WorldWideScience

Sample records for ccd-based x-ray detectors

  1. Development of large-area CCD-based x-ray detector for macromolecular crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokric, M.; Allinson, Nigel M.; Jorden, Anthony R.; Cox, Matthew P.; Marshall, Andrew R.; Long, P. G.; Moon, Kevin; Jerram, Paul; Pool, Peter J.; Nave, Colin; Derbyshire, Gareth E.; Helliwell, John R.

    1999-10-01

    The design and development of an area CCD-based X-ray detector system, using the first CCD imagers specially designed for macromolecular crystallography, is presented. The system is intended to produce the highest quality data for physically small crystals at synchrotron sources through the use of large CCDs--that is approaching wafer scale. This work is part of a large research and development program for advanced X-ray sensor technology, funded by industry and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council in the UK. The detector has been optimized by increasing its efficiency at low X-ray energies for conventional laboratory sources, and offers fast readout and high dynamic range needed for efficient measurements at synchrotron sources. The detector consists of CCDs optically coupled to a X-ray sensitive phosphor via skewed fiber-optic studs. The individual three- sides buttable CCD consists of 2048 X 1536 27 micrometers square pixels (55.3 X 41.5 mm). The pixel size has been optimized to match diffraction spot profiling needs and the high dynamic range required for such applications. The multiple amplifier outputs possess switched responsivity to maximize the trade-off between signal handling capabilities and linearity. The readout noise is 5 electrons rms at a 1 MHz pixel rate at the high responsivity setting. A prototype detector system comprising two close-butted cooled CCDs is being developed. This system employs a high-efficiency scintillator with very low point spread function, skewed optical-fiber studs (instead of the more usual demagnifying tapers) to maximize the system's detective quantum efficiency and minimize optical distortions. Full system specifications and a novel crystallographic data processing are presented.

  2. CCD-based vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Damerell, C J S

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, CCD-based vertex detectors have been used to construct some of the most precise 'tracking microscopes' in particle physics. They were initially used by the ACCMOR collaboration for fixed target experiments in CERN, where they enabled the lifetimes of some of the shortest-lived charm particles to be measured precisely. The migration to collider experiments was accomplished in the SLD experiment, where the original 120 Mpixel detector was later upgraded to one with 307 Mpixels. This detector was used in a range of physics studies which exceeded the capability of the LEP detectors, including the most precise limit to date on the Bs mixing parameter. This success, and the high background hit densities that will inevitably be encountered at the future TeV-scale linear collider, have established the need for a silicon pixel-based vertex detector at this machine. The technical options have now been broadened to include a wide range of possible silicon imaging technologies as well as CCDs (mon...

  3. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  4. Detector development for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, M. A.; Herr, D. A.; Brewer, K. J.; Ojason, N.; Tarpine, H. A.

    2010-02-01

    X-ray imaging requires unique optical detector system configuration for optimization of image quality, resolution, and contrast ratio. A system is described whereby x-ray photons from multiple anode sources create a series of repetitive images on fast-decay scintillator screens, from which an intensified image is transferred to a fast phosphor on a GEN II image intensifier and collected as a cineradiographic video with high speed digital imagery. The work addresses scintillator material formulation, flash x-ray implementation, image intensification, and high speed video processing and display. Novel determination of optimal scintillator absorption, x-ray energy and dose relationships, contrast ratio determination, and test results are presented.

  5. X-ray detectors for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M.J.; Rowlands, J.A. [Imaging Research Program, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Digital radiography offers the potential of improved image quality as well as providing opportunities for advances in medical image management, computer-aided diagnosis and teleradiology. Image quality is intimately inked to the precise and accurate acquisition of information from the x-ray beam transmitted by the patient, i.e. to the performance of the x-ray detector. Detectors for digital radiography must meet the needs of the specific radiological procedure where they will be used. Key parameters are partial resolution, uniformity of response, contrast sensitivity, dynamic range, acquisition speed and frame rate. The underlying physical considerations defining the performance of x-ray detectors for radiography will be reviewed. Some of the more promising existing and experimental detector technologies which may be suitable for digital radiography will be considered. Devices that can be employed in full-area detectors and also those more appropriate for scanning x-ray systems will be discussed. These include various approaches based on phosphor x-ray converters, where light quanta are produced as an intermediate stage, as well as direct -ray-to-charge conversion materials such as zinc cadmium telluride, amorphous selenium and crystalline silicon. (author)

  6. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  7. A new pnCCD-based color X-ray camera for fast spatial and energy-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordavo, I., E-mail: ivan.ordavo@pnsensor.de [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); PNDetector GmbH, Emil-Nolde-Strasse 10, 81735 Muenchen (Germany); Ihle, S. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Arkadiev, V. [Institut fuer angewandte Photonik e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Scharf, O. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Soltau, H. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Buzanich, G. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Gubzhokov, R.; Guenther, A. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, R.; Holl, P. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Kimmel, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Muenchen (Germany); Kuehbacher, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lang, M. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstrasse 28, 80803 Muenchen (Germany); Langhoff, N. [IFG - Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Liebel, A. [PNDetector GmbH, Emil-Nolde-Strasse 10, 81735 Muenchen (Germany); Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    We present a new high resolution X-ray imager based on a pnCCD detector and a polycapillary optics. The properties of the pnCCD like high quantum efficiency, high energy resolution and radiation hardness are maintained, while color corrected polycapillary lenses are used to direct the fluorescence photons from every spot on a sample to a corresponding pixel on the detector. The camera is sensitive to photons from 3 to 40 keV with still 30% quantum efficiency at 20 keV. The pnCCD is operated in split frame mode allowing a high frame rate of 400 Hz with an energy resolution of 152 eV for Mn K{alpha} (5.9 keV) at 450 kcps. In single-photon counting mode (SPC), the time, energy and position of every fluorescence photon is recorded for every frame. A dedicated software enables the visualization of the elements distribution in real time without the need of post-processing the data. A description of the key components including detector, X-ray optics and camera is given. First experiments show the capability of the camera to perform fast full-field X-Ray Fluorescence (FF-XRF) for element analysis. The imaging performance with a magnifying optics (3x) has also been successfully tested.

  8. X-ray spectrometry using polycapillary X-ray optics and position sensitive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Xie, J; He, Y; Pan, Q; Yan, Y

    2000-10-02

    Polycapillary X-ray optics (capillary X-ray lens) are now popular in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Such an X-ray lens can collect X-rays emitted from an X-ray source in a large solid angle and form a very intense X-ray microbeam which is very convenient for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) analysis giving low minimum detection limits (MDLs) in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). A new method called position sensitive X-ray spectrometry (PSXS) which combines an X-ray lens used to form an intense XRF source and a position sensitive detector (PSD) used for wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS) measurement was developed recently in the X-ray Optics Laboratory of Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics (ILENP) at Beijing Normal University. Such a method can give high energy and spacial resolution and high detection efficiency simultaneously. A short view of development of both the EDXRF using a capillary X-ray lens and the new PSXS is given in this paper.

  9. On the ultimate x-ray detector for angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; Flynn, M.J.; Kauffman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe the ultimate X-ray detector for angiography. Angiography is a well established X-ray imaging technique for the examination of blood vessels. Contrast agent is injected followed by X-ray exposures and possible obstructions in the blood vessels can be

  10. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Radiation Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a semiconductor radiation detector for detecting X-ray and / or gamma-ray radiation. The detector comprises a converter element for converting incident X-ray and gamma-ray photons into electron-hole pairs, at least one cathode, a plurality of detector electrodes arranged with a pitch...

  11. New Detector Development for X-ray Astronomy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose to continue our detector development program in X-ray astronomy. Under our current grant we are developing a new type of active pixel detector. The...

  12. Small Pixel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel; Bray, Evan; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria; Wages, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    Concepts for future space-based X-ray observatories call for a large effective area and high angular resolution instrument to enable precision X-ray astronomy at high redshift and low luminosity. Hybrid CMOS detectors are well suited for such high throughput instruments, and the Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors, has recently developed new small pixel hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors. These prototype 128x128 pixel devices have 12.5 micron pixel pitch, 200 micron fully depleted depth, and include crosstalk eliminating CTIA amplifiers and in-pixel correlated double sampling (CDS) capability. We report on characteristics of these new detectors, including the best read noise ever measured for an X-ray hybrid CMOS detector, 5.67 e- (RMS).

  13. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki Hatsui; Heinz Graafsma

    2015-01-01

    Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivit...

  14. Evaluation of dual-energy radiography with a digital x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, Regis; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Darboux, Michel; Gagelin, Jean J.; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2001-06-01

    Dual-energy imaging has been proposed as a method for producing material-specific images, thus permitting separate examination of bone and soft-tissue structures. Interesting clinical results, particularly for chest, have been presented usually for screen-film or phosphor plate detectors and with single exposure. The purpose of the paper is to investigate double exposure dual-energy with a digital X-Ray detector. The study is performed with a CCD-based large field digital X-Ray detector (Paladio detector, Apelem) installed on a remote table. Dual exposure is feasible on this detector with little registration problem because we have a very short delay (X-ray tube filtrations. X-ray generator energy voltages and filtrations are optimized in order to obtain thin energy peak spectra with good spectral separation (50 keV), much better than with single exposure systems. Tissue decomposition images are estimated from both acquisitions. The decomposition process is helped by the nice spectral separation. Scatter correction, applied to the raw dual-exposure acquisitions, provides an improvement of tissue decomposition. Results are shown for a chest phantom.

  15. X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Martin; Bunk, O.; David, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the application of the PILATUS 100K pixel detector for medical imaging. Experimental results are presented in the form of X-ray radiographs using standard X-ray absorption contrast and a recently developed phase contrast imaging method. The results obtained with the PILATUS detector...... are compared to results obtained with a conventional X-ray imaging system consisting of an X-ray scintillation screen, lens optics, and a charge coupled device. Finally, the results for both systems are discussed more quantitatively based on an image power spectrum analysis. Udgivelsesdato: April...

  16. X-ray imaging detectors for synchrotron and XFEL sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki Hatsui

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current trends for X-ray imaging detectors based on hybrid and monolithic detector technologies are reviewed. Hybrid detectors with photon-counting pixels have proven to be very powerful tools at synchrotrons. Recent developments continue to improve their performance, especially for higher spatial resolution at higher count rates with higher frame rates. Recent developments for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL experiments provide high-frame-rate integrating detectors with both high sensitivity and high peak signal. Similar performance improvements are sought in monolithic detectors. The monolithic approach also offers a lower noise floor, which is required for the detection of soft X-ray photons. The link between technology development and detector performance is described briefly in the context of potential future capabilities for X-ray imaging detectors.

  17. The color of X-rays: Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schioppa, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray

  18. Development of high resolution imaging detectors for x ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    This final report summarizes our past activities and discusses the work performed over the period of 1 April 1990 through 1 April 1991 on x-ray optics, soft x-ray (0.1 - 10 KeV) imaging detectors, and hard x-ray (10 - 300 KeV) imaging detectors. If microchannel plates (MCPs) can be used to focus x-rays with a high efficiency and good angular resolution, they will revolutionize the field of x-ray optics. An x-ray image of a point source through an array of square MCP pores compared favorably with our ray tracing model for the MCP. Initial analysis of this image demonstrates the feasibility of MCPs for soft x-rays. Our work continues with optimizing the performance of our soft x-ray MCP imaging detectors. This work involves readout technology that should provide improved MCP readout devices (thin film crossed grid, curved, and resistive sheets), defect removal in MCPs, and photocathode optimization. In the area of hard x-ray detector development we have developed two different techniques for producing a CsI photocathode thickness of 10 to 100 microns, such that it is thick enough to absorb the high energy x-rays and still allow the photoelectrons to escape to the top MCP of a modified soft x-ray imaging detector. The methods involve vacuum depositing a thick film of CsI on a strong back, and producing a converter device that takes the place of the photocathode.

  19. Accurate determination of segmented X-ray detector geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefanov, Oleksandr; Mariani, Valerio; Gati, Cornelius; White, Thomas A.; Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in X-ray detector technology have resulted in the introduction of segmented detectors composed of many small detector modules tiled together to cover a large detection area. Due to mechanical tolerances and the desire to be able to change the module layout to suit the needs of different experiments, the pixels on each module might not align perfectly on a regular grid. Several detectors are designed to permit detector sub-regions (or modules) to be moved relative to each other for different experiments. Accurate determination of the location of detector elements relative to the beam-sample interaction point is critical for many types of experiment, including X-ray crystallography, coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and spectroscopy. For detectors with moveable modules, the relative positions of pixels are no longer fixed, necessitating the development of a simple procedure to calibrate detector geometry after reconfiguration. We describe a simple and robust method for determining the geometry of segmented X-ray detectors using measurements obtained by serial crystallography. By comparing the location of observed Bragg peaks to the spot locations predicted from the crystal indexing procedure, the position, rotation and distance of each module relative to the interaction region can be refined. We show that the refined detector geometry greatly improves the results of experiments. PMID:26561117

  20. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T

    1999-01-01

    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  1. Tutorial on X-ray photon counting detector characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-16

    Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism. Currently available methods and techniques for charactering major aspects including energy response, noise floor, energy resolution, count rate performance (detector efficiency), and charge sharing effect of photon counting detectors are comprehensively reviewed. Other characterization aspects such as point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF), contrast transfer function (CTF), modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), bias voltage, radiation damage, and polarization effect are also remarked. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) pixelated photon counting detector is employed for part of the characterization demonstration and the results are presented. This review can serve as a tutorial for X-ray imaging researchers and investigators to understand, operate, characterize, and optimize photon counting detectors for a variety of applications.

  2. Recent X-ray hybrid CMOS detector developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Burrows, David N.; Wages, Mitchell; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; McQuaide, Maria; Bray, Evan; Kern, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS), have progressed their efforts to improve soft X-ray Hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) technology on multiple fronts. Having newly acquired a Teledyne cryogenic SIDECARTM ASIC for use with HxRG devices, measurements were performed with an H2RG HCD and the cooled SIDECARTM. We report new energy resolution and read noise measurements, which show a significant improvement over room temperature SIDECARTM operation. Further, in order to meet the demands of future high-throughput and high spatial resolution X-ray observatories, detectors with fast readout and small pixel sizes are being developed. We report on characteristics of new X-ray HCDs with 12.5 micron pitch that include in-pixel CDS circuitry and crosstalk-eliminating CTIA amplifiers. In addition, PSU and TIS are developing a new large-scale array Speedster-EXD device. The original 64 × 64 pixel Speedster-EXD prototype used comparators in each pixel to enable event driven readout with order of magnitude higher effective readout rates, which will now be implemented in a 550 × 550 pixel device. Finally, the detector lab is involved in a sounding rocket mission that is slated to fly in 2018 with an off-plane reflection grating array and an H2RG X-ray HCD. We report on the planned detector configuration for this mission, which will increase the NASA technology readiness level of X-ray HCDs to TRL 9.

  3. X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment probing hypothetical particles: the axions, created in the solar core. Inside the transverse magnetic field of the CAST magnet, axions can be converted into x-rays, and be detected by four x-ray detectors at CAST. The expected x-ray signal in CAST is in 1-10 keV range, intensity depending strongly on the coupling constant of axion-photon conversion gaγ, which is expected to be low. This requires CAST to have detectors with very low background levels. The CAST Experiment makes use of three Micromesh Gaseous Structure (micromegas) detectors, which are gaseous detectors, derived from ideas of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC). CAST Micromegas detectors show perfect stability, good spatial and energy resolution. The intense study on Micromegas has enabled CAST to understand the nature of its background level, and improve it by a factor of 102 over ten years. New detector design, new readout system, better cosmic veto and addition of x-ray telescope will further improve the background in the next data taking of the experiment. The Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) of CAST is a pn-CCD detector with 200 × 64 pixels. The CAST CCD is coupled to an X-ray telescope, focusing all the parallel x-rays into a 9 mm diameter spot. The CCD will be replaced by the InGrid detector, a special manufactured micromegas detector. It is able to detect single electrons, and the low energy capabilities will open new frontiers on search of axions and other exotic particles. Another option is the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), which is being tested in 2013, and has an energy threshold as low as 250 eV. The CAST experiment is the pioneering helioscope that excludes an important part of axion mass-coupling constant parameter space, and expects to exclude more in the following years. To succeed CAST, a new experiment, the International AXion Observatory (IAXO) is being designed and optimised, comprising the construction of a magnet specially built

  4. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  5. Novel X-Ray Detectors for Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, W.; Hell, E.; Mattern, D.

    1999-08-01

    A number of different imaging systems are in use in X-ray medical diagnostics (e.g. digital radiography or computer tomography). The design goal of these imaging systems is to optimally use the information contained in X-ray quanta that have passed through the patient. The best image quality, as well as the minimisation of the X-ray dose applied to the patient are of prime importance. We report about innovations for novel detectors which reduce the X-ray dose and improve the image quality simultaneously. Advances in thin film electronics have permitted the development of large a-Si:H imaging arrays to design fat panel solid state detectors (short FD, up to 45 × 45 cm 2) for both digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The proposed detector consists of a CsI:T1 needle shaped scintillation crystal layer (thickness: 450 μm, needle diameter ˜ 10 μm) in front of an a-Si:H-panel. The Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) is about 65% (at spatial frequency zero) and spatial resolution is 2.8 lp/mm at 20% of the MTF and 6.2 lp/mm at 4%. In computed tomography (CT), a new geenration of linear detector array consists of Gadolinium Oxysulfid (GOS) ceramic scintillator elements, glued onto photodiodes. Important criteria for the selection of the detector material are good absorption of the incident X-rays (α > 95%) and high efficiency of conversion of the absorbed radiation energy to an electrical signal. A very short decay time to extremely low levels of afterglow is an advantage for the very short scanning times in CT. One gets a DQE (at 0 mm -1) about 80%. The next step toward dose reduction could be implemented by the application of monochromatic instead of polychromatic X-rays. This would additionally improve the DQE and thus enhance image quality. In addition, with the application of monochromatic X-rays, scattered radiation could be suppressed to a large extent by energy-selective single photon measurement, without loss of unscattered photons. At present, large area

  6. Novel X-ray detectors for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuepfer, W.; Hell, E.; Mattern, D

    1999-08-01

    A number of different imaging systems are in use in X-ray medical diagnostics (e. g. digital radiography or computer tomography). The design goal of these imaging systems is to optimally use the information contained in X-ray quanta that have passed through the patient. The best image quality, as well as the minimisation of the X-ray dose applied to the patient are of prime importance. We report about innovations for novel detectors which reduce the X-ray dose and improve the image quality simultaneously. Advances in thin film electronics have permitted the development of large a-Si:H imaging arrays to design flat panel solid state detectors (short FD, up to 45 x 45 cm{sup 2}) for both digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The proposed detector consists of a CsI:Tl needle shaped scintillation crystal layer (thickness: 450 {upsilon}m, needle diameter {approx} 10 {upsilon}m) in front of an a-Si:H-panel. The Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) is about 65% (at spatial frequency zero) and spatial resolution is 2.8 lp/mm at 20% of the MTF and 6.2 lp/mm at 4%. In computed tomography (CT), a new generation of linear detector array consists of Gadolinium Oxysulfid (GOS) ceramic scintillator elements, glued onto photodiodes. Important criteria for the selection of the detector material are good absorption of the incident X-rays ({alpha} > 95%) and high efficiency of conversion of the absorbed radiation energy to an electrical signal. A very short decay time to extremely low levels of afterglow is an advantage for the very short scanning times in CT. One gets a DQE (at 0 mm{sup -1}) about 80%. The next step toward dose reduction could be implemented by the application of monochromatic instead of polychromatic X-rays. This would additionally improve the DQE and thus enhance image quality. In addition, with the application of monochromatic X-rays, scattered radiation could be suppressed to a large extent by energy-selective single photon measurement, without loss of unscattered

  7. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  8. On the ultimate x-ray detector for angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; Kauffman, Joost A.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe the ultimate X-ray detector for angiography. Angiography is a well established X-ray imaging technique for the examination of blood vessels. Contrast agent is injected followed by X-ray exposures and possible obstructions in the blood vessels can be visualized. Standard angiography primarily inspects for possible occlusions and views the vessels as rigid pipes. However, due to the beating heart the flow in arteries is pulsatile. Healthy arteries are not rigid tubes but adapt to various pressure and flow conditions. Our interest is in the (small) response of the artery on the pulse flow. If the arteries responses elastically on the pulse flow, we can expect that it is still healthy. So the detection of artery diameter variations is of interest for the detection of atherosclerosis in an early stage. In this contribution we specify and test a model X-ray detector for its abilities to record the responses of arteries on pulsatile propagating flow distributions. Under normal physiological conditions vessels respond with a temporal increase in arterial internal cross-sectional area of order 10%. This pulse flow propagates along the arteries in response of the left ventricle ejections. We show results of the detection of simulated vessel distensabilities for the model detector and discuss salient parameters features.

  9. Recent developments in X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Moy, J P

    2000-01-01

    The replacement of the radiographic film in medical imaging has been the driving force in X-ray imaging developments. It requires a approx 40 cm wide detector to cover all examinations, an equivalent noise level of 1-5 X-ray quanta per pixel, and spatial resolution in the range 100-150 mu m. The need for entirely electronic imaging equipments has fostered the development of many X-ray detectors, most of them based on an array of amorphous silicon pixels, which is the only technology capable to achieve such large areas. Essentially, two concepts have been implemented: - intermediate conversion of X-rays to light by a scintillator, detected by an array of light sensitive pixels, comprising a photodiode and a switching device, either a TFT or a diode. - conversion into electron-hole pairs in a photoconductor, collected by an array of electrodes and switches. In both cases, charge amplifiers read the generated charges line by line. Scintillator and photoconductor-based systems are now close to production. They ac...

  10. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  11. The Solid-State X-Ray Image Intensifier (SSXII): An EMCCD-Based X-Ray Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Yadava, Girijesh; Patel, Vikas; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappoi...

  12. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector was ...

  13. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector ...

  14. Self-propelled x-ray flaw detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, L.S.; Krasilnikov, S.B.; Lozovoi, L.N.; Losev, J.F.; Morgovsky, L.Y.; Pelix, E.A.; Khakimyanov, R.R.

    1988-10-19

    A self-propelled X-ray flaw detector for radiographic inspection of welded joints in pipelines comprises a carriage mounting a motor, a detector having two Geiger counters, a pulsed X-ray generator, and an exposure and carriage electronic control system. A memory unit in the control system has four storage elements containing information about the motion of the carriage. As the carriage moves in direction A, first one and then the other of the Geiger counters receives radiation from an isotope source positioned near a joint, and by means of logic circuitry in the control system, the information in the storage elements is modified to stop the carriage and to operate a timer to expose the weld. During exposure the X-rays may interfere with the information in the storage elements, but by means of a square-wave generator and the logic circuitry, the stored information is correctly reset in order to eliminate false operation of the memory unit.

  15. Pulse pile-up in hard X-ray detector systems. [for solar X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datlowe, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    When pulse-height spectra are measured by a nuclear detection system at high counting rates, the probability that two or more pulses will arrive within the resolving time of the system is significant. This phenomenon, pulse pile-up, distorts the pulse-height spectrum and must be considered in the interpretation of spectra taken at high counting rates. A computational technique for the simulation of pile-up is developed. The model is examined in the three regimes where (1) the time between pulses is long compared to the detector-system resolving time, (2) the time between pulses is comparable to the resolving time, and (3) many pulses occur within the resolving time. The technique is used to model the solar hard X-ray experiment on the OSO-7 satellite; comparison of the model with data taken during three large flares shows excellent agreement. The paper also describes rule-of-thumb tests for pile-up and identifies the important detector design factors for minimizing pile-up, i.e., thick entrance windows and short resolving times in the system electronics.

  16. Hybrid Pixel Detectors for gamma/X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Zografos, V.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Lambropoulos, C. P.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are made by direct converting high-Z semi-insulating single crystalline material coupled to complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) readout electronics. They are attractive because direct conversion exterminates all the problems of spatial localization related to light diffusion, energy resolution, is far superior from the combination of scintillation crystals and photomultipliers and lithography can be used to pattern electrodes with very fine pitch. We are developing 2-D pixel CMOS ASICs, connect them to pixilated CdTe crystals with the flip chip and bump bonding method and characterize the hybrids. We have designed a series of circuits, whose latest member consists of a 50×25 pixel array with 400um pitch and an embedded controller. In every pixel a full spectroscopic channel with time tagging information has been implemented. The detectors are targeting Compton scatter imaging and they can be used for coded aperture imaging too. Hybridization using CMOS can overcome the limit put on pixel circuit complexity by the use of thin film transistors (TFT) in large flat panels. Hybrid active pixel sensors are used in dental imaging and other applications (e.g. industrial CT etc.). Thus X-ray imaging can benefit from the work done on dynamic range enhancement methods developed initially for visible and infrared CMOS pixel sensors. A 2-D CMOS ASIC with 100um pixel pitch to demonstrate the feasibility of such methods in the context of X-ray imaging has been designed.

  17. Geometry calibration between X-ray source and detector for tomosynthesis with a portable X-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohei; Ohnishi, Takashi; Sekine, Masashi; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2017-05-01

    Tomosynthesis is attracting attention as a low-dose tomography technology compared with X-ray CT. However, conventional tomosynthesis imaging devices are large and stationary. Furthermore, there is a limitation in the working range of the X-ray source during image acquisition. We have previously proposed the use of a portable X-ray device for tomosynthesis that can be used for ward rounds and emergency medicine. The weight of this device can be reduced by using a flat panel detector (FPD), and flexibility is realized by the free placement of the X-ray source and FPD. Tomosynthesis using a portable X-ray device requires calibration of the geometry between the X-ray source and detector at each image acquisition. We propose a method for geometry calibration and demonstrate tomosynthesis image reconstruction by this method. An image processing-based calibration method using an asymmetric and multilayered calibration object (AMCO) is presented. Since the AMCO is always attached to the X-ray source housing for geometry calibration, the additional setting of a calibration object or marker around or on the patients is not required. The AMCO's multilayer structure improves the calibration accuracy, especially in the out-of-plane direction. Two experiments were conducted. The first was performed to evaluate the calibration accuracy using an XY positioning stage and a gonio stage. As a result, an accuracy of approximately 1 mm was achieved both in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. An angular accuracy of approximately [Formula: see text] was confirmed. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the reconstructed image using a foot model phantom. Only the sagittal plane could be clearly observed with the proposed method. We proposed a tomosynthesis imaging system using a portable X-ray device. From the experimental results, the proposed method could provide sufficient calibration accuracy and a clear sagittal plane of the reconstructed tomosynthesis image.

  18. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella, E-mail: carini@slac.stanford.edu; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    This paper offers an overview of area detectors developed for use at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with particular emphasis on their impact on science. The experimental needs leading to the development of second-generation cameras for LCLS are discussed and the new detector prototypes are presented. Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.

  19. The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII): an EMCCD-based x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Yadava, Girijesh; Patel, Vikas; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappointing for low-exposure-per-frame procedures due to excessive instrumentation-noise. XIIs and FPDs both have limited resolution capabilities of ~3 cycles/mm. To overcome these limitations a prototype SSXII module has been developed, consisting of a 1k x 1k, 8 μm pixel EMCCD with a fiber-optic input window, which views a 350 μm thick CsI(Tl) phosphor via a 4:1 magnifying fiber-optic-taper (FOT). Arrays of such modules will provide a larger field-of- view. Detector MTF, DQE, and instrumentation-noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were measured to evaluate the SSXIIs performance using a standard x-ray spectrum (IEC RQA5), allowing for comparison with current state-of-the-art detectors. The MTF was 0.20 at 3 cycles/mm, comparable to standard detectors, and better than 0.05 up to 7 cycles/mm, well beyond current capabilities. DQE curves indicate no degradation from high-angiographic to low-fluoroscopic exposures (images between detector technologies qualitatively demonstrate these improved imaging capabilities provided by the SSXII.

  20. CdZnTe detector in diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Satoshi; Imagawa, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Masao

    2002-07-01

    A method to utilize CdZnTe (CZT) detectors in diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy is described in this article. Spectral distortion due to transmission of primary x rays, the escape of cadmium- and tellurium-K fluorescent x rays, and tailing was severe in measured x-ray spectra. Therefore, correction for the distortion was performed with the stripping method using response functions. The response functions were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. The Hecht equation was employed to approximate the effects of carrier trapping in the calculations. The parameters in the Hecht equation, the mean-free path (lambda) of electrons and holes, were determined such that the tailing in calculated response functions fit that in measured gamma-ray spectra. Corrected x-ray spectra agreed well with the reference spectra measured with an HPGe detector. The results indicate that CZT detectors are suitable for diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy with appropriate corrections.

  1. Status report of the hard x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shin'ya; HXD Team

    2012-03-01

    The current status and the improvements of in-orbit calibration in the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board Suzaku are presented. We have been extensively monitoring and calibrating the in-orbit HXD performance, and succeeded in keeping all the sensors working property without any significant troubles since the launch. To reduce the increasing thermal noise events due to radiation damage in the HXD-PIN, we have raised the analog/digital threshold levels and updated the corresponding responses of the PIN. Performing the calibration of the energy scale of the GSO, we have improved the accuracy of the energy scale and modeling of gain variations, and released the reprocessed data/background and the responses since April of 2010. These revised data of the GSO is usable down to 50 keV, consequently allowing us to utilize overlapping energy ranges of 50-70 keV between the PIN and the GSO. Based on these improvements, we have reproduced the HXD spectra of the Crab Nebula over 10-500 keV with the broken power law with a cutoff at about 120 keV.

  2. X-ray detector physics and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in X-ray and hard X-ray imaging detector, high-intensity sources, hard X-ray imaging optics, calibration, and detection technologies are discussed. Particular attention is given to a high-MTF X-ray image intensifier, application of monolithic CdZnTe linear solid state ionization detectors for X-ray imaging, magnetic response of high-Tc superconductors to X-ray radiation and detection of X-rays, laboratory soft X-ray source with foil target, detection of explosive materials using nuclear radiation, energy response of astronomical CCD X-ray detectors, calibration techniques for high-flux X-ray detectors, fabrication of grazing-incidence optics using flow-polishing techniques, and numerical simulations for capillary-based X-ray optics. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  3. Low-energy shelf response in thin energy-dispersive X-ray detectors from Compton scattering of hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Hart, N.; Elam, W. T.

    2017-08-01

    Silicon drift detectors have been successfully employed in both soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy. The response function to incident radiation at soft X-ray levels has been well studied and modeled, but less research has been published on response functions for these detectors to hard X-ray input spectra above 20 keV. When used with hard X-ray sources a significant low energy, non-peak response exists which can adversely affect detection limits for lighter elements in, for example, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. We present a numerical model that explains the non-peak response function of silicon drift detectors to hard X-rays based on incoherent Compton scattering within the detector volume. Experimental results are presented and numerically compared to model results.

  4. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  5. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  6. Developments in X-ray detectors at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve; Kline, David

    2011-09-01

    We present a progress report on some of the X-ray detector developments on-going at the Argonne National Laboratories Advanced Photon Source. We focus on pixel array detector architecture, and emphasize collaborations, particularly with industries and universities. We discuss our progress establishing a silicon-sensor fabrication facility at Northern Illinois University, our application specific integrated circuit design work, X-ray testing and detector calibration, and readout electronics based on a collection of interchangeable digital circuit boards.

  7. Design, simulation and construction of a position sensitive X-ray gas detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a one dimentional position-sensitive X-ray gas detector has been designed, simulated and constructed based on Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC with delay line position readout. These kinds of detectors are useful in soft X-ray imaging and are capable of being extended to two dimensions position readout easily. The position resolution of this detector is estimated to be 230µm  

  8. Relative calibration of energy thresholds on multi-bin spectral x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjölin, M., E-mail: martin.sjolin@mi.physics.kth.se; Danielsson, M.

    2016-12-21

    Accurate and reliable energy calibration of spectral x-ray detectors used in medical imaging is essential for avoiding ring artifacts in the reconstructed images (computed tomography) and for performing accurate material basis decomposition. A simple and accurate method for relative calibration of the energy thresholds on a multi-bin spectral x-ray detector is presented. The method obtains the linear relations between all energy thresholds in a channel by scanning the thresholds with respect to each other during x-ray illumination. The method does not rely on a model of the detector's response function and does not require any identifiable features in the x-ray spectrum. Applying the same method, the offset between the thresholds can be determined also without external stimuli by utilizing the electronic noise as a source. The simplicity and accuracy of the method makes it suitable for implementation in clinical multi-bin spectral x-ray imaging systems.

  9. Lithium fluoride as a novel X-ray image detector for biological mu-world capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchini, G; Bonfigli, F; Faenov, A; Flora, F; Montereali, R M; Pace, A; Pikuz, T; Reale, L

    2003-12-01

    X-ray microradiographs of small biological objects, such as animals and plant materials at micrometric resolution, are currently performed by various methods, all of which are limited by the resolution or the dynamic range of the image detectors. Here a novel X-ray image detector is discussed, in which the previous limitations have been overcome. A film of lithium fluoride salt is used as a detector, in which the stored biological image is read by observing the optically stimulated visible luminescence of the active color centers, efficiently produced by the X-rays.

  10. Developments of position-sensitive X-ray detectors at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Hirota, K

    2003-01-01

    In order to efficiently perform diffraction and scattering experiments at the SPring-8 facility, three types of position sensitive detectors have been developed. A silicon pixel detector could detect X-rays above 6-keV in single counting mode, and an image accumulated could be read out within 5 msec. A 128-channel microstrip Germanium detector has made it possible for the users to efficiently investigate high resolution Compton scattering experiments. A high energy X-ray imager with a 128 x 128 matrix of YAP crystal has been developed for high energy X-ray diffraction experiments. (author)

  11. (Li) detector characteristics on the accuracy in X-ray analysis using the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study has been carried out to show how variations in Si(Li) detector characteristics affect the accuracy of X-ray spectra evaluation. The detector characteristics investigated are Be window thickness, Au layer, Si dead layer and Si Detector Sensitive volume. For each of the detector parameters, different thickness values ...

  12. Simulation of medical irradiation and X-ray detector signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisler, Bjoern

    2010-02-08

    -Carlo simulation of the irradiation head of the medical linear accelerator is constructed for the irradiation with electrons and photons in the second part of this thesis. The simulation is validated by comparison with water phantom measurements. Available information from the measurements is limited to the depth dose deposition and dose profiles in selected water depths. The simulation allows the evaluation of dose depositions and spectral particle distributions at various locations. In the electron irradiation mode, a collimation close to the patient is performed by an electron applicator. A possible reduction of the side leakage is evaluated by optimising the collimation of the beam. Medical irradiation with MeV-electrons and X-ray photons is the part of the clinical tumour treatment which is evaluated in this work. (orig.)

  13. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  14. Evaluation of controlled-drift detectors in X-ray spectroscopic imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Andrea; Guazzoni, Chiara; Ozkan, Cigdem; Vedani, Giorgio; Hartmann, Robert; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar

    2009-06-01

    A detector that looks promising for advanced imaging modalities--such as X-ray absorption contrast imaging, X-ray fluorescence imaging, and diffraction-enhanced imaging--is the controlled-drift detector (CDD). The CDD is a novel two-dimensional X-ray imager with energy resolving capability of spectroscopic quality. It is built on a fully depleted silicon wafer and features fast readout while being operated at or near room temperature. The use of CDDs in the aforementioned applications allows translating these techniques from synchrotron-based experiments to laboratory-size experiments using polychromatic X-ray generators. We have built a dedicated and versatile detection module based on a 36 mm2 CDD chip featuring pixels of 180 x 180 microm 2, and we evaluated the system performance in different X-ray imaging applications both with synchrotron-based experiments and in the laboratory environment.

  15. Calibration of a time-resolved hard-x-ray detector using radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckl, C., E-mail: csto@lle.rochester.edu; Theobald, W.; Regan, S. P.; Romanofsky, M. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A four-channel, time-resolved, hard x-ray detector (HXRD) has been operating at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics for more than a decade. The slope temperature of the hot-electron population in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments is inferred by recording the hard x-ray radiation generated in the interaction of the electrons with the target. Measuring the energy deposited by hot electrons requires an absolute calibration of the hard x-ray detector. A novel method to obtain an absolute calibration of the HXRD using single photons from radioactive sources was developed, which uses a thermoelectrically cooled, low-noise, charge-sensitive amplifier.

  16. Test results of a counting type SOI device for a new x-ray area detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, R., E-mail: ryo.hashimoto@kek.jp; Igarashi, N.; Kumai, R.; Kishimoto, S. [Inst. of Materials Structure Science, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Y.; Miyoshi, T. [Inst. of Particle and Nuclear Physics. KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    Development of a new detector using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been started in the Photon Factory, KEK. The aim of this project is to develop a pulse-counting-type X-ray detector that can be used in synchrotron radiation experiments using soft X-rays. We started to make a Test Element Group of SOI chip, which is called CPIXPTEG1 and evaluated its performance. We succeeded in readout of output signals for 16 keV X-rays from the SOI chips. We also found that the middle-SOI structure was effective against a signal distortion caused by hole traps in the buried oxide layer.

  17. Characteristic evaluation of a novel CdTe photon counting detector for X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Kim, Hee-Joung; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Yu-Na

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of a novel cadmium-telluride (CdTe) photon counting detector optimized for X-ray imaging applications. CdTe was studied as a potential detector material for hard X-ray and gamma-ray detection. In this study, we used a CdTe photon counting detector manufactured by AJAT Ltd. (PID 350, Finland) for the purposes of both X-ray and gamma-ray detection. However, it is noted that X-ray detection can be limited by the characteristics of gamma-ray detectors. For the investigation of the characteristics of a detector for X-ray imaging, the detector has been studied in terms of detector calibration, count rate, and pixel sensitivity variation by using a poly-energetic X-ray. The detector calibration was evaluated to determine the effects of offset, gain, and energy. An optimal calibration increases the accuracy of the output energy spectrum. The pixel sensitivity variation was evaluated using profiles of various rows and columns from white (with X-ray) and dark (without X-ray) images. The specific trend of each image was observed around the edges of the hybrids. These pixel variations of the CdTe sensor were corrected. The image quality was improved by using the optimal correction method based on an understanding of the pixel sensitivity variation. The maximum recorded count rate of the detector was measured in all pixels. The count rate was measured by setting the energy windows from just above the noise level to the maximum energy. The average count rate was fairly linear up to 1.6 × 106 cps/8 modules and saturated at about 2.2 × 106 cps/8 modules. In this paper, we present several characteristics of the detector and demonstrate the improved spectrum and image obtained after calibration and correction. These results show that the novel CdTe photon counting detector can be used in conventional X-ray imaging, but exhibits limitations when applied to spectral X-ray imaging.

  18. ART-XC/SRG: joint calibration of mirror modules and x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A.; Pavlinsky, M.; Levin, V.; Akimov, V.; Krivchenko, A.; Rotin, A.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lapshov, I.; Yaskovich, A.; Oleinikov, V.; Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.

    2017-08-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope - X-ray Concentrator (ART-XC) is a hard x-ray instrument with energy response 6-30 keV that will to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. ART-XC consists of seven co-aligned mirror modules coupled with seven focal plane CdTe double-sided strip detectors. The mirror modules had been fabricated and calibrated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) has developed and tested the X-ray detectors. The joint x-ray calibration of the mirror modules and focal plane detectors was carried out at the IKI test facility. Details of the calibration procedure and an overview of the results are presented here.

  19. Evaluation of the energy dependence of a zinc oxide nanofilm X-ray detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenca, C.P.V., E-mail: claudia.cpvv@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.L.; Macedo, M.A., E-mail: odecamm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Santos, L.A.P, E-mail: lasantos@scients.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    International organizations of human health and radiation protection have recommended certain care for using of the X-ray as a diagnosis tool to avoid any type of radiological accident or overdose to the patient. This can be done assessing the parameters of the X-ray equipment and there are various types of detectors available for that: ionizing chamber, electronic semiconductor devices, etc. These detectors must be calibrated so that they can be used for any energy range and such a procedure is correlated with what is called the energy dependence of the detector. In accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267, the standard radiation quality beams and irradiation conditions (RQRs) are the tools and techniques for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments and detectors. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the behavior of the energy dependence of a detector fabricated from a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofilm. A Pantak industrial X-ray equipment was used to generate the RQR radiation quality beams and test three ZnO detector samples. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used to bias the ZnO detector and simultaneously perform the output readings. The results showed that the ZnO device has some increase in its sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as the X-ray effective energy decreases unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. We can conclude that the ZnO device can be used as a diagnostic X-ray detector with an appropriate calibration. (author)

  20. Versatile, reprogrammable area pixel array detector for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamic range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.

  1. Applications of 'edge-on' illuminated porous plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shikhaliev, P M

    2002-01-01

    Scanning X-ray imaging systems for non-invasive diagnostics have several advantages over conventional imaging systems using area detectors. They significantly reduce the detected scatter radiation, cover large areas and potentially provide high spatial resolution. Applications of one-dimensional gaseous detectors and 'edge-on' illuminated silicon strip detectors for scanning imaging systems are currently under intensive investigation. The purpose of this work is to investigate 'edge-on' illuminated Porous Plate (PP) detectors for applications in diagnostic X-ray imaging. MicroChannel Plate (MCP), which is a common type of PP, has previously been investigated as a detector in surface-on illumination mode for medical X-ray imaging. However, its detection efficiency was too low for medical imaging applications. In the present study, the PP are used in the 'edge-on' illumination mode. Furthermore, the structural parameters of different PP types are optimized to improve the detection efficiency in the diagnostic X...

