PR of the jaw. The feeding type and the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS were evaluated in each follow up time point. Data with regards to the tumor lesion and the RT were collected from the patient's clinical notes. RESULTS: There was a statistical significant reduction in the values of MO (p=0.006, MMO (p=0.001, LLE (p=0.006 and KPS (p=0.001. There was significant a statistical association among the reduction in KPS and decreased measure of MO (r=0.390, p=0.048 and MMO (r=0.435, p=0.026. The mouth and oropharynx radiation fields when combined showed a significant reduction for both the measure of MO (p=0.005 and for MMO (p=0.004. Patients who used nasoenteric tube feeding (NTF had greater reduction in the measurement of MMO (p=0.031. The remaining variables showed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: Patients with H&NC present reduction of the measures of MO and MMO during the RT, especially if they present reduced functional capacity, have radiation in the mouth and oropharynx fields and used NTF.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da radioterapia (RT sobre os movimentos mandibulares de pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço (CCeP e associá-los às variáveis: capacidade funcional, campo de radia

  8. Evaluation of local adaptation strategies to climate change of maize crop in Andalusia for the first half of 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Clara; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Inés Mínguez, M.; Dosio, Alessandro; Sánchez-Sánchez, Enrique; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2013-04-01

    grain filling period with the consequent reduction in yield (Ruiz-Ramos et al., 2011) and with the supraoptimal temperatures in pollination. Finally, results of simulated impacts and adaptations were compared to previous studies done without bias correction of climatic projections, at low resolution and with previous versions of crop models (Mínguez et al., 2007). This study will contribute to MACSUR knowledge Hub within the Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE - JPI) of EU and is financed by MULCLIVAR project (CGL2012-38923-C02-02) and IFAPA project AGR6126 from Junta de Andalucía, Spain. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Jones, C.A., and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development. Texas A&M Univ. Press, College Station. Mínguez, M.I., M. Ruiz-ramos, C.H. Díaz-Ambrona, and M. Quemada. 2007. First-order impacts on winter and summer crops assessed with various high-resolution climate models in the Iberian Peninsula. Climatic Change 81: 343-355. Ruiz-Ramos, M., E. Sanchez, C. Galllardo, and M.I. Minguez. 2011. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 11: 3275-3291. Stockle, C.O., M. Donatelli, and R. Nelson. 2003. CropSyst , a cropping systems simulation model. European Journal of Agronomy18: 289-307.

  9. Tip and torque changes in maxillary buccal segment after orthodontic treatment: a three-dimensional study%三维数字化技术测量矫治前后上颌尖牙与后牙轴倾和转矩变化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵; 秦一飞; 许天民

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate three-dimensional imaging registration and superimposition techniques in measuring the tip and torque change of upper canine, premolar and first molar after orthodontic treatment. Methods Twenty-eight subjects (14 extraction cases and 14 non-extraction cases) with full records were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The pre-and post-treatment upper dental casts were digitized with three-dimensional spot laser scanner and superimposed with reverse engineering software. The facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) was transferred from post-treatment teeth to the pre-treatment teeth using three-dimensional imaging registration. The occlusal plane was constructed on the post-treatment upper digital cast and the tip and torque values were measured. Results In the non-extraction group, the tip of the second premolar decreased by 1. 5°(P <0. 05=. The buccal crown torque of the first and second premolars increased by 5.1° and 4. 2°(P < 0. 05=, respectively. In the extraction group, the lingual crown torque of upper canine increased by 3. 8°(P < 0. 05 =. Conclusions Non-extraction orthodontic treatment tended to tip the upper second premolar distally and increased the buccal crown torque of the upper premolars while extraction treatment increased the lingual crown torque of the upper canine.%目的 应用三维数字化技术探索正畸治疗中上颌尖牙、前磨牙和磨牙三维位置的变化规律.方法 通过随机数字表随机抽取北京大学口腔医学院·口腔医院正畸科资料完整的病例28例(减数组、非减数组各14例).点激光扫描获得三维数字化牙颌模型,用腭皱重叠方法重叠矫治前后的上颌数字化模型,用三维图像配准技术将矫治后牙齿的临床冠面轴转移至矫治前同名牙上,以矫治后上颌(牙合)平面为共同参考面,分别测量减数和非减数组矫治前后上颌尖

  10. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  11. Cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju em diferentes resíduos agrícolas Cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju in different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustáquio Souza Dias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes resíduos agrícolas disponíveis na região sul de Minas Gerais foram testados para o cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. Foram avaliados os seguintes substratos: palha de feijão pura (PFP, palha de milho pura (PMP, casca de café pura (CCP, palha de feijão enriquecida com 2% de calcário, 2% de gesso e 10% de farelo de trigo (PFE, palha de milho enriquecida (PME e casca de café enriquecida (CCE. Todos os substratos receberam 2% de inoculante e foram incubados a 24°C. Após a colonização, os sacos foram mantidos abertos em ambiente a 24°C e umidade a 80%. PFP, PFE e PME apresentaram os melhores resultados na produção de cogumelos, com uma eficiência biológica de 85,7; 81,4 e 83,4%, respectivamente. A palha de feijão foi considerada o melhor resíduo para a produção do cogumelo P. sajor-caju, porque apresentou a melhor eficiência biológica sem necessidade de enriquecimento.Several agricultural residues available in the South of Minas Gerais were tested for cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. The following substrates were investigated: Bean (BS, Corn (CS straws and Coffee husk (CH without nutrient supplementation and straws of bean (BSS, corn (CSS and coffee husk (CHS supplemented with 2% of CaCO3, 2% of gypsum and 10% of wheat flour. All the substrates were inoculated with 2% of spawn and incubated at 24ºC. After the fungi had colonized the substrate, the plastic bags were open and maintained at room temperature with 80% of humidity. BS, BSS and CSS showed higher mushroom production than the others, showing a biological efficiency of 85.7, 81.4 and 83.6% respectively. The beans straw (BS without nutrient supplementation was considered the best residue for the growth and cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. This substrate showed higher levels of biological efficiency than the others substrates analysed.

  12. Energy density of ionospheric and solar wind origin ions in the near-Earth magnetotail during substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, Loannis A.; Livi, Stefano; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

    1994-01-01

    Comprehensive energy density studies provide an important measure of the participation of various sources in energization processes and have been relatively rare in the literature. We present a statistical study of the energy density of the near-Earth magnetotail major ions (H(+), O(+), He(++), He(+)) during substorm expansion phase and discuss its implications for the solar wind/magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling. Our aim is to examine the relation between auroral activity and the particle energization during substorms through the correlation between the AE indices and the energy density of the major magnetospheric ions. The data we used here were collected by the charge-energy-mass (CHEM) spectrometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Trace Explorer (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) satellite in the near-equatorial nightside magnetosphere, at geocentric distances approximately 7 to 9 R(sub E). CHEM provided the opportunity to conduct the first statistical study of energy density in the near-Earth magnetotail with multispecies particle data extending into the higher energy range (greater than or equal to 20 keV/E). the use of 1-min AE indices in this study should be emphasized, as the use (in previous statistical studies) of the (3-hour) Kp index or of long-time averages of AE indices essentially smoothed out all the information on substorms. Most distinct feature of our study is the excellent correlation of O(+) energy density with the AE index, in contrast with the remarkably poor He(++) energy density - AE index correlation. Furthermore, we examined the relation of the ion energy density to the electrojet activity during substorm growth phase. The O(+) energy density is strongly correlated with the pre-onset AU index, that is the eastward electrojet intensity, which represents the growth phase current system. Our investigation shows that the near-Earth magnetotail is increasingly fed with energetic ionospheric ions during periods of enhanced