  2. Electric Field Dependence on Charge Collection of CdZnTe X-Ray Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, G C; Pillai, B; Vedantham, S; Chowdhuri, S; Odogba, J; Dasgupta, A; Vega-Lozada, V; Guntupalli, R; Suryanarayanan, S; Endorf, R J; Passalaqua, A; Kollipara, S

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the electric field dependence on the charge collection process of CdZnTe detectors, at different x-ray tube settings, within the x-ray diagnostic energy range, is investigated. In addition, the detector contrast at different applied bias voltages and x-ray tube settings have been experimentally determined. The experimental results suggest that an efficient charge collection process is obtained by increasing the applied bias voltage. Once the applied bias voltage is sufficiently high, charge collection becomes complete and the detector operates in the saturation region. This is a prerequisite for high contrast and spatial resolution. As a result, the detector contrast is enhanced significantly. Therefore, CdZnTe detectors appear to be potential candidates for digital radiographic applications.

  3. Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulware, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephenmulware@my.unt.edu; Baxley, Jacob D., E-mail: jacob.baxley351@topper.wku.edu; Rout, Bibhudutta, E-mail: bibhu@unt.edu; Reinert, Tilo, E-mail: tilo@unt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm{sup 2} high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector.

  4. Fast X-ray reflectivity measurements using an X-ray pixel area detector at the DiffAbs beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocuta, Cristian; Stanescu, Stefan; Gallard, Manon; Barbier, Antoine; Dawiec, Arkadiusz; Kedjar, Bouzid; Leclercq, Nicolas; Thiaudiere, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method for rapid measurements of the specular X-ray reflectivity signal using an area detector and a monochromatic, well collimated X-ray beam (divergence below 0.01°), combined with a continuous data acquisition mode during the angular movements of the sample and detector. In addition to the total integrated (and background-corrected) reflectivity signal, this approach yields a three-dimensional mapping of the reciprocal space in the vicinity of its origin. Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering signals are recorded simultaneously. Measurements up to high momentum transfer values (close to 0.1 nm-1, also depending on the X-ray beam energy) can be performed in total time ranges as short as 10 s. The measurement time can be reduced by up to 100 times as compared with the classical method using monochromatic X-ray beams, a point detector and rocking scans (integrated reflectivity signal).

  5. A bismuth germanate-shielded mercuric iodide X-ray detector for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Ricker, G. R.; Schnepple, W. S.; Ortale, C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of HgI2 for solid state X-ray detector applications over the past decade was carried out in connection with the ability of the crystal to operate as a detector at room temperature. In order to achieve the lowest background possible for HgI2 detectors in a space-like environment (balloon and/or satellite altitudes), attention was given to the design of a shielding system which actively vetoes nonaperture events such as gamma rays and charged particles that can mimic signal X-rays by partial deposition of energy in the main detector. The detector system consists of two HgI2 detectors mounted back to back and operated in anticoincidence. The two detectors are placed inside a bismuth germanate scintillating shield along with two hybrid charge-sensitive preamps. Monte Carlo simulations of detector performance are discussed.

  6. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)

  7. Quantum Performance Analysis of an EMCCD-based X-ray Detector Using Photon Transfer Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Bin; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Huang, Ying; Wang, Weiyuan; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Titus, Albert H.; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The low electronic noise, high resolution, and good temporal performance of electron-multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) are ideally suited for applications traditionally served by x-ray image intensifiers. In order to improve an expandable clinical detector’s field-of-view and have full control of the system performance, we have successfully built a solid-state x-ray detector. The photon transfer technique was used to quantify the EMCCD quantum performance in terms of sensitivity (or camera gain const...

  8. Nanosecond X-ray detector based on high resistivity ZnO single crystal semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Chen, Liang; He, Yongning; Liu, Jinliang; Peng, Wenbo; Huang, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaomeng; Pan, Zijian; Zhang, Wenting; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    The pulse radiation detectors are sorely needed in the fields of nuclear reaction monitoring, material analysis, astronomy study, spacecraft navigation, and space communication. In this work, we demonstrate a nanosecond X-ray detector based on ZnO single crystal semiconductor, which emerges as a promising compound-semiconductor radiation detection material for its high radiation tolerance and advanced large-size bulk crystal growth technique. The resistivity of the ZnO single crystal is as high as 1013 Ω cm due to the compensation of the donor defects (VO) and acceptor defects (VZn and Oi) after high temperature annealing in oxygen. The photoconductive X-ray detector was fabricated using the high resistivity ZnO single crystal. The rise time and fall time of the detector to a 10 ps pulse electron beam are 0.8 ns and 3.3 ns, respectively, indicating great potential for ultrafast X-ray detection applications.

  9. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott [Iowa State University, Center for NDE, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  10. X-ray source considerations in operation of digital detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Terrence; Wendt, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Digital Detector Arrays (DDA) are increasingly replacing film in radiography applications. Standards exist for characterizing the performance of these detectors, and for using them in specific inspections. We have observed that the selection of the x-ray source to use with these detectors can also have a significant influence on the performance. We look at differences between standard, and micro-focus x-ray tubes, and end-window vs. side-window micro-focus tubes. We find that for best results, one must calibrate the DDA for the source settings used during an inspection. This is particularly true for variable-focus sources.

  11. X-ray microscopy of plant cells by using LiF crystal as a detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Lucia; Bonfigli, Francesca; Lai, Antonia; Flora, Francesco; Poma, Anna; Albertano, Patrizia; Bellezza, Simona; Montereali, Rosa Maria; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tania; Almaviva, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Aurora; Francucci, Massimo; Gaudio, Pasqualino; Martellucci, Sergio; Richetta, Maria

    2008-12-01

    A lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal has been utilized as a new soft X-ray detector to image different biological samples at a high spatial resolution. This new type of image detector for X-ray microscopy has many interesting properties: high resolution (nanometer scale), permanent storage of images, the ability to clear the image and reuse the LiF crystal, and high contrast with greater dynamic range. Cells of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas dysosmos and Chlorella sorokiniana, and pollen grains of Olea europea have been used as biological materials for imaging. The biological samples were imaged on LiF crystals by using the soft X-ray contact microscopy and contact micro-radiography techniques. The laser plasma soft X-ray source was generated using a Nd:YAG/Glass laser focused on a solid target. The X-ray energy range for image acquisition was in the water-window spectral range for single shot contact microscopy of very thin biological samples (single cells) and around 1 keV for multishots microradiography. The main aim of this article is to highlight the possibility of using a LiF crystal as a detector for the biological imaging using soft X-ray radiation and to demonstrate its ability to visualize the microstructure within living cells. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Calibration of the hard x-ray detectors for the FOXSI solar sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Bergstedt, Kendra; Vievering, Juliana; Musset, Sophie; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Courtade, Sasha; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Säm.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment conducts direct imaging and spectral observation of the Sun in hard X-rays, in the energy range 4 to 20 keV. These high-sensitivity observations are used to study particle acceleration and coronal heating. FOXSI is designed with seven grazing incidence optics modules that focus X-rays onto seven focal plane detectors kept at a 2m distance. FOXSI-1 was flown with seven Double-sided Si Strip Detectors (DSSD), and two of them were replaced with CdTe detectors for FOXSI-2. The upcoming FOXSI-3 flight will carry DSSD and CdTe detectors with upgraded optics for enhanced sensitivity. The detectors are calibrated using various radioactive sources. The detector's spectral response matrix was constructed with diagonal elements using a Gaussian approximation with a spread (sigma) that accounts for the energy resolution of the detector. Spectroscopic studies of past FOXSI flight data suggest that the inclusion of lower energy X-rays could better constrain the spectral modeling to yield a more precise temperature estimation of the hot plasma. This motivates us to carry out an improved calibration to better understand the finer-order effects on the spectral response, especially at lower energies. Here we report our improved calibration of FOXSI detectors using experiments and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  13. Low-energy X-ray detection with an in-vacuum PILATUS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julien; Luethi, Benjamin; Ursachi, Catalin; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Wagner, Armin

    2011-11-01

    The feasibility of using PILATUS single-X-ray-photon counting detectors for long-wavelength macromolecular crystallography was investigated by carrying out a series of experiments at Diamond Light Source. A water-cooled PILATUS 100k detector was tested in vacuum with monochromatic 3 keV X-rays on the Diamond test beamline B16. Effects of detector cooling on noise performance, energy calibration and threshold trimming were investigated. When detecting 3 keV X-rays, the electronic noise of the analogue output of pixel preamplifiers forces the threshold to be set at a higher level than the 50% energy level recommended to minimize charge-sharing effects. The influence of threshold settings at low X-ray energy was studied by characterizing the detector response to a collimated beam of 3 keV X-rays scanned across several pixels. The relationship between maximum count rate and minimum energy threshold was investigated separately for various detector gain settings.

  14. X-ray Characterization of a Multichannel Smart-Pixel Array Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A.; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 x 48 pixels, each 130 mu m x 130 mu m x 520 mu m thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements.

  15. X-ray characterization of a multichannel smart-pixel array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve; Haji-Sheikh, Michael; Huntington, Andrew; Kline, David; Lee, Adam; Li, Yuelin; Rhee, Jehyuk; Tarpley, Mary; Walko, Donald A; Westberg, Gregg; Williams, George; Zou, Haifeng; Landahl, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Voxtel VX-798 is a prototype X-ray pixel array detector (PAD) featuring a silicon sensor photodiode array of 48 × 48 pixels, each 130 µm × 130 µm × 520 µm thick, coupled to a CMOS readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The first synchrotron X-ray characterization of this detector is presented, and its ability to selectively count individual X-rays within two independent arrival time windows, a programmable energy range, and localized to a single pixel is demonstrated. During our first trial run at Argonne National Laboratory's Advance Photon Source, the detector achieved a 60 ns gating time and 700 eV full width at half-maximum energy resolution in agreement with design parameters. Each pixel of the PAD holds two independent digital counters, and the discriminator for X-ray energy features both an upper and lower threshold to window the energy of interest discarding unwanted background. This smart-pixel technology allows energy and time resolution to be set and optimized in software. It is found that the detector linearity follows an isolated dead-time model, implying that megahertz count rates should be possible in each pixel. Measurement of the line and point spread functions showed negligible spatial blurring. When combined with the timing structure of the synchrotron storage ring, it is demonstrated that the area detector can perform both picosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements.

  16. CdZnTe detector in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Satoshi; Imagawa, Kotaro

    2002-11-21

    A CdZnTe (CZT) detector was utilized in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy under clinical conditions. First, the detector response was investigated using y-rays from 241Am. The escape of secondary (Compton scattered and K fluorescent) x-rays and tailing due to carrier trapping were minor in the mammographic energy range. In addition, the transmission of primary x-rays was minimal from the results calculated using the mass attenuation coefficients of CZT. Therefore, spectral distortion in this energy range was expected to be negligible. Secondly, x-ray spectroscopy was carried out with the CZT detector. The measured spectra were in good agreement with the spectra obtained with the Compton-scatter method with a high-purity germanium detector. Moreover, the half-value layers (HVLs) calculated from the CZT spectra were consistent with the HVLs measured with an ionization chamber. The results indicate that a CZT detector can be utilized in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy without any corrections.

  17. A semiempirical linear model of indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Ying; Yang Kai; Abbey, Craig K.; Boone, John M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States) and Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 0505, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 0505, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 92106 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States) and Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ambulatory Care Center Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: It is important to understand signal and noise transfer in the indirect, flat-panel x-ray detector when developing and optimizing imaging systems. For optimization where simulating images is necessary, this study introduces a semiempirical model to simulate projection images with user-defined x-ray fluence interaction. Methods: The signal and noise transfer in the indirect, flat-panel x-ray detectors is characterized by statistics consistent with energy-integration of x-ray photons. For an incident x-ray spectrum, x-ray photons are attenuated and absorbed in the x-ray scintillator to produce light photons, which are coupled to photodiodes for signal readout. The signal mean and variance are linearly related to the energy-integrated x-ray spectrum by empirically determined factors. With the known first- and second-order statistics, images can be simulated by incorporating multipixel signal statistics and the modulation transfer function of the imaging system. To estimate the semiempirical input to this model, 500 projection images (using an indirect, flat-panel x-ray detector in the breast CT system) were acquired with 50-100 kilovolt (kV) x-ray spectra filtered with 0.1-mm tin (Sn), 0.2-mm copper (Cu), 1.5-mm aluminum (Al), or 0.05-mm silver (Ag). The signal mean and variance of each detector element and the noise power spectra (NPS) were calculated and incorporated into this model for accuracy. Additionally, the modulation transfer function of the detector system was physically measured and incorporated in the image simulation steps. For validation purposes, simulated and measured projection images of air scans were compared using 40 kV/0.1-mm Sn, 65 kV/0.2-mm Cu, 85 kV/1.5-mm Al, and 95 kV/0.05-mm Ag. Results: The linear relationship between the measured signal statistics and the energy-integrated x-ray spectrum was confirmed and incorporated into the model. The signal mean and variance factors were linearly related to kV for each filter material (r

  18. Optimization of phosphor screens for charge coupled device based detectors and 7-34 keV x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.-C.; Cargill, G. S., III

    1997-02-01

    Phosphor screens which convert x-ray images to visible light images are key components in two-dimensional charge coupled device (CCD) based detector systems used for x-ray diffraction. Some experimental and theoretical aspects of phosphor screen performance are described in this article. The efficiencies of x-ray-to-light conversion were measured using a CCD camera for transmission phosphor screens fabricated from two different phosphor powders, Y2O2S:Eu (P22R) and Gd2O2S:Tb (P43), for screen mass thicknesses of 3-50 mg/cm2 and for x-ray energies of 7-34 keV. A model was developed and evaluated for the dependence of the emitted light brightness on screen thickness and x-ray energy. Inputs to the model are x-ray absorption coefficients available from published compilations, and light attenuation versus thickness data, which were determined experimentally for the phosphors and found to be dominated by scattering rather than absorption. The angular distribution of emitted light, measured for one of the phosphor screens, was found to be nearly Lambertian. Broadening of image features in the x-ray-to-visible-light conversion by phosphors for 19.6 keV x-rays was found to increase approximately linearly with phosphor screen thicknesses in the range of 30-160 μm, but with a minimum width of 110 μm for P22R phosphor and 70 μm for P43 phosphor. In the range of 7-15 keV, maximum brightness was obtained for P43 phosphor screens of about 10 mg/cm2 mass thickness (60 μm). For P22R screens, the thickness for maximum brightness increased from about 8 mg/cm2 (50 μm) for 7 keV to more than 46 mg/cm2 (210 μm) for 15 keV. For 7 keV the maximum brightnesses for P22R and P43 phosphors were about the same. For 10 keV the maximum brightness for P43 phosphor was about 60% greater than the maximum brightness for P22R phosphor samples tested. For 15 keV the maximum brightness for P43 phosphor was again about 60% greater than that for the P22R samples tested. In the range of 20-34 ke

  19. A curved image-plate detector system for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, P; Haggerty, R P; Yoon, W; Knapp, M; Berghaeuser, A; Zschack, P; Karapetrova, E; Yang, N; Kriven, W M

    2009-03-01

    The developed curved image plate (CIP) is a one-dimensional detector which simultaneously records high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns over a 38.7 degrees 2theta range. In addition, an on-site reader enables rapid extraction, transfer and storage of X-ray intensity information in response is not compromised in the unsaturated regions of the image plate, regardless of saturation in another region. The speed of XRD data acquisition together with excellent resolution afforded by the CIP detector is unique and opens up wide possibilities in materials research accessible through X-ray diffraction. This article presents details of the basic features, operation and performance of the CIP detector along with some examples of applications, including high-temperature XRD.

  20. Two-dimensional imaging detectors for structural biology with X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Peter

    2014-07-17

    Our ability to harness the advances in microelectronics over the past decade(s) for X-ray detection has resulted in significant improvements in the state of the art. Biology with X-ray free-electron lasers present daunting detector challenges: all of the photons arrive at the same time, and individual high peak power pulses must be read out shot-by-shot. Direct X-ray detection in silicon pixel detectors--monolithic or hybrid--are the standard for XFELs today. For structural biology, improvements are needed for today's 10-100 Hz XFELs, and further improvements are required for tomorrow's 10+ kHz XFELs. This article will discuss detector challenges, why they arise and ways to overcome them, along with the current state of the art. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. The Multi-Frame X-ray Diffraction and Imaging Detector at the Dynamic Compression Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Nicholas; Wang, Yuxin; Turneaure, Stefan; Zimmerman, Kurt; Toyoda, Yoshi; Gupta, Yogendra

    2017-06-01

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), located at Argonne National Laboratory, enables x-ray diffraction and imaging measurements on samples during single event, dynamic compression experiments. Since bright x-ray pulses arrive from the synchrotron at a high frequency, `movies' may be captured with these x-ray measurements. However, the ideal detector system capable of these measurements is not yet commercially available and, instead, a composite optical system has been developed to achieve the required time resolution and sensitivity. In this presentation, the current x-ray diffraction and imaging detector system at DCS will be discussed. This system is capable of capturing four frames from x-ray pulses separated by 153 ns -- the pulse separation in the most common APS storage ring mode -- and sensitive enough to capture x-ray powder diffraction patterns from a single 80 ps duration pulse. Several data post-processing issues will be discussed, including the correction of phosphor after-images, determination of sample exposure times with respect to other diagnostics, and spatial distortion correction. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  2. High Dynamic Range X-Ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2017-04-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for X-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sourcesand X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the mixed mode pixel array detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 108 X-rays/pixel/s while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single X-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the frontend amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is, thereby, shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a sustained flux > 1011 X-rays/pixel/s. Pixel front-end linearity was evaluated by direct current injection and results are presented. A small-scale readout ASIC utilizing these pixel architectures has been fabricated and the use of these architectures to increase single X-ray pulse dynamic range at XFELs is discussed briefly.

  3. Spectroscopic X-ray imaging with photon counting pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L

    2010-01-01

    Single particle counting hybrid pixel detectors simultaneously provide low noise, high granularity and high readout speed and make it possible to build detector systems offering high spatial resolution paired with good energy resolution. A limiting factor for the spectroscopic performance of such detector systems is charge sharing between neighbouring pixels in the sensor part of the detector. The signal spectrum at the collection electrodes of the readout electronics deviates significantly from the photonic spectrum when planar segmented sensor geometries are used. The Medipix3 implements a novel, distributed signal processing architecture linking neighbouring pixels and aims at eliminating the spectral distortion produced in the sensor by charge sharing and at reducing the impact of fluorescence photons generated in the sensor itself. Preliminary results from the very first Medipix3 readouts bump bonded to 300 pm Si sensor are presented. Material reconstruction is a possible future application of spectrosco...

  4. Flexible X-ray detector based on sliced lead iodide crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hui; Gao, Xiuying [College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu (China); Department of Materials Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhao, Beijun [Department of Materials Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Yang, Dingyu; Wangyang, Peihua; Zhu, Xinghua [College of Optoelectronic Technology, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2017-02-15

    A promising flexible X-ray detector based on inorganic semiconductor PbI{sub 2} crystal is reported. The sliced crystals mechanically cleaved from an as-grown PbI{sub 2} crystal act as the absorber directly converting the impinging X-ray photons to electron hole pairs. Due to the ductile feature of the PbI{sub 2} crystal, the detector can be operated under a highly curved state with the strain on the top surface up to 1.03% and still maintaining effective detection performance. The stable photocurrent and fast response were obtained with the detector repeated bending to a strain of 1.03% for 100 cycles. This work presents an approach for developing efficient and cost-effective PbI{sub 2}-based flexible X-ray detector. Photocurrent responses of the flexible PbI{sub 2} X-ray detector with the strain on the top surface up to 1.03% proposed in this work with the cross sectional structure and curved detector photograph as insets. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Development of CdZnTe X-ray detectors at DSRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Pamelen, M.A.J.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the development of CdZnTe X-ray detectors at the Danish Space Research Institute is presented. Initiated in the beginning of 1996, the main motivation at that time was to develop focal plane detectors for the novel type of hard X-ray telescopes, which are currently under study...... developed a technique, which, with the use of microstrip electrodes, is able to compensate for the signal loss caused by trapping of positive charge carriers. This technique leads to a dramatic improvement of the achievable energy resolution, even for crystals of poor quality. With the technique, hole...

  6. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panna, A.; Gomella, A. A.; Harmon, K. J.; Chen, P.; Miao, H.; Bennett, E. E.; Wen, H.

    2015-05-01

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector`s line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications.

  7. Advancing the technology of monolithic CMOS detectors for use as x-ray imaging spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Amato, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff has been engaged in a multi year effort to advance the technology of monolithic back-thinned CMOS detectors for use as X-ray imaging spectrometers. The long term goal of this campaign is to produce X-ray Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors with Fano limited performance over the 0.1-10keV band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Such devices would be ideal for candidate post 2020 decadal missions such as LYNX and for smaller more immediate applications such as CubeX. Devices from a recent fabrication have been back-thinned, packaged and tested for soft X-ray response. These devices have 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels with ˜135μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel signal chain. These new detectors are fabricated on 10μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting X-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, X-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency.

  8. Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/X-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejdrup, T.; Lemke, H.T.; Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA...... limited time-resolution of 60 ps using the gated PILATUS detector. This is the first demonstration of X-ray pulse duration limited data recorded using an area detector without the use of a mechanical chopper array at the beamline........ The capability of the gated PILATUS detector to selectively detect the signal from a given X-ray pulse in 24 bunch mode at the APS storage ring is demonstrated. A test experiment performed on polycrystalline organic thin films of [alpha]-perylene illustrates the possibility of reaching an X-ray pulse duration...

  9. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  10. Gas pixel detector for x-ray observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attié, D.; Colas, P.; Delagnes, E.; Giomataris, Y.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Chefdeville, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the status of the R&D for a digital Time Projection Chamber based on Micromegas detectors using the CMOS chip TimePix as a direct readout anode protected by highly resistive a-Si:H layer. A small chamber was built as a demonstrator of the 2-D and 3-D imaging capabilities of this

  11. Upgrade of the InGrid based X-ray detector for the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Krieger, Christoph; Schmidt, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a magnetic helioscope searching for solar axions and chameleons using the inverse Primakoff effect. The produced photons are in the low X-ray regime. Chameleon search demands high sensitivity to photons with less than 1 keV and a very low background rate. Several improvements to the detector design used in 2014/15 are envisaged for 2016. The readout system is to be improved by including a flash ADC to read out the analog signal induced on the grid. The pulse shape contains information about the longitudinal shape of the event in addition to the transverse shape given by the pixel read out. Tracks passing through the chip orthogonally resemble photons in transverse shape. A scintillator behind the detector will also allow cross referencing chip and and scintillator signals to further reduce background rates. Finally, a new X-ray window separating detector and X-ray telescope volume from one another will be installed. Due to the low expected signal rate, a window with very low X-ray opacity is needed. Due to a pressure difference of ∝1 bar between detector and the vacuum of CAST this is demanding. The usage of silicon nitride windows is being explored. The current progress of the detector upgrade will be presented.

  12. On the use of CCD area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenter, P; Catalano, J G; Park, C; Zhang, Z

    2006-07-01

    The use and application of charge coupled device (CCD) area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity is discussed. Direct comparison of high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity data measured with CCD area detectors and traditional X-ray scintillator ('point') detectors demonstrates that the use of CCD detectors leads to a substantial (approximately 30-fold) reduction in data acquisition rates because of the elimination of the need to scan the sample to distinguish signal from background. The angular resolution with a CCD detector is also improved by a factor of approximately 3. The ability to probe the large dynamic range inherent to high-resolution X-ray reflectivity data in the specular reflection geometry was demonstrated with measurements of the orthoclase (001)- and alpha-Al2O3 (012)-water interfaces, with measured reflectivity signals varying by a factor of approximately 10(6) without the use of any beam attenuators. Statistical errors in the reflectivity signal are also derived and directly compared with the repeatability of the measurements.

  13. Effects of nuclear fusion produced neutrons on silicon semiconductor plasma X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kohagura, J; Hirata, M; Numakura, T; Minami, R; Watanabe, H; Sasuga, T; Nishizawa, Y; Yoshida, M; Nagashima, S; Tamano, T; Yatsu, K; Miyoshi, S; Hirano, K; Maezawa, H

    2002-01-01

    The effects of nuclear fusion produced neutrons on the X-ray energy responses of semiconductor detectors are characterized. The degradation of the response of position-sensitive X-ray tomography detectors in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak is found after neutron exposure produced by deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasma fusion experiments. For the purpose of further detailed characterization of the neutron degradation effects, an azimuthally varying-field (AVF) cyclotron accelerator is employed using well-calibrated neutron fluence. These neutron effects on the detector responses are characterized using synchrotron radiation from a 2.5 GeV positron storage ring at the Photon Factory (KEK). The effects of neutrons on X-ray sensitive semiconductor depletion thicknesses are also investigated using an impedance analyser. Novel findings of (i) the dependence of the response degradation on X-ray energies as well as (ii) the recovery of the degraded detector response due to the detector bias applic...

  14. A study of the performance characteristics of an X-ray detector for region-of-interest angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Arundhuti

    Minimally invasive image-guided neuro-vascular interventions require very high image resolution and quality, specifically over regions-of-interest (ROI) crucial to the procedure. ROI images allow limited patient integral radiation dose while permitting rapid frame transfer of high-resolution images. The design and performance of a CCD based x-ray detector was assessed for neuro-vascular procedures. The detector consists of a 250 mum thick CsI(Tl) phosphor fiber-optically coupled through a 2:1 taper to a CCD chip, with an effective image pixel size of 50 mum and a frame rate of 5 fps in the 2:1 pixel-binned mode. The characteristics of the camera including the MTF, NEQ, DQE and observer performance were evaluated experimentally and through theoretical modeling. The MTF was non-zero (>1%), at the Nyquist frequency of 10 cycles/mm while the DQE(0) had a value of ˜54%. All values were measured using head equivalent attenuating material in the beam at 80 kVp. Observer studies performed using the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2AFC) method, revealed that 100 mum diameter iodinated vessels with 2 cm length could be seen with greater than 75% confidence level. The theoretical modeling included parallel cascade calculations for the signal and noise characteristics of the detector chain. The observer studies included an ideal observer performance calculation based on the integral signal to noise ratio in the image. Probabilities of visualization of various objects of interest in a neuro-intervention were assessed. There was good agreement between experiment and theory and the results suggest ways for further performance improvement for the ROI CCD camera. Additionally, possible direct flat panel ROI detectors designs were also considered for the future.

  15. An InGrid based Low Energy X-ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, Christoph; Kaminski, Jochen; Lupberger, Michael; Vafeiadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    An X-ray detector based on the combination of an integrated Micromegas stage with a pixel chip has been built in order to be installed at the CERN Axion Solar Telescope. Due to its high granularity and spatial resolution this detector allows for a topological background suppression along with a detection threshold below $1\\,\\text{keV}$. Tests at the CAST Detector Lab show the detector's ability to detect X-ray photons down to an energy as low as $277\\,\\text{eV}$. The first background data taken after the installation at the CAST experiment underline the detector's performance with an average background rate of $5\\times10^{-5}\\,/\\text{keV}/\\text{cm}^2/\\text{s}$ between 2 and $10\\,\\text{keV}$ when using a lead shielding.

  16. X-ray micro-beam characterization of a small pixel spectroscopic CdTe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Bell, S. J.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.; Kachkanov, V.

    2012-07-01

    A small pixel, spectroscopic, CdTe detector has been developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) for X-ray imaging applications. The detector consists of 80 × 80 pixels on a 250 μm pitch with 50 μm inter-pixel spacing. Measurements with an 241Am γ-source demonstrated that 96% of all pixels have a FWHM of better than 1 keV while the majority of the remaining pixels have FWHM of less than 4 keV. Using the Diamond Light Source synchrotron, a 10 μm collimated beam of monochromatic 20 keV X-rays has been used to map the spatial variation in the detector response and the effects of charge sharing corrections on detector efficiency and resolution. The mapping measurements revealed the presence of inclusions in the detector and quantified their effect on the spectroscopic resolution of pixels.

  17. Optical characterisation of lithium fluoride detectors for broadband X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidari Bateni, S. [Physics Department, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bonfigli, F., E-mail: francesca.bonfigli@enea.it [ENEA, Photonics Micro- and Nano-structures Laboratory, UTAPRAD-MNF, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T. [Research Center Karlsruhe/K.I.T., Institute for Synchrotron Radiation—ANKA (Germany); Pelliccia, D. [Research Center Karlsruhe/K.I.T., Institute for Synchrotron Radiation—ANKA (Germany); School of Physics, Monash University—ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Victoria (Australia); Somma, F. [Physics Department, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Vincenti, M.A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, Photonics Micro- and Nano-structures Laboratory, UTAPRAD-MNF, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    Novel X-ray imaging detectors based on photoluminescence of colour centres in lithium fluoride (LiF) have been proposed and tested for extreme ultraviolet, soft and hard X-rays up to 10 keV. For the first time we present the optical characterisation of LiF crystals and thin films irradiated at the TOPO–TOMO beamline of synchroton light source Anka (Karlsruhe, Germany) in the energy range 6–40 keV for different exposure times. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra were analysed to study the optical response of the LiF-based detectors. High resolved X-ray imaging of commercial test patterns has been obtained on LiF crystals and films by optical readout with a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope.

  18. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  19. An ultrafast X-ray scintillating detector made of ZnO(Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmin; Yan, Jun; Deng, Bangjie; Zhang, Jingwen; Lv, Jinge; Wen, Xin; Gao, Keqing

    2017-12-01

    Owing to its ultrafast scintillation, quite high light yield, strong radiation resistance, and non-deliquescence, ZnO(Ga) is a highly promising choice for an ultrafast X-ray detector. Because of its high deposition rate, good production repeatability and strong adhesive force, reactive magnetron sputtering was used to produce a ZnO(Ga) crystal on a quartz glass substrate, after the production conditions were optimized. The fluorescence lifetime of the sample was 173 ps. An ultrafast X-ray scintillating detector, equipped with a fast microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT), was developed and the X-ray tests show a signal full width at half maximum (FWHM) of only 385.5 ps. Moreover, derivation from the previous measurement shows the ZnO(Ga) has an ultrafast time response (FWHM = 355.1 ps) and a high light yield (14740 photons/MeV).

  20. Development of a multistep detector for X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of a preamplification region is shown to dramatically improve the performance of a standard multiwire proportional counter (MWPC). This improvement is a direct consequence of effecting a large degree of preamplification in a perfectly uniform electric field and then transferring a well defined portion of this charge to a MWPC running at a modest gain. In this way, very large overall gas gains can be achieved without compromising energy resolution. The resulting device is known as a multistep detector.

  1. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-02-12

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  2. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A high-speed pixel array detector for time-resolved X-ray imaging at synchrotrons has been developed. The ability to isolate single synchrotron bunches makes it ideal for time-resolved dynamical studies. A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8–12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10–100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  3. Physics-based modeling of X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yong; Gao, Hewei; Wu, Mingye; Pack, Jed D.; Xu, Hao; Tao, Kun; Fitzgerald, Paul F.; De Man, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Computer simulation tools for X-ray CT are important for research efforts in developing reconstructionmethods, designing new CT architectures, and improving X-ray source and detector technologies. In this paper, we propose a physics-based modeling method for X-ray CT measurements with energy-integrating detectors. It accurately accounts for the dependence characteristics on energy, depth and spatial location of the X-ray detection process, which is either ignored or over simplified in most existing CT simulation methods. Compared with methods based on Monte Carlo simulations, it is computationally much more efficient due to the use of a look-up table for optical collection efficiency. To model the CT measurments, the proposed model considers five separate effects: energy- and location-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays, conversion of the absorbed X-rays into the optical photons emitted by the scintillator, location-dependent collection of the emitted optical photons, quantumefficiency of converting fromoptical photons to electrons, and electronic noise. We evaluated the proposed method by comparing the noise levels in the reconstructed images from measured data and simulations of a GE LightSpeed VCT system. Using the results of a 20 cm water phantom and a 35 cm polyethylene (PE) disk at various X-ray tube voltages (kVp) and currents (mA), we demonstrated that the proposed method produces realistic CT simulations. The difference in noise standard deviation between measurements and simulations is approximately 2% for the water phantom and 10% for the PE phantom.

  4. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  5. The new X-ray mapping: X-ray spectrum imaging above 100 kHz output count rate with the silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E

    2006-02-01

    Electron-excited X-ray mapping is a key operational mode of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The popularity of X-ray mapping persists despite the significant time penalty due to the relatively low output count rates, typically less than 25 kHz, that can be processed with the conventional EDS. The silicon drift detector (SDD) uses the same measurement physics, but modifications to the detector structure permit operation at a factor of 5-10 times higher than conventional EDS for the same resolution. Output count rates as high as 500 kHz can be achieved with 217 eV energy resolution (at MnKalpha). Such extraordinarily high count rates make possible X-ray mapping through the method of X-ray spectrum imaging, in which a complete spectrum is captured at each pixel of the scan. Useful compositional data can be captured in less than 200 s with a pixel density of 160 x 120. Applications to alloy and rock microstructures, ultrapure materials with rare inclusions, and aggregate particles with complex chemistry illustrate new approaches to characterization made practical by high-speed X-ray mapping with the SDD.Note: The Siegbahn notation for characteristic X-rays is commonly used in the field of electron beam X-ray spectrometry and will be used in this article. The equivalent IUPAC notation is indicated in parentheses at the first use. In this article, the following arbitrary definitions will be used when referring to concentration (C) ranges: major: C > 0.1 (10 wt%), minor: 0.01

  6. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  7. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  8. An X-ray imaging device based on a GEM detector with delay-line readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Cheng; Sun, Yong-Jie; Shao, Ming

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray imaging device based on a triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detector, a fast delay-line circuit with 700 MHz cut-off frequency and two dimensional readout strips with 150 μm width on the top and 250 μm width on the bottom, is designed and tested. The localization information is derived from the propagation time of the induced signals on the readout strips. This device has a good spatial resolution of 150 μm and works stably at an intensity of 105 Hz/mm2 with 8 keV X-rays.

  9. Modeling and design of X-rays bidimensional detectors; Modelagem e projeto de detectores bidimensionais para radiacao-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisbert, Elmer Paz Alcon

    2000-03-01

    In this work has been developed the scintillating fiber optic and semiconductor devices based 2-D detector design, modeling and performance evaluation using Monte Carlo methods, for high X-ray energy range (10-140 kV) radiography and tomography applications. These processes allowed us, also, the imaging system parameters and components optimization and appropriate detector design. The model estimated the detectors performance parameters (DQE, MTF and SNR), and radiation risk (in terms of mean absorbed dose in the patient) and to show up how the sequence of physical processes in X-ray detection influence the performance of this imaging PFOC detectors. In this way, the modeling of the detector includes the statistics of the spatial distribution of absorbed X-rays and of X-ray to light conversion, its transmission, and the light quanta conversion into electrons. Also contributions to noise from the detection system chain is included, mainly the CCD detector ambient noise. Performance prediction, based on calculation taken from simulations, illustrates how such detectors meet the exacting requirements of some medical and industrial applications. Also, it is envisaged that our modeling procedure of the imaging system will be suitable not only for investigating how the system components should be best designed but for CT and RD system performance prediction. The powerful techniques would enable us to give advice for future development, in this field, in search of more dose-efficient imaging systems. (author)

  10. A new detector system for low energy X-ray fluorescence coupled with soft X-ray microscopy: First tests and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bufon, Jernej; Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Altissimo, Matteo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Borghes, Roberto; Carrato, Sergio; Cautero, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Sergio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Giuressi, Dario; Kourousias, George; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Picciotto, Antonino; Piemonte, Claudio; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rashevskaya, Irina; Stolfa, Andrea; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have witnessed substantial efforts in the development of several detector technologies for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications. In spite of the increasing trend towards performing, cost-effective and reliable XRF systems, detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy still remain a challenge, requiring further study, engineering and customization in order to yield effective and efficient systems. In this paper we report on the development, first characterization and tests of a novel multielement detector system based on low leakage current silicon drift detectors (SDD) coupled to ultra low noise custom CMOS preamplifiers for synchrotron-based low energy XRF. This new system exhibits the potential for improving the count rate by at least an order of magnitude resulting in ten-fold shorter dwell time at an energy resolution similar to that of single element silicon drift detectors.

  11. Evaluation of x-ray detectors for dual-modality CT-SPECT animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Iwata, Koji; Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Hwang, Andrew B.; Wu, Max C.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2002-11-01

    We are developing a bench-top animal scanner that will acquire both functional SPECT images and anatomical CT images with sub-millimeter spatial resolution for both imaging modalities. This paper presents preliminary results from the evaluation of two x-ray detectors for the CT application, and dual SPECT-CT images using one of these detectors. Two phosphor-CMOS x-ray detectors, one with 48 m pixels and 5 cm x 5 cm area and the other with 50 μm pixels and 12 cm x 12 cm area, were evaluated for linearity and dynamic range. Each detector showed linearity over ~ 3 orders of magnitude, which is sufficient for mouse CT imaging. The smaller detector was mounted to an A-SPECT system, along with a custom 50 W x-ray source with focal spot size of ~ 150 μm. Phantoms and mice were scanned sequentially, SPECT followed by CT, and the resulting reconstructed images fused into a single SPECT-CT image. These preliminary results show that the two detectors evaluated for this application can successfully achieve high contrast CT images of mice and similar sized objects.

  12. Development of an X-ray detector using photodiodes; Desarrollo de un detector de rayos X usando fotodiodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, J.; Azorin V, J. C.; Sosa A, M. A.; Ceron, P., E-mail: gonzalezgj2012@licifug.ugto.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Currently the radiation detectors for medical applications are very high value in the market and are difficult to access as training material. In the Sciences and Engineering Division of the Guanajuato University (Mexico) investigations are carried out related to ionizing radiations, especially with X-rays. To overcome the lack of materials has had to resort to borrowing equipment from other institutions, so its use and availability are intermittent. For these reasons is proposed to design and implement an X-ray detector for the use of the work group and the University. This work aims to build an X-ray semiconductor detector using inexpensive and affordable materials, is also proposed the use of a photodiode sensor and an Arduino analog-digital card and a LCD display showing the data. (Author)

  13. Photon Counting Energy Dispersive Detector Arrays for X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Nygård, Einar; Meirav, Oded; Arenson, Jerry; Barber, William C.; Hartsough, Neal E.; Malakhov, Nail; Wessel, Jan C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of an innovative detector technology for photon-counting in X-ray imaging is reported. This new generation of detectors, based on pixellated cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector arrays electrically connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for readout, will produce fast and highly efficient photon-counting and energy-dispersive X-ray imaging. There are a number of applications that can greatly benefit from these novel imagers including mammography, planar radiography, and computed tomography (CT). Systems based on this new detector technology can provide compositional analysis of tissue through spectroscopic X-ray imaging, significantly improve overall image quality, and may significantly reduce X-ray dose to the patient. A very high X-ray flux is utilized in many of these applications. For example, CT scanners can produce ~100 Mphotons/mm2/s in the unattenuated beam. High flux is required in order to collect sufficient photon statistics in the measurement of the transmitted flux (attenuated beam) during the very short time frame of a CT scan. This high count rate combined with a need for high detection efficiency requires the development of detector structures that can provide a response signal much faster than the transit time of carriers over the whole detector thickness. We have developed CdTe and CZT detector array structures which are 3 mm thick with 16×16 pixels and a 1 mm pixel pitch. These structures, in the two different implementations presented here, utilize either a small pixel effect or a drift phenomenon. An energy resolution of 4.75% at 122 keV has been obtained with a 30 ns peaking time using discrete electronics and a 57Co source. An output rate of 6×106 counts per second per individual pixel has been obtained with our ASIC readout electronics and a clinical CT X-ray tube. Additionally, the first clinical CT images, taken with several of our prototype photon-counting and energy

  14. Modeling quantum and structure noise of phosphors used in medical X-ray imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, N.; Costaridou, L.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Nomicos, C. D.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2002-09-01

    The noise properties of granular phosphors used in X-ray imaging detectors are studied in terms of a noise transfer function, NTF. This study is performed in high-exposure conditions where the contribution of structure noise to total screen noise is considerable. An analytical model, based on the cascaded linear systems methodology presented in the literature, is developed. This model takes into account the quantum noise and structure noise. Furthermore, it considers the effect of the K X-rays reabsorption on the phosphor material and the effect of screen thickness on the NTF. The model was validated against experimental results obtained by a set of Zn 2SiO 4:Mn phosphor screens prepared by sedimentation. The model may be used to evaluate the effect of screen thickness and the effect of the characteristic X-rays on NTF in high-exposure conditions where structure noise is considerable.

  15. Soft x-ray nanoscale imaging using highly brilliant laboratory sources and new detector concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Braenzel, J.; Dehlinger, A.; Jung, R.; Luebcke, A.; Regehly, M.; Ritter, S.; Tuemmler, J.; Schnuerer, M.; Seim, C.

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution, we report about nanoscale imaging using a laser produced plasma source based laboratory transmission X-ray microscope (LTXM) in the water window. The highly brilliant soft X-ray radiation of the LTXM is provided by a laser-produced nitrogen plasma source focused by a multilayer condenser mirror to the sample. An objective zone plate maps the magnified image of the sample on the super resolution camera. This camera employs a deep cooled soft-X-ray CCD imaging sensor sandwiched with a xy piezo stage to allow subpixel displacements of the detector. The camera is read out using a very low noise electronics platform, also directing low µm shifts of the sensor between subsequent image acquisitions. Finally an algorithm computes a high resolution image from the individual shifted low-resolution image frames.

  16. Development of an x-ray detector based on polymer- dispersed liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, K.; Hong, J.; Kim, G.; Park, S.; Min, B.; Yang, J.; Nam, S.