  13. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Ming-Rui [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China); Li, Ting-Ting; Yin, Xin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-Qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Yi-Hua, E-mail: syh200415@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation stimulates TRP channels. {yields} CaR promoted transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) expression. {yields} Adult rat ventricular myocytes display capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which was operated by TRPCs. {yields} TRPC channels activation induced by CaR activator sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} to evoke cardiomyocytes apoptosis. -- Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes, which gate a type of influx of extracellular calcium, the capacitative calcium entry. TRP channels play a role in mediating Ca{sup 2+} overload in the heart. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) are also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and promote the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by Ca{sup 2+} overload. However, data about the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart are few. In this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of the TRP canonical proteins TRPC1 and TRPC3 in adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Laser scan confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. The results showed that, in adult rat cardiomyocytes, the depletion of Ca{sup 2+} stores in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) by thapsigargin induced a transient increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and the subsequent restoration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for a few minutes, whereas, the persisting elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of the TRPC inhibitor SKF96365. The stimulation of CaR by its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or spermine also resulted in the same effect and the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. In adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, GdCl{sub 3

  14. Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann

    2001-10-01

    AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine

  15. 上臂人工血管移植透析内瘘的建立及应用%Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft vascular access for hemodialysis in the upper arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆石; 韩国锋; 胡大勇; 于秀峙; 张金元

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨上臂人工血管移植透析内瘘的建立方法及临床应用价值. 方法参考国外文献设计了腋动脉与腋静脉建立上臂U形人工血管移植内瘘,腋动脉与肘窝贵要静脉作上臂直桥式内痿,肱动脉与腋窝腋静脉制作上臂直桥式内瘘,采用3种方法为20例长期血液透析患者建立了上臂人工血管移植透析通路.患者男9例,女11例.年龄37~64岁,平均54岁.透析时间2~15年.结果 20例手术操作均一次成功,术后6~8周用于临床穿刺透析,透析血流量220~300ml/min,血液再循环在正常范围,完全满足长期血液透析治疗的需要.结论 当前臂或上臂由于各种原因不能制作自体动静脉内瘘和前臂血管移植内瘘时,上臂腋窝制作人工血管移植血管内瘘是行之有效的方法.%Objective To investigate the application of expanded p01ytetrafluoroethylene(ePTFE)grafts in upper arm to build arteriovenous aCCeSS for hemodialysis. Methods ePTFE graft vascular access was built in the upper arm in 20 uremia patients.Three operation strategies were applied according to the reference,including loop grafts connected axillary artery and axillary vein,straight graft connected axillary artery and elbow basilic vein,and bridge connected elbow brachial artery and axillary vein. Results Twenty operations were successful and after 6-8 weeks the fistula of all cases were used in hemodialysis.The blood flows were 220-300 ml/min without re-circulation found.Conclusion ePTFE graft arteriovenous vascular access in the upper arm could be an alternative for hemodialysis patients who are difficult to build native arteriovenous fistula.

  16. AgNOR polymorphism association with squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive carcinoma with HPV infection Asociación de los polimorfismos AgNORs con lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas, carcinoma cervical e infección por VPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz del Carmen Alarcón-Romero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationships between AgNORs polymorphisms and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC with HPV infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was carried out on sixty women from the state of Guerrero, Mexico. HPV detection was performed by PCR. AgNORs were identified by argentic impregnation. One hundred cells per slide were counted and classified according to the polymorphism of AgNORs dots; typical (spherical and atypical (large, kidney-shaped and clustered. RESULTS: A total of 100% of the cases were positive for HPV infection. Nine different high-risk HPV genotypes were found, type16 was the most common (48.6%. The AgNORs showed a significant decrease in spherical shape according to neoplastic development. The three atypical shapes showed a significant increase in SIL and SCC (p-trendOBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre los polimorfismos de AgNORs con las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas (LIE y carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron sesenta mujeres del estado de Guerrero, México. La detección del VPH fue por PCR y los AgNORs por impregnación argéntica; se contaron 100 células y se clasificaron por tipo de polimorfismo de AgNORs: típico (esférico y atípicos (largo, forma de riñón o de racimo. RESULTADOS: El 100% de los casos presentaron infección por VPH, se encontraron nueve genotipos diferentes de VPH de alto riesgo, el 16 fue el más común (48.6%. La forma esférica de los polimorfismos de AgNORs mostró una disminución con el desarrollo neoplásico y las atípicas incrementaron progresivamente con SIL y SCC (p-tendencia<0.001. CONCLUSIONES: Los polimorfismos AgNORs se incrementan progresivamente con el grado de lesión histológica, y pueden ser útiles en el pronóstico de progresión del carcinoma cervical.

  17. Patogenicidade do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, patógeno da cochonilha Orthezia praelonga, a diversos frutos e a plântulas de abobrinha Pathogenicity of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, pathogen of Orthezia praelonga, to several fruits and to pumpkin seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Araújo Teixeira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A descoberta do fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides parasitando cochonilha em pomares cítricos levantou a possibilidade de sua utilização no controle de Orthezia praelonga. O controle biológico, porém, deve ser feito com a certeza de que o microrganismo utilizado não ocasionará doenças em outras culturas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar e comparar o potencial fitopatogênico dos isolados de C. gloeosporioides patogênicos a O. praelonga, com outros isolados de C. gloeosporioides, C. acutatum e C. lagenarium, responsáveis pelas doenças de pós-colheita e podridão floral, em citros, e da antracnose, em abobrinha, respectivamente. Os fungos foram inoculados em banana, café, maçã, mamão, pêssego e folhas de abobrinha, com e sem ferimentos. Os pêssegos foram suscetíveis a todos os isolados testados, nas duas metodologias utilizadas. As maçãs e as folhas de abobrinha, quando lesadas, também mostraram suscetibilidade. A banana, o café e o mamão não foram suscetíveis em nenhum dos métodos de inoculação.The discovery of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides living like a parasite on the O. praelonga in citric orchards, raise the possibility of its utilization on the control of this pest. The biological control, however, should be done with the certainty that the utilized microorganism will not provoke diseases in other cultures that are been cultivated near the orchards. Then, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the phytopathogenic potential of the C. gloeosporioides isolates, pathogenics of O. praelonga (CTAA1-5, with other C. gloeosporioides isolates (CCC and CCE, C. acutatum (CCA and C. lagenarium, responsible by diseases of fruit in citrus post-harvest and postbloom, and by antracnose in pumpkin, respectively. The fungi were inoculated on banana, coffee, apple, peach, papaya and on the pumpkin leaves, with or without injury. The peach fruits were susceptive to all isolates tested at the two experimental

  18. Laringectomia de resgate: utilização do retalho miocutâneo de peitoral maior na prevenção de fístula faringocutânea The usefulness of a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in preventing salivary fistulae after salvage total laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Andrade Sousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Laringectomias de resgate estão associadas a altas taxas de complicações pós-operatórias. O uso de retalhos na reconstrução do trânsito faríngeo poderia reduzir a incidência destas complicações. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a utilidade do retalho miocutâneo de músculo peitoral maior na prevenção da fístula salivar no pós-operatório de laringectomia total de resgate. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo, realizado de abril/2006 a maio/2011, com 31 pacientes portadores de CCE de laringe recidivado, tratados previamente com quimiorradioterapia ou radioterapia isolada, submetidos à laringectomia de resgate. Destes 31 pacientes, a reconstrução da faringe foi realizada com utilização do retalho miocutâneo de músculo peitoral maior em 19 (61% casos, enquanto o fechamento primário ocorreu em 12 pacientes (39%. RESULTADOS: Foi observada taxa de fistula salivar em (16% dos pacientes em que se utilizou o retalho e 58% nos pacientes submetidos a fechamento primário da faringe (p Salvage laryngectomy in patients treated with organ preservation protocols is associated with high rates of postoperative complications. The use of non-irradiated tissue flaps in pharyngeal reconstruction could reduce the incidence of these complications. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in preventing salivary fistulae during the postoperative period of salvage total laryngectomy (TL. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This retrospective study enrolled 31 patients operated between April of 2006 and May of 2011. All patients had advanced cancer at the time of the salvage procedure and had been treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Pharyngeal reconstruction was performed using pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in 19 cases (61%; primary wound closure occurred in 12 patients (39%. RESULTS: Salivary fistulae occurred in 16% of the patients who received the flap and in 58% of the patients with primary closure of

  19. MCT SWIR modules for passive and active imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Benecke, M.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.