    2015-02-01

    The applications of active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) in large-area x-ray imaging systems have increased over time but are still severely limited owing to its pixel resolution, complex fabrication processes, and high cost. As a solution, x-ray light valve (XLV) technology was introduced and expected to have a better resolution and contrast ratio than those of AMFPI, owing to its micrometer level of the LC cells and signal amplification by an external light source. The twisting angle of the LC cells was changed by charge carrier signals created in a photoconductor layer against x-rays, and the diagnostic images from XLV were acquired from the transmittance of the external light source. However, there was a possibility that the photoconductor layer may be crystallized or degenerated due to the application of high temperatures for sealing the LC layer during the fabrication process. To solve such problems, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs), which do not need high temperature for the sealing process of the LC layer, are used in this study instead of typical LC cells. A photoconductor and PDLC are combined to develop an x-ray detector. An external light source and optical sensor are used to investigate the light transmission of the PDLC . The PDLCs used in this paper do not need polarizers and are self-adhesive. Hence, the transmittance is very high in the transparent state, which allows for a linear x-ray response and sufficient dynamic range in digital radiography.

  17. In-Orbit Performance of the Hard X-Ray Detector on Borad Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Murakami, Toshio; Tashiro, Makoto; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; M.Madejski, Greg; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shin; Tamagawa, Toru; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Kubota, Aya; Isobe, Naoki; Takahashi, Isao; Sato, Goro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Hong, Soojing; /Tokyo U. /Wako, RIKEN /JAXA, Sagamihara /Kanazawa U. /Saitama U. /Hiroshima U. /Aoyama Gakuin U. /Nihon U., Narashino /SLAC

    2007-10-26

    The in-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board the X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are described. Its basic performances, including a wide energy bandpass of 10-600 keV, energy resolutions of {approx}4 keV (FWHM) at 40 keV and {approx}11% at 511 keV, and a high background rejection efficiency, have been confirmed by extensive in-orbit calibrations. The long-term gains of PIN-Si diodes have been stable within 1% for half a year, and those of scintillators have decreased by 5-20%. The residual non-X-ray background of the HXD is the lowest among past non-imaging hard X-ray instruments in energy ranges of 15-70 and 150-500 keV. We provide accurate calibrations of energy responses, angular responses, timing accuracy of the HXD, and relative normalizations to the X-ray CCD cameras using multiple observations of the Crab Nebula.

  18. Development of an X-ray imaging system with SOI pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Ryutaro, E-mail: ryunishi@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IPNS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hirano, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Shunji; Hashimoto, Ryo [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-09-21

    An X-ray imaging system employing pixel sensors in silicon-on-insulator technology is currently under development. The system consists of an SOI pixel detector (INTPIX4) and a DAQ system based on a multi-purpose readout board (SEABAS2). To correct a bottleneck in the total throughput of the DAQ of the first prototype, parallel processing of the data taking and storing processes and a FIFO buffer were implemented for the new DAQ release. Due to these upgrades, the DAQ throughput was improved from 6 Hz (41 Mbps) to 90 Hz (613 Mbps). The first X-ray imaging system with the new DAQ software release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays for three-dimensional computerized tomography. The results of these tests are presented. - Highlights: • The X-ray imaging system employing the SOI pixel sensor is currently under development. • The DAQ of the first prototype has the bottleneck in the total throughput. • The new DAQ release solve the bottleneck by parallel processing and FIFO buffer. • The new DAQ release was tested using 33.3 keV and 9.5 keV mono X-rays.

  19. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  20. Vision 20/20: Single photon counting x-ray detectors in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Iwanczyk, Jan S

    2013-10-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCDs) with energy discrimination capabilities have been developed for medical x-ray computed tomography (CT) and x-ray (XR) imaging. Using detection mechanisms that are completely different from the current energy integrating detectors and measuring the material information of the object to be imaged, these PCDs have the potential not only to improve the current CT and XR images, such as dose reduction, but also to open revolutionary novel applications such as molecular CT and XR imaging. The performance of PCDs is not flawless, however, and it seems extremely challenging to develop PCDs with close to ideal characteristics. In this paper, the authors offer our vision for the future of PCD-CT and PCD-XR with the review of the current status and the prediction of (1) detector technologies, (2) imaging technologies, (3) system technologies, and (4) potential clinical benefits with PCDs.

  1. Characterization of spectrometric photon-counting X-ray detectors at different pitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdit, M.; Brambilla, A.; Moulin, V.; Ouvrier-Buffet, P.; Radisson, P.; Verger, L.

    2017-09-01

    There is growing interest in energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors based on high flux X-ray imaging. Their potential applications include medical imaging, non-destructive testing and security. Innovative detectors of this type will need to count individual photons and sort them into selected energy bins, at several million counts per second and per mm2. Cd(Zn)Te detector grade materials with a thickness of 1.5 to 3 mm and pitches from 800 μm down to 200 μm were assembled onto interposer boards. These devices were tested using in-house-developed full-digital fast readout electronics. The 16-channel demonstrators, with 256 energy bins, were experimentally characterized by determining spectral resolution, count rate, and charge sharing, which becomes challenging at low pitch. Charge sharing correction was found to efficiently correct X-ray spectra up to 40 × 106 incident photons.s-1.mm-2.

  2. The hard X-ray response of the XIS-CCD for Astro-E: qualification of the X-ray CCD detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiuchi, M; Awaki, H; Tsuru, T; Sakano, M; Hamaguchi, K; Murakami, H; Tsunemi, H; Hayashida, K; Kitamoto, S; Miyata, E; Dotani, T; Ozaki, M; Bautz, M; Doty, J; Kissel, S; Foster, R; Ricker, G

    1999-01-01

    We report on the hard X-ray response of the CCD detector for the X-ray imaging spectrometer (XIS), to be launched on the next Japanese X-ray Astronomical Satellite, ASTRO-E, in February 2000. XIS is prepared by an international team, comprised of MIT (USA), ISAS, Osaka University and Kyoto University (JAPAN). We have evaluated the X-ray response of the XIS in its high-energy band (1.5-10 keV). Data from the fluorescent line emission of Al, Cl, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, Se were used to construct the response function of the CCD detectors. Details of the response function - including the energy-scale, linearity, energy resolution, quantum efficiency -, are given as a function of incident X-ray energy. We find that the tail component of high-energy photopeaks are produced by events with incomplete charge collection. We also conclude that the size of the charge clouds can be estimated using the shapes of the tail components.

  3. X-ray Imaging Using a Hybrid Photon Counting GaAs Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, C; Göppert, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Ludwig, J; Meddeler, G; Mikulec, B; Pernigotti, E; Rogalla, M; Runge, K; Smith, K M; Snoeys, W; Söldner-Rembold, S; Watt, J

    1999-01-01

    The performance of hybrid GaAs pixel detectors as X-ray imaging sensors were investigated at room temperature. These hybrids consist of 300 mu-m thick GaAs pixel detectors, flip-chip bonded to a CMOS Single Photon Counting Chip (PCC). This chip consists of a matrix of 64 x 64 identical square pixels (170 mu-m x 170 mu-m) and covers a total area of 1.2 cm**2. The electronics in each cell comprises a preamplifier, a discriminator with a 3-bit threshold adjust and a 15-bit counter. The detector is realized by an array of Schottky diodes processed on semi-insulating LEC-GaAs bulk material. An IV-charcteristic and a detector bias voltage scan showed that the detector can be operated with voltages around 200 V. Images of various objects were taken by using a standard X-ray tube for dental diagnostics. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was also determined. The applications of these imaging systems range from medical applications like digital mammography or dental X-ray diagnostics to non destructive material testing (...

  4. Direct measurement of mammographic x-ray spectra using a CdZnTe detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Yamamoto, A; Honda, I; Taniguchi, A; Kanamori, H

    2000-07-01

    Our purpose is to directly measure mammographic x-ray spectra with collimators and a low-efficiency CdZnTe detector developed recently and to find out the best fit response function of CdZnTe detector to correct the measured spectra. Photon spectra (target Mo or Rh) produced by a mammographic x-ray unit at 25-32 kV and 240 mAs (= 3 times of 80 mAs) and transmitted through 0.03 mm Mo or 0.025 mm Rh filter and object (0.1 mm Al to 0.8 mm Al phantoms) have been analyzed. Since detected spectra were distorted by the response of CdZnTe detector and did not present the true photon spectra, the correction was applied by the stripping procedure. The response function of detector used in this procedure has been determined by the evaluation of interactions (K-escape, coherent scattering, and Compton scattering processes) and incomplete charge collection calculated using the Monte Carlo method. We have used Kalpha1, Kalpha2, Kbeta1, Kbeta2 radiations of Cd, Zn, and Te, respectively and have used the weight function for the incomplete charge collection and have considered Compton scattering. The Monte Carlo simulations were continued by changing the important factors (mean path length of hole lambda(h), dead layer of the CZT crystal and weight factor Wq) of incomplete charge collection until the best fit response function was found out. Corrected photon spectra were compared with the mammographic x-ray spectral data of Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH) measured using a Ge detector. Attenuation curves of aluminum for 25-32 kV were calculated from the corrected photon spectra and compared with the attenuation curves measured using an ionization chamber. These results obtained using the CdZnTe detector agreed with the mammographic x-ray spectral data of BRH and attenuation curves obtained by the ionization chamber.

  5. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Detector Optimization for Flash X-Ray Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, Caleb Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schirato, Richard C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-17

    Charge trapping, resulting in a decreased and spatially dependent electric field, has long been a concern for wide bandgap semiconductor detectors. While significant work has been performed to characterize this degradation at varying temperatures and radiation environments, this work concentrates upon examining the event-to-event response in a flash X-ray environment. The following work investigates if charge trapping is a problem for CZT detectors, with particular emphasis on flash X-ray radiation fields at cold temperatures. Results are compared to a non-flash radiation field, using an Am-241 alpha source and similar temperature transitions. Our ability to determine if a response change occurred was hampered by the repeatability of our flash X-ray systems; a small response change was observed with the Am-241 source. Due to contrast of these results, we are in the process of revisiting the Am-241 measurements in the presence of a high radiation environment. If the response change is more pronounced in the high radiation environment, a similar test will be performed in the flash X-ray environment.

  6. Trends in hard X-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Donner, E. [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D. [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Ryan, C.G. [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Environmental samples are extremely diverse but share a tendency for heterogeneity and complexity. This heterogeneity poses methodological challenges when investigating biogeochemical processes. In recent years, the development of analytical tools capable of probing element distribution and speciation at the microscale have allowed this challenge to be addressed. Of these available tools, laterally resolved synchrotron techniques such as X-ray fluorescence mapping are key methods for the in situ investigation of micronutrients and inorganic contaminants in environmental samples. This article demonstrates how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detector technology are bringing new possibilities to environmental research. Fast detectors are helping to circumvent major issues such as X-ray beam damage of hydrated samples, as dwell times during scanning are reduced. They are also helping to reduce temporal beamtime requirements, making particularly time-consuming techniques such as micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) tomography increasingly feasible. This article focuses on {mu}XRF mapping of nutrients and metalloids in environmental samples, and suggests that the current divide between mapping and speciation techniques will be increasingly blurred by the development of combined approaches. (orig.)

  7. Energy-windowed, pixellated X-ray diffraction using the Pixirad CdTe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Pinchera, M.; Spandre, G.; Moss, R.; Speller, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful tool for material identification. In order to interpret XRD data, knowledge is required of the scattering angles and energies of X-rays which interact with the sample. By using a pixellated, energy-resolving detector, this knowledge can be gained when using a spectrum of unfiltered X-rays, and without the need to collimate the scattered radiation. Here we present results of XRD measurements taken with the Pixirad detector and a laboratory-based X-ray source. The cadmium telluride sensor allows energy windows to be selected, and the 62 μm pixel pitch enables accurate spatial information to be preserved for XRD measurements, in addition to the ability to take high resolution radiographic images. Diffraction data are presented for a variety of samples to demonstrate the capability of the technique for materials discrimination in laboratory, security and pharmaceutical environments. Distinct diffraction patterns were obtained, from which details on the molecular structures of the items under study were determined.

  8. Detector solid angle formulas for use in X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2009-04-01

    With the advent of silicon drift X-ray detectors, a range of new geometries has become possible in electron optical columns. Because of their compact size, these detectors can potentially achieve high geometrical collection efficiencies; however, using traditional approximations detector solid angle calculations rapidly break down and at times can yield nonphysical values. In this article we present generalized formulas that can be used to calculate the variation in detection solid angle for contemporary Si(Li) as well as new silicon drift configurations.

  9. A fast energy-dispersive multi-element detector for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Edmund; Hansen, Karsten; Reckleben, Christian; Diehl, Inge

    2009-03-01

    In this paper results are presented from fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy measurements with a new seven-cell silicon drift detector (SDD) module. The complete module, including an integrated circuit for the detector readout, was developed and realised at DESY utilizing a monolithic seven-cell SDD. The new detector module is optimized for applications like XAFS which require an energy resolution of approximately 250-300 eV (FWHM Mn Kalpha) at high count rates. Measurements during the commissioning phase proved the excellent performance for this type of application.

  10. Diffusion effects in semiconductor X-ray detectors with inhomogeneous distribution of electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozorezov, A.G. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.kozorezov@lancaster.ac.uk; Wigmore, J.K. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Owens, A.; Hartog, R. den [Advanced Technologies Section, Science Projects Department, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2009-10-21

    We derive an expression for the charge output of an X-ray semiconductor detector taking account of carrier drift and diffusion. It is found that diffusion effects may strongly influence charge collection patterns at the edges of the collection zones. We show that, in multi-electrode detectors, carrier diffusion across the boundaries between collection and non-collection zones depends on the nature of the boundary surfaces and the biasing conditions. Diffusion effects for a ring-drift detector are illustrated, and the conditions derived under which diffusion effects for collection around the outer edge of the collection zone are fully suppressed by the drift.

  11. Testing of a Narrow Gap Detector designed for a sensitive X-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Almonte, Rafael; Hill, Joanne E.; Morris, David C.; Emmett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Time projection polarimeters are gas detectors where incident X-rays interact with a gas atom to produce a photoelectron whose direction is correlated with the polarization of the incident X-ray. By imaging the path of many photoelectrons the polarization of the incident X-ray can be determined.The next generation of time projection polarimeter incorporates a narrow gap detector to minimize the diffusion in the transfer gap between the gas electron multiplier and the readout strips. We report on the testing performed to bring the narrow-gap design to Technology Readiness Level (TRL)-6.TRL-6 testing included random and sine burst vibration tests and thermal cycling tests. In addition thermal shock tests and creep tests were performed to further demonstrate that the design would meet requirements, particularly flatness, throughout the life of a 2 year mission.The post-test inspection following the vibration testing showed no degradation or loss of flatness. Thermal Shock testing showed no indication that the extreme temperature had any effect on the detector. Creep testing showed no positive or negative trends in flatness. Thermal cycle testing also showed no change in detector behavior. All the requirements have been met and the narrow gap polarimeter is at TRL-6.

  12. Implementation of digital multiplexing for high resolution X-ray detector arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Swetadri Vasan, S N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate for the first time the use of the novel Multiple Module Multiplexer (MMMIC) for a 2×2 array of new electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) based x-ray detectors. It is highly desirable for x-ray imaging systems to have larger fields of view (FOV) extensible in two directions yet to still be capable of doing high resolution imaging over regions-of-interest (ROI). The MMMIC achieves these goals by acquiring and multiplexing data from an array of imaging modules thereby enabling a larger FOV, and at the same time allowing high resolution ROI imaging through selection of a subset of modules in the array. MMMIC also supports different binning modes. This paper describes how a specific two stage configuration connecting three identical MMMICs is used to acquire and multiplex data from a 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors. The first stage contains two MMMICs wherein each MMMIC is getting data from two EMCCD detectors. The multiplexed data from these MMMICs is then forwarded to the second stage MMMIC in the similar fashion. The second stage that has only one MMMIC gives the final 12 bit multiplexed data from four modules. This data is then sent over a high speed Camera Link interface to the image processing computer. X-ray images taken through the 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors using this two stage configuration of MMMICs are shown successfully demonstrating the concept.

  13. The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; Macdonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

  14. Assessment of the spectral performance of hybrid photon counting x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueb, Peter; Zambon, Pietro; Broennimann, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid Photon Counting (HPC) detectors profoundly improved x-ray diffraction experiments at third generation synchrotron facilities. Enabling the simultaneous measurement of x-ray intensities in multiple energy bins, they also have many potential applications in the field of medical imaging. A prerequisite for this is a clean spectral response. To quantify how efficiently HPC detectors are able to assign photons to the correct energy bin, a quantity called Spectral Efficiency (SE) is introduced. This figure of merit measures the number of x-rays with correctly assigned energy normalized to the number of incoming photons. A prototype HPC detector has been used to perform precision measurements of x-ray spectra at the BESSY synchrotron. The detector consists of a novel ASIC with pixels of 75 × 75 μm2 size and a 750 μm thick CdTe sensor. The experimental data are complemented by the results of a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, which not only includes the physical detection process but also pulse pile-up at high photon fluxes. The spectra and the measured photon flux are used to infer the Spectral Efficiency. In the energy range from 10 to 60 keV, both the Quantum Efficiency and the Spectral Efficiency were precisely measured and simulated. Good agreement between simulation and experiment has been achieved. For the small pixels of the prototype detector, a SE between 15% and 77% has been determined. The MC simulation is used to predict the SE for various pixel sizes at different photon fluxes. For a typical flux of 5∙107  photons/mm2 /s used in human Computed Tomography (CT), the highest SE is achieved for pixel sizes in the range between 150 × 150 μm2 and 300 × 300 μm2 . The Spectral Efficiency turns out to be a useful figure of merit to quantify the spectral performance of HPC detectors. It allows a quantitative comparison of detectors with different sensor and ASIC configurations over a broad range of x-ray energies and fluxes. The maximization of

  15. Elemental mapping in a contemporary miniature by full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging with gaseous detector vs. scanning X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. L. M.; Cirino, S.; Carvalho, M. L.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Santos, J. P.; Guerra, M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2017-03-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray imaging can be used in several research fields and industrial applications. Elemental mapping through energy dispersive X-ray imaging technique has become a promising method to obtain positional distribution of specific elements in a non-destructive way. To obtain the elemental distribution of a sample it is necessary to use instruments capable of providing a precise positioning together with a good energy resolution. Polycapillary beams together with silicon drift chamber detectors are used in several commercial systems and are considered state-of-the-art spectrometers, however they are usually very costly. A new concept of large energy dispersive X-ray imaging systems based on gaseous radiation detectors emerged in the last years enabling a promising 2D elemental detection at a very reduced price. The main goal of this work is to analyze a contemporary Indian miniature with both X-ray fluorescence imaging systems, the one based on a gaseous detector 2D-THCOBRA and the state-of-the-art spectrometer M4 Tornado, from Bruker. The performance of both systems is compared and evaluated in the context of the sample's analysis.

  16. Indirect-detection single-photon-counting x-ray detector for breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaercher, Joerg; Durst, Roger

    2016-03-01

    X-ray mammography is a crucial screening tool for early identification of breast cancer. However, the overlap of anatomical features present in projection images often complicates the task of correctly identifying suspicious masses. As a result, there has been increasing interest in acquisition of volumetric information through digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) which, compared to mammography, offers the advantage of depth information. Since DBT requires acquisition of many projection images, it is desirable that the noise in each projection image be dominated by the statistical noise of the incident x-ray quanta and not by the additive noise of the imaging system (referred to as quantum-limited imaging) and that the cumulative dose be as low as possible (e.g., no more than for a mammogram). Unfortunately, the electronic noise (~2000 electrons) present in current DBT systems based on active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) is still relatively high compared with modest x-ray gain of the a-Se and CsI:Tl x-ray converters often used. To overcome the modest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limitations of current DBT systems, we have developed a large-area x-ray imaging detector with the combination of an extremely low noise (~20 electrons) active-pixel CMOS and a specially designed high resolution scintillator. The high sensitivity and low noise of such system provides better SNR by at least an order of magnitude than current state-of-art AMFPI systems and enables x-ray indirect-detection single photon counting (SPC) at mammographic energies with the potential of dose reduction.

  17. The simulation of charge sharing in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Rahman, M; Smith, K M; Watt, J; Whitehill, C

    2002-01-01

    Two simulation packages were used to model the sharing of charge, due to the scattering and diffusion of carriers, between adjacent pixel elements in semiconductors X-ray detectors. The X-ray interaction and the consequent multiple scattering was modelled with the aid of the Monte Carlo package, MCNP. The resultant deposited charge distribution was then used to create the charge cloud profile in the finite element semiconductor simulation code MEDICI. The analysis of the current pulses induced on pixel electrodes for varying photon energies was performed for a GaAs pixel detector. For a pixel pitch of 25 mu m, the charge lost to a neighbouring pixel was observed to be constant, at 0.6%, through the energies simulated. Ultimately, a fundamental limit on the pixel element size for imaging and spectroscopic devices may be set due to these key physical principles.

  18. Interconnect and bonding techniques for pixelated X-ray and gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Veale, M. C.; Duarte, D. D.; Bell, S. J.; Wilson, M. D.; Lipp, J. D.; Seller, P.

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade, the Detector Development Group at the Technology Department of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), U.K., established a variety of fabrication and bonding techniques to build pixelated X-ray and γ-ray detector systems such as the spectroscopic X-ray imaging detector HEXITEC [1]. The fabrication and bonding of such devices comprises a range of processes including material surface preparation, photolithography, stencil printing, flip-chip and wire bonding of detectors to application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC). This paper presents interconnect and bonding techniques used in the fabrication chain for pixelated detectors assembled at STFC. For this purpose, detector dies (~ 20× 20 mm2) of high quality, single crystal semiconductors, such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) are cut to the required thickness (up to 5mm). The die surfaces are lapped and polished to a mirror-finish and then individually processed by electroless gold deposition combined with photolithography to form 74× 74 arrays of 200 μ m × 200 μ m pixels with 250 μ m pitch. Owing to a lack of availability of CZT wafers, lithography is commonly carried out on individual detector dies which represents a significant technical challenge as the edge of the pixel array and the surrounding guard band lies close to the physical edge of the crystal. Further, such detector dies are flip-chip bonded to readout ASIC using low-temperature curing silver-loaded epoxy so that the stress between the bonded detector die and the ASIC is minimized. In addition, this reduces crystalline modifications of the detector die that occur at temperature greater than 150\\r{ }C and have adverse effects on the detector performance. To allow smaller pitch detectors to be bonded, STFC has also developed a compression cold-weld indium bump bonding technique utilising bumps formed by a photolithographic lift-off technique.

  19. Transmission properties of barite mortar using X-ray spectra measured with Cd Te detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J. C.; Mariano, L.; Costa, P. R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: josilene@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970 Goiania (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Current methods for calculating X-ray shielding barriers do not take into account spectral distribution of the beam transmitted by the protective material. This consideration is important in dose estimations for radiation workers and general public in diagnostic radiology facilities. The aim of the present study was to estimate barite mortar attenuation curves using X-ray spectra weighted by a workload distribution. These curves were described in units of ambient dose equivalent (H (10)), since it is the radiation quantity adopted by IAEA for dose assessment in medical environment. Attenuation curves were determined using the optimized model for shielding evaluation presented by Costa and Caldas (2002). Workload distribution presented by Simpkin (1996), measured primary spectra and mass attenuation coefficients of barite mortar were used as input data in this model. X-ray beams in diagnostic energy range were generated by an industrial X-ray tube with 3 mm of aluminum additional filtration. Primary experimental spectra were measured by a Cd Te detector and corrected by the response function of detector by means of a stripping procedure. Air kerma measurements were performed using an ionization chamber for normalization purpose of the spectra. The corrected spectra presented good agreement with spectra generated by a semi-empirical model. The variation of the ambient dose equivalent as a function of barite mortar thickness was calculated. Using these data, it was estimated the optimized thickness of protective barrier needed for shielding a particular area in an X-ray imaging facility. The results obtained for primary protective barriers exhibit qualitative agreement with those presented in literature. (Author)

  20. Performance of soft X-ray emission spectrometer employing charge-coupled device detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, T A; Muramatsu, Y

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a soft X-ray emission spectrometer employing a charge-coupled device camera was examined in the energy range of 80-1250 eV. The spectra observed by low-energy electron irradiation for metal L, oxygen K and silicon L lines were in good agreement with the previous observations by conventional MCP detectors. The results suggest that the energy resolution is good enough for the resonant excitation spectroscopy by synchrotron radiation as well.

  1. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Matthew D., E-mail: Matt.Wilson@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus,UK (United Kingdom); Connolley, Thomas [Diamond Light Source, I12 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, B16 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew [Department of Materials, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm{sup 2} with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm{sup 2}. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  2. CdTe Focal Plane Detector for Hard X-Ray Focusing Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 millimeter x 20 millimeter CdTe-based detector with 250 micrometer square pixels (80 x 80 pixels) which achieves 1 kiloelectronvolt FWHM (Full-Width Half-Maximum) @ 60 kiloelectronvolts and gives full spectroscopy between 5 kiloelectronvolts and 200 kiloelectronvolts. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kilohertz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1 millimeter-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2 x 2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flight-suitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  3. Advancing the Technology of Monolithic CMOS detectors for their use as X-ray Imaging Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) proposes a two year program to further advance the scientific capabilities of monolithic CMOS detectors for use as x-ray imaging spectrometers. This proposal will build upon the progress achieved with funding from a previous APRA proposal that ended in 2013. As part of that previous proposal, x- ray optimized, highly versatile, monolithic CMOS imaging detectors and technology were developed and tested. The performance and capabilities of these devices were then demonstrated, with an emphasis on the performance advantages these devices have over CCDs and other technologies. The developed SAO/SRI-Sarnoff CMOS devices incorporate: Low noise, high sensitivity ("gain") pixels; Highly parallel on-chip signal chains; Standard and very high resistivity (30,000Ohm-cm) Si; Back-Side thinning and passivation. SAO demonstrated the performance benefits of each of these features in these devices. This new proposal high-lights the performance of this previous generation of devices, and segues into new technology and capability. The high sensitivity ( 135uV/e) 6 Transistor (6T) Pinned Photo Diode (PPD) pixels provided a large charge to voltage conversion gain to the detect and resolve even small numbers of photo electrons produced by x-rays. The on-chip, parallel signal chain processed an entire row of pixels in the same time that a CCD requires to processes a single pixel. The resulting high speed operation ( 1000 times faster than CCD) provide temporal resolution while mitigating dark current and allowed room temperature operation. The high resistivity Si provided full (over) depletion for thicker devices which increased QE for higher energy x-rays. In this proposal, SAO will investigate existing NMOS and existing PMOS devices as xray imaging spectrometers. Conventional CMOS imagers are NMOS. NMOS devices collect and measure photo-electrons. In contrast, PMOS devices collect and measure photo-holes. PMOS devices have various

  4. Characterization of the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating X-ray detector CIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    The CIX detector is a direct converting hybrid pixel detector designed for medical X-ray imaging applications. Its de ning feature is the simultaneous operation of a photon counter as well as an integrator in every pixel cell. This novel approach o ers a dynamic range of more than five orders of magnitude, as well as the ability to directly obtain the average photon energy from the measured data. Several CIX 0.2 ASICs have been successfully connected to CdTe, CdZnTe and Si sensors. These detector modules were tested with respect to the imaging performance of the simultaneously counting and integrating concept under X-ray irradiation. Apart from a characterization of the intrinsic benefits of the CIX concept, the sensor performance was also investigated. Here, the two parallel signal processing concepts offer valuable insights into material related effects like polarization and temporal response. The impact of interpixel coupling effects like charge-sharing, Compton scattering and X-ray fluorescence was evaluated through simulations and measurements. (orig.)

  5. Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...

  6. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  7. Investigating the effect of characteristic x-rays in cadmium zinc telluride detectors under breast computerized tomography operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Stephen J; Didier, Clay

    2013-10-14

    A number of research groups have been investigating the use of dedicated breast computerized tomography (CT). Preliminary results have been encouraging, suggesting an improved visualization of masses on breast CT as compared to conventional mammography. Nonetheless, there are many challenges to overcome before breast CT can become a routine clinical reality. One potential improvement over current breast CT prototypes would be the use of photon counting detectors with cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) (or CdTe) semiconductor material. These detectors can operate at room temperature and provide high detection efficiency and the capability of multi-energy imaging; however, one factor in particular that limits image quality is the emission of characteristic x-rays. In this study, the degradative effects of characteristic x-rays are examined when using a CZT detector under breast CT operating conditions. Monte Carlo simulation software was used to evaluate the effect of characteristic x-rays and the detector element size on spatial and spectral resolution for a CZT detector used under breast CT operating conditions. In particular, lower kVp spectra and thinner CZT thicknesses were studied than that typically used with CZT based conventional CT detectors. In addition, the effect of characteristic x-rays on the accuracy of material decomposition in spectral CT imaging was explored. It was observed that when imaging with 50-60 kVp spectra, the x-ray transmission through CZT was very low for all detector thicknesses studied (0.5-3.0 mm), thus retaining dose efficiency. As expected, characteristic x-ray escape from the detector element of x-ray interaction increased with decreasing detector element size, approaching a 50% escape fraction for a 100 μm size detector element. The detector point spread function was observed to have only minor degradation with detector element size greater than 200 μm and lower kV settings. Characteristic x-rays produced increasing distortion

  8. Modelling of the small pixel effect in gallium arsenide X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out to investigate the small pixel effect in highly pixellated X-ray imaging detectors fabricated from semi-insulating gallium arsenide. The presence of highly non-uniform weighting fields in detectors with a small pixel geometry causes the majority of the induced signal to be generated when the moving charges are close to the pixellated contacts. The response of GaAs X-ray imaging detectors is further complicated by the presence of charge trapping, particularly of electrons. In this work detectors are modelled with a pixel pitch of 40 and 150 mu m, and with thicknesses of 300 and 500 mu m. Pulses induced in devices with 40 mu m pixels are due almost totally to the movement of the lightly-trapped holes and can exhibit significantly higher charge collection efficiencies than detectors with large electrodes, in which electron trapping is significant. Details of the charge collection efficiencies as a function of interaction depth in the detector and of the incident phot...

  9. Computer simulation of the CSPAD, ePix10k, and RayonixMX170HS X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-21

    The invention of free-electron lasers (FELs) has opened a door to an entirely new level of scientific research. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is an X-ray FEL that houses several instruments, each with its own unique X-ray applications. This light source is revolutionary in that while its properties allow for a whole new range of scientific opportunities, it also poses numerous challenges. For example, the intensity of a focused X-ray beam is enough to damage a sample in one mere pulse; however, the pulse speed and extreme brightness of the source together are enough to obtain enough information about that sample, so that no further measurements are necessary. An important device in the radiation detection process, particularly for X-ray imaging, is the detector. The power of the LCLS X-rays has instigated a need for better performing detectors. The research conducted for this project consisted of the study of X-ray detectors to imitate their behaviors in a computer program. The analysis of the Rayonix MX170-HS, CSPAD, and ePix10k in particular helped to understand their properties. This program simulated the interaction of X-ray photons with these detectors to discern the patterns of their responses. A scientist’s selection process of a detector for a specific experiment is simplified from the characterization of the detectors in the program.

  10. Development Of Position-sensitive Cadmium Zinc Telluride Detectors For High-energy X-ray Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Slavis, K R

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the studies of an orthogonal cross-strip CdZnTe detector for high-energy X-ray (20–250 keV) astrophysics applications. The intrinsic three-dimensional detector response and the effectiveness of using various shielding techniques at balloon altitudes are investigated. This detector has great promise for use as the imaging detector of a large- area, coded-mask instrument in an all-sky high-energy X- ray survey or as the focal-plane detector for an X-ray focusing telescope (Constellation-X) for high throughput, high resolution X-ray spectroscopy (6–40 keV). The most recent hard X-ray all-sky survey was conducted by HEAO-1/A4 in 1978, and one has not been conducted since then due to performance limitations of available X-ray detector technology. The next generation instruments need to have sub-degree angular resolution, good sensitivity in the hard X-ray band (3σ sensitivity to sub- mCrab), and few keV energy resolution. This performance is demonstrated u...

  11. X-ray micro-CT scanner for small animal imaging based on Timepix detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Krejci, Frantisek; Polansky, Stepan; Jakubek, Jan; Mrzilkova, Jana; Patzelt, Matej; Trnka, Jan

    2015-02-01

    We describe a newly developed compact micro-CT scanner with rotating gantry equipped with a Timepix Quad hybrid pixel semiconductor detector and a micro-focus X-ray tube providing spatial resolution down to 30 μm. The resolving power of the device in relation to soft tissue sensitivity is demonstrated using a tissue-equivalent phantom and different types of biological samples. The results demonstrate that the use of noiseless particle counting detectors is a promising way to achieve sufficient soft tissue contrast even without any contrast agents.

  12. Development of 32-channel silicon drift detectors and digital electronics for X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, C; Goujon, G; Goulon, J; Moguiline, E; Dressler, P; Henck, R; Lampert, M O

    1998-05-01

    The performance of silicon-drift-detector (SDD) arrays and digital electronics designed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the fluorescence excitation mode is reported. Different detectors have been manufactured and tested: two single-channel SDDs with different active areas (10 mm(2) and 1 cm(2)) and a monolithic 2 cm(2) SDD with eight readout anodes. The energy resolution varies between 160 and 170 eV FWHM. A new digital multichannel shaping amplifier has been produced. Its performance is presented in comparison with that of a standard commercial shaper.

  13. Mapping the Large Area Straw Detectors of the COMPASS Experiment With X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, K.; Dunnweber, W.; Dedek, N.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Ilgner, C.; Peshekhonov, V.; Wellenstein, H.

    2005-06-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 /spl mu/m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 /spl mu/m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 /spl mu/m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient in view of the intrinsic straw resolution of 200 /spl mu/m for minimum ionizing particles. The offline calibration was checked with particle tracks in the experimental setup, running COMPASS with 160 GeV/c muons. Tracks reconstructed with other detectors that cover a central angular range were used for this comparison. Good agreement is found between these in situ measurements and the X-ray calibration.

  14. Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen

    CERN Document Server

    Badel, X; Linnros, J; Kleimann, P; Froejdh, C; Petersson, C S

    2002-01-01

    An X-ray imaging detector has been developed for dental applications. The principle of this detector is based on application of a silicon charge coupled device covered by a scintillating wave-guide screen. Previous studies of such a detector showed promising results concerning the spatial resolution but low performance in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity. Recent results confirm the wave-guiding properties of the matrix and show improvement of the detector in terms of response uniformity, sensitivity and SNR. The present study is focussed on the fabrication of the scintillating screen where the principal idea is to fill a matrix of Si pores with a CsI scintillator. The photoluminescence technique was used to prove the wave-guiding property of the matrix and to inspect the filling uniformity of the pores. The final detector was characterized by X-ray evaluation in terms of spatial resolution, light output and SNR. A sensor with a spatial resolution of 9 LP/mm and a SNR over 50 has been achie...

  15. Spectrum reconstruction method based on the detector response model calibrated by x-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruizhe; Li, Liang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-07

    Accurate estimation of distortion-free spectra is important but difficult in various applications, especially for spectral computed tomography. Two key problems must be solved to reconstruct the incident spectrum. One is the acquisition of the detector energy response. It can be calculated by Monte Carlo simulation, which requires detailed modeling of the detector system and a high computational power. It can also be acquired by establishing a parametric response model and be calibrated using monochromatic x-ray sources, such as synchrotron sources or radioactive isotopes. However, these monochromatic sources are difficult to obtain. Inspired by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum modeling, we propose a feasible method to obtain the detector energy response based on an optimized parametric model for CdZnTe or CdTe detectors. The other key problem is the reconstruction of the incident spectrum with the detector response. Directly obtaining an accurate solution from noisy data is difficult because the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed. Different from the existing spectrum stripping method, a maximum likelihood-expectation maximization iterative algorithm is developed based on the Poisson noise model of the system. Simulation and experiment results show that our method is effective for spectrum reconstruction and markedly increases the accuracy of XRF spectra compared with the spectrum stripping method. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, and promising results are presented.

  16. Cooled CdZnTe detectors for X-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bale, G; Seller, P; Lowe, B

    1999-01-01

    Recent results combining thermoelectrically cooled CdZnTe detectors with a low-noise Pentafet preamplifier are presented. Cooling between -30 deg. C and -40 deg. C reduces the leakage current of the detectors and allows the use of a pulsed reset preamplifier and long shaping times, significantly improving the energy resolution. Mn K subalpha X-rays at 5.9 keV have been observed with a resolution of less than 280 eV FWHM and a peak to background of more than 200:1. The Fano factor of the material has been estimated at 0.11+-0.012 at -40 deg. C. The detector requirement for X-ray astronomy will be a photon-counting imaging spectrometer. A 16x16 element, bump bonded pixel detector is described and results from a prototype silicon array presented. The detector is constructed with ASIC amplifiers with a system noise of <25 electrons rms and should give an energy resolution comparable to the Pentafet results presented here.

  17. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X- ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Olivero, P; Vittone, E; Fizzotti, F; Paolini, C; Lo Giudice, A; Barrett, R; Tucoulou, R

    2004-01-01

    Tracking detectors have become an important ingredient in high-energy physics experiments. In order to survive the harsh detection environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), trackers need to have special properties. They must be radiation hard, provide fast collection of charge, be as thin as possible and remove heat from readout electronics. The unique properties of diamond allow it to fulfill these requirements. In this work we present an investigation of the charge transport and luminescence properties of "detector grade" artificial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond devices developed within the CERN RD42 collaboration, performed by means of X-ray micro-beam induced current collection (XBICC) and X-ray micro- beam induced luminescence (XBIL) techniques. XBICC technique allows quantitative estimates of the transport parameters of the material to be evaluated and mapped with micrometric spatial resolution. In particular, the high resolution and sensitivity of the technique has allowed a quantitati...

  18. X-ray spectroscopy with a multi-anode sawtooth silicon drift detector: the diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsky, J. E-mail: sonsky@iri.tudelft.nl; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2002-01-21

    The position sensitive detection of low-energy X-rays can be realized by means of a multi-anode linear silicon drift detector (SDD). However, a severe worsening of the spectroscopic quality of the detector is observed due to the lateral broadening of the X-ray generated electron cloud during drift. Recently, we have proved experimentally that electron confinement can be achieved by means of sawtooth-shaped p{sup +} strips; the sawtooth concept. This paper will present room temperature X-ray spectroscopy measurements clearly demonstrating the improvement of spectroscopic quality of the sawtooth SDD as compared with a traditional linear SDD. Using a sawtooth SDD we have measured an energy resolution of 1.4 keV FWHM at the 13.9 keV peak of {sup 241}Am at room temperature and a substantial reduction of the number of split events is also observed. The calculation of the influence of diffusion on the quality of the pulse height spectrum will also be given.

  19. X-ray spectroscopy with a multi-anode sawtooth silicon drift detector the diffusion process

    CERN Document Server

    Sonsky, J; Sarro, P M; Eijk, C W

    2002-01-01

    The position sensitive detection of low-energy X-rays can be realized by means of a multi-anode linear silicon drift detector (SDD). However, a severe worsening of the spectroscopic quality of the detector is observed due to the lateral broadening of the X-ray generated electron cloud during drift. Recently, we have proved experimentally that electron confinement can be achieved by means of sawtooth-shaped p sup + strips; the sawtooth concept. This paper will present room temperature X-ray spectroscopy measurements clearly demonstrating the improvement of spectroscopic quality of the sawtooth SDD as compared with a traditional linear SDD. Using a sawtooth SDD we have measured an energy resolution of 1.4 keV FWHM at the 13.9 keV peak of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am at room temperature and a substantial reduction of the number of split events is also observed. The calculation of the influence of diffusion on the quality of the pulse height spectrum will also be given.

  20. The use of small x-ray detectors for deep space relative navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patrick T.; Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz; Sheikh, Suneel I.

    2012-10-01

    Currently, there is considerable interest in developing technologies that will allow the use of high-energy photon measurements from celestial X-ray sources for deep space relative navigation. The impetus for this is to reduce operational costs in the number of envisioned space missions that will require spacecraft to have autonomous, or semiautonomous, navigation capabilities. For missions close to Earth, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS), are readily available for use and provide high accuracy navigation solutions that can be used for autonomous vehicle operation. However, for missions far from Earth, currently only a few navigation options exist and most do not allow autonomous operation. While the radio telemetry based solutions with proven high performance such as NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) can be used for these class of missions, latencies associated with servicing a fleet of vehicles, such as a constellation of communication or science observation spacecraft, may not be compatible with autonomous operations which require timely updates of navigation solutions. Thus, new alternative solutions are sought with DSN-like accuracy. Because of their highly predictable pulsations, pulsars emitting X-radiation are ideal candidates for this task. These stars are ubiquitous celestial sources that can be used to provide time, attitude, range, and range-rate measurements — key parameters for navigation. Laboratory modeling of pulsar signals and operational aspects such as identifying pulsar-spacecraft geometry and performing cooperative observations with data communication are addressed in this paper. Algorithms and simulation tools that will enable designing and analyzing X-ray navigation concepts for a cis-lunar operational scenario are presented. In this situation, a space vehicle with a large-sized X-ray detector will work cooperatively with a number of smaller vehicles with smaller-sized detectors to

  1. X-ray detectors based on Fe doped GaN photoconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Kai; Yao, Changsheng [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, 215123 Suzhou (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquanlu, 100049 Beijing (China); Yu, Guohao; Lu, Min [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, 215123 Suzhou (China); Wang, Guo [Peking University, Beijing (China); Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Xili Town Nanshan District, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-, 102413 Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    X-ray detectors based on Fe doped GaN photoconductors have been fabricated. The dark current I{sub d} and photocurrent I{sub p} as a function of bias have been investigated and a large I{sub p}/I{sub d} ratio of 180 at 200 V has been obtained in spite of optical quenching. The physical mechanism of the transient performance of the photoconductor has been studied through fitting the experimental data. The functions of photocurrent versus acceleration voltage and current of the X-ray source have been measured and discussed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Silicon drift detectors with on-chip electronics for x-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, C; Longoni, A; Hartmann, R; Lechner, P; Strüder, L

    1997-01-01

    The silicon drift detector (SDD) is a semiconductor device based on high resistivity silicon fully depleted through junctions implanted on both sides of the semiconductor wafer. The electrons generated by the ionizing radiation are driven by means of a suitable electric field from the point of interaction toward a collecting anode of small capacitance, independent of the active area of the detector. A suitably designed front-end JFET has been directly integrated on the detector chip close to the anode region, in order to obtain a nearly ideal capacitive matching between detector and transistor and to minimize the stray capacitances of the connections. This feature allows it to reach high energy resolution also at high count rates and near room temperature. The present work describes the structure and the performance of SDDs specially designed for high resolution spectroscopy with soft x rays at high detection rate. Experimental results of SDDs used in spectroscopy applications are also reported.

  3. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  4. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  5. Development of CdZnTe X-ray detectors at DSRI

    CERN Document Server

    Pamelen, M A J; Kuvvetli, I

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the development of CdZnTe X-ray detectors at the Danish Space Research Institute is presented. Initiated in the beginning of 1996, the main motivation at that time was to develop focal plane detectors for the novel type of hard X-ray telescopes, which are currently under study at DSRI. With the advent of the Danish Micro Satellite program it was, however, recognised that this type of detector is very well suited for two proposed missions (eXCALIBur, AXO). The research at DSRI has so far been concentrated on the spectroscopic properties of the CZT detector. At DSRI we have developed a technique, which, with the use of microstrip electrodes, is able to compensate for the signal loss caused by trapping of positive charge carriers. This technique leads to a dramatic improvement of the achievable energy resolution, even for crystals of poor quality. With the technique, hole trapping has now little influence and the spectrum displays a pronounced Gaussian peak at 661 keV with a width (FWHM) of 6.9 ke...

  6. Linearity discontinuities in Xe-filled X-ray microstrip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zavattini, G.; Feroci, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1997-01-01

    A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector. The mea......A prototype Xe + 10% CH4 microstrip detector was used to study the K-edge discontinuity in the pulse-height distribution as a function of the energy of incident X-rays. The electronics used was such that a pulse-shape rejection could be made of K-fluorescence reabsorption in the detector....... The measured jump at the K-edge was (169 +/- 12)eV. It was also seen that K-alpha- and K-beta-decay channels produce different pulse heights for the same deposited energy. We find that the difference in energy between the calibration fines of the K-beta 2- and the K-beta 1.3-escape peaks is (93+/-12)eV whereas...... between the K-beta 1.3 and the K-alpha-escape peaks' calibration the energy gal is (69+/-7)eV....

  7. Analysis and operation of DePFET X-ray imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, Thomas

    2011-04-28

    The latest active pixel sensor for X-ray imaging spectroscopy developed at the Max-Planck-Halbleiterlabor (HLL) is the Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DePFET). This detector type unites detector and first stage amplification and has excellent energy resolution, low noise readout at high speed and low power consumption. This is combined with the possibility of random accessibility of pixels and on-demand readout. In addition it possesses all advantages of a sidewards depleted device, i.e. 100% fill factor and very good quantum efficiency. In the course of the development of DePFET detectors the need of a data analysis software for DePFET devices became apparent. A new tool was developed within the scope of this thesis, which should enable scientists to analyze DePFET data, but also be flexible enough so it can be adapted to new device variants and analysis challenges. A modular concept was thus implemented: a base program running an analysis by individual steps encapsulating algorithms, which can be interchanged. The result is a flexible, adaptable, and expandable analysis software. The software was used to investigate and qualify different structural variants of DePFET detectors. Algorithms to examine detector effects and methods to correct them were developed and integrated into the software. This way, a standard analysis suite for DePFET data was built up which is used at the HLL. Beside the planned use as detector for the wide field imager in the space X-ray observatory IXO, DePFET matrices will be used as focal plane array on the Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer on board the Mercury probe BepiColombo which is scheduled for launch in 2014. The developed analysis software was used in the detector development for this mission to qualify test structures, analyze detector effects and study experimental results. In the course of this development, detector prototypes were studied in respect of linearity, charge collection and detection efficiency in an

  8. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to x-ray flash radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (FR). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Vaujours, 77 - Courtry (FR)

    1991-12-31

    Semi-insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X ray single shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 {mu}rad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charges, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors.

  9. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to X-ray flash radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L. (CEA, Direction des Technologies Avancees, Lab. d' Electronique, de Technologie et d' Instrumentation, DSYS, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M. (CEA, Direction des Applications Militaires, 77 - Courtry (France))

    1992-11-15

    Some insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X-ray single-shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 [mu]rad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charge, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X-ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X-ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors. (orig.).

  10. Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Amit; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Li, Yixin; Su, Zhong; Wang, Yi; Yamamoto, Jin; Zhao, Qihua; Du, Hong; Daniel, Jurgen; Street, Robert

    2005-02-01

    Current electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) based on active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) technology use a metal plate+phosphor screen combination for x-ray conversion. As a result, these devices face a severe trade-off between x-ray quantum efficiency (QE) and spatial resolution, thus, significantly limiting their imaging performance. In this work, we present a novel detector design for indirect detection-based AMFPI EPIDs that aims to circumvent this trade-off. The detectors were developed using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based fabrication techniques and consist of a grid of up to approximately 2 mm tall, optically isolated cells of a photoresist material, SU-8. The cells are dimensionally matched to the pixels of the AMFPI array, and packed with a scintillating phosphor. In this paper, various design considerations for such detectors are examined. An empirical evaluation of three small-area (approximately 7 x 7 cm2) prototype detectors is performed in order to study the effects of two design parameters--cell height and phosphor packing density, both of which are important determinants of the imaging performance. Measurements of the x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) were performed under radiotherapy conditions (6 MV), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was determined for each prototype SU-8 detector. In addition, theoretical calculations using Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the QE of each detector, as well as the inherent spatial resolution due to the spread of absorbed energy. The results of the present studies were compared with corresponding measurements published in an earlier study using a Lanex Fast-B phosphor screen coupled to an indirect detection array of the same design. The SU-8 detectors exhibit up to 3 times higher QE, while achieving spatial resolution comparable or superior to Lanex Fast-B. However, the DQE performance of these early prototypes is

  11. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  12. Aerogel Cherenkov detector for characterizing the intense flash x-ray source, Cygnus, spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y., E-mail: yhkim@lanl.gov; Herrmann, H. W.; McEvoy, A. M.; Young, C. S.; Hamilton, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schwellenbach, D. D.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Smith, A. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An aerogel Cherenkov detector is proposed to measure the X-ray energy spectrum from the Cygnus—intense flash X-ray source operated at the Nevada National Security Site. An array of aerogels set at a variety of thresholds between 1 and 3 MeV will be adequate to map out the bremsstrahlung X-ray production of the Cygnus, where the maximum energy of the spectrum is normally around 2.5 MeV. In addition to the Cherenkov radiation from aerogels, one possible competing light-production mechanism is optical transition radiation (OTR), which may be significant in aerogels due to the large number of transitions from SiO{sub 2} clusters to vacuum voids. To examine whether OTR is a problem, four aerogel samples were tested using a mono-energetic electron beam (varied in the range of 1–3 MeV) at NSTec Los Alamos Operations. It was demonstrated that aerogels can be used as a Cherenkov medium, where the rate of the light production is about two orders magnitude higher when the electron beam energy is above threshold.

  13. Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Marmotti, M; Kampmann, R

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors have been developed at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF) for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffractometry. They are multi-wire proportional counters with delay-line readout and sensitive areas of 300 mm x 300 mm or 500 mm x 500 mm. For detecting X-rays, neutrons and hard X-rays the counters are filled with Ar/CO sub 2 , sup 3 He/CF sub 4 and Xe/CO sub 2 , respectively. One neutron detector is used at the ARES diffractometer at GKSS, which is dedicated to the analysis of residual stresses. Further ones are used for analysing textures and residual stresses at the hard-X-ray beamline PETRA-2 at HASYLAB, and one detector is being developed for the neutron reflectometer REFSANS at the research reactor FRM-II in Munich, Germany. (orig.)

  14. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  15. Compton scattering artifacts in electron excited X-ray spectra measured with a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P

    2011-12-01

    Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present.

  16. Energy-sensitive photon counting detector-based X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2017-03-01

    Energy-sensitive photon counting detectors (PCDs) have recently been developed for medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and a handful of prototype PCD-CT systems have been built and evaluated. PCDs detect X-rays by using mechanisms that are completely different from the current CT detectors (i.e., energy integrating detectors or EIDs); PCDs count photons and obtain the information of the object tissues (i.e., the effective atomic numbers and mass densities) to be imaged. Therefore, these PCDs have the potential not only for evolution-to improve the current CT images such as providing dose reduction-but also for a revolution-to enable novel applications with a new concept such as molecular CT imaging. The performance of PCDs, however, is not flawless, and thus, it requires integrated efforts to develop PCD-CT for clinical use. In this article, we review the current status and the prediction for the future of PCDs, PCD-CT systems, and potential clinical applications.

  17. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  18. Multi-energy x-ray detectors to improve air-cargo security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Caroline; Moulin, Vincent; Perion, Didier; Radisson, Patrick; Verger, Loïck

    2017-05-01

    X-ray based systems have been used for decades to screen luggage or cargo to detect illicit material. The advent of energy-sensitive photon-counting x-ray detectors mainly based on Cd(Zn)Te semi-conductor technology enables to improve discrimination between materials compared to single or dual energy technology. The presented work is part of the EUROSKY European project to develop a Single European Secure Air-Cargo Space. "Cargo" context implies the presence of relatively heavy objects and with potentially high atomic number. All the study is conducted on simulations with three different detectors: a typical dual energy sandwich detector, a realistic model of the commercial ME100 multi-energy detector marketed by MULTIX, and a ME100 "Cargo": a not yet existing modified multi-energy version of the ME100 more suited to air freight cargo inspection. Firstly, a comparison on simulated measurements shows the performances improvement of the new multi-energy detectors compared to the current dual-energy one. The relative performances are evaluated according to different criteria of separability or contrast-to-noise ratio and the impact of different parameters is studied (influence of channel number, type of materials and tube voltage). Secondly, performances of multi-energy detectors for overlaps processing in a dual-view system is accessed: the case of orthogonal projections has been studied, one giving dimensional values, the other one providing spectral data to assess effective atomic number. A method of overlap correction has been proposed and extended to multi-layer objects case. Therefore, Calibration and processing based on bi-material decomposition have been adapted for this purpose.

  19. Statistical reconstruction for x-ray computed tomography using energy-integrating detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasio, Giovanni M [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Whiting, Bruce R [Department of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Williamson, Jeffrey F [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Statistical image reconstruction (SR) algorithms have the potential to significantly reduce x-ray CT image artefacts because they use a more accurate model than conventional filtered backprojection and can incorporate effects such as noise, incomplete data and nonlinear detector response. Most SR algorithms assume that the CT detectors are photon-counting devices and generate Poisson-distributed signals. However, actual CT detectors integrate energy from the x-ray beam and exhibit compound Poisson-distributed signal statistics. This study presents the first assessment of the impact on image quality of the resultant mismatch between the detector and signal statistics models assumed by the sinogram data model and the reconstruction algorithm. A 2D CT projection simulator was created to generate synthetic polyenergetic transmission data assuming (i) photon-counting with simple Poisson-distributed signals and (ii) energy-weighted detection with compound Poisson-distributed signals. An alternating minimization (AM) algorithm was used to reconstruct images from the data models (i) and (ii) for a typical abdominal scan protocol with incident particle fluence levels ranging from 10{sup 5} to 1.6 x 10{sup 6} photons/detector. The images reconstructed from data models (i) and (ii) were compared by visual inspection and image-quality figures of merit. The reconstructed image quality degraded significantly when the means were mismatched from the assumed model. However, if the signal means are appropriately modified, images from data models (i) and (ii) did not differ significantly even when SNR is very low. While data-mean mismatches characteristic of the difference between particle-fluence and energy-fluence transmission can cause significant streaking and cupping artefacts, the mismatch between the actual and assumed CT detector signal statistics did not significantly degrade image quality once systematic data means mismatches were corrected.

  20. Characterization of new semiconductor detectors for x-ray tomography in the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak and its generalized physics interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Kohagura, J.; Kanke, S.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Okamura, T.; Yatsu, K.; Tamano, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Hirano, K.; Maezawa, H. [National Institute for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Fukui National College of Technology, Fukui 916 (Japan); Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M. [Max-Planck-Institut Fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    The energy response of a new semiconductor detector in the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak for plasma x-ray tomography studies is characterized using synchrotron radiation from a 2.5 GeV positron storage ring at the National Institute for High Energy Physics in Japan. This international collaborating research clarifies a fairly good agreement between the x-ray energy response data and our recently proposed theoretical predictions for such a semiconductor x-ray-detector response. The x-ray response for several positions on the active area of the detector unit is studied; a good uniformity observed guarantees that the detector can employ any sized and shaped collimator for the x-ray tomography regardless of any correction factor coming from the response nonuniformity on the detector active area. Operational conditions of the detector for the ASDEX Upgrade plasma diagnostics are optimized using its capacitance measurements as a function of an applied bias as well as the numerical evaluations of the detector response; these are also directly verified by the synchrotron-radiation experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Advances in X-ray Mapping for Characterization of Microstructures: Silicon Drift Detectors, Microcalorimeters, X-ray Spectrum Imaging, and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, D. E.

    2006-05-01

    X-ray mapping, performed with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDS), is one of the most popular modes of studying chemically heterogeneous microstructures [1]. Despite the maturity of the technique, now in its 50th anniversary year [2], recent remarkable advances in instrumentation and software will provide microanalysts with an even more effective and efficient microstructural characterization tool: (1) Increased x-ray mapping speed: The silicon drift detector (SDD) [3] is a new form of the familiar silicon EDS that uses the same detection physics but with a radically different design that outperforms the classic Si-EDS in nearly every way [4]: (1) the SDD operates requires only Peltier cooling to -20 oC to - 50 oC; (2) for a given detector active area, the SDD has superior resolution; (3) the SDD achieves the same resolution but with a peaking time that is 5 to 8 times faster; and (4) maximum output count rate (OCR) ranges from about 14 kHz at optimum resolution (134 eV at MnKa for a 50 mm2 area) to 500 kHz (217 eV). This OCR performance enables rapid x-ray mapping collection in the x-ray spectrum image (XSI) mode, in which a complete EDS spectrum (2048 10eV-channels) is captured at each pixel (e.g., 10 ms dwell with 1.3 ms overhead per pixel, or 185 seconds for a 128x128 pixel map). XSI collection captures all possible spectral information within the limits imposed by the spectrometer and the primary beam dose. (2) EDS with WDS resolution: The microcalorimeter EDS measures the temperature rise when a single x-ray photon is absorbed in a metal target [5]. Demonstrated resolution is 4.5 eV at Mn Ka for a broad energy range (0.2 - 10 keV) spectrometer and 2 eV (AlKa) for a low photon energy range (0.2 - 2.0 keV) version. The low energy spectrometer is sensitive to peak shape and position changes associated with chemical bonding, opening the possibility of EDS chemical-state mapping. (3

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental radiological surveillance using HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Peraza, E. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: eduardo.herrera@cimav.edu.mx; Renteria Villalobos, M. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Montero Cabrera, M.E. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Munoz Romero, A. [Department of Environmental Radiological Surveillance, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), P.O. Box 31109, Miguel de Cervantes no. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2004-10-08

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been proven to be a valuable tool for determining trace quantities of heavy metals, such as uranium and lead, in different types of samples. The present paper demonstrates the applicability of XRF spectrometry to measure the concentrations of these heavy metals in samples from natural ore and soil. The values of uranium concentrations in rock from the Pena Blanca uranium ore, in Chihuahua, Mexico, were calculated for the purpose of precertifying the rock powders samples. The comparison with other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and electron microscopy, was used to complete the precertification process, so that the sample powders may be used as secondary standards. The source-sample-detector geometry and the incident angle are the most important factors for obtaining low detection limits. The selected system uses a {sup 57}Co source of about 0.1 mCi to excite the K X-rays from uranium and lead. X-rays were recorded on a CANBERRA HPGe coaxial detector. The comparative results for two incident angles (90 deg and 180 deg ) performed previously by other authors show that the best geometry is the backscattering geometry. In the present paper, using EGS4 code system with Monte Carlo simulation, it was possible to determine the location and distribution of background produced by the Compton edge in the optimized geometry. This procedure allowed to find the minimum detectable concentration of uranium and lead, which was experimentally calculated using standards. The possibility of performing in vivo measurements rapidly and easily, as well as the factors affecting accuracy and the minimum detectable concentration in several samples are also discussed.

  3. Complete optical stack modeling for CMOS-based medical x-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyazin, Alexander S.; Peters, Inge M.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for modeling the performance of CMOS-based medical x-ray detectors, based on the Monte Carlo toolkit GEANT4. Following the Fujita-Lubberts-Swank approach recently reported by Star-Lack et al., we calculate modulation transfer function MTF(f), noise power spectrum NPS(f) and detective quantum efficiency DQE(f) curves. The complete optical stack is modeled, including scintillator, fiber optic plate (FOP), optical adhesive and CMOS image sensor. For critical parts of the stack, detailed models have been developed, taking into account their respective microstructure. This includes two different scintillator types: Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) and CsI:Tl. The granular structure of the former is modeled using anisotropic Mie scattering. The columnar structure of the latter is introduced into calculations directly, using the parameterization capabilities of GEANT4. The underlying homogeneous CsI layer is also incorporated into the model as well as the optional reflective layer on top of the scintillator screen or the protective polymer top coat. The FOP is modeled as an array of hexagonal bundles of fibers. The simulated CMOS stack consists of layers of Si3N4 and SiO2 on top of a silicon pixel array. The model is validated against measurements of various test detector structures, using different x-ray spectra (RQA5 and RQA-M2), showing good match between calculated and measured MTF(f) and DQE(f) curves.

  4. The Gas Pixel Detector as a solar X-ray polarimeter and imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Sergio; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; di Cosimo, Sergio; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Muleri, Fabio; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria

    The sun is the nearest astrophysical source with an interesting emission in the X-ray band. The study of energetic events, such as solar flares, can help us to understand the behaviour of the magnetic field of our star. There are in literature numerous studies published about polarization predictions, for a wide range of solar flare models. All these models involve emission from thermal and/or nonthermal processes. Furthermore, results of flare observations in the X-ray band have never been exhaustive. We want to present a new kind of instrument with polarimetric and imaging capabilities in the X-ray band. This instrument is the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD). It has been developed by the INFN and the IASF-Roma / INAF Italian research institutes. The GPD was born to achieve X-ray polarimetric measurements as well as X-ray images for astrophysical sources. It has a good spectroscopic sensitivity thanks to an energy resolution of some per cent and it allows also to perform timing measurements. Differently from all the other kinds of today's polarimeters, it doesn't need rotation! The GPD exploits the dependence of photoelectric cross section to photon polarization direction to the aim of measuring polarization. This instrument is essentially a ionization chamber: a cell filled by gas into which radiation enters through a window of 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm. The cell has a depth of some centimeters: typically from 1 to 2 cm. Every time that a photon is absorbed by the gas, a photoelectron is emitted with more probability in the direction of the electric vector of the photon absorbed. The photoelectron propagates and produces a track of ionization that is drifted, amplified and actually collected on a fine sub-divided pixeled detector, whose pixels have a dimension of 50 µm. At the present the chip integrates more than 16.5 millions of transistors. It has an active area of 105600 pixels organized in a honeycomb matrix 300x352. It is a self triggered system able to select itself the

  5. X-ray micro-CT scanner for small animal imaging based on Timepix detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudak, Jan, E-mail: jan.dudak@utef.cvut.cz [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Nam. Sitna 3105, 272 00 Kladno (Czech Republic); Zemlicka, Jan; Krejci, Frantisek; Polansky, Stepan; Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Mrzilkova, Jana; Patzelt, Matej; Trnka, Jan [Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Ruska 87, 100 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-02-11

    We describe a newly developed compact micro-CT scanner with rotating gantry equipped with a Timepix Quad hybrid pixel semiconductor detector and a micro-focus X-ray tube providing spatial resolution down to 30 µm. The resolving power of the device in relation to soft tissue sensitivity is demonstrated using a tissue-equivalent phantom and different types of biological samples. The results demonstrate that the use of noiseless particle counting detectors is a promising way to achieve sufficient soft tissue contrast even without any contrast agents. - Highlights: • We developed a new micro-CT scanner for small animal imaging. • Application of Timepix technology to obtain enhanced soft tissue contrast. • Spatial resolution below 30 µm achieved. • Performance demonstrated using a tissue equivalent phantom and biological samples.

  6. Improvement of density resolution in short-pulse hard x-ray radiographic imaging using detector stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, B.; Gärtner, F.; Khaghani, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate that stacking several imaging plates (IPs) constitutes an easy method to increase hard x-ray detection efficiency. Used to record x-ray radiographic images produced by an intense-laser driven hard x-ray backlighter source, the IP stacks resulted in a significant improvement of the radiograph density resolution. We attribute this to the higher quantum efficiency of the combined detectors, leading to a reduced photon noise. Electron-photon transport simulations of the interaction processes in the detector reproduce the observed contrast improvement. Increasing the detection efficiency to enhance radiographic imaging capabilities is equally effective as increasing the x-ray source yield, e.g., by a larger drive laser energy.

  7. Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and a color center detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, F; Valentini, G; Vozzi, C; Benedetti, E; Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J; Faenov, A; Gasilov, S; Pikuz, T; Poletto, L; Sansone, G; Villoresi, P; Nisoli, M; De Silvestri, S; Stagira, S

    2007-09-01

    Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging of thin foils with known thickness is observed using an ultrafast laser-plasma source and a LiF crystal as detector. Measurements are well reproduced by a simple theoretical model. This technique can be exploited for high spatial resolution, wide field of view imaging in the soft x-ray region, and it is suitable for the characterization of thin objects with thicknesses ranging from hundreds down to tens of nanometers.

  8. Basis material decomposition method for material discrimination with a new spectrometric X-ray imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, A.; Gorecki, A.; Potop, A.; Paulus, C.; Verger, L.

    2017-08-01

    Energy sensitive photon counting X-ray detectors provide energy dependent information which can be exploited for material identification. The attenuation of an X-ray beam as a function of energy depends on the effective atomic number Zeff and the density. However, the measured attenuation is degraded by the imperfections of the detector response such as charge sharing or pile-up. These imperfections lead to non-linearities that limit the benefits of energy resolved imaging. This work aims to implement a basis material decomposition method which overcomes these problems. Basis material decomposition is based on the fact that the attenuation of any material or complex object can be accurately reproduced by a combination of equivalent thicknesses of basis materials. Our method is based on a calibration phase to learn the response of the detector for different combinations of thicknesses of the basis materials. The decomposition algorithm finds the thicknesses of basis material whose spectrum is closest to the measurement, using a maximum likelihood criterion assuming a Poisson law distribution of photon counts for each energy bin. The method was used with a ME100 linear array spectrometric X-ray imager to decompose different plastic materials on a Polyethylene and Polyvinyl Chloride base. The resulting equivalent thicknesses were used to estimate the effective atomic number Zeff. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical Zeff, regardless of the plastic sample thickness. The linear behaviour of the equivalent lengths makes it possible to process overlapped materials. Moreover, the method was tested with a 3 materials base by adding gadolinium, whose K-edge is not taken into account by the other two materials. The proposed method has the advantage that it can be used with any number of energy channels, taking full advantage of the high energy resolution of the ME100 detector. Although in principle two channels are sufficient, experimental measurements show

  9. X-ray Hybrid CMOS Detectors : Recent progress in development and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.

    2017-08-01

    PennState high energy astronomy laboratory has been working on the development and characterization of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for last few years in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS). HCDs are preferred over X-ray CCDs due to their higher and flexible read out rate, radiation hardness and low power which make them more suitable for next generation large area X-ray telescopic missions. An H2RG detector with 36 micron pixel pitch and 18 micron ROIC, has been selected for a sounding rocket flight in 2018. The H2RG detector provides ~2.5 % energy resolution at 5.9 keV and ~7 e- read noise when coupled to a cryo-SIDECAR. We could also detect a clear Oxygen line (~0.5 keV) from the detector implying a lower energy threshold of ~0.3 keV. Further improvement in the energy resolution and read noise is currently under progress. We have been working on the characterization of small pixel HCDs (12.5 micron pixel; smallest pixel HCDs developed so far) which is important for the development of next generation high resolution X-ray spectroscopic instrument based on HCDs. Event recognition in HCDs is another exciting prospect which have been successfully shown to work with a 64 X 64 pixel prototype SPEEDSTAR-EXD which use comparators at each pixel to read out only those pixels having detectable signal, thereby providing an order of magnitude improvement in the read out rate. Currently, we are working on the development of a large area SPEEDSTAR-EXD array for the development of a full fledged instrument. HCDs due to their fast read out, can also be explored as a large FOV instrument to study GRB afterglows and variability and spectroscopic study of other astrophysical transients. In this context, we are characterizing a Lobster-HCD system at multiple energies and multiple off-axis angles for future rocket or CubeSate experiments. In this presentation, I will briefly present these new developments and experiments with HCDs and the analysis techniques.

  10. X-Ray Beam Studies of Charge Sharing in Small Pixel, Spectroscopic, CdZnTe Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwork, Christopher; Kitou, Dimitris; Chaudhuri, Sandeep; Sellin, Paul J.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Tartoni, Nicola; Veeramani, Perumal

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in the growth of CdZnTe material have allowed the development of small pixel, spectroscopic, X-ray imaging detectors. These detectors have applications in a diverse range of fields such as medical, security and industrial sectors. As the size of the pixels decreases relative to the detector thickness, the probability that charge is shared between multiple pixels increases due to the non zero width of the charge clouds drifting through the detector. These charge sharing events will result in a degradation of the spectroscopic performance of detectors and must be considered when analyzing the detector response. In this paper charge sharing and charge loss in a 250 μm pitch CdZnTe pixel detector has been investigated using a mono-chromatic X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, U.K. Using a 20 μm beam diameter the detector response has been mapped for X-ray energies both above (40 keV) and below (26 keV) the material K-shell absorption energies to study charge sharing and the role of fluorescence X-rays in these events.

  11. Reducing the radiation dose during excretory urography: flat-panel silicon x-ray detector versus computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zähringer, M; Hesselmann, V; Schulte, O; Kamm, K F; Braun, W; Haupt, G; Krug, B; Lackner, K

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the possibilities for reducing radiation exposure in uroradiology using digital flat-panel silicon X-ray detector radiography. We compared the subjectively determined image quality of abdominal radiographs and urograms obtained on a digital flat-panel detector radiography system with those obtained on a computed radiography system. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifty patients who had a clinical indication for urography underwent unenhanced abdominal imaging that was alternately performed using flat-panel silicon X-ray detector radiography or computed radiography. For patients who required a second radiograph with contrast medium, the examination modality was changed to avoid exposing the patients to excess radiation. The images obtained on flat-panel X-ray detector radiography were obtained at half the radiation dose of the images obtained on computed radiography (800 speed vs 400 speed). The resulting 50 pairs of images were interpreted by four independent observers who rated the detectability of structures of bone and the efferent urinary tract relevant to diagnosis and compared the image quality. At half the radiation dose, digital flat-panel X-ray detector radiography provided equivalent image quality of the liver and spleen, lumbar vertebrae 2 and 5, pelvis, and psoas margin on abdominal radiographs. The image quality obtained with digital flat-panel X-ray detector radiography of the kidneys, the hollow cavities of the upper efferent urinary tract, and the urinary bladder was judged to be statistically better than those obtained with computed radiography. With half the exposure dose of computed radiography, the flat-panel X-ray detector produced urograms with an image quality equivalent to or better than computed radiography.

  12. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, J A; Archuleta, T N

    2014-11-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 μm while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (∼6 μm) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  13. Modeling quantum noise of phosphors used in medical X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kalivas, N; Cavouras, D; Costaridou, L; Nomicos, C D; Panayiotakis, G S

    1999-01-01

    The noise properties of the granular phosphor screens, which are utilized in X-ray imaging detectors, are studied in terms of the quantum noise transfer function (QNTF). An analytical model, taking into account the effect of K-characteristic X-rays reabsorption within the phosphor material and the optical properties of the phosphor, was developed. The optical properties of the phosphor material required by the model were obtained from literature, except for the optical diffusion length (sigma) that was determined by data fitting and was found to be 26 cm sup 2 /g. The deviation between theoretical and experimental data is sigma depended. Specifically for sigma=26 cm sup 2 /g and sigma=25 cm sup 2 /g the respective deviations between experimental and predicted results were 0.698% and -1.597%. However for relative differences in sigma more than 15% from the value 26 cm sup 2 /g, the corresponding deviations exceed by 6 times the value of 0.698%. The model was tested via comparison to experimental results obtain...

  14. Bipolar junction transistor as a detector for measuring in diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Francisco A.; Monte, David S.; Alves, Aline N.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Santos, Luiz A.P., E-mail: franciscoacavalcanti@gmail.com, E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Photodiode and phototransistor are the most frequently used devices for measuring ionizing radiation in medical applications. The cited devices have the operating principle well known, however the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is not a typical device used as a detector for measuring some physical quantities for diagnostic radiation. In fact, a photodiode, for example, has an area about 10 mm square and a BJT has an area which can be more than 10 thousands times smaller. The purpose of this paper is to bring a new technique to estimate some physical quantities or parameters in diagnostic radiation; for example, peak kilovoltage (kVp), deep dose measurements. The methodology for each type of evaluation depends on the energy range of the radiation and the physical quantity or parameter to be measured. Actually, some characteristics of the incident radiation under the device can be correlated with the readout signal, which is a function of the electrical currents in the electrodes of the BJT: Collector, Base and Emitter. Samples of BJT are classified and submitted to diagnostic X-ray beams. The results show that the BJT could be a new semiconductor sensor type for measuring either the ionizing radiation dose or some characteristics of diagnostic X-ray beams. (author)

  15. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, J. A.; Archuleta, T. N.

    2014-11-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 μm while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (˜6 μm) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  16. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  17. Asymmetry of characteristic X-ray peaks obtained by a Si(Li) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnovezky, Claudia [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: cavy3@hotmail.com; Limandri, Silvina [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: silvilimandri@hotmail.com; Canafoglia, Maria Elena [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Calle 47 No 257, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Facultad de Ingenieria de la UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Calle 47 No 257, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Facultad de Ingenieria de la UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina (Argentina)], E-mail: bonetto@quimica.unlp.edu.ar; Trincavelli, Jorge [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina (Argentina)], E-mail: jorge@quechua.fis.uncor.edu

    2007-05-15

    The asymmetry of the characteristic X-ray peaks obtained using a Si(Li) detector is mainly due to incomplete charge collection. Impurities and defects in the crystalline structure of Si can act as 'traps' for holes and electrons in their trip toward the detector electrodes. Therefore, the collected charge, and consequently the detected energy, is smaller than the expected one. The global effect is that peaks may present a 'tail' toward the low energy side. This phenomenon is more important for low energies (lower than 2.3 keV, in the case of the detector characterized). In this work, the parameters related to peak asymmetry were studied, allowing a better understanding of the trapping process mentioned above. For this purpose, spectra from mono- and multi-element samples were collected for elements with atomic number between 7 and 20. In order to describe the shape of the characteristic K peaks as a function of its energy, an asymmetric correction to a Gaussian function was proposed. Spectra were obtained by electron probe microanalysis for incidence energies between 5 and 25 keV using an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped with an ultra-thin window Si(Li) detector. It was observed that the area corresponding to the asymmetric correction exhibits an energy dependence similar to that of the mass absorption coefficient of the detector material. In addition, other two spectrometers were used to investigate the dependence of tailing on the detection system. When two spectrometers with the same kind of detector and different pulse processors were compared, peaks were more asymmetric for lower peaking time values. When two different detectors were used, differences were even more important.

  18. Mapping the large area straw detectors of the COMPASS experiment with X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Platzer, Klaus; Dünnweber, Wolfgang; Faessler, Martin A; Geyer, Reiner; Ilgner, C; Peshekhonov, Vladimir D; Wellenstein, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    In the COMPASS experiment at CERN, large straw drift tube detectors are used for large-angle tracking. To minimize the total areal density, a self supporting structure of thin-walled plastic tubes was chosen and, hence, a loss in mechanical precision was accepted. A complete mapping of the anode wire coordinate grid was required. An X-ray apparatus using a charge-coupled device (CCD) as imaging detector was built to investigate the mechanical properties and to calibrate (offline) the wire positions. Deviations of typically 200-400 mu m from the nominal positions, defined by equal spacing, are found across the detector area of 8 m/sup 2/. With a calibration method based on high-resolution CCD imaging and pattern recognition algorithms, the absolute wire coordinates are determined with an accuracy better than 30 mu m across the whole detector area. Temperature effects are clearly seen. Their inhomogenity limits the achievable accuracy to about 50 mu m under realistic experimental conditions, which is sufficient...

  19. Characterization of a spectroscopic detector for application in x-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, A. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fix, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, W. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Azevedo, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Recent advances in cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy-discriminating pixelated detectors have enabled the possibility of Multi-Spectral X-ray Computed Tomography (MSXCT) to incorporate spectroscopic information into CT. MultiX ME 100 V2 is a CdTe-based spectroscopic x-ray detector array capable of recording energies from 20 to 160 keV in 1.1 keV energy bin increments. Hardware and software have been designed to perform radiographic and computed tomography tasks with this spectroscopic detector. Energy calibration is examined using the end-point energy of a bremsstrahlung spectrum and radioisotope spectral lines. When measuring the spectrum from Am-241 across 500 detector elements, the standard deviation of the peak-location and FWHM measurements are ±0.4 and ±0.6 keV, respectively. As these values are within the energy bin size (1.1 keV), detector elements are consistent with each other. The count rate is characterized, using a nonparalyzable model with a dead time of 64 ± 5 ns. This is consistent with the manufacturer’s quoted per detector-element linear-deviation at 2 Mpps (million photons per sec) of 8.9% (typical) and 12% (max). When comparing measured and simulated spectra, a low-energy tail is visible in the measured data due to the spectral response of the detector. If no valid photon detections are expected in the low-energy tail, then a background subtraction may be applied to allow for a possible first-order correction. If photons are expected in the low-energy tail, a detailed model must be implemented. A radiograph of an aluminum step wedge with a maximum height of about 20 mm shows an underestimation of attenuation by about 10% at 60 keV. This error is due to partial energy deposition from higher-energy (> 60 keV) photons into a lower-energy (~60 keV) bin, reducing the apparent attenuation. A radiograph of a PTFE cylinder taken using a bremsstrahlung spectrum from an x-ray voltage of 100 kV filtered by 1.3 mm Cu is reconstructed using Abel inversion

  20. Investigation of high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction detectors for low-energy X-ray fluorescence analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Beckhoff, B; Ulm, G

    2003-01-01

    The energy resolution of conventional semiconductor detectors is insufficient for simultaneously separating the leading fluorescence lines of low Z and medium Z materials in the soft X-ray regime. It is therefore important to investigate alternative detection instruments offering higher energy resolution and evaluate their applicability to soft X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. In this paper, various results of the characterization and evaluation of a cryogenic superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector, which was provided to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are given with respect to both detector response functions and XRF. For this investigation, monochromatized undulator radiation of high spectral purity, available to the PTB X-ray radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II, was employed, by which it was possible to record the STJ response functions at various photon energies of interest ranging from 180 to 1600 eV. By scan...

  1. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  2. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  3. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  4. Active Detectors for Plasma Soft X-Ray Detection at PALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Granja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work carried out for an experimental study of low-energy nuclear excitation by laser-produced plasma at the PALS Prague laser facility. We describe the adaptation and shielding of single-quantum active radiation detectors developed at IEAP CTU Prague to facilitate their operation inside the laser interaction chamber in the vicinity of the plasma target. The goal of this effort is direct real-time single-quantum detection of plasma soft X-ray radiation with energy above a few keV and subsequent identification of the decay of the excited nuclear states via low-energy gamma rays in a highly radiative environment with strong electromagnetic interference.

  5. X-ray-sensitive hybrid photon detectors with Be-windows

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Leutz, Heinrich; Puertolas, D; Rosso, Ettore

    2005-01-01

    A 0.3-mm thin YAlO/sub 3/(Ce) scintillating crystal plate of 22 mm diameter was mounted inside an electrostatic-focussed hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT). The photocathode was evaporated directly on this scintillating plate opposite to the HPMT-anode. The HPMT was vacuum-sealed with a 1-mm thick Be radiation entrance window. Photoelectron numbers at their peak energies of photoabsorption and energy resolutions were measured between 3.69 and 59.6 keV. The average number of photoelectrons produced per keV radiation energy was determined to be 4.457 phel/keV and the energy resolution at 59.6 keV was 17%. Introducing in the same way such a thin YAlO/sub 3/(Ce) plate inside an imaging silicon pixel array (ISPA) tube would improve its spatial resolution, since it depends on the thickness of the X- ray detector.

  6. Performance optimization for hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Kahn, Steven M.; Hailey, Charles J.; Ziock, Klaus P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the optimization of the performance of imaging scintillation detectors used in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray (20-300) keV region of the spectrum. In these devices, absorption of an incident gamma-ray within an alkali halide crystal induces a scintillation light distribution which is centroided by an imaging photomultiplier tube mounted to the crystal. The ultimate imaging resolution is strongly affected by the detailed propagation of the scintillation light within the crystal and at the interface between the crystal and the phototube face plate. A number of refined techniques for preparing the scintillation crystals so as to optimize the imaging resolution have been investigated. The results indicate very good agreement with relatively simple models of the light propagation. It is shown that it is possible to achieve resolution consistent with the most optimistic models.

  7. Hard X-ray texture measurements with an on-line image plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Tschentscher, T; Klein, H; Bunge, H J

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for diffraction texture measurements in polycrystalline bulk materials using hard X-ray photons from the wiggler beamline BW5 at HASYLAB is described. High-energy photons in the 100 keV regime enable high penetration power in medium-to-high Z materials and the use of Laue diffraction geometry in combination with a two-dimensional area detector allows fast and convenient data collection. Determination of quantitative, high-resolution pole figures with a better angular resolution of 0.1 deg. is attained by the instrument. Profile analysis of the diffraction pattern parameters for each (h k l)-reflection thus provides, in addition to texture data, information about other microstructural quantities, e.g. lattice strain.

  8. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Marrs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm2 and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate.

  9. New Transfer Theory Relationships for Signal and Noise Analyses of X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    overline (eg. •) indicates a mean value. 2. THEORY 2.1. Compton Scatter Figure 1 illustrates a Compton interaction fin which an x-ray photon of energy hiv ...SPIE 3659, 398-406 (1999). 11. J.G. Mainprize, N.L. Ford, S. Yin, T. Tumer , and M.J. Yaffe, "A slot-scanned photodiode-array/CCD hybrid detector for...W 1 simple solutions. Averaging over 0 gives 15 (1 - PK)P•( hIV - EL)/W 1 7r/2 16 (1 - PK)PL WLMfLM(EL - EM)/W RTFLA((v) CTF(vlz) j TFf(vJO, z)pr6(0)d0

  10. A comparison of x-ray detectors for mouse CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L.; Nagarkar, Vivek; Street, Robert A.; Paulus, Michael J.; Boone, John M.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2004-12-01

    There is significant interest in using computed tomography (CT) for in vivo imaging applications in mouse models of disease. Most commercially available mouse x-ray CT scanners utilize a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled via fibre optic taper to a phosphor screen. However, there has been little research to determine if this is the optimum detector for the specific task of in vivo mouse imaging. To investigate this issue, we have evaluated four detectors, including an amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector, an amorphous silicon (a-Si) detector with a gadolinium oxysulphide (GOS) screen, a CCD with a 3:1 fibre taper and a GOS screen, and a CCD with a 2:1 fibre taper and both GOS and thallium-doped caesium iodide (CsI:Tl) screens. The detectors were evaluated by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), stability over multiple exposures, and noise in reconstructed CT images. The a-Se detector had the best MTF and the highest DQE (0.6 at 0 lp mm-1) but had the worst stability (45% reduction after 2000 exposure frames). The a-Si detector and the CCD with the 3:1 fibre, both of which used the GOS screen, had very similar performance with a DQE of approximately 0.30 at 0 lp mm-1. For the CCD with the 2:1 fibre, the CsI:Tl screen resulted in a nearly two-fold improvement in DQE over the GOS screen (0.4 versus 0.24 at 0 lp mm-1). The CCDs both had the best stability, with less than a 1% change in pixel values over multiple exposures. The pixel values of the a-Si detector increased 5% over multiple exposures due to the effects of image lag. Despite the higher DQE of the a-Se detector, the reconstructed CT images acquired with the a-Si detector had lower noise levels, likely due to the blurring effects from the phosphor screen.