    2016-05-01

    Based on AIM's state-of-the-art MCT IR technology, detector modules for the SWIR spectral range have been developed, fabricated and characterized. While LPE grown MCT FPAs with extended 2.5μm cut-off have been fabricated and integrated also MBE grown MCT on GaAs is considered for future production. Two imaging applications have been in focus operating either in passive mode by making use of e.g. the night glow, or in active mode by laser illumination for gated viewing. Dedicated readout integrated circuits (ROIC), realized in 0.18μm Si-CMOS technology providing the required functionality for passive imaging and gated imaging, have been designed and implemented. For both designs a 640x512 15μm pitch format was chosen. The FPAs are integrated in compact dewar cooler configurations using AIM's split linear coolers. A command and control electronics (CCE) provides supply voltages, biasing, clocks, control and video digitization for easy system interfacing. For imaging under low-light conditions a low-noise 640x512 15μm pitch ROIC with CTIA input stages and correlated double sampling was designed. The ROIC provides rolling shutter and snapshot integration. To reduce size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) a 640x512 format detector in a 10μm pitch is under development. The module makes use of the extended SWIR spectral cut-off up to 2.5μm. To be used for active gated-viewing operation SWIR MCT avalanche photodiodes have been implemented and characterized on FPA level in a 640x512 15μm pitch format. The specific ROIC provides also the necessary functions for range gate control and triggering by the laser illumination. First lab and field tests of a gated viewing demonstrator have been carried out. The paper will present the development status and performance results of AIM's MCT based SWIR Modules for imaging applications.

  20. Morphology of the ring current derived from magnetic field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Le

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Our examination of the 20 years of magnetospheric magnetic field data from ISEE, AMPTE/CCE and Polar missions has allowed us to quantify how the ring current flows and closes in the magnetosphere at a variety of disturbance levels. Using intercalibrated magnetic field data from the three spacecraft, we are able to construct the statistical magnetic field maps and derive 3-dimensional current density by the simple device of taking the curl of the statistically determined magnetic field. The results show that there are two ring currents, an inner one that flows eastward at ~3 RE and a main westward ring current at ~4–7 RE for all levels of geomagnetic disturbances. In general, the in-situ observations show that the ring current varies as the Dst index decreases, as we would expect it to change. An unexpected result is how asymmetric it is in local time. Some current clearly circles the magnetosphere but much of the energetic plasma stays in the night hemisphere. These energetic particles appear not to be able to readily convect into the dayside magnetosphere. During quiet times, the symmetric and partial ring currents are similar in strength (~0.5MA and the peak of the westward ring current is close to local midnight. It is the partial ring current that exhibits most drastic intensification as the level of disturbances increases. Under the condition of moderate magnetic storms, the total partial ring current reaches ~3MA, whereas the total symmetric ring current is ~1MA. Thus, the partial ring current contributes dominantly to the decrease in the Dst index. As the ring current strengthens the peak of the partial ring current shifts duskward to the pre-midnight sector. The partial ring current is closed by a meridional current system through the ionosphere, mainly the field-aligned current, which maximizes at local times near the dawn and dusk. The closure currents flow in

  1. Relação entre a linfopenia e a persistência da papilomatose alimentar em bovinos intoxicados crônica e espontaneamente por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K Masuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Papilomavírus bovino tipo 4 (BPV-4 é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de papilomas no trato alimentar superior (TAS de bovinos. Os passos necessários para o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a regressão dos papilomas estão intimamente relacionados com o estado imunológico do animal. A ingestão de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum tem sido relacionada como o principal fator envolvido na persistência da infecção pelo BPV-4 no TAS. A teoria que estabelece a relação entre papilomatose alimentar e a formação de CCEs sugere a produção de um estado imunossupressivo crônico pela planta, permitindo a persistência dos papilomas no TAS. Os papilomas serviriam então como sítios de desenvolvimento dos CCEs através da interação entre as proteínas do BPV-4 e os carcinógenos da samambaia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes e a papilomatose alimentar em casos de intoxicação espontânea crônica por P. aquilinum em bovinos com CCE no TAS. Quarenta bovinos com CCEs no TAS foram avaliados quanto à idade, à intensidade da papilomatose alimentar no TAS e ao leucograma. Três bovinos tinham leucopenia e um apresentava neutrofilia. A média de linfócitos foi de 5.395 (±1.696 na papilomatose leve, 4.560 (±1.561 na moderada e 5.007 (±1.786 na acentuada. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grau de papilomatose, a idade e a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes. Imunossupressão por linfopenia foi um achado esporádico (três casos neste estudo. Os resultados indicam que a persistência da papilomatose alimentar em casos espontâneos de intoxicação crônica por samambaia em bovinos não tem relação com a quantidade de linfócitos circulantes e que talvez esteja relacionada a outros fatores imunológicos.

  2. Estudo retrospectivo das neoplasias em ruminantes e equídeos no semiárido do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio K. de L. Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, dados relacionados com a ocorrência de neoplasias em ruminantes e equinos são escassos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar a frequência de neoplasias diagnosticadas em bovinos, caprinos, ovinos e equídeos no Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, durante o período de 1983 a 2010 e analisar os fatores de risco, mediante o teste de qui-quadrado, considerando como variáveis, espécie, raça, sexo e idade. Durante o período foram registrados 177 (5,6% tumores de um total de 3.153 diagnósticos provenientes de biópsias e necropsias. Houve diferenças significantes (p<0,001 na frequência de tumores entre as diferentes espécies sendo mais acometidos os equinos (10,6%, seguidos pelos bovinos (6,8%, caprinos (3,3% e ovinos (2,1%. Os tumores mais frequentes foram o carcinoma células escamosas (CCE nos bovinos (58,3%, ovinos (80% e caprinos (46,1% e o sarcoide em equinos (45,3%. Quanto à localização anatômica, as neoplasias foram mais frequentes na pele em equídeos (62,5% e ovinos (60%, olho e tecido periocular em bovinos (36,1% e sistema reprodutor feminino (períneo e vulva em caprinos (34,6%. Em relação ao sexo dos animais, apenas os bovinos apresentaram prevalência significativa (p<0,001. Em relação à idade apenas os caprinos apresentaram prevalência significativa (p=0,015. Não houve prevalência significativa em nenhuma espécie em relação à raça. Conclui-se que os carcinomas de células escamosas em ruminantes e o sarcoide em equídeos são os tumores mais frequentes em animais de produção no semiárido do Nordeste Brasileiro e que a espécie equina foi a mais acometida dentre as espécies estudadas.

  3. Comparative and functional triatomine genomics reveals reductions and expansions in insecticide resistance-related gene families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Lucila; Lavore, Andrés; Sierra, Ivana; Palacio, Victorio; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús; Latorre-Estivalis, José Manuel; Mougabure-Cueto, Gaston; Francini, Flavio; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Rodríguez, Mario Henry; Ons, Sheila; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Triatomine insects are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. This is a neglected disease affecting approximately 8 million people in Latin America. The existence of diverse pyrethroid resistant populations of at least two species demonstrates the potential of triatomines to develop high levels of insecticide resistance. Therefore, the incorporation of strategies for resistance management is a main concern for vector control programs. Three enzymatic superfamilies are thought to mediate xenobiotic detoxification and resistance: Glutathione Transferases (GSTs), Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and Carboxyl/Cholinesterases (CCEs). Improving our knowledge of key triatomine detoxification enzymes will strengthen our understanding of insecticide resistance processes in vectors of Chagas’ disease. Methods and findings The discovery and description of detoxification gene superfamilies in normalized transcriptomes of three triatomine species: Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma infestans and Triatoma pallidipennis is presented. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of these superfamilies among the triatomine transcriptomes and the genome of Rhodnius prolixus, also a triatomine vector of Chagas’ disease, and other well-studied insect genomes was performed. The expression pattern of detoxification genes in R. prolixus transcriptomes from key organs was analyzed. The comparisons reveal gene expansions in Sigma class GSTs, CYP3 in CYP superfamily and clade E in CCE superfamily. Moreover, several CYP families identified in these triatomines have not yet been described in other insects. Conversely, several groups of insecticide resistance related enzymes within each enzyme superfamily are reduced or lacking in triatomines. Furthermore, our qRT-PCR results showed an increase in the expression of a CYP4 gene in a T. infestans population resistant to pyrethroids. These results could point to an involvement of metabolic

  4. Overview of the Turbine Based Combined Cycle Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Walker, James F.; Pittman, James L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project is focused on technologies for combined cycle, airbreathing propulsions systems to enable reusable launch systems for access to space. Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems offer specific impulse (Isp) improvements over rocket-based propulsion systems in the subsonic takeoff and return mission segments and offer improved safety. The potential to realize more aircraft-like operations with expanded launch site capability and reduced system maintenance are additional benefits. The most critical TBCC enabling technologies as identified in the National Aeronautics Institute (NAI) study were: 1) mode transition from the low speed propulsion system to the high speed propulsion system, 2) high Mach turbine engine development, 3) transonic aero-propulsion performance, 4) low-Mach-number dual-mode scramjet operation, 5) innovative 3-D flowpath concepts and 6) innovative turbine based combined cycle integration. To address several of these key TBCC challenges, NASA s Hypersonics project (TBCC Discipline) initiated an experimental mode transition task that includes an analytic research endeavor to assess the state-of-the-art of propulsion system performance and design codes. This initiative includes inlet fluid and turbine performance codes and engineering-level algorithms. This effort has been focused on the Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX) which is a fully integrated TBCC propulsion system with flow path sizing consistent with previous NASA and DoD proposed Hypersonic experimental flight test plans. This experiment is being tested in the NASA-GRC 10 x 10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) Facility. The goal of this activity is to address key hypersonic combined-cycle-engine issues: (1) dual integrated inlet operability and performance issues unstart constraints, distortion constraints, bleed requirements, controls, and operability margins, (2) mode

  5. WE-AB-303-06: Combining DAO with MV + KV Optimization to Improve Skin Dose Sparing with Real-Time Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grelewicz, Z; Wiersma, R [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Grant T32 EB002103, ACS RSG-13-313-01-CCE, and NIH S10 RR021039 and P30 CA14599 grants. The contents of this submission do not necessarily represent the official views of any of the supporting organizations.

  6. 我国粮食直补政策CGE模型的构建方案%Scheme of Constructing CGE Model of China's Grain Direct Subsidy Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灿

    2011-01-01

    介绍了我国的粮食直补政策模式,采用可计算一般均衡(CGE)理论,提出了我国粮食直补政策模型的构建方案.在遵循市场的完全竞争性,资本、劳动力不存在国家间的移动,汇率不变、产品的不完全替代性,行为主体为具有代表性的家庭、生产者、地方政府、中央政府所组成等假设的基础上,构建出我国粮食直补政策的CGE模型.该CGE模型需要的相关参数包括:中间合成产品、投资合成品和消费合成品在进口和国产之间的Armingtion替代弹性,生产要素之间的替代弹性,总销售在国内吸收和出口之间的转换弹性,居民支出弹性和价格弹性,出口需求弹性,以及资本存量中各部门的相对份额等.并指出CGE模型在分析粮食直补政策方面的优势及局限性.%The grain direct subsidy policy model is introduced in this paper and the computable general equilibrium (CGE) theory is used to construct the model of Chinas grain direct subsidy policy. China's grain direct subsidy policy CGE model is constructed based on the hypotheses of perfect market competitiveness, no transfer of capital and labor among nations, stable foreign exchange, incomplete replacement of products, behavior subjects including householders, producers, local governments and central government, etc. The relevant parameters of the model include the Armington substitution elasticity of semi -products, investment products and consumption products between import and domestic made, the substitution elasticity of factors of production, conversion elasticity of total sales between domestic absorption and export, expenditure elasticity and price elasticity of households, demand elasticity of export as well as the relative share of capital among various departments. In the final the paper points out the strength and limitation of using CCE model to analyze the grain direct subsidy policy.

  7. WE-G-303-00: Nanotechnology for Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Objectives: Understand the physical bases of gold nanoparticle applications for radiosensitization and x-ray fluorescence imaging Understand the parameters that define gold nanoparticle-mediated radiosensitization in biological systems Understand the potential of magnetic nanoparticle characterization of the microenvironment Understand the various strategies for radiolabeling of nanoparticles and their applications S.C. and S.K. acknowledge support from MD Anderson Cancer Center, NIH (R01CA155446 and P30CA16672) and DoD (W81XWH-12-1-0198); J.W. acknowledges support from NIH (U54CA151662-01); W.C. acknowledges support from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, NIH (R01CA169365, P30CA014520, and T32CA009206), DoD (W81XWH-11-1-0644 and W81XWH-11-1-0648), and ACS (125246-RSG-13-099-01-CCE)

  8. WE-G-303-01: Physical Bases for Gold Nanoparticle Applications in Radiation Oncology and X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Objectives: Understand the physical bases of gold nanoparticle applications for radiosensitization and x-ray fluorescence imaging Understand the parameters that define gold nanoparticle-mediated radiosensitization in biological systems Understand the potential of magnetic nanoparticle characterization of the microenvironment Understand the various strategies for radiolabeling of nanoparticles and their applications S.C. and S.K. acknowledge support from MD Anderson Cancer Center, NIH (R01CA155446 and P30CA16672) and DoD (W81XWH-12-1-0198); J.W. acknowledges support from NIH (U54CA151662-01); W.C. acknowledges support from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, NIH (R01CA169365, P30CA014520, and T32CA009206), DoD (W81XWH-11-1-0644 and W81XWH-11-1-0648), and ACS (125246-RSG-13-099-01-CCE)

  9. 不同TOAST分型脑梗死患者血清基质金属蛋白酶-2和基质金属蛋白酶-9水平的研究%Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in serum of cerebral infarction patients with the different classification of TOAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽丽; 郭瑞友; 唐咏春; 赵振升

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨血清基质金属蛋白酶(MMP)-2和MMP-9与脑梗死TOAST分型和预后的关系.方法 应用ELISA法检测60例脑梗死患者(CI组)和30例对照者(NC组)血清MMP-2和MMP-9水平,根据TOAST分型,CI组又分为心源性脑栓塞组(20例)、大动脉粥样硬化性脑梗死组(20例)和腔隙性脑梗死组(20例),比较各组血清MMP-2和MMP-9水平的变化.结果 CI组患者脑梗死后第1天血清MMP-2水平较NC组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),血清MMP-9水平较NC组明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);心源性脑栓塞组和大动脉粥样硬化性脑梗死组患者脑梗死后第1天血清MMP-9水平明显高于腔隙性脑梗死组,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01);血清MMP-9水平与美国国立卫生院卒中量表(NIHSS)评分呈正相关,预后良好患者发病12 d内血清MMP-9水平明显低于预后不良患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 脑梗死后血清MMP-9水平升高,升高幅度和变化规律在TOAST各亚型不尽相同,心源性脑栓塞患者和大动脉粥样硬化性脑梗死患者MMP-9水平高于腔隙性脑梗死患者;血清MMP-9水平可作为评价脑梗死病情的可靠指标;脑梗死后第1天的血清MMP-9水平是预后的独立预测因素.%Objective To determine and compare the levels of serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in acute stage of cerebral infarction and the relationship and prognosis between them and the classification of TOAST. Methods The levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected by ELISA in 60 cerebral infarction patients(CI group)while 30 healthy donors were served as control group (NC group).Results The level of MMP-2 in CI group was significantly lower than that in NC group (P<0.01) and the level of MMP-9 was significantly higher than that in NC group (P<0.01).Compared with lacunar infarction (LI) group,the level of MMP-9 was significantly higher in cardiogenic cerebral embolism group(CCE group) and large artery

  10. Imaging of Archaeological Remains at Barcombe Roman Villa using Microwave Tomographic Depictions of Ground Penetrating Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, F.; Utsi, E.; Alani, A.; Persico, R.