  11. A comparison of x-ray detectors for mouse CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, Andrew L [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Nagarkar, Vivek [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., Watertown, MA (United States); Street, Robert A [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Paulus, Michael J [Imtek Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Boone, John M [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-12-07

    There is significant interest in using computed tomography (CT) for in vivo imaging applications in mouse models of disease. Most commercially available mouse x-ray CT scanners utilize a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled via fibre optic taper to a phosphor screen. However, there has been little research to determine if this is the optimum detector for the specific task of in vivo mouse imaging. To investigate this issue, we have evaluated four detectors, including an amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector, an amorphous silicon (a-Si) detector with a gadolinium oxysulphide (GOS) screen, a CCD with a 3:1 fibre taper and a GOS screen, and a CCD with a 2:1 fibre taper and both GOS and thallium-doped caesium iodide (CsI:Tl) screens. The detectors were evaluated by measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), stability over multiple exposures, and noise in reconstructed CT images. The a-Se detector had the best MTF and the highest DQE (0.6 at 0 lp mm{sup -1}) but had the worst stability (45% reduction after 2000 exposure frames). The a-Si detector and the CCD with the 3:1 fibre, both of which used the GOS screen, had very similar performance with a DQE of approximately 0.30 at 0 lp mm{sup -1}. For the CCD with the 2:1 fibre, the CsI:Tl screen resulted in a nearly two-fold improvement in DQE over the GOS screen (0.4 versus 0.24 at 0 lp mm{sup -1}). The CCDs both had the best stability, with less than a 1% change in pixel values over multiple exposures. The pixel values of the a-Si detector increased 5% over multiple exposures due to the effects of image lag. Despite the higher DQE of the a-Se detector, the reconstructed CT images acquired with the a-Si detector had lower noise levels, likely due to the blurring effects from the phosphor screen.

  12. X-ray tests of a microchannel plate detector and amorphous silicon pixel array readout for neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Street, R.; Feller, B.; Fraser, G. W.; Watterson, J. I. W.; Lanza, R. C.; Dowson, J.; Ross, D.; Martindale, A.; Abbey, A. F.; Vernon, D.

    2007-03-01

    High-performance large area imaging detectors for fast neutrons in the 5-14 MeV energy range do not exist at present. The aim of this project is to combine microchannel plates or MCPs (or similar electron multiplication structures) traditionally used in image intensifiers and X-ray detectors with amorphous silicon (a-Si) pixel arrays to produce a composite converter and intensifier position sensitive imaging system. This detector will provide an order of magnitude improvement in image resolution when compared with current millimetre resolution limits obtained using phosphor or scintillator-based hydrogen rich converters. In this study we present the results of the initial experimental evaluation of the prototype system. This study was carried out using a medical X-ray source for the proof of concept tests, the next phase will involve neutron imaging tests. The hybrid detector described in this study is a unique development and paves the way for large area position sensitive detectors consisting of MCP or microsphere plate detectors and a-Si or polysilicon pixel arrays. Applications include neutron and X-ray imaging for terrestrial applications. The technology could be extended to space instrumentation for X-ray astronomy.

  13. Experimental Evaluation And Simulation Of Multi-pixel Cadmium-zinc-telluride Hard-x-ray Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskin, J A

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation describes the evaluation of many-pixel Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) hard-X-ray detectors for future use with the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The detector requirements for the HERO application are good energy resolution (sufficient to resolve cyclotron features and nuclear lines), spatial resolution of ∼200 μm, minimal charge loss of absorbed X rays, and minimal sensitivity to the background environment. This research concentrates on assessing the suitability of these detectors for the focus of HERO, and includes the development of a simulation of the physics involved in an X-ray-detector interaction, a study of the intrinsic material properties, measurements with prototype detectors such as the energy and spatial resolution, charge loss, and X-ray background reduction through 3-dimensional depth sensing. Two types of detectors were available for evaluation. The first type includes 1-mm and 2-mm thick 4 x 4 ...

  14. Technical characterization of five x-ray detectors for paediatric radiography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. W.; Smet, M.; Hofmans, M.; Pauwels, H.; De Clercq, T.; Bosmans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Physical image quality of five x-ray detectors used in the paediatric imaging department is characterized with the aim of establishing the range/scope of imaging performance provided by these detectors for neonatal imaging. Two computed radiography (CR) detectors (MD4.0 powder imaging plate (PIP) and HD5.0 needle imaging plate (NIP), Agfa HealthCare NV, B-2640 Mortsel, Belgium) and three flat panel detectors (FPD) (the Agfa DX-D35C and DX-D45C and the DRX-2530C (Carestream Health Inc., Rochester, NY 14608, USA)) were assessed. Physical image quality was characterized using the detector metrics given by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1) to measure modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using the IEC-specified beam qualities of RQA3 and RQA5. The DQE was evaluated at the normal operating detector air kerma (DAK) level, defined at 2.5 µGy for all detectors, and at factors of 1/3.2 and 3.2 times the normal level. MTF curves for the different detectors were similar at both RQA3 and RQA5 energies; the average spatial frequency for the 50% point (MTF0.5) at RQA3 was 1.26 mm‑1, with a range from 1.20 mm‑1 to 1.37 mm‑1. The DQE of the NIP CR compared to the PIP CR was notably greater and similar to that for the FPD devices. At RQA3, average DQE for the FPD and NIP (at 0.5 mm‑1 2.5 µGy) was 0.57 compared to 0.26 for the PIP CR. At the RQA5 energy, the DRX-2530C and the DX-D45C had the highest DQE (~0.6 at 0.5 mm‑1 2.5 µGy). Noise separation analysis using the polynomial model showed higher electronic noise for the DX-D35C and DRX-2530C detectors; this explains the reduced DQE seen at 0.7 µGy/image. The NIP CR detector offers notably improved DQE performance compared to the PIP CR system and a value similar to the DQE for FPD devices at the RQA3 energy.

  15. The hard X-ray response of epitaxial GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, A; Kraft, S; Peacock, A; Nenonen, S; Andersson, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on hard X-ray measurements with two epitaxial GaAs detectors of active areas 2.22 mm sup 2 and thicknesses 40 and 400 mu m at the ESRF and HASYLAB synchrotron research facilities. The detectors were fabricated using high-purity material and in spite of an order of magnitude difference in depletion depths, they were found to have comparable performances with energy resolutions at -45 deg. C of approx 1 keV fwhm at 7 keV rising to approx 2 keV fwhm at 200 keV and noise floors in the range 1-1.5 keV. At energies <30 keV, the energy resolution was dominated by leakage current and electromagnetic pick-up, while at the highest energies measured, the resolutions approach the expected Fano limit (e.g., approx 1 keV near 200 keV). Both detectors are remarkably linear, with average rms non-linearities of 0.2% over the energy range 10-60 keV, which, taken in conjunction with Monte-Carlo results indicate that charge collection efficiencies must be in excess of 98%. This is consistent with material science me...

  16. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  17. Search for chameleons with an InGrid based X-ray detector at the CAST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desch, Klaus; Kaminski, Jochen; Krieger, Christoph; Schmidt, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for axions and also other exotic particles emerging from the Sun. Chameleons, for example, are part of Dark Energy theories. Like Axions they can be converted into soft X-ray photons in a high magnetic field and should result in an X-ray spectrum peaking below 1 keV. Because of their low energy and weak coupling, detectors with low energy threshold and low background rates are mandatory. Both requirements are met by an X-ray detector based on the combination of a Micromegas gas amplification stage with a highly integrated pixel chip which allows to make full use of the Micromegas structure's granularity. It has been demonstrated that these devices can detect even single electrons. Thus, allowing for a topological background suppression as well as for detection of low energy X-ray photons creating only very few primary electrons. After the detection threshold had been evaluated to be low enough to allow for the detection of the carbon K{sub α} line at 277 eV, the detector was mounted at one of CAST's X-ray telescopes and installed along with its infrastructure in 2014. During data taking until end of 2015 background rates of less than 10{sup -4} keV/(cm{sup 2}.s) have been achieved below 2 keV. First preliminary results of the ongoing chameleon analysis and possibly an improved limit for solar chameleons are presented.

  18. Contact X-ray microscopy of living cells by using LiF crystal as imaging detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, L; Bonfigli, F; Lai, A; Flora, F; Albertano, P; DI Giorgio, M L; Mezi, L; Montereali, R M; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Almaviva, S; Francucci, M; Gaudio, P; Martellucci, S; Richetta, M; Poma, A

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the use of lithium fluoride (LiF) as imaging radiation detector to analyse living cells by single-shot soft X-ray contact microscopy is presented. High resolved X-ray images on LiF of cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya VRUC135, two unicellular microalgae of the genus Chlamydomonas and mouse macrophage cells (line RAW 264.7) have been obtained utilizing X-ray radiation in the water window energy range from a laser plasma source. The used method is based on loading of the samples, the cell suspension, in a special holder where they are in close contact with a LiF crystal solid-state X-ray imaging detector. After exposure and sample removal, the images stored in LiF by the soft X-ray contact microscopy technique are read by an optical microscope in fluorescence mode. The clear image of the mucilaginous sheath the structure of the filamentous Leptolyngbya and the visible nucleolus in the macrophage cells image, are noteworthiness results. The peculiarities of the used X-ray radiation and of the LiF imaging detector allow obtaining images in absorption contrast revealing the internal structures of the investigated samples at high spatial resolution. Moreover, the wide dynamic range of the LiF imaging detector contributes to obtain high-quality images. In particular, we demonstrate that this peculiar characteristic of LiF detector allows enhancing the contrast and reveal details even when they were obscured by a nonuniform stray light. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, Jakub; Dědič, Václav; Franc, Jan; Belas, Eduard; Rejhon, Martin; Moravec, Pavel; Touš, Jan; Voltr, Josef

    2016-09-27

    This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm - 2 ·s - 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  20. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pekárek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm − 2 ·s − 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of diluted system by undulator photon source and multi-element solid-state detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tanida, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to measure the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of an ultra-diluted system, an optics and detector control system for a synchrotron radiation beamline is developed. The undulator gap width is continuously tuned to obtain the maximum X-ray photon flux during the energy scan for the EXAFS measurement. A piezoelectric translator optimizes the parallelism of the double crystal in a monochromator at each measurement point to compensate for mechanical errors of the monochromator, resulting in a smooth and intense X-ray photon flux during the measurement. For a detection of a weak fluorescence signal from diluted samples, a 19-element solid-state detector and digital signal processor are used. A K-edge EXAFS spectrum of iron in a myoglobin aqueous solution with a concentration of 5.58 parts per million was obtained by this system.

  2. Gallium Arsenide detectors for X-ray and electron (beta particle) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioliou, G.; Barnett, A.M.

    2016-11-11

    Results characterizing GaAs p{sup +}-i-n{sup +} mesa photodiodes with a 10 µm i layer for their spectral response under illumination of X-rays and beta particles are presented. A total of 22 devices, having diameters of 200 µm and 400 µm, were electrically characterized at room temperature. All devices showed comparable characteristics with a measured leakage current ranging from 4 nA/cm{sup 2} to 67 nA/cm{sup 2} at an internal electric field of 50 kV/cm. Their unintentionally doped i layers were found to be almost fully depleted at 0 V due to their low doping density. {sup 55}Fe X-ray spectra were obtained using one 200 µm diameter device and one 400 µm diameter device. The best energy resolution (FWHM at 5.9 keV) achieved was 625 eV using the 200 µm and 740 eV using the 400 µm diameter device, respectively. Noise analysis showed that the limiting factor for the energy resolution of the system was the dielectric noise; if this noise was eliminated by better design of the front end of the readout electronics, the achievable resolution would be 250 eV. {sup 63}Ni beta particle spectra obtained using the 200 µm diameter device showed the potential utility of these detectors for electron and beta particle detection. The development of semiconductor electron spectrometers is important particularly for space plasma physics; such devices may find use in future space missions to study the plasma environment of Jupiter and Europa and the predicted electron impact excitation of water vapor plumes from Europa hypothesized as a result of recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations.

  3. Charge Summing in Spectroscopic X-Ray Detectors With High-Z Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Thomas; Cecilia, Angelica; Ballabriga, Rafael; Baumbach, Tilo; Llopart, Xavier; Fiederle, Michael; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Fauler, Alex; Campbell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The spectroscopic performance of photon counting detectors is limited by the effects of charge sharing between neighboring pixels and the emission of characteristic X-rays. For these reasons, an event can be either missed or counted more than once. These effects become more and more of a concern when pixel pitches are reduced, and for the technology available so far, this meant that there would always be a trade-off between a high spatial and a high spectral resolution. In this work, we present first measurements obtained with the new Medipix3RX ASIC, which features a network of charge summing circuits establishing a communication between pixels which helps to mitigate these effects. Combined with cadmium telluride sensors, we show that this new technology is successful at improving a detector's spectroscopic capabilities even at pixel pitches as small as 55 mu m. At this pitch, we measure an energy response function similar to that observed for a pixel pitch of 165 mu m in the absence of a charge summing cir...

  4. Development of a DAQ system for a plasma display panel-based X-ray detector (PXD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hakjae [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Sangheum [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan-si (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jungwon [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kisung, E-mail: kisung@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a novel plasma display panel (PDP)-based X-ray detector (PXD) was developed. The goal of this study is to develop a data acquisition system for use with the PXD as an imaging detector. Since the prototype detector does not have any barrier ribs or a switching device in a detector pixel, a novel pixelation scheme—the line-scan method—is developed for this new detector. To implement line scanning, a multichannel high-voltage switching circuit and a multichannel charge-acquisition circuit are developed. These two circuits are controlled by an FPGA-based digital signal processing board, from which the information about the charge and position of each pixel can be sent to a PC. FPGA-based baseline compensation and switching noise rejection algorithms are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The characteristic curve of the entire PXD system is acquired, and the correlation coefficients between the X-ray dose, and the signal intensity and the SNR were determined to be approximately 0.99 and 52.9, respectively. - Highlights: • We developed a data acquisition circuit for a novel X-ray imaging detector. • Line scan, noise rejection, and data transmission methods have been implemented by the FPGA. • The linearity and SNR of the proposed detector system have been measured quantitatively.

  5. Design and development of position sensitive detector for hard x-ray using SiPM and new generation scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S. K.; Naik, Amisha P.; N. P. S., Mithun; Vadawale, S. V.; Tiwari, Neeraj K.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Nagrani, N.; Madhavi, S.; Ladiya, T.; Patel, A. R.; Shanmugam, M.; Adalja, H. L.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2017-08-01

    There is growing interest in high-energy astrophysics community for the development of sensitive instruments in the hard X-ray energy extending to few hundred keV. This requires position sensitive detector modules with high efficiency in the hard X-ray energy range. Here, we present development of a detector module, which consists of 25 mm x 25 mm CeBr3 scintillation detector, read out by a custom designed two dimensional array of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM). Readout of common cathode of SiPMs provides the spectral measurement whereas the readout of individual SiPM anodes provides measurement of interaction position in the crystal. Preliminary results for spectral and position measurements with the detector module are presented here.

  6. Accurate efficiency calibration of a low-energy HPGe detector using a monochromatic x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plagnard, Johann; Bobin, Christophe; Lepy, Marie-Christine [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-05-15

    HPGe detector efficiency has been calibrated using complementary methods involving radioactive x-ray standards, reference synchrotron flux (Super ACO, LURE, France) and a monochromatic x-ray source (SOLEX), combined with Monte Carlo simulation. In the study described here, SOLEX was used to determine the thickness of detector components that create absorption sites in front of the active zone of the detector, by energy scanning in the vicinity of their K and L binding energies. The layers of aluminium (infrared shielding), nickel (electrical contact) and germanium (dead layer) have been measured. This approach ensures accurate determination of the thickness of each component and enables the detector efficiency calculation by Monte Carlo simulation. Differences between simulated data and experimental efficiency values are about 1-5% at energies above 1400 eV and reach 20% at lower energies. (authors)

  7. X-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  8. Detector, collimator and real-time reconstructor for a new scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Michael A; Tomkowiak, Michael T; Raval, Amish N; Dunkerley, David A P; Slagowski, Jordan M; Kahn, Paul; Ku, Jamie; Funk, Tobias

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system for low dose cardiac imaging. The use of a narrow scanned x-ray beam in SBDX reduces detected x-ray scatter and improves dose efficiency, however the tight beam collimation also limits the maximum achievable x-ray fluence. To increase the fluence available for imaging, we have constructed a new SBDX prototype with a wider x-ray beam, larger-area detector, and new real-time image reconstructor. Imaging is performed with a scanning source that generates 40,328 narrow overlapping projections from 71 × 71 focal spot positions for every 1/15 s scan period. A high speed 2-mm thick CdTe photon counting detector was constructed with 320×160 elements and 10.6 cm × 5.3 cm area (full readout every 1.28 μs), providing an 86% increase in area over the previous SBDX prototype. A matching multihole collimator was fabricated from layers of tungsten, brass, and lead, and a multi-GPU reconstructor was assembled to reconstruct the stream of captured detector images into full field-of-view images in real time. Thirty-two tomosynthetic planes spaced by 5 mm plus a multiplane composite image are produced for each scan frame. Noise equivalent quanta on the new SBDX prototype measured 63%-71% higher than the previous prototype. X-ray scatter fraction was 3.9-7.8% when imaging 23.3-32.6 cm acrylic phantoms, versus 2.3-4.2% with the previous prototype. Coronary angiographic imaging at 15 frame/s was successfully performed on the new SBDX prototype, with live display of either a multiplane composite or single plane image.

  9. LAMBDA 2M GaAs—A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Pithan, F.; Sarajlic, M.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Liermann, H. P.; Morgenroth, W.; Winkler, B.; Jenei, Z.; Stawitz, H.; Becker, J.; Graafsma, H.

    2018-01-01

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature.

  10. CdZnTe Image Detectors for Hard-X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. M. Hubert; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Lin, Jiao Y. Y.; Mao, Peter H.; Schindler, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of CdZnTe photodetectors and associated electronic circuitry have been built and tested in a continuing effort to develop focal-plane image sensor systems for hard-x-ray telescopes. Each array contains 24 by 44 pixels at a pitch of 498 m. The detector designs are optimized to obtain low power demand with high spectral resolution in the photon- energy range of 5 to 100 keV. More precisely, each detector array is a hybrid of a CdZnTe photodetector array and an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) containing an array of amplifiers in the same pixel pattern as that of the detectors. The array is fabricated on a single crystal of CdZnTe having dimensions of 23.6 by 12.9 by 2 mm. The detector-array cathode is a monolithic platinum contact. On the anode plane, the contact metal is patterned into the aforementioned pixel array, surrounded by a guard ring that is 1 mm wide on three sides and is 0.1 mm wide on the fourth side so that two such detector arrays can be placed side-by-side to form a roughly square sensor area with minimal dead area between them. Figure 1 shows two anode patterns. One pattern features larger pixel anode contacts, with a 30-m gap between them. The other pattern features smaller pixel anode contacts plus a contact for a shaping electrode in the form of a grid that separates all the pixels. In operation, the grid is held at a potential intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials to steer electric charges toward the anode in order to reduce the loss of charges in the inter-anode gaps. The CdZnTe photodetector array is mechanically and electrically connected to the ASIC (see Figure 2), either by use of indium bump bonds or by use of conductive epoxy bumps on the CdZnTe array joined to gold bumps on the ASIC. Hence, the output of each pixel detector is fed to its own amplifier chain.

  11. Quantum Performance Analysis of an EMCCD-based X-ray Detector Using Photon Transfer Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T; Huang, Ying; Wang, Weiyuan; Cartwright, Alexander N; Titus, Albert H; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-10-30

    The low electronic noise, high resolution, and good temporal performance of electron-multiplying CCDs (EMCCDs) are ideally suited for applications traditionally served by x-ray image intensifiers. In order to improve an expandable clinical detector's field-of-view and have full control of the system performance, we have successfully built a solid-state x-ray detector. The photon transfer technique was used to quantify the EMCCD quantum performance in terms of sensitivity (or camera gain constant, K), read noise (RN), full-well capacity (FW), and dynamic range (DR). Measured results show the system maintains a K of 11.3 ± 0.9 e(-)/DN at unit gain, with a read noise of 71.5±6.0 e(-)rms at gain 1, which decreases proportionally with higher gains. The full well capacity was measured to be 31.3±2.7 ke(-), providing a dynamic range of 52.8±0.7 dB using the chip manufacturer specified clocking scheme. Similar performance was measured with other commercial camera systems. The manufacturer data sheet indicates a dynamic range of 66 dB is plausible with improved read noise and full well capacity. Different clocking schemes are under investigation to assess their impact on improving performance towards idealized values. EMCCD driver clock voltage levels were adjusted individually to check the influence on quantum performance. The clocks work to transfer charge from the image area to readout amplifier through the storage area, horizontal and multiplication registers. Results indicate that the clock that contributes to lateral overflow drain bias is essential to the system performance in terms of dynamic range and full well capacity. The serial register clocks used for transporting charge stored in the pixels of the memory lines to the output amplifier had the largest effect on RN, while others had less of an impact. Initial adjustment of these clocks resulted in a variability of 16% in the performance of dynamic range, 38% in read noise and 56% in full well capacity

  12. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jiolat, Guillaume [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarski, Tomasz [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malard, Philippe [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Jablonski, Slawomir; Figacz, Waldemar; Zagorski, Roman; Kubkowska, Monika [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Larroque, Sébastien; Verger, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mlynar, Jan [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Byszuk, Adrian; Wojenski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Interplay between particle transport and MHD in tokamaks might lead to disruption. • Studying such phenomena is essential to achieve stationary discharges. • SXR measurement provides valuable information on particle transport and MHD. • New SXR GEM diagnostic design for the WEST project is presented. • Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector are presented. - Abstract: In metallic tokamaks, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to disruption. Studying such phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. Measuring the soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1 keV; 20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MHD. Generally, like at Tore Supra (TS), the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with silicon barrier diodes (SBD). On WEST the installation of an upper divertor masks many of the actual TS vertical diodes so that no proper tomography is possible. This paper presents the design of a new SXR diagnostic for the WEST project developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector and its electronics inside the vertical thimble are also presented, in particular estimation of magnetic field and temperature variation affecting GEM spatial resolution and signal quality. As a conclusion, perspectives about tomographic capabilities of the new system for studying impurity transport are given.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the response functions of Cd Te detectors to be applied in X-rays spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomal, A. [Universidade Federale de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970, Goiania, (Brazil); Lopez G, A. H.; Santos, J. C.; Costa, P. R., E-mail: alessandra_tomal@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua du Matao Travessa R. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    In this work, the energy response functions of a Cd Te detector were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation in the energy range from 5 to 150 keV, using the Penelope code. The response functions simulated included the finite detector resolution and the carrier transport. The simulated energy response matrix was validated through comparison with experimental results obtained for radioactive sources. In order to investigate the influence of the correction by the detector response at diagnostic energy range, x-ray spectra were measured using a Cd Te detector (model Xr-100-T, Amptek), and then corrected by the energy response of the detector using the stripping procedure. Results showed that the Cd Te exhibit good energy response at low energies (below 40 keV), showing only small distortions on the measured spectra. For energies below about 70 keV, the contribution of the escape of Cd- and Te-K x-rays produce significant distortions on the measured x-ray spectra. For higher energies, the most important correction is the detector efficiency and the carrier trapping effects. The results showed that, after correction by the energy response, the measured spectra are in good agreement with those provided by different models from the literature. Finally, our results showed that the detailed knowledge of the response function and a proper correction procedure are fundamental for achieve more accurate spectra from which several qualities parameters (i.e. half-value layer, effective energy and mean energy) can be determined. (Author)

  14. Optical features of a LiF crystal soft X-ray imaging detector irradiated by free electron laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Bolton, Paul; Mitrofanov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Alexander; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Senba, Yashinori; Togashi, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-13

    Optical features of point defects photoluminescence in LiF crystals, irradiated by soft X-ray pulses of the Free Electron Laser with wavelengths of 17.2 - 61.5 nm, were measured. We found that peak of photoluminescence spectra lies near of 530 nm and are associated with emission of F3+ centers. Our results suggest that redistribution of photoluminescence peak intensity from the red to the green part of the spectra is associated with a shortening of the applied laser pulses down to pico - or femtosecond durations. Dependence of peak intensity of photoluminescence spectra from the soft X-ray irradiation fluence was measured and the absence of quenching phenomena, even at relatively high fluencies was found, which is very important for wide applications of LiF crystal X-ray imaging detectors.

  15. Impact of charge carrier trapping on amorphous selenium direct conversion avalanche X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnab, Salman M.; Kabir, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    A cascaded linear system model is developed to determine the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) considering trapping of charge carriers in the absorption layer of an amorphous selenium multilayer direct conversion avalanche detector. This model considers the effects of charge carrier trapping and reabsorption of K-fluorescent X-rays on the frequency-dependent DQE(f). A 2-D simulation is performed to calculate the actual weighting potential in the absorption layer, which is used to calculate the amount of collected charge. It is observed that the DQE(f = 0) reduces from 0.38 to 0.19 due to charge carrier trapping in the absorption layer having a thickness of 1000 μm when the electronic noise is 1500 electrons per pixel. The avalanche gain enhances the signal strength and improves the frequency dependent DQE(f) by overcoming the effect of carrier trapping and as well as the effect of the electronic noise. The simulations suggest that avalanche gain of 35 and 20 are required to overcome the effect of the electronic noise of 1500 and 700 electrons per pixel, respectively.

  16. High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shreetu; Fischer, René; Matt, Gebhard J.; Feldner, Patrick; Michel, Thilo; Osvet, Andres; Levchuk, Ievgen; Merle, Benoit; Golkar, Saeedeh; Chen, Haiwei; Tedde, Sandro F.; Schmidt, Oliver; Hock, Rainer; Rührig, Manfred; Göken, Mathias; Heiss, Wolfgang; Anton, Gisela; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-07-01

    Lead halide perovskite semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently high X-ray absorption cross-section and a significantly higher carrier mobility than any other low-temperature solution-processed semiconductor. So far, the processing of several-hundred-micrometres-thick high-quality crystalline perovskite films over a large area has been unresolved for efficient X-ray detection. In this Article, we present a mechanical sintering process to fabricate polycrystalline methyl ammonium lead triiodide perovskite (MAPbI3) wafers with millimetre thickness and well-defined crystallinity. Benchmarking of the MAPbI3 wafers against state-of-the-art CdTe detectors reveals competitive conversion efficiencies of 2,527 µC Gyair-1 cm-2 under 70 kVp X-ray exposure. The high ambipolar mobility-lifetime product of 2 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 is suggested to be responsible for this exceptionally high sensitivity. Our findings inform a new generation of highly efficient and low-cost X-ray detectors based on perovskite wafers.

  17. X-ray imaging with sub-micron resolution using large-area photon counting detectors Timepix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, J.; Karch, J.; Holcova, K.; Zemlicka, J.

    2017-12-01

    As X-ray micro-CT became a popular tool for scientific purposes a number of commercially available CT systems have emerged on the market. Micro-CT systems have, therefore, become widely accessible and the number of research laboratories using them constantly increases. However, even when CT scans with spatial resolution of several micrometers can be performed routinely, data acquisition with sub-micron precision remains a complicated task. Issues come mostly from prolongation of the scan time inevitably connected with the use of nano-focus X-ray sources. Long exposure time increases the noise level in the CT projections. Furthermore, considering the sub-micron resolution even effects like source-spot drift, rotation stage wobble or thermal expansion become significant and can negatively affect the data. The use of dark-current free photon counting detectors as X-ray cameras for such applications can limit the issue of increased image noise in the data, however the mechanical stability of the whole system still remains a problem and has to be considered. In this work we evaluate the performance of a micro-CT system equipped with nano-focus X-ray tube and a large area photon counting detector Timepix for scans with effective pixel size bellow one micrometer.

  18. MHz rate X-Ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors using the LPD detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Booker, P.; Cline, B.; Coughlan, J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Novikov, V. A.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Zarubin, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.) and Tomsk State University (Russia) have been working together to develop and characterise detector systems based on chromium-compensated gallium arsenide (GaAs:Cr) semiconductor material for high frame rate X-ray imaging. Previous work has demonstrated the spectroscopic performance of the material and its resistance to damage induced by high fluxes of X-rays. In this paper, recent results from experiments at the Diamond Light Source Synchrotron have demonstrated X-ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors at a frame rate of 3.7 MHz using the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) ASIC, developed by STFC for the European XFEL. Measurements have been made using a monochromatic 20 keV X-ray beam delivered in a single hybrid pulse with an instantenous flux of up to ~ 1 × 1010 photons s-1 mm-2. The response of 500 μm GaAs:Cr sensors is compared to that of the standard 500 μm thick LPD Si sensors.

  19. hybridMANTIS: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-21

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code MANTIS, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fastDETECT2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the MANTIS code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify PENELOPE (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in MANTIS) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fastDETECT2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybridMANTIS approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to MANTIS and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybridMANTIS, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical tox-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than MANTIS and, asa result, allows us to efficiently simulate large area detectors.

  20. CdZnTe and CdTe detector arrays for hard X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Stahle, C M; Parsons, A M; Barbier, L M; Barthelmy, S D; Gehrels, N A; Palmer, D M; Snodgrass, S J; Tüller, J

    1999-01-01

    A variety of CdZnTe and CdTe detector arrays were fabricated at NASA/GSFC for use in hard X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. Mosaic, pixel, and 3-D position-sensitive detector arrays were built to demonstrate the capabilities for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy for 10 to 2 MeV. This paper will summarize the different arrays and their applications for instruments being developed at NASA/GSFC. Specific topics to be addressed include materials characterization, fabrication of detectors, ASIC readout electronics, and imaging and spectroscopy tests.

  1. System Design and Implementation of the Detector Assembly of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, M. P.; Adams, J.; Goodwin, P.; Hobson, C.W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammom, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H presents to the science community unprecedented capability (less than 7 eV at 6 keV) for high-resolution spectral measurements in the range of 0.5-12 keV to study extended celestial sources. At the heart of this SXS is the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer (XCS) where detectors (calorimeter array and anticoincidence detector) operate at 50 mK, the bias circuit operates at nominal 1.3 K, and the first stage amplifiers operateat 130 K, all within a nominal 20 cm envelope. The design of the detector assembly in this XCS originates from the Astro-E x-ray spectrometer (XRS) and lessons learned from Astro-E and Suzaku. After the production of our engineering model, additional changes were made in order to improve our flight assembly process for better reliability and overall performance. In this poster, we present the final design and implementation of the flight detector assembly, show comparison of parameters and performance to Suzakus XRS, and list susceptibilities to other subsystems as well as our lessons learned.

  2. CdTe and CdZnTe detectors behavior in X-ray computed tomography conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ricq, S; Garcin, M

    2000-01-01

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe 2D array detectors for medical X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is investigated. Different metallic electrodes have been deposited on High-Pressure Bridgman Method CdZnTe and on Traveling Heater Method CdTe:Cl. These detectors are exposed to X-rays in the CT irradiation conditions and are characterized experimentally in current mode. Detectors performances such as sensitivity and response speed are studied. They are correlated with charge trapping and de-trapping. The trapped carrier space charges may influence the injection from the electrodes. This enables one to get information on the nature of the predominant levels involved. The performances achieved are encouraging: dynamic ranges higher than 4 decades and current decreases of 3 decades in 4 ms after X-ray beam cut-off are obtained. Nevertheless, these detectors are still limited by high trap densities responsible for the memory effect that makes them unsuitable for XCT.

  3. Signal Processing Techniques for Silicon Drift Detector Based X-Ray Spectrometer for Planatary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A.; Shanmugam, M.; Ladiya, T.

    2016-10-01

    We are developing SDD based x-ray spectrometer using various pulse height analysis techniques. This study will help to identify the proper processing technique based on instrument specifications which can be used for future scientific missions.

  4. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lobster X-Ray Imaging technology gives high sensitivity and source localization.The project consist of the following:Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity....

  5. ISS Leak Detection and Astrophysics with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate angular resolution and sensitivity. Successful lab demonstration of ISS leak checking, using nitrogen, electron beam, and Lobster x-ray optic. 

  6. A unified statistical framework for material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kang, Dong-Goo; Kang, Sunghoon; Sung, Younghun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14, Nong-seo dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Jong Chul [Bio-Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Material decomposition using multienergy photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) has been an active research area over the past few years. Even with some success, the problem of optimal energy selection and three material decomposition including malignant tissue is still on going research topic, and more systematic studies are required. This paper aims to address this in a unified statistical framework in a mammographic environment.Methods: A unified statistical framework for energy level optimization and decomposition of three materials is proposed. In particular, an energy level optimization algorithm is derived using the theory of the minimum variance unbiased estimator, and an iterative algorithm is proposed for material composition as well as system parameter estimation under the unified statistical estimation framework. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, the authors performed simulation studies as well as real experiments using physical breast phantom and ex vivo breast specimen. Quantitative comparisons using various performance measures were conducted, and qualitative performance evaluations for ex vivo breast specimen were also performed by comparing the ground-truth malignant tissue areas identified by radiologists.Results: Both simulation and real experiments confirmed that the optimized energy bins by the proposed method allow better material decomposition quality. Moreover, for the specimen thickness estimation errors up to 2 mm, the proposed method provides good reconstruction results in both simulation and real ex vivo breast phantom experiments compared to existing methods.Conclusions: The proposed statistical framework of PCXD has been successfully applied for the energy optimization and decomposition of three material in a mammographic environment. Experimental results using the physical breast phantom and ex vivo specimen support the practicality of the proposed algorithm.

  7. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.H.J. E-mail: koch@embl-hamburg.de; Boulin, C.; Briquet-Laugier, F.; Epstein, A.; Sheldon, S.; Beloeuvre, E.; Gabriel, A.; Herve, C.; Kocsis, M.; Koschuch, A.; Laggner, P.; Leingartner, W.; Raad Iseli, C. de; Reimann, T.; Golding, F.; Torki, K

    2001-07-21

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  8. New room temperature high resolution solid-state detector (CdZnTe) for hard x rays and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amyelizabeth C.; Desai, Upendra D.

    1993-01-01

    The new CdZnTe high 'Z' material represents a significant improvement in detectors for high energy photons. With the thicknesses available, photons up to 100 keV can be efficiently detected. This material has a wide band gap of 1.5 - 2.2 eV which allows it to operate at room temperature while providing high spectral resolution. Results of resolution evaluations are presented. This detector can be used for high resolution spectral measurements of photons in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, offering a significant reduction in the weight, power, and volume of the detector system compared to more conventional detector types such as scintillation counters. In addition, the detector will have the simplicity and reliability of solid-state construction. The CdZnTe detector, as a new development, has not yet been evaluated in space. The Get Away Special program can provide this opportunity.

  9. Development of fast data processing electronics for a stacked x-ray detector system with application as a polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Daniel; Dick, Jürgen; Distratis, Giuseppe; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanz, Thomas; Tenzer, Christoph; Warth, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    We have assembled a stacked setup consisting of a soft and hard X-ray detector with cooling capability and control-, readout-, and data processing electronics at the Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik Tübingen (IAAT). The detector system is a 64 ×64 DePFET-Matrix in front of a CdTe-Caliste module. The detectors were developed at the Max-Planck Institute Semiconductor Laboratory (HLL) in Neuperlach and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in Saclay, respectively. In this combined structure the DePFET detector works as Low Energy Detector (LED) while the Caliste module (HED) only detects the high energy photons that have passed through the LED. In this work we present the current status of the setup. Furthermore, an intended application of the detector system as a polarimeter is described.

  10. Correction of diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Kanamori, H.; Toragaito, T.; Taniguchi, A.

    1996-07-01

    We modified the formula of stripping procedure presented by E. Di. Castor et al. We added the Compton scattering and separated K{sub {alpha}} radiation of Cd and Te (23 and 27keV, respectively). Using the new stripping procedure diagnostic x-ray spectra (object 4mm-Al) of tube voltage 50kV to 100kV for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors are corrected with comparison of those spectra for the Ge detector. The corrected spectra for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors coincide with those for Ge detector at lower tube voltage than 70kV. But the corrected spectra at higher tube voltage than 70kV do not coincide with those for Ge detector. The reason is incomplete correction for full energy peak efficiencies of real CdTe and CdZnTe detectors. (J.P.N.)

  11. X-ray irradiation-induced structural modifications in PM-355 polymeric nuclear track detector film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, S. A.; Bahareth, Radiyah A.; Abutalib, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Samples from sheets of the polymeric material PM-355 have been exposed to X-rays from a 50 kV X-ray tube in the dose range of 10-300 kGy. The resultant effect of X-ray irradiation on the structural properties of PM-355 has been investigated using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Vickers hardness and refractive index measurements. The results indicate that the X-ray irradiation of PM-355 in the dose range of 10-20 kGy causes initially chain scission. Above 20 and up to 100 kGy, the active free radicals produced from scission contribute to chemical reactions that lead to the crosslinking. Thus, the X-ray irradiation in the dose range of 20-100 kGy leads to a more compact structure of the PM-355 polymer, resulting in an enhancement of its Vickers hardness and refractive index. Moreover, the irradiation in the dose range of 100-300 kGy leads to the predominance of the degradation. This degradation is reported by FTIR spectroscopy and enhances the degree of ordering in the degraded samples as revealed by XRD technique. Additionally, it decreases both the Vickers hardness and refractive index of the PM-355 samples.

  12. Performance of the micro-PIC gaseous area detector in small-angle X-ray scattering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Ito, Kazuki; Okada, Yoko; Fujii, Kotaro; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Miuchi, Kentaro; Takata, Masaki; Tanimori, Toru; Uekusa, Hidehiro

    2009-03-01

    The application of a two-dimensional photon-counting detector based on a micro-pixel gas chamber (micro-PIC) to high-resolution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and its performance, are reported. The micro-PIC is a micro-pattern gaseous detector fabricated by printed circuit board technology. This article describes the performance of the micro-PIC in SAXS experiments at SPring-8. A dynamic range of >10(5) was obtained for X-ray scattering from a polystyrene sphere solution. A maximum counting rate of up to 5 MHz was observed with good linearity and without saturation. For a diffraction pattern of collagen, weak peaks were observed in the high-angle region in one accumulation of photons.

  13. Monte Carlo and least-squares methods applied in unfolding of X-ray spectra measured with cadmium telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moralles, M. [Centro do Reator de Pesquisas, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Caixa Postal 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)], E-mail: moralles@ipen.br; Bonifacio, D.A.B. [Centro do Reator de Pesquisas, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Caixa Postal 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Bottaro, M.; Pereira, M.A.G. [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 1289, CEP 05508-010, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    Spectra of calibration sources and X-ray beams were measured with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The response function of the detector was simulated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Trapping of charge carriers were taken into account using the Hecht equation in the active zone of the CdTe crystal associated with a continuous function to produce drop of charge collection efficiency near the metallic contacts and borders. The rise time discrimination is approximated by a cut in the depth of the interaction relative to cathode and corrections that depend on the pulse amplitude. The least-squares method with truncation was employed to unfold X-ray spectra typically used in medical diagnostics and the results were compared with reference data.

  14. Monte Carlo and least-squares methods applied in unfolding of X-ray spectra measured with cadmium telluride detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralles, M.; Bonifácio, D. A. B.; Bottaro, M.; Pereira, M. A. G.

    2007-09-01

    Spectra of calibration sources and X-ray beams were measured with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The response function of the detector was simulated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Trapping of charge carriers were taken into account using the Hecht equation in the active zone of the CdTe crystal associated with a continuous function to produce drop of charge collection efficiency near the metallic contacts and borders. The rise time discrimination is approximated by a cut in the depth of the interaction relative to cathode and corrections that depend on the pulse amplitude. The least-squares method with truncation was employed to unfold X-ray spectra typically used in medical diagnostics and the results were compared with reference data.

  15. A numerical model for multiple detector energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J.M., E-mail: jmlebeau@ncsu.edu

    2016-05-15

    Here we report a numerical approach to model a four quadrant energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer in the transmission electron microscope. The model includes detector geometries, specimen position and absorption, shadowing by the holder, and filtering by the Be carrier. We show that this comprehensive model accurately predicts absolute counts and intensity ratios as a function of specimen tilt and position. We directly compare the model to experimental results acquired with a FEI Super-X EDS four quadrant detector. The contribution from each detector to the sum is investigated. The program and source code can be downloaded from (https://github.com/subangstrom/superAngle). - Highlights: • A novel numeric model is developed to predict the effective detector collection angle for multi-detector EDS in the transmission electron microscope. • The precise geometry of specimen holder is incorporated to determine the influence of holder shadowing • The role of X-ray filtering by the Be specimen carrier is investigated. • Predicted counts and intensity ratios are directly compared to experiment as a function of tilt and are shown to be in excellent agreement • The detector intensity sum effectively reduces errors compared to the individual detector signals.

  16. Position resolution limits in pure noble gaseous detectors for X-ray energies from 1 to 60 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.R. Azevedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The calculated position resolutions for X-ray photons (1–60 keV in pure noble gases at atmospheric pressure are presented. In this work we show the influence of the atomic shells and the detector dimensions on the intrinsic position resolution of the used noble gas. The calculated results were obtained by using a new software tool, Degrad, and compared to the available experimental data.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of primary electron production inside an a-selenium detector for x-ray mammography: physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, T; Spyrou, G; Tzanakos, G; Panayiotakis, G

    2005-08-21

    Selenium is among the materials under investigation that may form effective detectors and provide a major contribution to digital mammography. Till the final image formation, there is an intervention of the x-ray photons transformation to primary electrons and their subsequent ionizing drift towards the electrodes that collect them. The characteristics of the generated primary electrons inside a-Se material such as their angular, spatial and energy distribution affect the characteristics of the final image. A Monte Carlo based model has been developed that simulates the x-ray irradiation of an a-Se detector plate, including primary photon interactions (photoelectric absorption, coherent and incoherent scattering), as well as secondary ones, such as fluorescence (Kalpha, Kbeta) and emission of Auger electrons. The angular, spatial and energy distributions for the generated primary electrons inside a-Se have been produced for various mammographic x-ray spectra and their usefulness in designing and optimizing a detector made of a-Se for digital mammography is discussed.