    2012-04-01

    The site of the Barcombe Romano-British villa lies in a field on the perimeter of Barcombe village in East Sussex, England. The site came to the attention of the Mid Sussex Field Archaeological Team (MSFAT) and the University College London Field Archaeological Unit (UCL, subsequently replaced by the Centre for Continuing Education of the University of Sussex, CCE) because it was in danger of disappearing altogether without being adequately recorded [1]. In common with many other UK sites of the period, the villa had been extensively robbed out in the centuries following its demise in order to provide building material for the adjacent village and its associated farms, a common problem with Romano-British sites in the UK [2]. In addition, the site is positioned on the ridge of a field in agricultural use and has therefore been extensively ploughed out. As a result, the archaeological evidence was sparse and the little that remained was being rapidly eroded. In April 2001, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out jointly by the Department of Engineering, Portsmouth and Utsi Electronics Ltd on behalf of the archaeological team in order to investigate the possibility of mapping both the villa and earlier prehistoric remains on the same ridge. Using a 40m by 60m grid laid out by the archaeological team, a Groundvue 1, with antennas of central frequency 400MHz, was used to survey along a series of parallel transects at intervals of 50cm. The sampling interval along the line of survey was 5cm and probing was carried out to 40ns. The results of the GPR survey, including a comparison with the evidence from the resistivity work, were published in 2002 [3]. The original GPR data were processed (using the ReflexW package) by applying background removal, adding time based gain, averaging over 2 traces in order to reduce noise resulting from the relative movement of the antennas across the ploughed field and finally applying a Bandpass Butterworth filter of 200

  11. Prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na cavidade oral e na orofaringe Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cavity and oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therezita Peixoto Patury Galvão Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na cavidade oral e na orofaringe ainda não está bem esclarecida como nos estudos do trato genital, na qual é bem definida. Entretanto, novas pesquisas estão surgindo após o aparecimento dos exames de biologia molecular. Neste estudo foi realizada uma revisão da literatura com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência do papilomavírus humano na cavidade oral e na orofaringe. Os resultados desta pesquisa mostraram uma prevalência do HPV 16 na mucosa oral normal (infecção latente. Já nas lesões benignas orais associadas ao HPV mostraram uma prevalência do HPV 6 e 11 em papilomas de células escamosas e condilomas, e, nas verrugas, uma prevalência do HPV 2 e 57, enquanto na hiperplasia epitelial focal prevaleceram os HPVs 13 e 32, e no câncer oral, principalmente, no carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE, foi evidenciada uma alta prevalência do HPV 16, o que sugere sua participação na carcinogênese oral, apesar de ser um assunto controverso. Constatou-se também uma enorme discrepância nos resultados da prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na mucosa oral normal (infecção latente e no câncer oral, enquanto nas lesões benignas associadas ao vírus, os resultados foram confirmatórios.The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in the oral cavity and oropharynx has not yet been as well studied as its infection of the vaginal tract. However, new study are emerge after the development of molecular biology techniques. The objective of this study is to show the prevalence of HPV in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. An ample bibliographic review was done showing a prevalence of HPV 6, 11 in a normal oral mucous membrane (latent infection. In oral benign lesions associated with HPV, a prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 was observed in squamous cell papilloma (SCP and condylomas acuminatum, while HPV 2 and 57 were more prevalent in verruca vulgaris lesions. As for focal epithelial hyperplasia

  12. Crystal Structure of Rare Earth Acrylates[Ln2(CH2 CHCOO)6·3H2O]·3H2O(Ln=Ce,Nd)%两种丙烯酸盐[Ln2(CH2CHCOO)6·3H2O]·3H2O(Ln=Ce;Nd)的单晶结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱玉英; 褚晓东; 姚有为

    2011-01-01

    Crystal strudures of [Ln2 (CH2CHCOO)6·3H2O](Ln = Ce,Nd) were characterized by using X - ray single crystal analysis. The title compounds are iso - structural: monoclime system, apace group P21/c with a= 1.02099 (13)nm,b = 1.52294(19) nm,c = 2.0325(3) nm,β= 100.838 (2)°, V = 3.1039 (7) nm3 for [ Ce2 ( CH2CHCOO) 6·3H2O] ;α=1.01978(8) nm, b=1.50979 (12) nm, c=2.02712 (16) nm,β=100.881 (1)°, V = 3.0650 (4) nm3 for [ND2 (CH2CHCOO)6·3H2O]. There are two independent Ln ions in the asymmetric unit, which are located in nona - coor-dinated and deca - coordinated environments respectively. The two Ln ions are bridged togetber by two μ2 - oxygen atoms of two independent acrylates, resulting in left - handed and right - handed helical chains. Hydrogen network are built up from helical chains and water molecules located between two neighbor chains. giying rise to three - dimensional stack.%采用X射线单晶衍射法,解析了[Ln2(CH:CHCOO)6·3H2O]·3H2O(Ln=Ce;Nd)的结构.结果表明标题化合物属同构:属单斜晶系(空间群P2(1)/c);[Ce2(CH2CHCOO)6·3H2O]·3H2O晶胞参数α=1.02099(13)nm,b=1.52294(19)nm,c=2.0325(3)nin,/3=100.838(2)°,V=3.1039(7)nm3;[Nd2(CH2CHCOO)6·3H2O]·3H2O晶胞参数α=1.01978(8)nm,6=1.50979(12)nm,c=2.02712(16)nm,β=100.881(1)°,V=3.0650(4)nm3.化合物不对称结构单元中含有两个独立的稀土中心离子,分别处九、十配位环境中.两个稀土离子由两个独立的丙烯酸μ2-氧桥联形成左手和右手螺旋链.螺旋链通过链间的水分子形成氢键网络,堆垛成三维结构.

  13. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

  14. Application of flat-panel digital subtraction angiography in interventional therapy for carotid cavernous fistutas:initial clinical experience%平板DSA新技术在介入治疗颈内动脉海绵窦瘘中应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石强; 梁传声; 臧培卓; 徐克

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical value offlat-panel digital subtraction angiography (DSA)in interventional therapy for carotid-cavemous fistula (CCF). Methods Three-dimensional (3D)DSA Was performed in 12 patients with CCF before the interventional therapy.The fistular orifice was located and measured with multiplanar reconstruction technique,and the Landscap roadmap of the fistula was obtained.Fistula embolization was performed according to the location of the fistular orifice and the surrounding bony marker indicated by 3D and Landscap roadmap. Results The fistular orifices were clearly displayed in the 12 patients with an average orifice diameter of 3.7 mm.The intemal carotid artery(ICA)and the bony marker of the cavernous sinus were shown simultaneously.Ten patients received endovascular embolization wiith detachable balloon, and 1 patient was treated wiith coil and 1 with stent placement.The ICA remained patent in 11 cases and carotid artery occlusion was performed in 1 case. Conclusion The 3D flat-panel DSA provides rich infolrmati,Ion on the fistular orifice,,and the bony markers can be identified by landscape roadmap technique..The combination of these two techniques guarantees effective and safe treatment of CCE.%目的 探讨平板DSA新技术在介入治疗颈内动脉海绵窦瘘(CCF)中的应用价值.方法 12例CCF患者术前行3DDSA检查,应用多平面重建技术定位瘘口并对瘘口进行测量.治疗中利用可调控实时透视路途技术(Landscap技术)制作路径图,以3D图像所示瘘口及周围骨性标志作为对照进行封堵治疗.结果 12例CCF均可清晰定位瘘口,瘘口直径平均3.7 mm.利用Landscap技术使颈内动脉路径及海绵窦骨性标志同时可见.球囊栓塞10例,弹簧圈栓塞1例,支架封堵瘘口1例.颈内动脉通畅11例,1例行颈内动脉闭塞.结论 平板DSA 3D技术提供了瘘口的丰富信息,Landscap技术为治疗增加了骨性标志,其联合应用为治疗CCF提供了安全保障.