  18. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry using 2D digital radiography detector: application to bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinten, Jean-Marc; Robert-Coutant, Christine; Darboux, Michel

    2001-06-01

    Dual Energy X-Rays Absorptiometry (DXA) is commonly used to separate soft tissues and bone contributions in radiographs. This decomposition leads to bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Most clinical systems use pencil or fan collimated X-Rays beam with mono detectors or linear arrays. On these systems BMD is computed from bi-dimensional (2D) images obtained by scanning. Our objective is to take advantage of the newly available flat panels detectors and to propose a DXA approach without scanning, based on the use of cone beam X-Rays associated with a 2D detector. This approach yields bone densitometry systems with an equal X and Y resolution, a fast acquisition and a reduced risk of patient motion.Scatter in this case becomes an important issue. While scattering is insignificant on collimated systems, its level and geometrical structure may severely alter BMD measurement on cone beam systems. In our presentation an original DXA method taking into account scattering is proposed. This new approach leads to accurate BMD values.In order to evaluate the accuracy of our new approach, a phantom representative of the spine regions tissue composition (bone, fat , muscle) has been designed. The comparison between the expected theoretical and the reconstructed BMD values validates the accuracy of our method. Results on anthropomorphic spine and hip regions are also presented.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of the X-ray response of a germanium microstrip detector with energy and position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, G; Fajardo, P; Morse, J

    1999-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computer simulations of the X-ray response of a micro-strip germanium detector over the energy range 30-100 keV. The detector consists of a linear array of lithographically defined 150 mu m wide strips on a high purity monolithic germanium crystal of 6 mm thickness. The simulation code is divided into two parts. We first consider a 10 mu m wide X-ray beam striking the detector surface at normal incidence and compute the interaction processes possible for each photon. Photon scattering and absorption inside the detector crystal are simulated using the EGS4 code with the LSCAT extension for low energies. A history of events is created of the deposited energies which is read by the second part of the code which computes the energy histogram for each detector strip. Appropriate algorithms are introduced to account for lateral charge spreading occurring during charge carrier drift to the detector surface, and Fano and preamplifier electronic noise contributions. Computed spectra for differen...

  20. Development and evaluation of a CCD-based digital imaging system for mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccaro, Michele F.; Toker, Emre

    1993-05-01

    We have developed a CCD-based, high performance, filmless imaging system for stereotactic biopsy procedures in mammography. The CCD camera is based on a 1024 X 1024 pixel format, full-frame, scientific grade, front-illuminated, MPP mode CCD, directly coupled to an X-ray intensifying screen via a 2:1 fiber optic reducer. The CCD is cooled to -10 degree(s)C, and is digitized in slow-scan, correlated double sampling mode at 500 Kpixels/second with 12-bit contrast resolution. X-ray images acquired with the system are processed and displayed on a high resolution monitor within 20 seconds of exposure. System design and specifications will be described, and evaluation of physical performance characteristics will be discussed. The system has been used in over 100 stereotactic breast biopsy procedures to date, and has been shown to significantly improve the speed and accuracy of the biopsy procedure, due to the near real-time acquisition and display of x-ray images. Initial results also indicate that the fiber optic coupled CCD-based imaging system provides superior detectability of low contrast breast lesions and microcalcifications at lower patient dose, as compared to conventional film-screen detectors.

  1. Review of medical imaging with emphasis on X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheisel, Martin

    2006-07-01

    Medical imaging can be looked at from two different perspectives, the medical and the physical. The medical point of view is application-driven and involves finding the best way of tackling a medical problem through imaging, i.e. either to answer a diagnostic question, or to facilitate a therapy. For this purpose, industry offers a broad spectrum of radiographic, fluoroscopic, and angiographic equipment. The requirements depend on the medical problem: which organs have to be imaged, which details have to be made visible, how to deal with the problem of motion if any, and so forth. In radiography, for instance, large detector sizes of up to 43 cm×43 cm and relatively high energies are needed to image a whole chest. In mammography, pixel sizes between 25 and 70 μm are favorable for good spatial resolution, which is essential for detecting microcalcifications. In cardiology, 30-60 images per second are required to follow the heart's motion. In computed tomography, marginal contrast differences down to one Hounsfield unit have to be resolved. In all cases, but especially in pediatrics, the required radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Moreover, three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction of image data allows much better orientation in the body, permitting a more accurate diagnosis, precise treatment planning, and image-guided therapy. Additional functional information from different modalities is very helpful, information such as perfusion, flow rate, diffusion, oxygen concentration, metabolism, and receptor affinity for specific molecules. To visualize, functional and anatomical information are fused into one combined image. The physical point of view is technology-driven. A choice of different energies from the electromagnetic spectrum is available for imaging; not only X-rays in the range of 10-150 keV, but also γ rays, which are used in nuclear medicine, X-rays in the MeV range, which are used in portal imaging to monitor radiation therapy

  2. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  3. Elemental X-ray imaging using the Maia detector array: The benefits and challenges of large solid-angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C. G.; Kirkham, R.; Hough, R. M.; Moorhead, G.; Siddons, D. P.; de Jonge, M. D.; Paterson, D. J.; De Geronimo, G.; Howard, D. L.; Cleverley, J. S.

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental parameter method for quantitative SXRF and PIXE analysis and imaging using the dynamic analysis method is extended to model the changing X-ray yields and detector sensitivity with angle across large detector arrays. The method is implemented in the GeoPIXE software and applied to cope with the large solid-angle of the new Maia 384 detector array and its 96 detector prototype developed by CSIRO and BNL for SXRF imaging applications at the Australian and NSLS synchrotrons. Peak-to-background is controlled by mitigating charge-sharing between detectors through careful optimization of a patterned molybdenum absorber mask. A geological application demonstrates the capability of the method to produce high definition elemental images up to ˜100 M pixels in size.

  4. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S. G.; Bentley, C. D.

    2004-10-01

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu2+ has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 103 photons/(50 μm)2] and high fluxes [greater than 104 photons/(50 μm)2]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 μm. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  5. Development of a low-noise readout ASIC for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, E.; Levin, V.; Malankin, E.; Shumikhin, V.

    2017-03-01

    ASIC with a low-noise readout channel for Silicon Drift Detectors in high energy resolution X-ray spectrometry was designed and prototyped in the AMS 350 nm CMOS process via Europractice as a miniASIC. For the analog readout channel tests there was used the detector module SDD-10-130-PTW LTplus-ic (PNDetector GmbH). The measured energy resolution of this module with the designed readout channel: 200 eV (FWHM) at 55Fe, -16 °C, 1 kcps and a peaking time of 8 μs.

  6. Design and Implementation of an Acoustic X-ray Detector to Measure the LCLS Beam Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Jennifer L.; /San Jose State U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    On April 11, 2009, first light was seen from LCLS. The present apparatus being used to measure the x-ray beam energy is the Total Energy Sensor which uses a suite of thermal sensors. Another device is needed to cross-check the energy measurements. This new diagnostic tool utilizes radiation acoustic phenomena to determine the x-ray beam energy. A target is hit by the x-rays from the beam, and a voltage is generated in two piezoelectric sensors attached to the target in response to the consequent deformation. Once the voltage is known, the power can be obtained. Thermal sensors will also be attached to the target for calibration purposes. Material selection and design were based on: durability, ultra-high vacuum compatibility, safety and thermal properties. The target material was also chosen for its acoustic properties which were determined from tests using a frequency generator and laser. Initial tests suggest the device will function as anticipated.

  7. Discriminated neutron and X-ray radiography using multi-color scintillation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nittoh, K; Yoshida, T; Tamura, T

    1999-01-01

    A new conversion screen Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S:Eu is developed, which emits red light on irradiation by thermal neutrons. By applying this in combination with the currently used Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S:Tb, a green-light scintillator, in the radiography under a neutron + X-ray coexisting field, we can easily separate the neutron image and the X-ray image by simple color-image processing. This technique enables a non-destructive and detailed inspection of industrial products composed both of light elements (water, plastics, etc.) and heavy elements (metals), widening the horizon of new applications.

  8. A High Position Resolution X-ray Detector: an Edge on Illuminated Capillary Plate Combined with a Gas Amplification Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Ostling, J.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Peskov, V.; Tokanai, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new type of high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber filled with gas at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0-90 degree. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between 5-30 percent in a single step mode and up to 50 percent in a multi-layered combination. Depending on the capillary geometry, the position resolution achieved was between 0.050-0.250 mm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon energy or gas mixture. The usual lead glass capillary plates operated without noticeable charging up effects at counting rates of 50 Hz/mm2, and hydrogen treated capillaries up to 10E5 Hz/mm2. The developed detector may open new possibil...

  9. Cs2AgBiBr6 single-crystal X-ray detectors with a low detection limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weicheng; Wu, Haodi; Luo, Jiajun; Deng, Zhenzhou; Ge, Cong; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Xiaowei; Yin, Wan-Jian; Niu, Guangda; Zhu, Lujun; Yin, Lixiao; Zhou, Ying; Xie, Qingguo; Ke, Xiaoxing; Sui, Manling; Tang, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Sensitive X-ray detection is crucial for medical diagnosis, industrial inspection and scientific research. The recently described hybrid lead halide perovskites have demonstrated low-cost fabrication and outstanding performance for direct X-ray detection, but they all contain toxic Pb in a soluble form. Here, we report sensitive X-ray detectors using solution-processed double perovskite Cs2AgBiBr6 single crystals. Through thermal annealing and surface treatment, we largely eliminate Ag+/Bi3+ disordering and improve the crystal resistivity, resulting in a detector with a minimum detectable dose rate as low as 59.7 nGyair s-1, comparable to the latest record of 0.036 μGyair s-1 using CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals. Suppressed ion migration in Cs2AgBiBr6 permits relatively large external bias, guaranteeing efficient charge collection without a substantial increase in noise current and thus enabling the low detection limit.

  10. Geometric calibration and correction for a lens-coupled detector in x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Alex; Chen, Peter Y; Morales-Martinez, Alejandro; Panna, Alireza; Gomella, Andrew A; Bennett, Eric E; Wen, Han

    2017-01-01

    A lens-coupled x-ray camera with a tilted phosphor collects light emission from the x-ray illuminated (front) side of phosphor. Experimentally, it has been shown to double x-ray photon capture efficiency and triple the spatial resolution along the phosphor tilt direction relative to the same detector at normal phosphor incidence. These characteristics benefit grating-based phase-contrast methods, where linear interference fringes need to be clearly resolved. However, both the shallow incident angle on the phosphor and lens aberrations of the camera cause geometric distortions. When tiling multiple images of limited vertical view into a full-field image, geometric distortion causes blurring due to image misregistration. Here, we report a procedure of geometric correction based on global polynomial transformation of image coordinates. The corrected image is equivalent to one obtained with a single full-field flat panel detector placed at the sample plane. In a separate evaluation scan, the position deviations in the horizontal and vertical directions were reduced from 0.76 and 0.028 mm, respectively, to 0.006 and 0.009 mm, respectively, by the correction procedure, which were below the 0.028-mm pixel size of the imaging system. In a demonstration of a phase-contrast imaging experiment, the correction reduced blurring of small structures.

  11. Development of digital system for the wide-field x-ray imaging detector aboard Kanazawa-SAT3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yasuaki; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ina, Masao; Ota, Kaichi; Suzuki, Daichi; Miyao, Kouga; Watanabe, Syouta; Hatori, Satoshi; Kume, Kyo; Mizushima, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We are planning to launch a micro satellite, Kanazawa-SAT3 , at the end of FY2018 to localize X-ray transients associated with gravitational wave sources. Now we are testing a prototype model of wide-field Xray imaging detector named T-LEX (Transient Localization EXperiment). T-LEX is an orthogonally distributed two sets of 1-dimensional silicon strip detectors with coded aperture masks, and covers more than 1 steradian field of view in the energy range of 1 - 20 keV. Each dimension has 512 readout electrodes (totally 1,024 channels), and they are read out with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) controlled by two onboard FPGAs. Moreover, each FPGA calculates the cross correlation between the X-ray intensity and mask patterns every 64 msec, makes a histogram of lightcurves and energy spectra, and also plays a role of telemetry/command interface to mission CPU. In this paper, we report an overview of digital electronics system. Especially, we focus on the high-speed imaging processor on FPGA and demonstrate its performance as an X-ray imaging system.

  12. Predicted image quality of a CMOS APS X-ray detector across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, A.

    2015-09-01

    Digital X-ray detectors based on Complementary Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor (CMOS) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology have been introduced in the early 2000s in medical imaging applications. In a previous study the X-ray performance (i.e. presampling Modulation Transfer Function (pMTF), Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE)) of the Dexela 2923MAM CMOS APS X-ray detector was evaluated within the mammographic energy range using monochromatic synchrotron radiation (i.e. 17-35 keV). In this study image simulation was used to predict how the mammographic beam quality affects image quality. In particular, the experimentally measured monochromatic pMTF, NNPS and SNR parameters were combined with various mammographic spectral shapes (i.e. Molybdenum/Molybdenum (Mo/Mo), Rhodium/Rhodium (Rh/Rh), Tungsten/Aluminium (W/Al) and Tungsten/Rhodium (W/Rh) anode/filtration combinations at 28 kV). The image quality was measured in terms of Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) using a synthetic breast phantom (4 cm thick with 50% glandularity). The results can be used to optimize the imaging conditions in order to minimize patient's Mean Glandular Dose (MGD).

  13. A low power X-ray diffractometer for soil analysis in remote locations employing a multiwire proportional counter detector array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A low power X-ray powder diffraction system suitable for remote mineralogical analysis of lunar, planetary, or asteroid soils has been designed. A one Curie Fe-55 source provides a monochromatic X-ray beam of 5.9 keV. Seeman-Bohlin focusing geometry is employed in the camera, allowing peak detection to proceed simultaneously at all angles and obviating the need for moving parts. The detector system is an array of 500-600 proportional counters with a wire-spacing of 1 mm. An electronics unit comprising preamplifier, postamplifier, window discriminators, and storage flip-flops requiring only 3.5 milliwatts has been designed and tested. Total instrument power is less than 5 W.

  14. Superconducting single X-ray photon detector based on W0.8Si0.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofu Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a superconducting single X-ray photon detector based on W0.8Si0.2, and we characterized its basic detection performance for keV-photons at different temperatures. The detector has a critical temperature of 4.97 K, and it is able to be operated up to 4.8 K, just below the critical temperature. The detector starts to react to X-ray photons at relatively low bias currents, less than 1% of Ic at T = 1.8 K, and it shows a saturated count rate dependence on bias current at all temperatures, indicating that the optimum internal quantum efficiency can always be reached. Dark counts are negligible up to the highest investigated bias currents (99% of Ic and operating temperature (4.8 K. The latching effect affects the detector performance at all temperatures due to the fast recovery of the bias current; however, further modifications of the device geometry are expected to reduce the tendency for latching.

  15. Study of unfolding methods for X-ray spectra obtained with CDTE detectors in the mammography energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, A.; Gallardo, S.; Rodenas, J.; Verdu, G.; Barrachina, T. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Quality control parameters for an X-ray tube strongly depend on the accurate knowledge of the primary spectrum, but it is difficult to obtain it experimentally by direct measurements. Indirect spectrometry techniques such as Compton scattering can be used in X-ray spectrum assessment avoiding the pile-up effect in detectors. However, an unfolding method is required for this kind of measurements. In previous works, a methodology to assess primary X-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range by means of the Compton scattering technique has been analysed. This methodology included a Monte Carlo simulation model, using the MCNP5 code, of the actual experimental set-up providing a Pulse Height Distribution (PHD) for a given primary spectrum. It reproduced the interaction of photons and electrons with the Compton spectrometer and with a High Purity Germanium detector. In this work, a CdTe detector is proposed instead of the HP Germanium. CdTe detector does not require a liquid nitrogen cooling system, but its resolution is poor for the same energy range and its efficiency comes down for energies greater than 55 keV being 70% at 90 keV. In despite of these disadvantages, CdTe detector has been considered due to its low cost and easy handling and portability. The model can provide a PHD and a Response Matrix, for different X-ray spectra, taken from the IPEM 78 catalogue. The primary spectrum can be estimated applying the MTSVD (Modified Truncated Singular Value Decomposition) and the Tikhonov unfolding method. Both unfolding methods cause some loss of information on the reconstructed primary spectra. In this paper, a comparison of the ability to obtain primary spectra using both MTSVD and Tikhonov unfolding methods has been done. As well a sensitivity analysis in order to test the proposed unfolding methods when they are applied to PHDs obtained with the MCNP model has been developed. A variation on parameters such as target materials and voltages over the mammography

  16. In-Flight Performance of the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Detector System on ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Carolina A.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SXS instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS spectrometer is based on a high sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and sub-orbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In pre-flight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous band-pass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 microsecond. In addition, a solid-state anti-coincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain-stability, and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7 eV FWHM at 6 keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in pre-flight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  17. Reduced-Scale Transition-Edge Sensor Detectors for Solar and X-Ray Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datesman, Aaron M.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Ha, Jong Yoon; hide

    2017-01-01

    We have developed large-format, close-packed X-ray microcalorimeter arrays fabricated on solid substrates, designed to achieve high energy resolution with count rates up to a few hundred counts per second per pixel for X-ray photon energies upto 8 keV. Our most recent arrays feature 31-micron absorbers on a 35-micron pitch, reducing the size of pixels by about a factor of two. This change will enable an instrument with significantly higher angular resolution. In order to wire out large format arrays with an increased density of smaller pixels, we have reduced the lateral size of both the microstrip wiring and the Mo/Au transition-edge sensors (TES). We report on the key physical properties of these small TESs and the fine Nb leads attached, including the critical currents and weak-link properties associated with the longitudinal proximity effect.

  18. In situ micro-focused X-ray beam characterization with a lensless camera using a hybrid pixel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachatkou, Anton; Marchal, Julien; van Silfhout, Roelof

    2014-03-01

    Results of studies on micro-focused X-ray beam diagnostics using an X-ray beam imaging (XBI) instrument based on the idea of recording radiation scattered from a thin foil of a low-Z material with a lensless camera are reported. The XBI instrument captures magnified images of the scattering region within the foil as illuminated by the incident beam. These images contain information about beam size, beam position and beam intensity that is extracted during dedicated signal processing steps. In this work the use of the device with beams for which the beam size is significantly smaller than that of a single detector pixel is explored. The performance of the XBI device equipped with a state-of-the-art hybrid pixel X-ray imaging sensor is analysed. Compared with traditional methods such as slit edge or wire scanners, the XBI micro-focused beam characterization is significantly faster and does not interfere with on-going experiments. The challenges associated with measuring micrometre-sized beams are described and ways of optimizing the resolution of beam position and size measurements of the XBI instrument are discussed.

  19. New evaluation concept of the Athena WFI camera system by emulation of X-ray DEPFET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, S.; Bähr, A.; Brand, T.; Dauser, T.; Meidinger, N.; Plattner, M.; Stechele, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) is an X-ray camera for the future observatory Athena as the next ESA L-class mission. The signal processing chain of the WFI reaches from the sensing of incoming photons to the telemetry transmission to the spacecraft. Up to now the signal processing chain is verified with measurements of real X-ray sources, thus only limited test scenarios are possible. This paper presents a new concept for evaluating the X-ray camera system. Therefore a new end-to-end evaluation is proposed, which makes use of a programmable real-time emulator of the WFI DEPFET detector system including front-end electronics. With a complete variation of all available input parameters significant characteristics of the camera system can be studied and evaluated. This end-to-end evaluation method is a powerful tool to support the development of the WFI camera setup not only in the early stage, but also to improve characteristics and complex processing algorithms of the WFI when it will be in orbit.

  20. Non-thermal electron populations in microwave heated plasmas investigated with X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belapure, Jaydeep Sanjay

    2013-04-15

    An investigation of the generation and dynamics of superthermal electrons in fusion plasma is carried out. A SDD+CsI(Tl) based X-ray diagnostic is constructed, characterized and installed at ASDEX Upgrade. In various plasma heating power and densities, the fraction and the energy distribution of the superthermal electrons is obtained by a bi-Maxwellian model and compared with Fokker-Planck simulations.

  1. Hard x-ray phase contrast imaging using single absorption grating and hybrid semiconductor pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Frantisek; Jakubek, Jan; Kroupa, Martin

    2010-11-01

    A method for x-ray phase contrast imaging is introduced in which only one absorption grating and a microfocus x-ray source in a tabletop setup are used. The method is based on precise subpixel position determination of the x-ray pattern projected by the grating directly from the pattern image. For retrieval of the phase gradient and absorption image (both images obtained from one exposure), it is necessary to measure only one projection of the investigated object. Thus, our method is greatly simplified compared with the phase-stepping method and our method can significantly reduce the time-consuming scanning and possibly the unnecessary dose. Furthermore, the technique works with a fully polychromatic spectrum and gives ample variability in object magnification. Consequently, the approach can open the way to further widespread application of phase contrast imaging, e.g., into clinical practice. The experimental results on a simple testing object as well as on complex biological samples are presented.

  2. Development and characterization of a 3D GaAs X-ray detector for medical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros d’Aillon, Eric, E-mail: eric.grosdaillon@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France); Avenel, Marie-Laure [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France); Farcage, Daniel [CEA, DEN-DPC, F-91191 GIF SUR YVETTE (France); Verger, Loïck [CEA, LETI, MINATEC-Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE (France)

    2013-11-01

    Conventional semiconductor X-ray detectors for medical imaging have either a planar or a pixelated structure. The options available for detection materials are limited by the natural trade-off between the absorption of incident photons and the collection of free charge carriers with these two structures. This trade-off can be avoided by using az 3D structure, in which electrodes are drilled into the detector's volume. This article describes a prototype 3D semiconductor detector, using semi-insulating GaAs. A laser drilling technique was used to create electrodes in the volume of the material. The holes created were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrode contacts were created using electroless Au deposition. The manufacturing process and the first gamma counting results obtained with {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co sources are presented. The system is capable of individual photon-counting without energy discrimination but requires further development to improve efficiency.

  3. Spectroscopic Imaging Using Ge and CdTe Based Detector Systems for Hard X-ray Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astromskas, Vytautas

    Third generation synchrotron facilities such as the Diamond Light Source (DLS) have a wide range of experiments performed for a wide range of science fields. The DLS operates at energies up to 150 keV which introduces great challenges to radiation detector technology. This work focuses on the requirements that the detector technology faces for X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and powder diffraction experiments in I12 and I15 beam lines, respectively. A segmented HPGe demonstrator detector with in-built charge sensitive CUBE preamplifiers and a Schottky e- collection CdTe Medipix3RX detector systems were investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms that limit spectroscopic, imaging performances and stability and to find ways to overcome or minimise those limitations. The energy resolution and stability of the Ge demonstrator detector was found to have the required characteristics for XAFS measurements. Charge sharing was identified as a limiting factor to the resolution which is going to be addressed in the future development of a full detector system as well as reductions in electronic noise and cross-talk effects. The stability study of the Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX detector showed that polarization is highly dependent on temperature, irradiation duration and incoming flux. A new pixel behaviour called tri-phase (3-P) pixel was identified and a novel method for determining optimum operational conditions was developed. The use of the 3-P pixels as a criterion for depolarization resulted in a stable performance of the detector. Furthermore, the detector was applied in powder diffraction measurement at the I15 beam line and resulted in the detector diffraction pattern matching the simulated data. CdTe Medipix3RX and HEXITEC spectroscopic imaging detectors were applied in identification and discrimination of transitional metals for security application and K-edge subtraction for medical applications. The results showed that both detectors have potential

  4. X-ray detectors in axial computed tomography development; Sensori di radiazioni X negli sviluppi della tomografia assiale computerizzata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislon, R.; Imperiali, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    The increase of potentially of axial computed tomography as a non destructive investigation method in industrial field is particularly tied to the development of the X-rays detectors. The transition from the first gas ionization detectors to the last semiconductor detectors has indeed dramatically increased the performances of tomographic systems. In this report, after a quick analysis of fundamental principles of tomography, the most significant parameters for a detector to be used in a tomographic system are reviewed. The examination of the principal kinds of detectors that have been up to now used, with their working schemes, allows to delineate their characteristics and so to compare them with the ideal detector sketched above. The necessity of using high definition arrays brings to put into evidence the inadequacy of both gas and liquid ionization detectors and also of those types of light conversion devices which utilize for signal amplification a photomultiplier tube. Systems based on charge coupled devices or on a light conversion obtained with semiconductor photodiode arrays are definitely to be preferred. The progress of the last years in microelectronic technologies has brought great improvements in this field.

  5. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation and development of X-ray detectors for dosimetry; Evaluierung und Entwicklung von Roentgendetektoren fuer die Dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnel, Michael

    2012-03-28

    This thesis presents the development and evaluation of a new personal dosemeter, based on the technology of energy-resolving pixelated photon-counting X-ray detectors. The basis of the development is a detailed study of the Timepix detector. The main focus is on the investigation of the energy resolving properties of the Timepix detector in counting mode and in the spectroscopic time-over-threshold mode. The approach for the production of fluorescence radiation for the detector calibration, necessary for the experiments, is presented. By using Monte Carlo simulations the spectral distribution of the resulting fluorescence spectra in dependence on the fluorescence material, the used primary X-ray radiation and the arrangement of the laboratory setup is discussed. Besides the actual fluorescence lines, the simulated calibration spectra also contain the background of scattered primary X-ray photons and fluorescence radiation contributions from parts of the experimental setup. Furthermore, the simulated spectra exhibit the corrected intensity conditions of the fluorescence emissions of the K- and L-shell. These calibration spectra permit a better match of measurements and simulations than the simplified fluorescence spectra used so far. For the detector calibration in counting mode, accelerated energy calibration methods are introduced. From measuring energy deposition spectra, the energy resolution of single pixels and the energy resolution of the complete detector could be determined by the application of a global energy calibration. It was shown that the influence of the threshold dispersion broadens the energy resolution of the single pixels, depending on the given energy deposition. The resulting energy resolution of the whole pixel matrix is thereby reduced. The negative effect of the threshold dispersion can be eliminated by the application of a single-pixel calibration. The relative energy resolution of the Timepix detector operated in the counting mode can

  7. Optimization of phosphor-based detector design for oblique x-ray incidence in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a volumetric reconstruction of the breast is generated from a limited range of x-ray projections. One trade-off of DBT is resolution loss in the projections due to non-normal (i.e., oblique) x-ray incidence. Although degradation in image quality due to oblique incidence has been studied using empirical data and Monte Carlo simulations, a theoretical treatment has been lacking. The purpose of this work is to extend Swank's calculations of the transfer functions of turbid granular phosphors to oblique incidence. The model is ultimately used as a tool for optimizing the design of DBT detectors. Methods: A quantum-limited system and 20 keV x-rays are considered. Under these assumptions, the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectra (NPS) are derived using the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann equation to model optical scatter within the phosphor. This approach is applicable to a nonstructured scintillator such as gadolinium oxysulfide doped with terbium (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb), which is commonly used in breast imaging and which can reasonably approximate other detector materials. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is then determined from the Nishikawa formulation, where it is written as the product of the x-ray quantum detection efficiency, the Swank factor, and the Lubberts fraction. Transfer functions are calculated for both front- and back-screen configurations, which differ by positioning the photocathode at the exit or entrance point of the x-ray beam, respectively. Results: In the front-screen configuration, MTF and DQE are found to have considerable angular dependence, while NPS is shown to vary minimally with projection angle. As expected, the high frequency MTF and DQE are degraded substantially at large angles. By contrast, all transfer functions for the back-screen configuration have the advantage of significantly less angular dependence. Using these models, we investigated the

  8. Towards Gotthard-II: development of a silicon microstrip detector for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Turcato, M.; Vetter, S.

    2018-01-01

    Gotthard-II is a 1-D microstrip detector specifically developed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser. It will not only be used in energy dispersive experiments but also as a beam diagnostic tool with additional logic to generate veto signals for the other 2-D detectors. Gotthard-II makes use of a silicon microstrip sensor with a pitch of either 50 μm or 25 μm and with 1280 or 2560 channels wire-bonded to adaptive gain switching readout chips. Built-in analog-to-digital converters and digital memories will be implemented in the readout chip for a continuous conversion and storage of frames for all bunches in the bunch train. The performance of analogue front-end prototypes of Gotthard has been investigated in this work. The results in terms of noise, conversion gain, dynamic range, obtained by means of infrared laser and X-rays, will be shown. In particular, the effects of the strip-to-strip coupling are studied in detail and it is found that the reduction of the coupling effects is one of the key factors for the development of the analogue front-end of Gotthard-II.

  9. A Low-Noise X-ray Astronomical Silicon-On-Insulator Pixel Detector Using a Pinned Depleted Diode Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehama, Hiroki; Kawahito, Shoji; Shrestha, Sumeet; Nakanishi, Syunta; Yasutomi, Keita; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Arai, Yasuo

    2017-12-23

    This paper presents a novel full-depletion Si X-ray detector based on silicon-on-insulator pixel (SOIPIX) technology using a pinned depleted diode structure, named the SOIPIX-PDD. The SOIPIX-PDD greatly reduces stray capacitance at the charge sensing node, the dark current of the detector, and capacitive coupling between the sensing node and SOI circuits. These features of the SOIPIX-PDD lead to low read noise, resulting high X-ray energy resolution and stable operation of the pixel. The back-gate surface pinning structure using neutralized p-well at the back-gate surface and depleted n-well underneath the p-well for all the pixel area other than the charge sensing node is also essential for preventing hole injection from the p-well by making the potential barrier to hole, reducing dark current from the Si-SiO₂ interface and creating lateral drift field to gather signal electrons in the pixel area into the small charge sensing node. A prototype chip using 0.2 μm SOI technology shows very low readout noise of 11.0 e-rms, low dark current density of 56 pA/cm² at -35 °C and the energy resolution of 200 eV(FWHM) at 5.9 keV and 280 eV (FWHM) at 13.95 keV.

  10. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the world’s highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  11. In-house time-resolved photocrystallography on the millisecond timescale using a gated X-ray hybrid pixel area detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaretto, Nicolas; Schaniel, Dominik; Alle, Paul; Wenger, Emmanuel; Parois, Pascal; Fournier, Bertrand; Bendeif, El Eulmi; Palin, Cyril; Pillet, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    With the remarkable progress of accelerator-based X-ray sources in terms of intensity and brightness, the investigation of structural dynamics from time-resolved X-ray diffraction methods is becoming widespread in chemistry, biochemistry and materials science applications. Diffraction patterns can now be measured down to the femtosecond time-scale using X-ray free electron lasers or table-top laser plasma X-ray sources. On the other hand, the recent developments in photon counting X-ray area detectors offer new opportunities for time-resolved crystallography. Taking advantage of the fast read-out, the internal stacking of recorded images, and the gating possibilities (electronic shutter) of the XPAD hybrid pixel detector, we implemented a laboratory X-ray diffractometer for time-resolved single-crystal X-ray diffraction after pulsed laser excitation, combined with transient optical absorption measurement. The experimental method and instrumental setup are described in detail, and validated using the photoinduced nitrosyl linkage isomerism of sodium nitroprusside, Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O, as proof of principle. Light-induced Bragg intensity relative variations ΔI(hkl)/I(hkl) of the order of 1%, due to the photoswitching of the NO ligand, could be detected with a 6 ms acquisition window. The capabilities of such a laboratory time-resolved experiment are critically evaluated.

  12. Hot Isostatic Pressed Gd2O2S:Pr, Ce, F Translucent Scintillator Ceramics for X-Ray Computed Tomography Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukio; Yamada, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Minoru; Fujii, Hideji; Toda, Gyozo; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsukuda, Yasuo

    1988-08-01

    Translucent scintillator ceramics of Gd2O2S:Pr, Ce, F were fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique. The optical transmission is about 60% of the incident light and the X-ray stopping power is also quite high. Owing to the enhancement of these properties by the HIP densification process, the highest light output from a 1 mm thick specimen combined with a silicon photodiode, when excited by 120 kV X-rays, has reached 1.8 times that of CdWO4 single crystals. The present ceramics are very promising candidates for scintillator materials in X-ray computed tomography (CT) detector applications.

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  14. Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray∕MR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this x-ray∕MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is ∼0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

  15. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Anastasios C.; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Speller, Robert D.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range. The latter, which included measuring X-ray sensitivity, presampling modulation transfer function (pMTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and the resulting detective quantum efficiency (DQE), was assessed under three beam qualities (28 kV, 50 kV (RQA3) and 70 kV (RQA5) using W/Al) all in accordance with the IEC standard. The detector features an in-pixel option for switching the full well capacity between two distinct modes, high full well (HFW) and low full well (LFW). Two structured CsI:Tl scintillators of different thickness (a “thin” one for high resolution and a thicker one for high light efficiency) were optically coupled to the sensor array to optimize the performance of the system for different medical applications. The electro-optical performance evaluation of the sensor results in relatively high read noise (∼360 e-), high full well capacity (∼1.5×106 e-) and wide dynamic range (∼73 dB) under HFW mode operation. When the LFW mode is used, the read noise is lower (∼165) at the expense of a reduced full well capacity (∼0.5×106 e-) and dynamic range (∼69 dB). The maximum DQE values at low frequencies (i.e. 0.5 lp/mm) are high for both HFW (0.69 for 28 kV, 0.71 for 50 kV and 0.75 for 70 kV) and LFW (0.69 for 28 kV and 0.7 for 50 kV) modes. The X-ray performance of the studied detector compares well to that of other mammography and general radiography systems, obtained under similar experimental conditions. This demonstrates the suitability

  16. Response functions of multi-pixel-type CdTe detector: toward development of precise material identification on diagnostic x-ray images by means of photon counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Asahara, Takashi; Kimoto, Natsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Yamasaki, Masashi; Okada, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    Currently, an X-ray imaging system which can produced information used to identify various materials has been developed based on photon counting. It is important to estimate the response function of the detector in order to accomplish highly accurate material identification. Our aim is to simulate the response function of a CdTe detector using Monte-Carlo simulation; at this time, the transportation of incident and scattered photons and secondary produced electrons were precisely simulated without taking into consideration the charge spread in the collecting process of the produced charges (charge sharing effect). First, we set pixel sizes of 50-500μm, the minimum irradiation fields which produce equilibrium conditions were determined. Then, observed peaks in the response function were analyzed with consideration paid to the interactions between incident X-rays and the detector components, Cd and Te. The secondary produced characteristic X-rays play an important role. Accordingly ratios of full energy peak (FEP), scattering X-rays and penetrating X-rays in the calculated response functions were analyzed. When the pixel size of 200μm was used the scattered X-rays were saturated at equilibrium with relatively small fields and efficiency of FEP was kept at a high value (<50%). Finally, we demonstrated the X-ray spectrum which is folded by the response function. Even if the charge sharing effect is not completely corrected when using the electric circuit, there is a possibility that disturbed portions in the measured X-ray spectra can be corrected by using proper calibration, in which the above considerations are taken into account.

  17. pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Rodriquez, A.; Kotthaus, R.; Brauninger, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Lutz, G.; Struder, L.

    2005-01-01

    The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I ty...

  18. Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors for X-Ray Spectroscopy on Trapped Highly-Charged Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Andrianov, V.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kilbourne, C.; McCammon, D.

    2012-01-01

    The application of Calorimetric Low-Temperature Detectors (CLTDs) has been proposed at the Heavy-Ion TRAP facility HITRAP which is currently being installed at the Helmholtz Research Center for Heavy Ion Research GSI. This cold ion trap setup will allow the investigation of X-rays from ions practically at rest, for which the excellent energy resolution of CLTDs can be used to its full advantage. However, the relatively low intensities at HITRAP demand larger solid angles and an optimized cryogenic setup. The influence of external magnetic fields has to be taken into account. CLTDs will also be a substantial part of the instrumental equipment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Heavy Ion Research (FAIR), for which a wide variety of high-precision X-ray spectroscopy experiments has been proposed. This contribution will give an overview on the chances and challenges for the application of CLTDs at HITRAP as well as perspectives for future experiments at the FAIR facility.

  19. Testing CuO nanowires as a novel X-ray to electron converter for gas-filled radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, H.; Saramad, S.; Razaghi, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nanowires, due to their special physical properties and also high surface to volume ratio, can have considerable applications in designing and development of novel nanodevices. For the radiation shielding, higher absorption coefficient of nanostructures in comparison to bulk ones is an advantage. In gas detectors, designing a proper converter that absorbs higher energy of gamma and X-rays and convert it to more free electrons is one of the major problems. Since the nanowires have higher surface to volume ratio in comparison to the bulk one, so it is expected that by optimizing the thickness, the generated electrons can have higher chance to escape from the surface. In this work, the random CuO nanowires with diameter of 40 nm are deposited on thin glass slide. This nanostructure with different thicknesses are tested by plastic and CsI scintillators by X-ray tube with HVs in the range of 16 to 25 kV. The results show that for the same thickness, the CuO nanowires can release electrons six times more than the bulk ones and for the same energy the optimum QE of nanoconverter can be three times greater than the bulk converter. This novel nanoconverter with higher detection efficiency can have applications in high energy physics, medical imaging and also astronomy.

  20. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  1. Technical Note: Nanometric organic photovoltaic thin film detectors for dose monitoring in diagnostic x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshahat, Bassem [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 and Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Jubilee Hospital, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 1J8 (Canada); Gill, Hardeep Singh; Kumar, Jayant [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Filipyev, Ilya; Zygmanski, Piotr [Harvard Medical School, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Shrestha, Suman; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); Hesser, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, Mannheim 68167 (Germany); Sajo, Erno [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To fabricate organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with nanometric active layers sensitive to ionizing radiation and measure their dosimetric characteristics in clinical x-ray beams in the diagnostic tube potential range of 60–150 kVp. Methods: Experiments were designed to optimize the detector’s x-ray response and find the best parameter combination by changing the active layer thickness and the area of the electrode. The OPV cell consisted of poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester photoactive donor and acceptor semiconducting organic materials sandwiched between an aluminum electrode as an anode and an indium tin oxide electrode as a cathode. The authors measured the radiation-induced electric current at zero bias voltage in all fabricated OPV cells. Results: The net OPV current as a function of beam potential (kVp) was proportional to kVp{sup −0.5} when normalized to x-ray tube output, which varies with kVp. Of the tested configurations, the best combination of parameters was 270 nm active layer thicknesses with 0.7 cm{sup 2} electrode area, which provided the highest signal per electrode area. For this cell, the measured current ranged from approximately 0.7 to 2.4 nA/cm{sup 2} for 60–150 kVp, corresponding to about 0.09 nA–0.06 nA/mGy air kerma, respectively. When compared to commercial amorphous silicon thin film photovoltaic cells irradiated under the same conditions, this represents 2.5 times greater sensitivity. An additional 40% signal enhancement was observed when a 1 mm layer of plastic scintillator was attached to the cells’ beam-facing side. Conclusions: Since both OPVs can be produced as flexible devices and they do not require external bias voltage, they open the possibility for use as thin film in vivo detectors for dose monitoring in diagnostic x-ray imaging.

  2. High-resolution water window X-ray imaging of in vivo cells and their products using LiF crystal detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfigli, Francesca; Faenov, Anatoly; Flora, Francesco; Francucci, Massimo; Gaudio, Pasqualino; Lai, Antonia; Martellucci, Sergio; Montereali, Rosa Maria; Pikuz, Tania; Reale, Lucia; Richetta, Maria; Vincenti, Maria Aurora; Baldacchini, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    High contrast imaging of in vivo Chlorella sorokiniana cells with submicron spatial resolution was obtained with a contact water window X-ray microscopy technique using a point-like, laser-plasma produced, water-window X-ray radiation source, and LiF crystals as detectors. This novel type of X-ray imaging detectors is based on photoluminescence of stable electronic point defects, characterized by high intrinsic resolution. The fluorescence images obtained on LiF crystals exposed in single-shot experiments demonstrate the high sensitivity and dynamic range of this new detector. The powerful performances of LiF crystals allowed us to detect the exudates of Chlorella cells in their living medium and their spatial distribution in situ, without any special sample preparation. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. Current tendencies in the development of neutron and X-ray detectors for common use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikerov, V. I.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of activities of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “VNIIA” and National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” in the development of radiation detectors for various applications.

  4. Development of a Silicon Drift Detector Array: An X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Remote Surface Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Carini, Gabriella A.; Wei, Chen; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kramer, Georgiana; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Keister, Jeffrey W.; Zheng, Li; Ramsey, Brian D.; Rehak, Pavel; hide

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  5. Single-shot full strain tensor determination with microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction and a two-dimensional energy-dispersive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U

    2017-06-01

    The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.

  6. Design of a linear detector array unit for high energy x-ray helical computed tomography and linear scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Tae; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Gi Yoon [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Geun [Medical Imaging Department, ASTEL Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Shin Woong; Yi, Yun [Dept. of Electronics and Information Eng, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Duk [Research Center, Luvantix ADM Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    A linear detector array unit (LdAu) was proposed and designed for the high energy X-ray 2-d and 3-d imaging systems for industrial non-destructive test. Specially for 3-d imaging, a helical CT with a 15 MeV linear accelerator and a curved detector is proposed. the arc-shape detector can be formed by many LdAus all of which are arranged to face the focal spot when the source-to-detector distance is fixed depending on the application. An LdAu is composed of 10 modules and each module has 48 channels of CdWO{sub 4} (CWO) blocks and Si PIn photodiodes with 0.4 mm pitch. this modular design was made for easy manufacturing and maintenance. through the Monte carlo simulation, the CWO detector thickness of 17 mm was optimally determined. the silicon PIn photodiodes were designed as 48 channel arrays and fabricated with NTD (neutron transmutation doping) wafers of high resistivity and showed excellent leakage current properties below 1 nA at 10 V reverse bias. to minimize the low-voltage breakdown, the edges of the active layer and the guard ring were designed as a curved shape. the data acquisition system was also designed and fabricated as three independent functional boards; a sensor board, a capture board and a communication board to a Pc. this paper describes the design of the detectors (CWO blocks and Si PIn photodiodes) and the 3-board data acquisition system with their simulation results.

  7. Analytical Formulae for Calculation of X-Ray Detector Solid Angles in the Scanning and Scanning/Transmission Analytical Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2014-05-22

    Closed form analytical equations used to calculate the collection solid angle of six common geometries of solid-state X-ray detectors in scanning and scanning/transmission analytical electron microscopy are presented. Using these formulae one can make realistic comparisons of the merits of the different detector geometries in modern electron column instruments. This work updates earlier formulations and adds new detector configurations.

  8. Development of Tiled Imaging CZT Detectors for Sensitive Wide-Field Hard X-Ray Surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 sq cm close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2 x 2 x 0.5 cubic cm. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8 x 8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October. 2009, as the ProtoEX1STl payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtcEXIST2. with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32 x 32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  9. High performance imaging of relativistic soft X-ray harmonics by sub-micron resolution LiF film detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Pirozhkov, Alexander; Esirkepov, Timur; Koga, James; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Sergei; Fukuda, Yuji; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Astapov, Artem; Pikuz, Sergey Jr. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Klushin, Georgy [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nagorskiy, Nikolai; Magnitskiy, Sergei [International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kato, Yoshiaki [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The spectrum variation and the coherent properties of the high-order harmonics (HOH) generated by an oscillating electron spikes formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and a bow wave, which are created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense gas jet plasma, are investigated. This new mechanism for HOH generation efficiently produces emission from ultraviolet up to the XUV ''water window'' spectral range. To characterize such source in the wide spectral range a diffraction imaging technique is applied. High spatial resolution EUV and soft X-ray LiF film detector have been used for precise measurements of diffraction patterns. The measurements under observation angle of 8 to the axis of laser beam propagation have been performed. The diffraction patterns were observed on the detector clearly, when the square mesh was placed at the distance of 500 mm from the output of plasma and at the distance of 27.2 mm in front of the detector. It is shown that observed experimental patterns are well consistent with modeled ones for theoretical HOH spectrum, provided by particle-in-cell simulations of a relativistic-irradiance laser pulse interaction with underdense plasma (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov,A.E.; , .; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-10-19

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, <5 mm, the electric field-lines tend to bend away from the side surfaces (i.e., a focusing effect). In thick detectors, >1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field.

  11. Development of tiled imaging CZT detectors for sensitive wide-field hard X-ray surveys to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by the proposed EXIST mission, a "medium-class" space observatory to survey black holes and the Early Universe proposed to the 2010 NAS/NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey, we have developed the first "large" area 256 cm 2 close-tiled (0.6 mm gaps) hard X-ray (20-600 keV) imaging detector employing pixelated (2.5 mm) CdZnTe (CZT) detectors, each 2×2×0.5 cm 3. We summarize the design, development and operation of this detector array (8×8 CZTs) and its performance as the imager for a coded aperture telescope on a high altitude (40 km) balloon flight in October, 2009, as the ProtoEXIST1 payload. We then outline our current development of a second-generation imager, ProtoEXIST2, with 0.6 mm pixels on a 32×32 array on each CZT, and how it will lead to the ultimate imaging system needed for EXIST. Other applications of this technology will also be mentioned.

  12. Compton polarimetry with position-resolving X-ray detectors; Compton-Polarimetrie mit ortsaufloesenden Roentgendetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Sebastian

    2010-02-15

    In the present thesis the prototype of a novel position-resolving and multi-hit able 2D Si(Li) strip detector is characterized, the planar detector crystal of which is simultaneously applied both as scatterer and as absorber. In the framework of this thesis the Si(Li) polarimeter could be applied in different experiments on the radiative electron capture and on the characteristic radiation at the experimental storage ring of the GSI. The characterization of the detector pursued by means of the highly polarized radiation of the electron capture into the K shell of naked xenon. In the following in two further experiments new values on the polarization of the electron capture into the K shell both of the naked and of the hydrogen-like uranium were performed.

  13. High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Modern storage rings are readily capable of providing intense x-ray pulses, tens of picoseconds in duration, millions of times per second. Exploiting the temporal structure of these x-ray sources opens avenues for studying rapid structural changes in materials. Many processes (e.g. crack propagation, deformation on impact, turbulence, etc.) differ in detail from one sample trial to the next and would benefit from the ability to record successive x-ray images with single x-ray sensitivity while framing at 5 to 10 MHz rates. To this end, we have pursued the development of fast x-ray imaging detectors capable of collecting bursts of images that enable the isolation of single synchrotron bunches and/or bunch trains. The detector technology used is the hybrid pixel array detector (PAD) with a charge integrating front-end, and high-speed, in-pixel signal storage elements. A 384×256 pixel version, the Keck-PAD, with 150 µm × 150 µm pixels and 8 dedicated in-pixel storage elements is operational, has been tested at CHESS, and has collected data for compression wave studies. An updated version with 27 dedicated storage capacitors and identical pixel size has been fabricated.

  14. Imaging X-ray detector front-end with high dynamic range: IDeF-X HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevin, O.; Lemaire, O.; Lugiez, F.; Michalowska, A.; Baron, P.; Limousin, O.; Delagnes, E.

    2012-12-01

    Presented circuit, IDeF-X HD (Imaging Detector Front-end) is a member of the IDeF-X ASICs family for space applications. It has been optimized for a half millimeter pitch CdTe or CdZnTe pixelated detector arranged in 16×16 array. It is aimed to operate in the hard X-ray range from few keV up to 250 keV or more. The ASIC has been realized in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS process. The IDeF-X HD is a 32 channel analog front-end with self-triggering capability. The architecture of the analog channel includes a chain of charge sensitive amplifier with continuous reset system and non-stationary noise suppressor, adjustable gain stage, pole-zero cancellation stage, adjustable shaping time low pass filter, baseline holder and peak detector with discriminator. The power consumption of the IDeF-X HD is 800 μW per channel. With the in-channel variable gain stage the nominal 250 keV dynamic range of the ASIC can be extended up to 1 MeV anticipating future applications using thick sensors. Measuring the noise performance without a detector at the input with minimized leakage current (programmable) at the input, we achieved ENC of 33 electrons rms at 10.7 μs peak time. Measurements with CdTe detector show good energy resolution FWHM of 1.1 keV at 60 keV and 4.3 keV at 662 keV with detection threshold below 4 keV. In addition, an absolute temperature sensor has been integrated with resolution of 1.5 °C.

  15. An X-ray computed tomography demonstrator using a CZT solid-state detector

    CERN Document Server

    Claesson, T; Molnár, J; Novák, D

    2002-01-01

    A demonstrator of Computed Tomography (CT) has been designed and built for educational purposes. The system is based on a solid-state CdZnTe detector and a standard PC. The mechanics of the system is controlled and data is acquired by programs written in LabVIEW. CT images are reconstructed using MATLAB programs.

  16. Soft x-ray free-electron laser imaging by LiF crystal and film detectors over a wide range of fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatoly Ya; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Bolton, Paul; Mitrofanov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Alexander V; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Senba, Yasunori; Togashi, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-01-20

    LiF crystal and film detectors were used to measure the far-field fluence profile of a self-amplified spontaneous-emission free-electron laser beam and diffraction imaging with high spatial resolution. In these measurements the photoluminescence (PL) response of LiF crystal and film was compared over a wide range of soft x-ray fluences. It was found that the soft x-ray fluence dependences of LiF crystal and film differ. At low fluence, the LiF crystal shows higher PL response compared to LiF film, while this comparison is the opposite at higher fluence. Accurate measurement of LiF crystal and film PL response is important for precise characterization of the spatial, spectral, and coherence features of x-ray beams across the full profile and in localized areas. For such measurements, crucial LiF detector attributes are high spatial resolution and high dynamic range.

  17. First examination of CASCADE-X-ray-detector and measurement of neutron-mirrorneutron-oscillation; Erste Untersuchungen zum CASCADE-Roentgendetektor und Messung zur Neutron-Spiegelneutron-Oszillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.

    2007-02-07

    The detection of X-radiation is of utmost importance for both fundamental physics and medical diagnostics. This work investigates whether or not the CASCADE detector working principle, first developed for the detection of neutrons, can be adapted for the detection of X-rays. This modular detector concept combines the use of a solid neutron or X-ray converter with the advantages of a counting gas detector. Thus, it gives the possibility to optimize efficiency, dynamics and spatial resolution independently. Firstly, it is necessary to find a suitable converter material that allows for the best possible detector efficiency. In order to do so, a mathematical model of the complete detector system was developed that yields the total efficiency for any given material. Respecting technical constraints, gold and gadolinium showed to be favorable choices. Based on these theoretical considerations a prototype of a CASCADE X-ray detector was built, and measurements for the determination of this detector's efficiency were conducted. In the second part of this work a CASCADE neutron detector was used to conduct the first measurement the neutron-mirrorneutron oscillation time. Mirrormatter was proposed in 1956 by Lee and Yang to allow for symmetry in the description of the universe despite the existence of parity violation. By using neutrons it was possible to determine a lower limit for the oscillation time in this work. (orig.)

  18. First results of a novel Silicon Drift Detector array designed for low energy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachevski, Alexandre; Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Brigo, Elena; Bufon, Jernej; Carrato, Sergio; Castoldi, Andrea; Cautero, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Sergio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Giuressi, Dario; Guazzoni, Chiara; Kourousias, George; Liu, Chang; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Montemurro, Giuseppe Vito; Picciotto, Antonino; Piemonte, Claudio; Rashevskaya, Irina; Shi, Yongbiao; Stolfa, Andrea; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    We developed a trapezoidal shaped matrix with 8 cells of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) featuring a very low leakage current (below 180 pA/cm2 at 20 °C) and a shallow uniformly implanted p+ entrance window that enables sensitivity down to few hundreds of eV. The matrix consists of a completely depleted volume of silicon wafer subdivided into 4 square cells and 4 half-size triangular cells. The energy resolution of a single square cell, readout by the ultra-low noise SIRIO charge sensitive preamplifier, is 158 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV and 0 °C. The total sensitive area of the matrix is 231 mm2 and the wafer thickness is 450 μm. The detector was developed in the frame of the INFN R&D project ReDSoX in collaboration with FBK, Trento. Its trapezoidal shape was chosen in order to optimize the detection geometry for the experimental requirements of low energy X-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) spectroscopy, aiming at achieving a large detection angle. We plan to exploit the complete detector at the TwinMic spectromicroscopy beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron (Trieste, Italy). The complete system, composed of 4 matrices, increases the solid angle coverage of the isotropic photoemission hemisphere about 4 times over the present detector configuration. We report on the layout of the SDD matrix and of the experimental set-up, as well as the spectroscopic performance measured both in the laboratory and at the experimental beamline.

  19. X-ray microtomography system for small and light samples using a flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, A. B.; dos Santos, T. M. P.; Machado, A. S.; Oliveira, D. F.; Azeredo, S. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    A low-cost system able to perform microtomography of samples such as teeth, insects, or other small materials and low atomic numbers is presented. For this, a small flat panel type sensor was used. The process of characterization of the detector is detailed, as well as its main characteristics. The electromechanical control and the software used are also described. The advantages, some limitations, and comparisons with commercial systems are presented along with some three-dimensional volumetric reconstruction of different materials that served as samples during the development of the system.

  20. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Decker, T A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Garcia, J A; Giomataris, I; Gracia, J G; Hailey, C J; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Luzon, G; Mirallas, H; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and operation of a low background x-ray detection line composed of a shielded Micromegas (micromesh gaseous structure) detector of the microbulk technique. The detector is made from radiopure materials and is placed at the focal point of a $\\sim$~5 cm diameter, 1.3 m focal-length, cone-approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) comprised of thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector) proposed in the conceptual design of the project. It is innovative for two reasons: it is the first time an x-ray optic has been designed and fabricated specifically for axion research, and the first time a Micromegas detector has been operated with an x-ray optic. The line has been installed at one end of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for s...

  1. Study of electron beams within ISTTOK tokamak by means of a multi-channel Cherenkov detector; their correlation with hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: Lech.Jakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-11-11

    The paper describes experimental studies of electron beams emitted from a plasma torus within the ISTTOK tokamak, which were performed by means of a new four-channel detector of the Cherenkov type. A range of electron energy was estimated. There were also measured hard X-rays, and their correlation with the fast run-away electron beams was investigated experimentally.

  2. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector for dosimetry in spatially fractionated synchrotron x-ray fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Jayde; Stevenson, Andrew W; Butler, Duncan J; Häusermann, Daniel; Adam, Jean-François

    2016-07-01

    Modern radiotherapy modalities often use small or nonstandard fields to ensure highly localized and precise dose delivery, challenging conventional clinical dosimetry protocols. The emergence of preclinical spatially fractionated synchrotron radiotherapies with high dose-rate, sub-millimetric parallel kilovoltage x-ray beams, has pushed clinical dosimetry to its limit. A commercially available synthetic single crystal diamond detector designed for small field dosimetry has been characterized to assess its potential as a dosimeter for synchrotron microbeam and minibeam radiotherapy. Experiments were carried out using a synthetic diamond detector on the imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. The energy dependence of the detector was characterized by cross-referencing with a calibrated ionization chamber in monoenergetic beams in the energy range 30-120 keV. The dose-rate dependence was measured in the range 1-700 Gy/s. Dosimetric quantities were measured in filtered white beams, with a weighted mean energy of 95 keV, in broadbeam and spatially fractionated geometries, and compared to reference dosimeters. The detector exhibits an energy dependence; however, beam quality correction factors (kQ) have been measured for energies in the range 30-120 keV. The kQ factor for the weighted mean energy of the IMBL radiotherapy spectrum, 95 keV, is 1.05 ± 0.09. The detector response is independent of dose-rate in the range 1-700 Gy/s. The percentage depth dose curves measured by the diamond detector were compared to ionization chambers and agreed to within 2%. Profile measurements of microbeam and minibeam arrays were performed. The beams are well resolved and the full width at halfmaximum agrees with the nominal width of the beams. The peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) calculated from the profiles at various depths in water agrees within experimental error with PVDR calculations from Gafchromic film data. The synthetic diamond detector is now well

  3. A new life for the wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS): incorporation of a silicon drift detector into the WDS for improved quantification and X-ray mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, R.; Moran, K.

    2018-01-01

    The wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDS) has been around for a long time and the design has not changed much since its original development. The electron microprobe operator using WDS has to be meticulous in monitoring items such as gas flow, gas purity, gas pressure, noise levels of baseline and window, gas flow proportional counter (GFPC) voltage levels, count rate suppression, anode wire contamination and other detector parameters. Recent development and improvements of silicon drift detectors (SDD’s) has allowed the incorporation of a SDD as the X-ray detector in place of the proportional counter (PC) and/or gas flow proportional counter (GFPC). This allows minimal mechanical alteration and no loss of movement range. The superiority of a WDS with a SDD, referred to as SD-WDS, is easily seen once in operation. The SD-WDS removes many artefacts including the worse of all high order diffraction, thus allowing more accurate analysis. The incorporation of the SDD has been found to improve the light and mid element range and consequently improving the detection limit for these elements. It is also possible to obtain much more reliable results at high count rates with almost no change in resolution, gain and zero-peak characteristics of the energy spectrum.

  4. Automatic analysis of quality of images from X-ray digital flat detectors; Analyse automatique de la qualite des images issues de detecteurs plats a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, Y.

    2009-04-15

    Since last decade, medical imaging has grown up with the development of new digital imaging techniques. In the field of X-ray radiography, new detectors replace progressively older techniques, based on film or x-ray intensifiers. These digital detectors offer a higher sensibility and reduced overall dimensions. This work has been prepared with Trixell, the world leading company in flat detectors for medical radiography. It deals with quality control on digital images stemming from these detectors. High quality standards of medical imaging impose a close analysis of the defects that can appear on the images. This work describes a complete process for quality analysis of such images. A particular focus is given on the detection task of the defects, thanks to methods well adapted to our context of spatially correlated defects in noise background. (author)

  5. X-ray pair distribution function analysis of nanostructured materials using a Mythen detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Richard G; Wallwork, Kia S

    2009-11-01

    Total scattering from nanocrystalline materials recorded on the Australian Synchrotron powder diffraction beamline has been analysed to produce atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) for structural analysis. The capability of this beamline, which uses the massively parallel Mythen II detector, has been quantified with respect to PDF structure analysis. Data were recorded to a wavevector magnitude, Q, of 20.5 A(-1), with successful PDFs obtained for counting times as short as 10 s for crystalline LaB(6) and 180 s for nanocrystalline (47 A) anatase. This paper describes the aspects of a PDF experiment that are crucial to its success, with reference to the outcomes of analysis of data collected from nanocrystalline TiO(2) and microcrystalline LaB(6) and IrO(2).

  6. The study on the sensitivity of CdWO sub 4 scintillating detector for high energy X-ray imaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Lou Qi; Li Yuan Jing; Fan Jia Jin; Wang Yi

    2002-01-01

    In high energy X-ray imaging system, the sensitivity of the small cross-section detector is very critical. By using Monte-Carlo simulation and empirical equation, the sensitivity of a CdWO sub 4 -photodiode detector under the radiation of 9 MeV LINAC, 6 MeV LINAC and 60 Co source was estimated and compared with the measurement data

  7. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinidis, Anastasios C., E-mail: a.konstantinidis@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Speller, Robert D.; Olivo, Alessandro [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-11

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range. The latter, which included measuring X-ray sensitivity, presampling modulation transfer function (pMTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and the resulting detective quantum efficiency (DQE), was assessed under three beam qualities (28 kV, 50 kV (RQA3) and 70 kV (RQA5) using W/Al) all in accordance with the IEC standard. The detector features an in-pixel option for switching the full well capacity between two distinct modes, high full well (HFW) and low full well (LFW). Two structured CsI:Tl scintillators of different thickness (a 'thin' one for high resolution and a thicker one for high light efficiency) were optically coupled to the sensor array to optimize the performance of the system for different medical applications. The electro-optical performance evaluation of the sensor results in relatively high read noise ({approx}360 e{sup -}), high full well capacity ({approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} e{sup -}) and wide dynamic range ({approx}73 dB) under HFW mode operation. When the LFW mode is used, the read noise is lower ({approx}165) at the expense of a reduced full well capacity ({approx}0.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} e{sup -}) and dynamic range ({approx}69 dB). The maximum DQE values at low frequencies (i.e. 0.5 lp/mm) are high for both HFW (0.69 for 28 kV, 0.71 for 50 kV and 0.75 for 70 kV) and LFW (0.69 for 28 kV and 0.7 for 50 kV) modes. The X-ray performance of the studied detector compares well to that of other mammography and

  8. An evaluation of the Y2O3:Eu3+ scintillator for application in medical x-ray detectors and image receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavouras, D; Kandarakis, I; Panayiotakis, G S; Evangelou, E K; Nomicos, C D

    1996-12-01

    The suitability off a Y2O3:Eu3+ scintillator for use in radiation detectors and medical image receptors was studied. Y2O3:Eu3+ was used in the form of laboratory prepared screens of different coating thicknesses. The x-ray luminescence efficiency of the screens was measured for tube voltages between 50-200 kVp and in both transmission and reflection modes of observation. The intrinsic x ray to light conversation efficiency (nc) and other parameters of the Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor material related to optical scattering, absorption, and reflection were determined. These were used in the calculation of the image transfer characteristics, MTF and zero frequency DQE, for various screen coating thicknesses and x-ray tube voltages. The light emission spectrum of Y2O3:Eu3+ was measured (narrow band peak at 613 nm) and its spectral compatibility to the spectral sensitivity of several commonly employed optical photon detectors was determined. The x-ray luminescence efficiency varied with x-ray tube voltage, attaining maximum value at about 80 kVp for all screen thicknesses. It also varied with coating thickness reaching 25 microW m(-2)/mR s(-1) and 18 microW m(-2)/mR s(-1) at 175 mg/cm2 for reflection and transmission modes, respectively. The intrinsic x ray to light conversion efficiency and the image transfer characteristics were found to be comparable to several commercially used phosphors: nc = 0.095, MTF0.05 ranged between 10 and 25 line pairs per mm and peal values of DQE(0) varied between 0.33 and 0.14 in the coating thickness and kVp ranges useful for x-ray imaging. Spectral compatibility to some red sensitive optical photon detectors was excellent (0.9 or better). Results indicated that Y2O3:Eu3+ is a medium to high overall performance material that could be used in medical x-ray detectors and image receptors.

  9. Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, S; Joisa, Y S; Raval, J V; Ghosh, J; Tanna, R; Shukla, B K; Bhatt, S B

    2014-11-01

    Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

  10. Imaging and quantitative analysis of tritium-labelled cells in lymphocyte proliferation assays using microchannel plate detectors originally developed for X-ray astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J E; Hales, J M

    2001-01-01

    Microchannel plate detectors have been used in many astronomical X-ray telescopes. Recently we have begun to use similar detectors to image electron emission from radiolabelled biological assays. Here we show how a microchannel plate (MCP) detector can be used to image tritium uptake in T lymphocyte proliferation assays. Quantitative analysis using the MCP detector has the same sensitivity and speed as conventional liquid scintillation counter (LSC) analysis whilst obviating the need for scintillation fluid. In addition the system permits the imaging of whole plate harvests from a range of plate sizes. Here we present data obtained with 96-well plates and Terasaki plates.

  11. Development of a revolute-joint robot for the precision positioning of an x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissner, Curt A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Shu, Deming

    2003-10-01

    This paper profiles the initial phase in the development of a six degree-of-freedom robot, with 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty, for the manipulation of x-ray detectors or test specimens at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). While revolute-joint robot manipulators exhibit a smaller footprint along with increased positioning flexibility compared to Cartesian manipulators, commercially available revolute-joint manipulators do not meet our size, positioning, or environmental specifications. Currently, a robot with 20 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty is functioning at the APS for cryogenic crystallography sample pick-and-place operation. Theoretical, computational and experimental procedures are being used to (1) identify and (2) simulate the dynamics of the present robot system using a multibody approach, including the mechanics and control architecture, and eventually to (3) design an improved version with a 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty. We expect that the preceding experimental and theoretical techniques will be useful design and analysis tools as multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators become more prevalent on synchrotron beamlines.

  12. An ultrafast front-end ASIC for APD array detectors in X-ray time-resolved experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang-Fan; Li, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Peng; Fan, Lei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Ye; Li, Zhen-Jie

    2017-06-01

    An ultrafast front-end ASIC chip has been developed for APD array detectors in X-ray time-resolved experiments. The chip has five channels: four complete channels and one test channel with an analog output. Each complete channel consists of a preamplifier, a voltage discriminator and an open-drain output driver. A prototype chip has been designed and fabricated using 0.13 μm CMOS technology with a chip size of 1.3 mm × 1.9 mm. The electrical characterizations of the circuit demonstrate a very good intrinsic time resolution (rms) on the output pulse leading edge, with the test result better than 30 ps for high input signal charges (> 75 fC) and better than 100 ps for low input signal charges (30-75 fC), while keeping a low power consumption of 5 mW per complete channel. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11605227), High Energy Photon Source-Test Facility Project, and the State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics. This research used resources of the BSRF.

  13. EDS measurements of X-ray intensity at WDS precision and accuracy using a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Davis, Jeffrey M

    2012-08-01

    The accuracy and precision of X-ray intensity measurements with a silicon drift detector (SDD) are compared with the same measurements performed on a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) for a variety of elements in a variety of materials. In cases of major (>0.10 mass fraction) and minor (>0.01 mass fraction) elements, the SDD is demonstrated to perform as well or better than the WDS. This is demonstrated both for simple cases in which the spectral peaks do not interfere (SRM-481, SRM-482, and SRM-479a), and for more difficult cases in which the spectral peaks have significant interferences (the Ba L/Ti K lines in a series of Ba/Ti glasses and minerals). We demonstrate that even in the case of significant interference high count SDD spectra are capable of accurately measuring Ti in glasses with Ba:Ti mass fraction ratios from 2.7:1 to 23.8:1. The results suggest that for many measurements wavelength spectrometry can be replaced with an SDD with improved accuracy and precision.

  14. A compact 7-cell Si-drift detector module for high-count rate X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K; Reckleben, C; Diehl, I; Klär, H

    2008-05-01

    A new Si-drift detector module for fast X-ray spectroscopy experiments was developed and realized. The Peltier-cooled module comprises a sensor with 7 × 7-mm2 active area, an integrated circuit for amplification, shaping and detection, storage, and derandomized readout of signal pulses in parallel, and amplifiers for line driving. The compactness and hexagonal shape of the module with a wrench size of 16mm allow very short distances to the specimen and multi-module arrangements. The power dissipation is 186mW. At a shaper peaking time of 190 ns and an integration time of 450 ns an electronic rms noise of ~11 electrons was achieved. When operated at 7 °C, FWHM line widths around 260 and 460 eV (Cu-Kα) were obtained at low rates and at sum-count rates of 1.7 MHz, respectively. The peak shift is below 1% for a broad range of count rates. At 1.7-MHz sum-count rate the throughput loss amounts to 30%.

  15. A pixelated x-ray detector for diffraction imaging at next-generation high-rate FEL sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodola, L.; Ratti, L.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Forti, F.; Casarosa, G.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Mendicino, R.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2017-08-01

    The PixFEL collaboration has developed the building blocks for an X-ray imager to be used in applications at FELs. In particular, slim edge pixel detectors with high detection efficiency over a broad energy range, from 1 to 12 keV, have been developed. Moreover, a multichannel readout chip, called PFM2 (PixFEL front-end Matrix 2) and consisting of 32 × 32 cells, has been designed and fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology. The pixel pitch is 110 μm, the overall area is around 16 mm2. In the chip, different solutions have been implemented for the readout channel, which includes a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time-variant shaper and an A-to-D converter with a 10 bit resolution. The CSA can be configured in four different gain modes, so as to comply with photon energies in the 1 to 10 keV range. The paper will describe in detail the channel architecture and present the results from the characterization of PFM2. It will discuss the design of a new version of the chip, called PFM3, suitable for post-processing with peripheral, under-pad through silicon vias (TSVs), which are needed to develop four-side buttable chips and cover large surfaces with minimum inactive area.

  16. Photo-responsivity characterizations of CdTe films for direct-conversion X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ryun Kyung; Cha, Bo Kyung; Jeon, Sung Chae; Seo, Chang Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seung Man [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We have fabricated and investigated thin, polycrystalline, cadmium-telluride (CdTe) films in order to utilize them for optical switching readout layers in direct-conversion X-ray detectors. The polycrystalline CdTe films are fabricated on ITO glasses by using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) method at a slow deposition rate and a pressure of 10{sup -6} torr. CdTe films with thicknesses of 5 and 20 μm are grown. The electrical and the optical characteristics of the CdTe films are investigated by measuring the dark-current and the photo-current as functions of the applied field under different wavelengths of light. Higher photo-currents are generated at the longer wavelengths of light for the same applied voltage. When a higher electrical field is applied to the 20 μm-thick CdTe film, a higher dark-current, a higher photo-current, a larger number of charges, and a higher quantum efficiency are generated.

  17. 3D visualization of XFEL beam focusing properties using LiF crystal X-ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ozaki, Norimasa; Albertazzi, Bruno; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Sato, Yuya; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Pikuz, Sergei; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2015-12-04

    Here, we report, that by means of direct irradiation of lithium fluoride a (LiF) crystal, in situ 3D visualization of the SACLA XFEL focused beam profile along the propagation direction is realized, including propagation inside photoluminescence solid matter. High sensitivity and large dynamic range of the LiF crystal detector allowed measurements of the intensity distribution of the beam at distances far from the best focus as well as near the best focus and evaluation of XFEL source size and beam quality factor M(2). Our measurements also support the theoretical prediction that for X-ray photons with energies ~10 keV the radius of the generated photoelectron cloud within the LiF crystal reaches about 600 nm before thermalization. The proposed method has a spatial resolution ~0.4-2.0 μm for photons with energies 6-14 keV and potentially could be used in a single shot mode for optimization of different focusing systems developed at XFEL and synchrotron facilities.

  18. Laboratory implementation of edge illumination X-ray phase-contrast imaging with energy-resolved detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemoz, P. C.; Endrizzi, M.; Vittoria, F. A.; Hagen, C. K.; Kallon, G.; Basta, D.; Marenzana, M.; Delogu, P.; Vincenzi, A.; De Ruvo, L.; Spandre, G.; Brez, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Olivo, A.

    2015-03-01

    Edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) has potential for applications in different fields of research, including materials science, non-destructive industrial testing, small-animal imaging, and medical imaging. One of its main advantages is the compatibility with laboratory equipment, in particular with conventional non-microfocal sources, which makes its exploitation in normal research laboratories possible. In this work, we demonstrate that the signal in laboratory implementations of EI can be correctly described with the use of the simplified geometrical optics. Besides enabling the derivation of simple expressions for the sensitivity and spatial resolution of a given EI setup, this model also highlights the EI's achromaticity. With the aim of improving image quality, as well as to take advantage of the fact that all energies in the spectrum contribute to the image contrast, we carried out EI acquisitions using a photon-counting energy-resolved detector. The obtained results demonstrate that this approach has great potential for future laboratory implementations of EI.

  19. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  20. A multi-purpose readout electronics for CdTe and CZT detectors for x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X. B.; Deng, Z.; Xing, Y. X.; Liu, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    A multi-purpose readout electronics based on the DPLMS digital filter has been developed for CdTe and CZT detectors for X-ray imaging applications. Different filter coefficients can be synthesized optimized either for high energy resolution at relatively low counting rate or for high rate photon-counting with reduced energy resolution. The effects of signal width constraints, sampling rate and length were numerical studied by Mento Carlo simulation with simple CRRC shaper input signals. The signal width constraint had minor effect and the ENC was only increased by 6.5% when the signal width was shortened down to 2 τc. The sampling rate and length depended on the characteristic time constants of both input and output signals. For simple CR-RC input signals, the minimum number of the filter coefficients was 12 with 10% increase in ENC when the output time constant was close to the input shaping time. A prototype readout electronics was developed for demonstration, using a previously designed analog front ASIC and a commercial ADC card. Two different DPLMS filters were successfully synthesized and applied for high resolution and high counting rate applications respectively. The readout electronics was also tested with a linear array CdTe detector. The energy resolutions of Am-241 59.5 keV peak were measured to be 6.41% in FWHM for the high resolution filter and to be 13.58% in FWHM for the high counting rate filter with 160 ns signal width constraint.

  1. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M. P.; den Hartog, R.; den Herder, J.-W.; Jackson, B.; Kiviranta, M.; van der Kuur, J.; van Weers, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  2. Development of the superconducting detectors and read-out for the X-IFU instrument on board of the X-ray observatory Athena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottardi, L., E-mail: l.gottardi@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Akamatsu, H.; Bruijn, M.P.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Jackson, B. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kiviranta, M. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kuur, J. van der; Weers, H. van [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-11

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics (Athena) has been selected by ESA as its second large-class mission. The future European X-ray observatory will study the hot and energetic Universe with its launch foreseen in 2028. Microcalorimeters based on superconducting Transition-edge sensor (TES) are the chosen technology for the detectors array of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board of Athena. The X-IFU is a 2-D imaging integral-field spectrometer operating in the soft X-ray band (0.3–12 keV). The detector consists of an array of 3840 TESs coupled to X-ray absorbers and read out in the MHz bandwidth using Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs). The proposed design calls for devices with a high filling-factor, high quantum efficiency, relatively high count-rate capability and an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 5.9 keV. The paper will review the basic principle and the physics of the TES-based microcalorimeters and present the state-of-the art of the FDM read-out.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  4. Spectroscopy with CdZnTe gamma- and X-ray detectors by modifying the electron trapping to compensate for incomplete charge collection caused by large hole trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Shor, A; Mardor, I

    1999-01-01

    We show a method for obtaining excellent spectroscopic performance for CdZnTe gamma- and X-ray detectors with segmented readout. Best spectroscopic performance is obtained by tuning the electron trapping in the detector material to obtain optimum compensation for the incomplete charge collection caused by the large amount of hole trapping. For a CdZnTe detector with pad segmentation, we obtain for sup 5 sup 7 Co a photopeak resolution of better than 3.5% FWHM with a peak-to-valley ratio of approx 100/1.

  5. Enhanced discrimination of calcified and soft arterial plaques using computed tomography with a multi-energy-window photon counting x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan; Xu, Jingyan; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Patt, Bradley E.; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Frey, Eric C.

    2009-02-01

    This work aims at discriminating between soft and calcified coronary artery plaques using microCT with a multi-energywindow photon counting X-ray detector (PCXD). We have previously investigated a solid state X-ray detector which has the capability to count individual photons in different energy windows. The data from these energy windows may be treated as multiple simultaneous X-ray acquisitions within non-overlapping energy windows that can provide additional information about tissue differences. In this work, we simulated a photon counting detector with five energy windows. We investigated two approaches for using the energy information provided by this detector. First, we applied energy weighting to the reconstruction from different energy windows to improve the signal-to-noise ratio between calcified and soft plaques. This resulted in a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio. Second, we applied the basis material decomposition method to discriminate coronary artery plaques based on their calcium content. The results were compared with those obtained using dual-kVp material decomposition. We observed significantly improved contrast-tonoise ratios for the PCXD-based approaches.

  6. Adjustment of a low energy, X-rays generator (6 kV - 50 mA). Application to X-rays detectors calibration; Mise au point d`un generateur X basse energie (6 kV - 50 mA). Application a l`etalonnage de detecteurs X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legistre, C.

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this memoir is the calibration of an aluminium photocathode X-rays photoelectric detector, in the spectral range 0,5 keV - 1,5 KeV, with a continuous X-ray source. The detectors`s calibration consist to measure the detector`s sensitivity versus incident energy. In order to produce monochromatic incident beam on the detector, we used a multilayer mirror whose reflectivity was characterized. The measurements are compared to those realized in an other laboratory. (authors). 36 refs., 61 figs., 13 tabs., 2 photos.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations of High-speed, Time-gated MCP-based X-ray Detectors: Saturation Effects in DC and Pulsed Modes and Detector Dynamic Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Kruschwitz, Ming Wu, Ken Moy, Greg Rochau

    2008-10-31

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)–based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. We have developed a new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels and measured its effect on MCP gain. The results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser; these results clearly demonstrate MCP saturation behavior in both DC and pulsed modes. The simulations compare favorably to the experimental results. The dynamic range of the detectors in pulsed operation is of particular interest when fielding an MCP–based camera. By adjusting the laser flux we study the linear range of the camera. These results, too, are compared to our simulations.

  8. Non-uniformly doped graded-gap Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As X-ray detectors with high photovoltaic response

    CERN Document Server

    Silenas, A; Smith, K M; Pozela, K; Jasutis, V; Dapkus, L; Juciene, V

    2002-01-01

    Graded-gap Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As/GaAs X-ray detectors with photovoltaic response have been designed and fabricated. A charge collection efficiency of 100% has been achieved in an Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layer with a thickness of 15 mu m without application of any bias voltage to the layer. Experimentally, the measured sensitivity achieves 0.9 A/W. Amplification of the photocurrent takes place in the thin (15 mu m) Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layer, and an efficiency of 5x10 sup 5 V/W is attained at an absorbed power of 10 sup - sup 7 W. The possibilities of using the new detectors for observation of X-ray images are considered.

  9. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  10. High performance x-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan Laurens; van Breemen, Albert; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gilot, Jan; Andriessen, Ronn; Simon, Matthias; Ruetten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-10-01

    High performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current Abhishek Kumara, Date Moeta, Albert van Breemena, Santhosh Shanmugama, Jan-Laurens van der Steena, Jan Gilota, Ronn Andriessena, Matthias Simonb, Walter Ruettenb, Alexander U. Douglasb, Rob Raaijmakersc, Pawel E. Malinowskid, Kris Mynyd and Gerwin H. Gelincka,e a. Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven 5656 AE, The Netherlands b. Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands c. Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 6-8, 5684 PC Best, The Netherlands d. Department of Large Area Electronics, imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B3001, Belgium e. Applied Physics Department, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating technique with end of line processing temperature below 100°C. These photodiodes have extremely low dark leakage current density of 10-7 mA/cm2 at -2V bias with very high yield and have peak absorption around 550 nm wavelength. We combine these organic photodiodes with high mobility metal oxide semiconductor based thin film transistor arrays with high pixel resolution of 200ppi on thin plastic substrate. When combined with a typical CsI(TI) scintillator material on top, they are well suited for low dose X-ray imaging applications. The optical crosstalk is insignificant upto resolution of 200 ppi despite the fact that the photodiode layer is one continuous layer and is non-pixelated. Low processing temperatures are another key advantage since they can be fabricated on plastic substrate. This implies that we can make X-ray detectors on flexible foil. Those

  11. X-ray beam design for multi-energy imaging with charge-integrating detector: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Cheol-Ha; Kim, Daehong

    2015-11-01

    Multi-energy X-ray imaging systems have been widely used for clinical examinations. In order to enhance the imaging quality of these X-ray systems, a dual-energy system that can obtain specific information has been developed in order to discriminate different materials. Although the dual-energy system shows reliable performance for clinical applications, it is necessary to improve the method in order to minimize radiation dose, reduce projection error, and increase image contrast. The purpose of this study is to develop a triple energy technique that can discriminate three materials for the purpose of enhancing imaging quality and patient safety. The X-ray system tube voltage was varied from 40 to 90 kV, and filters (that can generate three X-ray energies) were installed, consisting of pure elemental materials in foil form (including Al, Cu, I, Ba, Ce, Gd, Er, and W). The X-ray beam was evaluated with respect to mean energy ratio, contrast variation ratio, and exposure efficiency. In order to estimate the performance of the suggested technique, Monte Carlo was conducted, and the results were compared to the photon-counting method. As a result, the density maps of iodine, aluminum, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) using the X-ray beam were more accurate in comparison to that obtained with the photon-counting method. According to the results, the suggested triple energy technique can improve the accuracy of the determination of thickness of density. Moreover, the X-ray beam could reduce unnecessary patient dose.

  12. EXCALIBUR: a small-pixel photon counting area detector for coherent X-ray diffraction - Front-end design, fabrication and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Willis, B.; Plackett, R.; Gimenez, E. N.; Spiers, J.; Ballard, D.; Booker, P.; Thompson, J. A.; Gibbons, P.; Burge, S. R.; Nicholls, T.; Lipp, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-03-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction experiments on synchrotron X-ray beamlines require detectors with high spatial resolution and large detection area. The read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX3 collaboration offers a small pixel size of 55 microns resulting in a very high spatial resolution when coupled to a direct X-ray conversion segmented silicon sensor. MEDIPIX3 assemblies present also the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors working in single photon counting mode: noiseless imaging, large dynamic range, extremely high frame rate. The EXCALIBUR detector is under development for the X-ray Coherence and Imaging Beamline I13 of the Diamond Light Source. This new detector consists of three modules, each with 16 MEDIPIX3 chips which can be read-out at 100 frames per second in continuous mode or 1000 frames per second in burst mode. In each module, the sensor is a large single silicon die covering 2 rows of 8 individual MEDIPIX3 read-out chips and provides a continuous active detection region within a module. Each module includes 1 million solder bumps connecting the 55 microns pixels of the silicon sensor to the 55 microns pixels of the 16 MEDIPIX3 read-out chips. The detection area of the 3-module EXCALIBUR detector is 115 mm × 100 mm with a small 6.8 mm wide inactive region between modules. Each detector module is connected to 2 FPGA read-out boards via a flexi-rigid circuit to allow a fully parallel read-out of the 16 MEDIPIX3 chips. The 6 FPGA read-out boards used in the EXCALIBUR detector are interfaced to 6 computing nodes via 10Gbit/s fibre-optic links to maintain the very high frame-rate capability. The standard suite of EPICS control software is used to operate the detector and to integrate it with the Diamond Light Source beamline software environment. This article describes the design, fabrication and characterisation of the MEDIPIX3-based modules composing the EXCALIBUR detector.

  13. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) system, and an X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Source: US2012008736A An X-ray diffraction contrast tomography system (DCT) comprising a laboratory X-ray source (2), a staging device (5) rotating a polycrystalline material sample in the direct path of the X-ray beam, a first X-ray detector (6) detecting the direct X-ray beam being transmitted...

  14. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  15. Techniques in X-ray Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ray telescopes in space, leading to a veritable revolution. Stich telescopes require distortion free focusing of X-rays and the use of position sensitive X- ray detectors. In this article I shall describe the importance of X-ray imaging, the optical ...

  16. X-ray spectrometry and spectrum image mapping at output count rates above 100 kHz with a silicon drift detector on a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E

    2005-01-01

    A third-generation silicon drift detector (SDD) in the form of a silicon multicathode detector (SMCD) was tested as an analytical x-ray spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope. Resolution, output count rate, and spectral quality were examined as a function of the detector peaking time from 8 micros to 250 ns and over a range of input count rate (dead time). The SDD-SMCD (50 mm2 active area) produced a resolution of 134 eV with a peaking time of 8 micros. The peak width and peak channel were nearly independent of the input count rate (at 8 micros peaking time, the peak width degradation was 0.003 eV/percent dead time and peak position change was -0.7 eV over the dead time range tested). Maximum output count rates as high as 280 kHz were obtained with a 500 ns peaking time (188 eV resolution) and 500 kHz with a 250 ns peaking time (217 eV resolution). X-ray spectrum imaging was achieved with a pixel dwell time as short as 10 ms (with 1.3 ms overhead) in which a 2048 channel (10 eV/channel) spectrum with 2-byte intensity range was recorded at each pixel (scanned at 128 x 128). With a 220 kHz output count rate, a minor constituent of iron (present at a concentration of 0.04 mass fraction or 4 weight %) in an aluminum-nickel alloy could be readily detected in the x-ray maps derived from the x-ray spectrum image database accumulated in 185 s.

  17. A Micromegas-based low-background x-ray detector coupled to a slumped-glass telescope for axion research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, F.; Castel, J.; Christensen, F. E.