  15. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    ) sites in eastern Virginia indicated that non C-amended biosolids could be applied at loading rates of up to 75 Mg/ha without significant local ground-water effects, but that significant elevation of nitrate-N in shallow root-zone (75 cm) percolates was observed the first winter after application. Addition of palatable C (as sawdust) to adjust the applied biosolids C:N ratio to 25:1 significantly reduced nitrate-N in root-zone percolates and would allow for higher loading rates where indicated. Lime-stabilized biosolids (100 Mg/ha; 15 to 25% CCE) have also been used to permanently stabilize and revegetate large areas (> 100 ha) acid-sulfate (pH USA have indicated no significant heavy metal leaching or plant uptake risks as long as sludge quality and soil pH are controlled. Finally, long-term (10 yr) results from Katowice, Poland, indicate that high rates (> 250 Mg/ha) of biosolids co-applied with waste limes can be utilized to permanently stabilize and revegetate a wide range of phytotoxic and heavily contaminated Pb/Zn smelter slags and processing tailings. Biosolids are generally available at very low cost for land rehabilitation since their cost of transport and application is usually born by the producer or source municipality. Their use is particularly cost-effective when lime-stabilized materials are applied to strongly acidic or metalliferous sites.

  16. RhD-negative donor database and red blood cell 80 ℃ clinical application of cryopreservation%RhD阴性供者信息库与红细胞-80℃深低温保存的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毓明; 柯卫泽; 杨成睿; 刘艳芳

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过建立RhD阴性供者与红细胞-80 ℃深低温保存信息库,分析本地区RhD阴性血型分布状况,合理制备和保存RhD阴性成分血.方法 采集无偿献血者标本,用血型血清学方法 筛选RhD阴性供者,并进行RhD阴性鉴定确认和CcE表型分型,创建RhD阴性供者信息库.按计划制备并用深低温等技术保存RhD阴性成分血.结果 1998年10月~2010年6月共筛查无偿献血者384 334例,最后鉴定确认RhD阴性供者1 126(2.93‰)例.其中A型200例(32.63%)、B型153例(24.96%)、O型203例(33.12%)和AB型57例(9.30%).表型ccdee 369(60.20%)例,Ccdee 179(29.20%)例,CCdee 38(6.20%)例,ccdE 19(3.10%)例,CcdE 8(1.31%)例.10年向临床供应RhD阴性血液1 375单位.结论 建立RhD阴性供者信息库,为输注RhD阴性血的患者,特别是已产生同种抗体患者,提供RhD和CcEe表型相配合的供者血液,有效预防因Rh抗原同种免疫反应所致的各类溶血性输血反应,提高血液输注的疗效.%Objective To establish a information database of RhD negative and red cell 80℃ cryopreservation, analyze the dis tribution of RhD negative blood group in local area, then reasonably make and preserve componential blood of RhD negative. Methods By collecting the blood samples of volunteer blood donors, screen RhD negative donors with serological and identified for RhD-negative confirmation and CcE phenotype, create a RhD-negative donor database. Preparation according to plan and save with deep hypothermia and other technology components RhD negative blood. Results During October 1998 and June 2010,384 334 ca ses of voluntary blood donors were screened, the final and identified as RhD negative donors I 126(2.93 %0). Of which 200 cases of type A (32.63%),B type of 153 cases (24. 96%),O type 203 cases (33. 12%) and AB type 57 cases (9. 30%). Phenotype ccdee 369 cases (60.20%),Ccdee 179 cases (29.20%),CCdee 38 cases (6.20%),ccdE 19 cases (3. 10%) and CcdE 8 cases (1.31

  17. Investigation on 43 cases of patients in Rh (D) -negative blood group%43例住院病人Rh(D)阴性血型调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琼; 陈文珠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution and frequency of Rho ( D ) -negative blood group phenotype of patients in Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Establish the blood group archives of Rh ( D )-negative patients and blood donors.Methods screening Rh( D ) Antigen by Johnson AutoVue Innova matching and automatic blood Analyzer, confirming Rh ( D ) -negative Antigen by indirect antihuman globulin test.And then filtering and classifing With the Rh factor c,C,E and e using test tube method.Results 43 cases of Rh ( D ) negative patients were tested In 16402,including type A of 11,type B of 11,type O of 19,type AB of 3; Rh phenotype were Ccdee 11,ccdee 30,CCdee 2.Conclusions the Rh( D ) negative rate was 0.26%,Conforms to China's Han population of Rh ( D ) -negative rates.It has a very important role in Mastering the Rh ( D ) -negative blood types distribution and frequency on Foshan crowd,establishing blood types archives of Rh( D )-negative,using emergency blood of rare blood type and reducing transfusion reaction of patients with immune.%目的 调查佛山市中医院住院病人Rh (D)阴性血型,了解Rh (D)阴性血型的表现型分布和频率,建立起Rh(D)阴性患者和献血者的血型档案,保证临床安全输血.方法 采用强生AutoVue Innova 全自动血型与配血分析仪对Rh(D)抗原进行初筛检测;初筛阴性者再采用间接抗人球蛋白试验进行确认;确认阴性者用试管法对Rh因子C、c、E、e进行筛选和分型.结果 在16 402人中检出Rh(D)阴性血员43人,其中A型11人,B型11人,O型18人,AB型3人;43人的Rh表现型为:Ccdee 11人,ccdee 30人,CCdee2人.结论 佛山市中医院住院病人Rh(D)阴性率为0.26%,符合我国汉族人口Rh(D)阴性率.掌握佛山市人群Rh(D)阴性血型的分布和频率,建立Rh (D)阴性血型档案,对稀有血型患者的紧急用血及降低免疫性输血反应有非常重要的作用.

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    preliminary results of these analyses in May 2006, at a meeting of BEEs Technical Committee for Air Conditioners. This meeting was attended by a wide array of stakeholder, including industry representatives, engineers and consumer advocates. Comments made by stakeholders at this meeting are incorporated into the final analysis presented in this report. The current analysis begins with the Rating Plan drafted by BEE in 2006, along with an evaluation of the market baseline according to test data submitted by manufacturers. MEPS, label rating levels, and baseline efficiencies are presented in Section 2. First, we compare Indian MEPS with current standards in other countries, and assess their relative stringency. Baseline efficiencies are then used to estimate the fraction of models likely to remain on the market at each phase of the program, and the impact on market-weighted efficiency levels. Section 3 deals with cost-effectiveness of higher efficiency design options. The cost-benefit analysis is grounded in technical parameters provided by industry representatives in India. This data allows for an assessment of financial costs and benefits to consumers as a result of the standards and labeling program. A Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation is used to evaluate the impacts of the program at the unit level, thus providing some insight into the appropriateness of the levels chosen, and additional opportunities for further ratcheting. In addition to LCC, we also calculate payback periods, cost of conserved energy (CCE), and return on investment (ROI). Finally, Section 4 covers national impacts. This is an extension of unit level estimates in the two previous sections. Extrapolation to the national level depends on a forecast of air conditioner purchases (shipments), which we describe here. Following the cost-benefit analysis, we construct several efficiency scenarios including the BEE plan, but also considering further potential for efficiency improvement. These are combined with

  19. Mapping Soil hydrologic features in a semi-arid irrigated area in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aguirre, M.° Teresa; Isidoro, Daniel; Usón, Asunción

    2016-04-01

    Haploxerept (C), Typic Xerorthent (D), and Typic Xerofluvent (E)] and six particle size families [Fine (1), Fine-silty (2), Fine-loamy (3), Coarse-loamy (4), Loamy Superficial (5) and Loamy-skeletal (6)]. Two great soil zones were defined: the more calcic glacis (A and B subgroups) dominated by coarse textures (4-6); and the more gypsic, fine textured valley floors (C, D and E) (1-2-3) with the exception of the superficial gypsic high lands (D5). In all the soils in VID Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) was high (though lower in the valleys) and silt was the main textural fraction. The coarser textured glacis had low Gypsum Content (GC), lower WHC and higher Ks while the valley bottoms had high GC, fine textures and lower Ks. The soil water retention properties (FC and WP) could be calculated from textural properties (clay, and fine silt fractions) and the Ks could be related to sand and GC by means of meaningful PTF's. The use of disaggregated soil information (combined with distributed irrigation data) may lead to improved water balance calculations and suggest management options for a better water use in VID.

  20. Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xianlan [School of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharmaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Guowei; Shi, Ling; Pan, Shanqing [School of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharmaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: liuwei4728@126.com [School of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Key Laboratory of Natural Pharmaceutical & Chemical Biology of Yunnan Province, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Pan, Hiabo [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-08-01

    The formation of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene uses hydrothermal method with urea as reducing agent and nitrogen source. The surface elemental composition of the catalyst was analyzed through XPS, which showed a high content of a total N species (7.12 at.%), indicative of the effective N-doping, present in the form of pyridinic N, pyrrolic N and graphitic N groups. Moreover, Au nanoparticles deposited on ZnO nanocrystals surface, forming Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts, undergo a super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic conversion. Herein, we present Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts impregnated in N-doped graphene sheets through sonication technique of the Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructures. The as-prepared Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructure modified glassy carbon electrode (Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE) was first employed for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AC). The oxidation over-potentials of AA, DA and AC decreased dramatically, and their oxidation peak currents increased significantly at Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene/GCE compared to those obtained at the N-doped graphene/GCE and bare CCE. The peak separations between AA and DA, DA and AC, and AC and AA are large up to 195, 198 and 393 mV, respectively. The calibration curves for AA, DA and AC were obtained in the range of 30.00–13.00 × 10{sup 3}, 2.00–0.18 × 10{sup 3} and 5.00–3.10 × 10{sup 3} μM, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 5.00, 0.40 and 0.80 μM for AA, DA and AC, respectively. - Graphical abstract: A novel Au/ZnO/N-doped graphene hybrid nanostructure was synthesized for the electrochemical evaluation of AA, DA and AC. The formation of N-doped graphene uses hydrothermal method with urea as reducing agent and nitrogen source. Moreover, Au nanoparticles deposited on ZnO nanocrystals surface, forming Au/ZnO hybrid nanocatalysts, undergo a super-hydrophobic to superhydrophilic conversion. We present Au/ZnO hybrid

  1. 临床SYNTAX积分和SYNTAX积分预测复杂冠状动脉性心脏病患者经皮冠状动脉介入治疗预后的对比研究%Comparison of clinical SYNTAX score and SYNTAX score on predicting prognosis of patients with complex coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林; 张宇晨; 玉献鹏; 陈方; 张晓玲; 高阅春; 郭成军; 吕树铮

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较临床SYNTAX积分和SYNTAX积分对冠状动脉性心脏病(简称冠心病)3支病变和/或左主干病变患者经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)预后的预测作用.方法 回顾性分析2007年1月至2008年12月北京安贞医院经造影证实3支病变和/或左主干病变并接受PCI治疗的患者.对每例患者进行SYNTAX积分和临床SYNTAX积分,通过门诊或电话随访患者主要不良心脑血管事件(MACCE),包括全因死亡、非致命性心肌梗死、再次血运重建、中风等.结果 符合入选条件的患者总计190例,其中29例观察到MACCE,MACCE发生率18.5%.多因素分析结果显示,临床SYNTAX积分和SYNTAX积分均为MACCE的独立预测因子[临床SYNTAX积分,风险比(HR):2.07,95%可信区间(CI):1.25 ~3.44,P=0.005:SYNTAX积分,HR:1.86,95%CI:1.14 ~3.06,P=0.014].受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线分析显示,SYNTAX积分曲线下面积(AUC)=0.667 (95% CI:0.564 ~ 0.770,P=0.004),临床SYNTAX积分AUC =0.636(95% CI:0.519 ~0.753,P=0.020),两者均对MACCE有预测价值,加入了年龄肌酐射血分数(ACEF)积分的临床SYNTAX积分未能提高SYNTAX积分对MACCE的预测能力.结论 临床SYNTAX积分和SYNTAX积分均是预测复杂冠心病患者PCI预后的较理想工具,且临床SYNTAX积分并不优于SYNTAX积分.%Objective To compare the value of clinical SYNTAX score and SYNTAX score on predicting the prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with left main and/or three vessel lesion undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention PCI) . Methods The data of CHD patients with left main and/or three vessel lesign undergoing PCI in Anzhen Hospital from January 2007 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient was evaluated with clinical SYNTAX score and SYNTAX score. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events ( MACCE) were follower up by telephone or at outpatient department, including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction

  2. Stream conversion technology and gas condensate field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntadi, Arif

    2012-07-01

    In the last few years, integrated modeling has become a preferred tool in the petroleum industry to manage the value chain of different assets. It is slowly replacing the traditional modeling approach that treats each petroleum asset model separately. Having different discipline models and applications in a single platform will ensure more consistency of the value chain from one asset to another. Integrated modeling also enables engineers to optimize assets, both locally and globally, using an automatic approach. Coupling of different petroleum assets entails transferring and combining petroleum streams from one asset to the others. Stream conversion is a key requirement in integrated modeling because petroleum assets usually have their own fluid model, and it is rare to have a single common fluid model in both the subsurface and surface simulation models. This thesis investigates different stream conversion methods and provides important technologies for integrating different petroleum assets into an integrated asset model. These stream conversions are expected to have highly accurate results and reduce the computational time. Reservoir engineers have utilized both compositional and black-oil reservoir simulations for many years. Due to the CPU-time consideration, the EOS model used in a compositional simulation is normally limited to 6-10 components, a so-called lumped EOS model. We propose a delumping method to generate detailed compositional streams from either black-oil or compositional (lumped-EOS) reservoir simulations, performed as a simple post-processing step. These methods are based on a set of phase-specific and pressure-dependent split factors. The reservoir simulation phase behavior can be approximated by a PVT depletion experiment, such as the CCE depletion experiment. We have used this approach to develop the blackoil and compositional delumping method applied to the reservoir simulation output. The split factors are generated from simulated

  3. Composição corporal e exigências de energia para ganho de peso de caprinos Moxotó em crescimento Body composition and energy requirements for weight gain of growing Moxotó goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliandra Souza Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 26 animais da raça Moxotó, machos não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 15 kg e 7 a 8 meses de idade, alimentados com dieta contendo 2,6 Mcal de energia metabolizável, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição corporal e as exigências de energia para ganho de peso. Ao início do experimento, seis animais foram abatidos e serviram como referência na estimativa da composição corporal e do peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ iniciais. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (alimentação à vontade - AV; e 85, 70 ou 55% do consumo observado no grupo com AV e cinco repetições. Quando o PV dos animais com AV se aproximava de 25 kg, um animal de cada tratamento com restrição alimentar era abatido. Ajustaram-se as equações do logaritmo (log dos conteúdos corporais de gordura (CCG e energia (CCE em função do log do PCVZ. A concentração de água no corpo dos animais experimentais foi baixa, entretanto, as deposições de gordura, proteína e cinzas aumentaram com a maturidade dos animais. Foram observados aumentos de 78,55 para 125,38 g/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de gordura e de 1,90 para 2,34 Mcal/kg de PCVZ nos conteúdos corporais de energia com o aumento de 15 para 25 kg no PV dos animais. Verificou-se relação linear positiva entre a composição em energia do ganho em PCVZ (GPCVZ (Mcal/kg GPCVZ e o PCVZ. Resposta semelhante foi constatada para os conteúdos de gordura no ganho. Os conteúdos corporais de gordura (g e energia (Mcal de caprinos Moxotó aumentam de 14,33 para 22,87 e 0,26 para 0,32 por 100 g de GPCVZ, respectivamente, à medida que aumenta o PCVZ.Twenty-six Moxotó non-castrated males kids, with average 15 kg BW and 7 to 8 mo old, were fed a diet containing 2.6 Mcal/kg ME were used to evaluate the body composition and energy requirements for weight gain. At the beginning of the experiment, six animals were slaughtered as a reference to

  4. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    l'agenda politique du pays. Notre projet de recherche, par le truchement de l'approche des reseaux de politique publique, s'attarde a decrire et a expliquer le processus de la formulation d'une politique particuliere, soit la politique energetique a des fins de protection de l'environnement, elaboree en 1993. Il s'agit de mettre en evidence les facteurs affectant le choix des instruments de ces politiques publiques dans leur contexte national. Ainsi, la question generale de cette recherche est: Comment les phases evolutives de la formation d'un reseau de politique, en l'occurrence le Conseil canadien de l'energie (CCE), menent a des caracteristiques particulieres a ce reseau; et comment celles-ci determinent-elles les types des instruments de politique publique choisis, particulierement ceux de la recente orientation des politiques energetiques canadiennes a des fins environnementales elaborees en 1993? Afin d'atteindre l'objectif de notre recherche, deux facteurs primordiaux sont utilises, soit la circulation de l'information et l'exercice du controle sur les ressources des acteurs. L'analyse des caracteristiques du reseau en fonction des liens forts et des liens faibles autant que la presence ou l'absence des trous structuraux nous permettent de bien identifier les positions des differents acteurs, etatiques et non etatiques, sur le plan de l'information et du controle, qui a leur tour, nous semble-t-il, constituent des facteurs affectant les types des instruments des politiques publiques choisis: instruments substantifs, qui indiquent le degre de l'intervention du gouvernement, et instruments proceduraux, qui mettent plutot l'accent sur le degre de l'influence du gouvernement sur les acteurs non etatiques. L'etude soutient que l'approche des reseaux se distingue notamment par son potentiel a expliquer l'interrelation relative entre idees, interets et institutions, ce qui a son tour est susceptible de permettre une meilleure comprehension des processus de l

  5. THE PROPHET MOHAMMAD IN NÂBÎ’S HAYRİYYE/NÂBÎ’NİN HAYRİYYE’SİNDE HZ. PEYGAMBER

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    Vesile ALBAYRAK SAK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The prophet Mohammad, who is the first interlocutor of the Quran and has a lot of refecence in it, has taken his place in our literary works and affected them in a great way since the Turks have accepted Islam, and there have been various Works about the prophet Mohammad for centuries. Numerous and various works that are closely related with him, have been set pen to paper due to the sincere love for him; therefore every aspect of his life and everything about him can be found in our literature. One can come across with subjects related with the prophet in many works which are not even directly related with him. The 17th century poet Nabi who is considered to be one of the most important represantatives of Hikemi type and whose work, Hayriyye, written for his son Ebu’l-Hayr Mehmed Çelebi in Halep consisting of 35 chapters and 1660 couplets is of those works. Nâbî joined in the tradition of writing a Naat, too, which is an indicator of Divan poets’ love for our prophet Mohammad and their knowledge about his life. Nâbî’s Mesnevi, like other similar works, starts with praise to the God, but the couplets between 39 and 65 are naats. In the work, there are some Arabic and Persian words and compositions, the Prophet’s names and attributes, the purpose of creation, being a prophet of the God, his superiority to other prophets and his examplary life are studied by means of verses from the Quran and hadiths. In addition to his propher nouns, gevher-i mâ-hasal-ı lücce-i cûd (a pearl in the sea of generousity, fâtih-i dahme-i gencîne-i nûr (opener of treasure trove of divine glory, nûr-ı bâlâ-keş-i kandîl-i kader (long drawn divine light of fate, sultân-ı serîr-i âlem (the Sultan of the universe, şâh-ı manî (the Sultan of meaning, meyve-i nüh-tabak-ı bâğ-ı vücûd (a fruit in the nineth floor of sky gardens, rûh-ı cihân (the spirit of the universe etc, and in many couplets, some words like divine light, pearl

  6. Neoplasias do trato alimentar superior de bovinos associadas ao consumo espontâneo de samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum Neoplasms of the upper digestive tract of cattle associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum

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    Marione A. Moreira Souto

    2006-06-01

    /orofaringe, epiglote, média (terços cranial, médio e caudal do esôfago e caudal (entrada do rúmen e rúmen do TAS, observou-se que a localização era cranial em 39% dos casos, média em 16%, e caudal em 45%. Utilizando-se esse mesmo critério de agrupamento, porém considerando o número total de vezes em que CCEs (de tamanhos variados foram diagnosticados nas regiões cranial, média e caudal, os números alteraram-se para 34, 26 e 40%, respectivamente. As evidências epidemiológicas e histomorfológicas relatadas neste estudo reforçam as observações de uma estreita correlação entre a infecção pelo papiloma-vírus bovino tipo 4, causador da papilomatose digestiva, e a co-carcinogênese química dos princípios tóxicos da samambaia na patogênese dos CCEs do TAS de bovinos. Entretanto, a presença de alterações pré-neoplásicas (áreas de displasia, áreas de CCE in situ ou CCEs em estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento, independentemente da presença de papilomas no local, mostram claramente ser possível o desenvolvimento de CCEs diretamente do epitélio normal, possivelmente por uma ação direta dos carcinó-genos químicos da samambaia.Thirty bovine with neoplasms of the upper digestive tract (UDT associated with spontaneous ingestion of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum were studied. They were from 27 farms, located in the municipalities of Jaguari (23 and Nova Esperança do Sul (4, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The total cattle population in those farms was 1,090 and large amounts of bracken fern were found in the pastures. Twenty-six of the affected cattle were cows and four were castrated males, 3-13 years of age; most of them were 7-8 years old (46,6%. Clinical signs observed in the affected animals were progressive weight loss, absence of ruminal movements, cough, dysphagia, regurgitation, halitosis, diarrhea, and bloat. Less frequent signs were selective appetite, dyspnea, and salivation. Two bovine died and 28 were submitted to euthanasia in advanced stage

  7. Aspectos clínico-hematológicos e lesões vesicais na intoxicação crônica espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle

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    Adriane L. Gabriel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados casos espontâneos de intoxicação crônica por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos nas formas clinicopatológicas de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE no trato alimentar superior (TAS e de hematúria enzoótica bovina (HEB, provenientes da Mesorregião Centro Ocidental Rio-Grandense e encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Para o estudo clínico foram avaliados os sinais clínicos de bovinos com CCEs no TAS e com HEB e realizados hemogramas na fase terminal da doença. Os principais sinais clínicos nos bovinos com CCEs no TAS foram emagrecimento progressivo, atonia ruminal, tosse, disfagia, timpanismo e regurgitação. Nos bovinos com HEB, hematúria foi o principal sinal, observado em todos os casos, seguido de emagrecimento progressivo. No exame hematológico, 33,33% dos bovinos com CCEs no TAS e 66,67% dos bovinos com HEB apresentaram anemia arregenerativa. Alterações no leucograma ocorreram em alguns casos, mas linfopenia foi um achado infreqüente em ambas as formas de intoxicação. Para o estudo morfológico, foram avaliadas as bexigas de 46 bovinos com CCEs no TAS e de 11 bovinos com HEB. Macroscopicamente, 16/46 bexigas dos casos de CCEs no TAS apresentaram alterações macroscópicas, que consistiam nódulos vermelhos ou pálidos, hemorragia e papilomas; urina vermelha foi observada na necropsia de apenas três casos. Nos casos de HEB, os achados macroscópicos vesicais foram nódulos vermelhos, massas neoplásicas focalmente extensas, urina vermelha, papilomas, hemorragias e ruptura de bexiga; pielonefrite e hidronefrose foram observados em poucos casos. Histologicamente, 44/46 (95,65% bexigas de bovinos com CCEs no TAS apresentaram 22 tipos diferentes de alterações morfológicas, que foram classificadas em alterações neoplásicas (5/22 e alterações não-neoplásicas (17/22; essas últimas foram divididas em alterações epiteliais n