    2015-01-01

    -approximation Wolter I x-ray telescope (XRT) assembled from thermally-formed (or "slumped") glass substrates deposited with multilayer coatings. The system has been conceived as a technological pathfinder for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO), as it combines two of the techniques (optic and detector...... of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) magnet and is currently looking for solar axions. The combination of the XRT and Micromegas detector provides the best signal-to-noise ratio obtained so far by any detection system of the CAST experiment with a background rate of 5.4×10−3 counts per hour in the energy...

  18. Investigation of quad-energy high-rate photon counting for X-ray computed tomography using a cadmium telluride detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yuichi; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya

    2017-12-01

    To obtain four kinds of tomograms at four different X-ray energy ranges simultaneously, we have constructed a quad-energy (QE) X-ray photon counter with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector and four sets of comparators and microcomputers (MCs). X-ray photons are detected using the CdTe detector, and the event pulses produced using amplifiers are sent to four comparators simultaneously to regulate four threshold energies of 20, 33, 50 and 65keV. Using this counter, the energy ranges are 20-33, 33-50, 50-65 and 65-100keV; the maximum energy corresponds to the tube voltage. We performed QE computed tomography (QE-CT) at a tube voltage of 100kV. Using a 0.5-mm-diam lead pinhole, four tomograms were obtained simultaneously at four energy ranges. K-edge CT using iodine and gadolinium media was carried out utilizing two energy ranges of 33-50 and 50-65keV, respectively. At a tube voltage of 100kV and a current of 60 μA, the count rate was 15.2 kilocounts per second (kcps), and the minimum count rates after penetrating objects in QE-CT were regulated to approximately 2 kcps by the tube current. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Method for measuring the focal spot size of an x-ray tube using a coded aperture mask and a digital detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paolo; Mettivier, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to evaluate a new method based on a coded aperture mask combined with a digital x-ray imaging detector for measurements of the focal spot sizes of diagnostic x-ray tubes. Common techniques for focal spot size measurements employ a pinhole camera, a slit camera, or a star resolution pattern. The coded aperture mask is a radiation collimator consisting of a large number of apertures disposed on a predetermined grid in an array, through which the radiation source is imaged onto a digital x-ray detector. The method of the coded mask camera allows one to obtain a one-shot accurate and direct measurement of the two dimensions of the focal spot (like that for a pinhole camera) but at a low tube loading (like that for a slit camera). A large number of small apertures in the coded mask operate as a ''multipinhole'' with greater efficiency than a single pinhole, but keeping the resolution of a single pinhole. Methods: X-ray images result from the multiplexed output on the detector image plane of such a multiple aperture array, and the image of the source is digitally reconstructed with a deconvolution algorithm. Images of the focal spot of a laboratory x-ray tube (W anode: 35-80 kVp; focal spot size of 0.04 mm) were acquired at different geometrical magnifications with two different types of digital detector (a photon counting hybrid silicon pixel detector with 0.055 mm pitch and a flat panel CMOS digital detector with 0.05 mm pitch) using a high resolution coded mask (type no-two-holes-touching modified uniformly redundant array) with 480 0.07 mm apertures, designed for imaging at energies below 35 keV. Measurements with a slit camera were performed for comparison. A test with a pinhole camera and with the coded mask on a computed radiography mammography unit with 0.3 mm focal spot was also carried out. Results: The full width at half maximum focal spot sizes were obtained from the line profiles of the decoded images

  20. Reducing radiation dose by application of optimized low-energy x-ray filters to K-edge imaging with a photon counting detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Seungwan; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-01-01

    K-edge imaging with photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) can improve image quality compared with conventional energy integrating detectors. However, low-energy x-ray photons below the K-edge absorption energy of a target material do not contribute to image formation in the K-edge imaging and are likely to be completely absorbed by an object. In this study, we applied x-ray filters to the K-edge imaging with a PCXD based on cadmium zinc telluride for reducing radiation dose induced by low-energy x-ray photons. We used aluminum (Al) filters with different thicknesses as the low-energy x-ray filters and implemented the iodine K-edge imaging with an energy bin of 34-48 keV at the tube voltages of 50, 70 and 90 kVp. The effects of the low-energy x-ray filters on the K-edge imaging were investigated with respect to signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and figure of merit (FOM). The highest value of SDNR was observed in the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, and the SDNR decreased as a function of the filter thicknesses. Compared to the K-edge imaging with a 2 mm Al filter, the ESAK was reduced by 66%, 48% and 39% in the K-edge imaging with a 12 mm Al filter for 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. The FOM values, which took into account the ESAK and SDNR, were maximized for 8, 6 to 8 and 4 mm Al filters at 50 kVp, 70 kVp and 90 kVp, respectively. We concluded that the use of an optimal low-energy filter thickness, which was determined by maximizing the FOM, could significantly reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in the K-edge imaging with the PCXD.

  1. Measuring symmetry of implosions in cryogenic Hohlraums at the NIF using gated x-ray detectors (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrala, G A; Dixit, S; Glenzer, S; Kalantar, D; Bradley, D; Izumi, N; Meezan, N; Landen, O L; Callahan, D; Weber, S V; Holder, J P; Glenn, S; Edwards, M J; Bell, P; Kimbrough, J; Koch, J; Prasad, R; Suter, L; Kline, J L; Kilkenny, J

    2010-10-01

    Ignition of imploding inertial confinement capsules requires, among other things, controlling the symmetry with high accuracy and fidelity. We have used gated x-ray imaging, with 10 μm and 70 ps resolution, to detect the x-ray emission from the imploded core of symmetry capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The measurements are used to characterize the time dependent symmetry and the x-ray bang time of the implosion from two orthogonal directions. These measurements were one of the primary diagnostics used to tune the parameters of the laser and Hohlraum to vary the symmetry and x-ray bang time of the implosion of cryogenically cooled ignition scale deuterium/helium filled plastic capsules. Here, we will report on the successful measurements performed with up to 1.2 MJ of laser energy in a fully integrated cryogenics gas-filled ignition-scale Hohlraum and capsule illuminated with 192 smoothed laser beams. We will describe the technique, the accuracy of the technique, and the results of the variation in symmetry with tuning parameters, and explain how that set was used to predictably tune the implosion symmetry as the laser energy, the laser cone wavelength separation, and the Hohlraum size were increased to ignition scales. We will also describe how to apply that technique to cryogenically layered tritium-hydrogen-deuterium capsules.

  2. An optimal strategy for X-ray data collection on macromolecular crystals with position-sensitive detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicković, Ivan; Kalk, Kor H.; Drenth, Jan; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray data collection on macromolecular crystals is preferably done with minimum exposure time and high completeness. A Fortran procedure - DCS - has been written in the environment of the MADNES program to predict the completeness of data before the start of actual data collection. In addition, the

  3. Threat detection of liquid explosives and precursors from their x-ray scattering pattern using energy dispersive detector technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) can be applied for identification of liquid threats in luggage scanning in security applications. To define the instrumental design, the framework for data reduction and analysis and test the performance of the threat detection in various scenarios...

  4. Fine-Pitch CdTe Detector for Hard X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sun with the FOXSI Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuragawa, Miho; Watanabe, Shin; Uchida, Yuusuke; Takeda, Shin'lchiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Saito, Shinya; Glesener, Lindsay; Bultrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Krucker, Sam; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch hard X-ray (HXR) detector using a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor for imaging and spectroscopy for the second launch of the Focusing Optics Solar X-ray Imager (FOXSI). FOXSI is a rocket experiment to perform high sensitivity HXR observations from 4 to 15 keV using the new technique of HXR focusing optics. The focal plane detector requires less than 100 micrometers position resolution (to take advantage of the angular resolution of the optics) and approximately equals 1 keV energy resolution (full width at half maximum (FWHM)) for spectroscopy down to 4 keV, with moderate cooling (greater than -30 C). Double-sided silicon strip detectors were used for the first FOXSI flight in 2012 to meet these criteria. To improve the detectors' efficiency (66% at 15 keV for the silicon detectors) and position resolution of 75 micrometers for the second launch, we fabricated double-sided CdTe strip detectors with a position resolution of 60 micrometers and almost 100% efficiency for the FOXSI energy range. The sensitive area is 7.67 mm x 7.67 mm, corresponding to the field of view of 791'' x 791''. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) and low-energy threshold of approximately equals 4 keV were achieved in laboratory calibrations. The second launch of FOXSI was performed on 11 December 2014, and images from the Sun were successfully obtained with the CdTe detector. Therefore, we successfully demonstrated the detector concept and the usefulness of this technique for future HXR observations of the Sun.

  5. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: a scientific assessment of the observational capabilities in the hard X-ray band

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Argan, A.; Gatti, F.

    2017-12-01

    ATHENA is a large X-ray observatory, planned to be launched by ESA in 2028 towards an L2 orbit. One of the two instruments of the payload is the X-IFU: a cryogenic spectrometer based on a large array of TES microcalorimeters, able to perform integral field spectrography in the 0.2-12 keV band (2.5 eV FWHM at 6 keV). The X-IFU sensitivity is highly degraded by the particle background expected in the L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the particle background level and enable the mission science goals, the instrument incorporates a Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector (CryoAC). It is a 4 pixel TES based detector, placed 10 keV). The aim of the study has been to understand if the present detector design can be improved in order to enlarge the X-IFU scientific capability on an energy band wider than the TES array. This is beyond the CryoAC baseline, being this instrument aimed to operate as anticoincidence particle detector and not conceived to perform X-ray observations.

  6. X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique: Energy, temperature and high flux effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Turturici, A. A.; Raso, G.; Benassi, G.; Bettelli, M.; Zambelli, N.; Zappettini, A.; Principato, F.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, CdZnTe (CZT) is one of the key materials for the development of room temperature X-ray and gamma ray detectors and great efforts have been made on both the device and the crystal growth technologies. In this work, we present the results of spectroscopic investigations on new boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman (B-VB) grown CZT detectors, recently developed at IMEM-CNR Parma, Italy. Several detectors, with the same electrode layout (gold electroless contacts) and different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm), were realized: the cathode is a planar electrode covering the detector surface (4.1×4.1 mm2), while the anode is a central electrode (2×2 mm2) surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. The detectors are characterized by electron mobility-lifetime product (μeτe) values ranging between 0.6 and 1·10-3 cm2/V and by low leakage currents at room temperature and at high bias voltages (38 nA/cm2 at 10000 V/cm). The spectroscopic response of the detectors to monochromatic X-ray and gamma ray sources (109Cd, 241Am and 57Co), at different temperatures and fluxes (up to 1 Mcps), was measured taking into account the mitigation of the effects of incomplete charge collection, pile-up and high flux radiation induced polarization phenomena. A custom-designed digital readout electronics, developed at DiFC of University of Palermo (Italy), able to perform a fine pulse shape and height analysis even at high fluxes, was used. At low rates (200 cps) and at room temperature (T=25 °C), the detectors exhibit an energy resolution FWHM around 4% at 59.5 keV, for comparison an energy resolution of 3% was measured with Al/CdTe/Pt detectors by using the same electronics (A250F/NF charge sensitive preamplifier, Amptek, USA; nominal ENC of 100 electrons RMS). At high rates (750 kcps), energy resolution values of 7% and 9% were measured, with throughputs of 2% and 60% respectively. No radiation polarization phenomena were observed at room temperature up to 1 Mcps (241Am source, 60 ke

  7. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  8. A fast, angle-dependent, analytical model of CsI detector response for optimization of 3D x-ray breast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Melanie; Park, Subok; Badano, Aldo

    2010-06-01

    Accurate models of detector blur are crucial for performing meaningful optimizations of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems as well as for developing reconstruction algorithms that faithfully reproduce the imaged object anatomy. So far, x-ray detector blur has either been ignored or modeled as a shift-invariant symmetric function for these applications. The recent development of a Monte Carlo simulation package called MANTIS has allowed detailed modeling of these detector blur functions and demonstrated the magnitude of the anisotropy for both tomosynthesis and breast CT imaging systems. Despite the detailed results that MANTIS produces, the long simulation times required make inclusion of these results impractical in rigorous optimization and reconstruction algorithms. As a result, there is a need for detector blur models that can be rapidly generated. In this study, the authors have derived an analytical model for deterministic detector blur functions, referred to here as point response functions (PRFs), of columnar CsI phosphor screens. The analytical model is x-ray energy and incidence angle dependent and draws on results from MANTIS to indirectly include complicated interactions that are not explicitly included in the mathematical model. Once the mathematical expression is derived, values of the coefficients are determined by a two-dimensional (2D) fit to MANTIS-generated results based on a figure-of-merit (FOM) that measures the normalized differences between the MANTIS and analytical model results averaged over a region of interest. A smaller FOM indicates a better fit. This analysis was performed for a monochromatic x-ray energy of 25 keV, a CsI scintillator thickness of 150 microm, and four incidence angles (0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees). The FOMs comparing the analytical model to MANTIS for these parameters were 0.1951 +/- 0.0011, 0.1915 +/- 0.0014, 0.2266 +/- 0.0021, and 0.2416 +/- 0.0074 for 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30

  9. Visual grading analysis of digital neonatal chest phantom X-ray images: Impact of detector type, dose and image processing on image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, M H; Breysem, L; Mussen, E; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W; Cockmartin, L

    2018-02-19

    To evaluate the impact of digital detector, dose level and post-processing on neonatal chest phantom X-ray image quality (IQ). A neonatal phantom was imaged using four different detectors: a CR powder phosphor (PIP), a CR needle phosphor (NIP) and two wireless CsI DR detectors (DXD and DRX). Five different dose levels were studied for each detector and two post-processing algorithms evaluated for each vendor. Three paediatric radiologists scored the images using European quality criteria plus additional questions on vascular lines, noise and disease simulation. Visual grading characteristics and ordinal regression statistics were used to evaluate the effect of detector type, post-processing and dose on VGA score (VGAS). No significant differences were found between the NIP, DXD and CRX detectors (p>0.05) whereas the PIP detector had significantly lower VGAS (pProcessing did not influence VGAS (p=0.819). Increasing dose resulted in significantly higher VGAS (pimage (DAK/image) of ~2.4 μGy as an ideal working point for NIP, DXD and DRX detectors. VGAS tracked IQ differences between detectors and dose levels but not image post-processing changes. VGA showed a DAK/image value above which perceived IQ did not improve, potentially useful for commissioning. • A VGA study detects IQ differences between detectors and dose levels. • The NIP detector matched the VGAS of the CsI DR detectors. • VGA data are useful in setting initial detector air kerma level. • Differences in NNPS were consistent with changes in VGAS.

  10. Studies of crystalline CdZnTe radiation detectors and polycrystalline thin film CdTe for X-ray imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ede, A

    2001-01-01

    The development of a replacement to the conventional film based X-ray imaging technique is required for many reasons. One possible route for this is the use of a large area film of a suitable semiconductor overlaid on an amorphous silicon readout array. A suitable semiconductor exists in cadmium telluride and its tertiary alloy cadmium zinc telluride. In this thesis the spectroscopic characteristics of commercially available CZT X- and gamma-radiation detectors are established. The electronic, optical, electro-optic, structural and compositional properties of these detectors are then investigated. The attained data is used to infer a greater understanding for the carrier transport in a CZT radiation detector following the interaction of a high energy photon. Following this a method used to fabricate large area films of CdTe on a commercial scale is described. This is cathodic electrodeposition from an aqueous electrolyte. The theory and experimental arrangement for this technique are described in detail with ...

  11. A high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional detector array for 30-200 keV X-rays based on structured scintillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional X-ray detector for imaging 30-200 keV photons is described. It comprises a set of semi-transparent structured scintillators, where each scintillator is a regular array of waveguides in silicon, and with pores filled with CsI. The performance of the detector is described...... theoretically and explored in detail through simulations. Based on available hardware, a spatial resolution of 1 mm is obtainable. The resolution of a single screen is shown to be determined only by the pitch, at least up to 100 keV. In comparison with conventional homogeneous screens, an improvement...... in efficiency by a factor of 5-15 is obtainable. The cross-talk between screens in the three-dimensional detector is shown to be negligible. The three-dimensional concept enables ray-tracing and super-resolution algorithms to be applied....

  12. SU-E-I-25: Performance Evaluation of a Proposed CMOS-Based X-Ray Detector Using Linear Cascade Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2012-06-01

    The need for high-resolution, dynamic x-ray imaging capability for neurovascular applications has put an ever increasing demand on x-ray detector technology. Present state-of-the-art detectors such as flat panels have limited resolution and noise performance. A linear cascade model analysis was used to estimate the theoretical performance for a proposed CMOS-based detector. The proposed CMOS-based detector was assumed to have a 300-micron thick HL type CsI phosphor, 35-micron pixels, a variable gain light image intensifier (LU), and 400 electron readout noise. The proposed detector has a CMOS sensor coupled to an LII which views the output of the CsI phosphor. For the analysis the whole imaging chain was divided into individual stages characterized by one of the basic processes (stochastic/deterministic blurring, binomial selection, quantum gain, additive noise). Standard linear cascade modeling was used for the propagation of signal and noise through the stages and an RQA5 spectrum was assumed. The gain, blurring or transmission of different stages was either measured or taken from manufacturer's specifications. The theoretically calculated MTF and DQE for the proposed detector were compared with a high-resolution, high-sensitive Micro-Angio Fluoroscope (MAF), predecessor of the proposed detector. Signal and noise for each of the 19 stages in the complete imaging chain were calculated and showed improved performance. For example, at 5 cycles/mm the MTF and DQE were 0.08 and 0.28, respectively, for the CMOS detector compared to 0.05 and 0.07 for the MAF detector. The proposed detector will have improved MTF and DQE and slimmer physical dimension due to the elimination of the large fiber-optic taper used in the MAF. Once operational, the proposed CMOS detector will serve as a further improvement over standard flat panel detectors compared to the MAF which is already receiving a very positive reception by neuro-vascular interventionalists. (Support:NIH-Grant R01EB

  13. Effect of burst and recombination models for Monte Carlo transport of interacting carriers in a-Se x-ray detectors on Swank noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.fang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karim, Karim S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Badano, Aldo [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993-0002 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modification to a previously developed Monte Carlo model of semiconductor direct x-ray detector required for studying the effect of burst and recombination algorithms on detector performance. This work provides insight into the effect of different charge generation models for a-Se detectors on Swank noise and recombination fraction. Methods: The proposed burst and recombination models are implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation package, ARTEMIS, developed byFang et al. [“Spatiotemporal Monte Carlo transport methods in x-ray semiconductor detectors: Application to pulse-height spectroscopy in a-Se,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 308–319 (2012)]. The burst model generates a cloud of electron-hole pairs based on electron velocity, energy deposition, and material parameters distributed within a spherical uniform volume (SUV) or on a spherical surface area (SSA). A simple first-hit (FH) and a more detailed but computationally expensive nearest-neighbor (NN) recombination algorithms are also described and compared. Results: Simulated recombination fractions for a single electron-hole pair show good agreement with Onsager model for a wide range of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. The recombination fraction and Swank noise exhibit a dependence on the burst model for generation of many electron-hole pairs from a single x ray. The Swank noise decreased for the SSA compared to the SUV model at 4 V/μm, while the recombination fraction decreased for SSA compared to the SUV model at 30 V/μm. The NN and FH recombination results were comparable. Conclusions: Results obtained with the ARTEMIS Monte Carlo transport model incorporating drift and diffusion are validated with the Onsager model for a single electron-hole pair as a function of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. For x-ray interactions, the authors demonstrate that the choice of burst model can affect the simulation results for the generation

  14. Simulations of the x-ray imaging capabilities of the silicon drift detectors (SDD) for the LOFT wide-field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Y.; Campana, R.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Observatory For X-ray Timing (LOFT), selected by ESA as one of the four Cosmic Vision M3 candidate missions to undergo an assessment phase, will revolutionize the study of compact objects in our galaxy and of the brightest supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. The Large Area...... Detector (LAD), carrying an unprecedented effective area of 10 m^2, is complemented by a coded-mask Wide Field Monitor, in charge of monitoring a large fraction of the sky potentially accessible to the LAD, to provide the history and context for the sources observed by LAD and to trigger its observations...

  15. Technical Note: Impact on detective quantum efficiency of edge angle determination method by International Electrotechnical Commission methodology for cardiac x-ray image detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J., E-mail: A.J.Gislason@leeds.ac.uk; Tunstall, Clare M.; Kengyelics, Stephen K.; Cowen, Arnold R.; Davies, Andrew G. [LXi Research, Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Cardiac x-ray detectors are used to acquire moving images in real-time for angiography and interventional procedures. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is not generally measured on these dynamic detectors; the required “for processing” image data and control of x-ray settings have not been accessible. By 2016, USA hospital physicists will have the ability to measure DQE and will likely utilize the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard for measuring DQE of dynamic x-ray imaging devices. The current IEC standard requires an image of a tilted tungsten edge test object to obtain modulation transfer function (MTF) for DQE calculation. It specifies the range of edge angles to use; however, it does not specify a preferred method to determine this angle for image analysis. The study aimed to answer the question “will my choice in method impact my results?” Four different established edge angle determination methods were compared to investigate the impact on DQE. Methods: Following the IEC standard, edge and flat field images were acquired on a cardiac flat-panel detector to calculate MTF and noise power spectrum, respectively, to determine DQE. Accuracy of the methods in determining the correct angle was ascertained using a simulated edge image with known angulations. Precision of the methods was ascertained using variability of MTF and DQE, calculated via bootstrapping. Results: Three methods provided near equal angles and the same MTF while the fourth, with an angular difference of 6%, had a MTF lower by 3% at 1.5 mm{sup −1} spatial frequency and 8% at 2.5 mm{sup −1}; corresponding DQE differences were 6% at 1.5 mm{sup −1} and 17% at 2.5 mm{sup −1}; differences were greater than standard deviations in the measurements. Conclusions: DQE measurements may vary by a significant amount, depending on the method used to determine the edge angle when following the IEC standard methodology for a cardiac x-ray detector. The most

  16. Three-dimensional cascaded system analysis of a 50 µm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Vassiljev, N.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution, low-noise x-ray detectors based on the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been developed and proposed for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this study, we evaluated the three-dimensional (3D) imaging performance of a 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). The two-dimensional (2D) angle-dependent modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were experimentally characterized and modeled using the cascaded system analysis at oblique incident angles up to 30°. The cascaded system model was extended to the 3D spatial frequency space in combination with the filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction method to calculate the 3D and in-plane MTF, NNPS and DQE parameters. The results demonstrate that the beam obliquity blurs the 2D MTF and DQE in the high spatial frequency range. However, this effect can be eliminated after FBP image reconstruction. In addition, impacts of the image acquisition geometry and detector parameters were evaluated using the 3D cascaded system analysis for DBT. The result shows that a wider projection angle range (e.g.  ±30°) improves the low spatial frequency (below 5 mm-1) performance of the CMOS APS detector. In addition, to maintain a high spatial resolution for DBT, a focal spot size of smaller than 0.3 mm should be used. Theoretical analysis suggests that a pixelated scintillator in combination with the 50 µm pixel pitch CMOS APS detector could further improve the 3D image resolution. Finally, the 3D imaging performance of the CMOS APS and an indirect amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) passive pixel sensor (PPS) detector was simulated and compared.

  17. The X-ray imager on AXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT X-ray and gamma-ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as the so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated....... Modular design and the low-power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed. One such detector system has been proposed for future space missions: the X-Ray Imager (XRI) on the Atmospheric X-ray...... Observatory (AXO), which is a mission proposed to the Danish Small Satellite Program and is dedicated to observations of X-ray generating processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Of special interest will be simultaneous optical and X-ray observations of sprites that are flashes appearing directly above an active...

  18. Characterization and error analysis of an N×N unfolding procedure applied to filtered, photoelectric x-ray detector arrays. I. Formulation and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Fehl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for spectral reconstructions (unfolds and spectrally integrated flux estimates from data obtained by a five-channel, filtered x-ray-detector array (XRD is described in detail and characterized. This diagnostic is a broad-channel spectrometer, used primarily to measure time-dependent soft x-ray flux emitted by z-pinch plasmas at the Z pulsed-power accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, and serves as both a plasma probe and a gauge of accelerator performance. The unfold method, suitable for online analysis, arises naturally from general assumptions about the x-ray source and spectral properties of the channel responses; a priori constraints control the ill-posed nature of the inversion. The unfolded spectrum is not assumed to be Planckian. This study is divided into two consecutive papers. This paper considers three major issues: (a Formulation of the unfold method.—The mathematical background, assumptions, and procedures leading to the algorithm are described: the spectral reconstruction S_{unfold}(E,t—five histogram x-ray bins j over the x-ray interval, 137≤E≤2300  eV at each time step t—depends on the shape and overlap of the calibrated channel responses and on the maximum electrical power delivered to the plasma. The x-ray flux F_{unfold} is estimated as ∫S_{unfold}(E,tdE. (b Validation with simulations.—Tests of the unfold algorithm with known static and time-varying spectra are described. These spectra included—but were not limited to—Planckian spectra S_{bb}(E,T (25≤T≤250  eV, from which noise-free channel data were simulated and unfolded. For Planckian simulations with 125≤T≤250  eV and typical responses, the binwise unfold values S_{j} and the corresponding binwise averages ⟨S_{bb}⟩_{j} agreed to ∼20%, except where S_{bb}≪max⁡{S_{bb}}. Occasionally, unfold values S_{j}≲0 (artifacts were encountered. The algorithm recovered ≳90% of the x-ray

  19. SU-E-I-107: Suitability of Various Radiation Detectors Used in Radiation Therapy for X-Ray Dosimetry in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, M; Poppe, B; von Boetticher, H

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of suitability for X-ray dosimetry in computed tomography of various ionization chambers, diodes and two-dimensional detector arrays primarily used in radiation therapy. An Oldelft X-ray simulation unit was used to irradiate PTW 60008, 60012 dosimetry diodes, PTW 23332, 31013, 31010, 31006 axial symmetrical ionization chambers, PTW 23343, 34001 plane parallel ionization chambers and PTW Starcheck and 2D-Array seven29 as well as a prototype Farmer chamber with a copper wall. Peak potential was varied from 50 kV up to 125 kV and beam qualities were quantified through half-value-layer measurements. Energy response was investigated free in air as well as in 2 cm depth in a solid water phantom and refers to a manufacturer calibrated PTW 60004 diode for kV-dosimetry. The thimble ionization chambers PTW 31010, 31013, the uncapsuled diode PTW 60012 and the PTW 2D-Array seven29 exhibit an energy response deviation in the investigated energy region of approximately 10% or lower thus proving good usability in X-ray dosimetry if higher spatial resolution is needed or rotational irradiations occur. It could be shown that in radiation therapy routinely used detectors are usable in a much lower energy region. The rotational symmetry is of advantage in computed tomography dosimetry and enables dose profile as well as point dose measurements in a suitable phantom for estimation of organ doses. Additional the PTW 2D-Array seven29 can give a quick overview of radiation fields in non-rotating tasks. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope—ProtoEXIST1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J.; Allen, B.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R.; Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Apple, J.; Cleveland, W. H.

    2011-10-01

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8×8 array of closely tiled 2 cm×2 cm×0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8×8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm2 active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9°×9° (and 19°×19° for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20‧. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cm×26 cm×2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as ≳100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for ˜1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4° off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2σ in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The success of this first flight is very

  1. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    Over the past decade, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been improving the angular resolution of hard X-ray (HXR; 20 "70 keV) optics to the point that we now routinely manufacture optics modules with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec Half Power Diameter (HDP), almost three times the performance of NuSTAR optics (Ramsey et al. 2013; Gubarev et al. 2013a; Atkins et al. 2013). New techniques are currently being developed to provide even higher angular resolution. High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For the HERO mirrors, where the HPD is 26 arcsec over a 6-m focal length converts to 750 μm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 μm. At a 10-m focal length these detectors can support a 16 arcsec HPD. Of course, the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage (Ramsey 2001). The ability to handle high counting rates is also desirable for efficient calibration. A collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), MSFC, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK is developing precisely such detectors under an ongoing, funded APRA program (FY2015 to FY2017). The detectors use the RALdeveloped Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology. These HEXITEC ASICs can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) to create a fine (250 μm pitch) HXR detector (Jones et al. 2009; Seller et al. 2011). The objectives of this funded effort are to develop and test a HEXITEC

  2. CdTe Timepix detectors for single-photon spectroscopy and linear polarimetry of high-flux hard x-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, C., E-mail: christoph.hahn@uni-jena.de; Höfer, S.; Kämpfer, T. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, G.; Märtin, R. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stöhlker, Th. [Helmholtz Institute Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Single-photon spectroscopy of pulsed, high-intensity sources of hard X-rays — such as laser-generated plasmas — is often hampered by the pileup of several photons absorbed by the unsegmented, large-volume sensors routinely used for the detection of high-energy radiation. Detectors based on the Timepix chip, with a segmentation pitch of 55 μm and the possibility to be equipped with high-Z sensor chips, constitute an attractive alternative to commonly used passive solutions such as image plates. In this report, we present energy calibration and characterization measurements of such devices. The achievable energy resolution is comparable to that of scintillators for γ spectroscopy. Moreover, we also introduce a simple two-detector Compton polarimeter setup with a polarimeter quality of (98 ± 1)%. Finally, a proof-of-principle polarimetry experiment is discussed, where we studied the linear polarization of bremsstrahlung emitted by a laser-driven plasma and found an indication of the X-ray polarization direction depending on the polarization state of the incident laser pulse.

  3. Red mercuric iodide crystals obtained by isothermal solution evaporation: Characterization for mammographic X-ray imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, A.M.F.; Ugucioni, J.C.; Mulato, M.

    2014-02-11

    Millimeter-sized mercury iodide crystals were obtained by the isothermal evaporation technique using dimethylformamide (DMF), diethyl-ether/DMF mixture and THF. Different concentrations (18 mM and 400 mM) and solution temperature (25–80 °C) were used to obtain varied evaporation rates (0.1×10{sup −4}–5000×10{sup −4} ml/h). Different crystal sizes and shapes were obtained by changing solvents, mixture and initial solution volume. According to X-ray diffraction the samples are monocrystalline. The top surface was investigated by SEM. Optical band-gaps above 2 eV were obtained from photoacoustic spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra indicated band-to-band electronic transitions, and the presence of sub-band gap states. Excitons, structural defects and the presence of impurities are discussed and correlated to the electrical measurements. Crystals obtained using pure DMF as solvent showed better general properties, including under the exposure to mammographic X-ray energy range that led to sensibility of about 25 μC/Rcm{sup 2}.

  4. Material-specific imaging system using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and spatially resolved CdZnTe detectors with potential application in breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbes, Damien, E-mail: damien.barbes@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.tabary@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Paulus, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.paulus@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Hazemann, Jean-Louis, E-mail: jean-louis.hazemann@neel.cnrs.fr [Univ.Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Verger, Loïck, E-mail: loick.verger@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-03-11

    This paper presents a coherent X-ray-scattering imaging technique using a multipixel energy-dispersive system. Without any translation, the technique produces specific 1D image from data recorded by a single CdZnTe detector pixel using subpixelation techniques. The method is described in detail, illustrated by a simulation and then experimentally validated. As the main considered application of our study is breast imaging, this validation involves 2D imaging of a phantom made of plastics mimicking breast tissues. The results obtained show that our system can specifically image the phantom using a single detector pixel. For the moment, in vivo breast imaging applications remain difficult, as the dose delivered by the system is too high, but some adjustments are considered for further work.

  5. Leveraging multi-channel x-ray detector technology to improve quality metrics for industrial and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Edward S.; Thompson, Kyle R.; Stohn, Adriana; Goodner, Ryan N.

    2017-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently developed the capability to acquire multi-channel radio- graphs for multiple research and development applications in industry and security. This capability allows for the acquisition of x-ray radiographs or sinogram data to be acquired at up to 300 keV with up to 128 channels per pixel. This work will investigate whether multiple quality metrics for computed tomography can actually benefit from binned projection data compared to traditionally acquired grayscale sinogram data. Features and metrics to be evaluated include the ability to dis- tinguish between two different materials with similar absorption properties, artifact reduction, and signal-to-noise for both raw data and reconstructed volumetric data. The impact of this technology to non-destructive evaluation, national security, and industry is wide-ranging and has to potential to improve upon many inspection methods such as dual-energy methods, material identification, object segmentation, and computer vision on radiographs.

  6. Laser-induced surface recrystallization of polycrystalline PbI2 thick films for X-ray detector application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Xinghua; Zhu, Shifu; Yang, Dingyu; Wangyang, Peihua; Gao, Xiuyin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced surface recrystallization process was developed to improve the surface properties and device performance of the polycrystalline PbI2 thick films prepared by using close space vapor deposition method. A continuous polycrystalline PbI2 recrystallized layer with a better mechanical strength and reflectivity improved from 2% to 4%-6% was obtained by this recrystallization process for the films with mechanical pretreatment. Other polytypes is absent in the recrystallized layer with the 2H-polytype remaining before and after treatment and obtaining improved electrical and X-ray photoelectric response performance. The pretreatment such as mechanical cutting/polishing and hydrogenation is necessary to lower the non-wetting crystallization behavior during the recrystallization process due to the rough surface state and oxygen contamination.

  7. X-ray response of CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique: Energy, temperature and high flux effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (DiFC), Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Gerardi, G.; Turturici, A.A.; Raso, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (DiFC), Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy); Benassi, G. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, Reggio Emilia 42019 (Italy); Bettelli, M. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Zambelli, N. [due2lab s.r.l., Via Paolo Borsellino 2, Scandiano, Reggio Emilia 42019 (Italy); Zappettini, A. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Parma 43100 (Italy); Principato, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (DiFC), Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, CdZnTe (CZT) is one of the key materials for the development of room temperature X-ray and gamma ray detectors and great efforts have been made on both the device and the crystal growth technologies. In this work, we present the results of spectroscopic investigations on new boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman (B-VB) grown CZT detectors, recently developed at IMEM-CNR Parma, Italy. Several detectors, with the same electrode layout (gold electroless contacts) and different thicknesses (1 and 2.5 mm), were realized: the cathode is a planar electrode covering the detector surface (4.1×4.1 mm{sup 2}), while the anode is a central electrode (2×2 mm{sup 2}) surrounded by a guard-ring electrode. The detectors are characterized by electron mobility-lifetime product (µ{sub e}τ{sub e}) values ranging between 0.6 and 1·10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V and by low leakage currents at room temperature and at high bias voltages (38 nA/cm{sup 2} at 10000 V/cm). The spectroscopic response of the detectors to monochromatic X-ray and gamma ray sources ({sup 109}Cd, {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co), at different temperatures and fluxes (up to 1 Mcps), was measured taking into account the mitigation of the effects of incomplete charge collection, pile-up and high flux radiation induced polarization phenomena. A custom-designed digital readout electronics, developed at DiFC of University of Palermo (Italy), able to perform a fine pulse shape and height analysis even at high fluxes, was used. At low rates (200 cps) and at room temperature (T=25 °C), the detectors exhibit an energy resolution FWHM around 4% at 59.5 keV, for comparison an energy resolution of 3% was measured with Al/CdTe/Pt detectors by using the same electronics (A250F/NF charge sensitive preamplifier, Amptek, USA; nominal ENC of 100 electrons RMS). At high rates (750 kcps), energy resolution values of 7% and 9% were measured, with throughputs of 2% and 60% respectively. No radiation polarization phenomena were

  8. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in capture-based aquaculture (CBA by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Misimi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA. Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  9. Discrimination between Weaned and Unweaned Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) in Capture-Based Aquaculture (CBA) by X-Ray Imaging and Radio-Frequency Metal Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60–70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups – unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented. PMID:24743448

  10. Discrimination between weaned and unweaned Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in capture-based aquaculture (CBA) by X-ray imaging and radio-frequency metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misimi, Ekrem; Martinsen, Svein; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Erikson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of two detection methods for use in discrimination and sorting of adult Atlantic cod (about 2 kg) in the small scale capture-based aquaculture (CBA). Presently, there is no established method for discrimination of weaned and unweaned cod in CBA. Generally, 60-70% of the wild-caught cod in the CBA are weaned into commercial dry feed. To increase profitability for the fish farmers, unweaned cod must be separated from the stock, meaning the fish must be sorted into two groups - unweaned and weaned from moist feed. The challenges with handling of large numbers of fish in cages, defined the limits of the applied technology. As a result, a working model was established, focusing on implementing different marking materials added to the fish feed, and different technology for detecting the feed presence in the fish gut. X-ray imaging in two modes (planar and dual energy band) and sensitive radio-frequency metal detection were the detection methods that were chosen for the investigations. Both methods were tested in laboratory conditions using dead fish with marked feed inserted into the gut cavity. In particular, the sensitive radio-frequency metal detection method with carbonyl powder showed very promising results in detection of marked feed. Results show also that Dual energy band X-ray imaging may have potential for prediction of fat content in the feed. Based on the investigations it can be concluded that both X-ray imaging and sensitive radio-frequency metal detector technology have the potential for detecting cod having consumed marked feed. These are all technologies that may be adapted to large scale handling of fish from fish cages. Thus, it may be possible to discriminate between unweaned and weaned cod in a large scale grading situation. Based on the results of this study, a suggestion for evaluation of concept for in-situ sorting system is presented.

  11. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic particle radiation may damages payload's electronics, optics, and sensors during of long-term scientific space mission especially the interplanetary ones. That is why it's extremely important to prevent failures of digital electronics, CCDs, semiconductor detectors at the times of passing through regions of enhanced charged particle fluxes. Well developed models of the Earth's radiation belts allow to predict and to protect sensitive equipment against disastrous influence of radiation due to energetic particle contained in the Van Allen belts. In the contrary interplanetary probes flying far away from our planet undergoes passages through clouds of plasma and solar cosmic rays not predictable by present models. Especially these concerns missions planned for non-ecliptic orbits. The practical approach to protect sensitive modules may be to measure the in situ particle fluxes with high time resolution and generation of alarm flags, which will switch off sensitive units of particular scientific equipment. The ChemiX (Chemical composition in X-rays) instrument is being developed by the Solar Physics Division of Polish Space Research Centre for the Interhelio-Probe interplanetary mission. Charged particle bursts can badly affect the regular measurements of X-ray spectra of solar origin. In order to detect presence of these enhanced particle fluxes the Background Particle Monitor (BPM) was developed constituting now a vital part of ChemiX. The BPM measurements of particle fluxes will assist to determine level of X-ray spectra contamination. Simultaneously BPM will measure the energy spectra of ambient particles. We present overall structure, design, technical and a scientific characteristic of BPM, particle sorts, and energy ranges to be registered. We describe nearly autonomous modular structure of BPM consisting of detector head, analogue and digital electronics modules, and of module of secondary power supply [1-3]. Detector head consists of three

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation ... x-ray images are among the clearest, most detailed views of ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by ...

  14. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  15. Handbook of X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith; Smith, Randall; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ellis, Richard; Huchra, John; Kahn, Steve; Rieke, George; Stetson, Peter B.

    2011-11-01

    Practical guide to X-ray astronomy for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers. Presenting X-ray optics, basic detector physics and data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of X-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The appendices provide reference material often required during data analysis. The handbook web page contains figures and tables: http://xrayastronomyhandbook.com/

  16. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  17. Performing elemental microanalysis with high accuracy and high precision by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    Electron-excited X-ray microanalysis performed in the scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a core technique for characterization of the microstructure of materials. The recent advances in EDS performance with the silicon drift detector (SDD) enable accuracy and precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength-dispersive spectrometer employed on the electron probe microanalyzer platform. SDD-EDS throughput, resolution, and stability provide practical operating conditions for measurement of high-count spectra that form the basis for peak fitting procedures that recover the characteristic peak intensities even for elemental combination where severe peak overlaps occur, such PbS, MoS2, BaTiO3, SrWO4, and WSi2. Accurate analyses are also demonstrated for interferences involving large concentration ratios: a major constituent on a minor constituent (Ba at 0.4299 mass fraction on Ti at 0.0180) and a major constituent on a trace constituent (Ba at 0.2194 on Ce at 0.00407; Si at 0.1145 on Ta at 0.0041). Accurate analyses of low atomic number elements, C, N, O, and F, are demonstrated. Measurement of trace constituents with limits of detection below 0.001 mass fraction (1000 ppm) is possible within a practical measurement time of 500 s.

  18. Sub-microsecond x-ray imaging using hole-collecting Schottky type CdTe with charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Tate, M. W.; Shanks, K. S.; Philipp, H. T.; Weiss, J. T.; Purohit, P.; Chamberlain, D.; Gruner, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    CdTe is increasingly being used as the x-ray sensing material in imaging pixel array detectors for x-rays, generally above 20 keV, where silicon sensors become unacceptably transparent. Unfortunately CdTe suffers from polarization, which can alter the response of the material over time and with accumulated dose. Most prior studies used long integration times or CdTe that was not of the hole-collecting Schottky type. We investigated the temporal response of hole-collecting Schottky type CdTe sensors on timescales ranging from tens of nanoseconds to several seconds. We found that the material shows signal persistence on the timescale of hundreds of milliseconds attributed to the detrapping of a shallow trap, and additional persistence on sub-microsecond timescales after polarization. The results show that this type of CdTe can be used for time resolved studies down to approximately 100 ns. However quantitative interpretation of the signal requires careful attention to bias voltages, polarization and exposure history.

  19. Dynamics of native oxide growth on CdTe and CdZnTe X-ray and gamma-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zázvorka, Jakub; Franc, Jan; Beran, Lukáš; Moravec, Pavel; Pekárek, Jakub; Veis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We studied the growth of the surface oxide layer on four different CdTe and CdZnTe X-ray and gamma-ray detector-grade samples using spectroscopic ellipsometry. We observed gradual oxidization of CdTe and CdZnTe after chemical etching in bromine solutions. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we found that the oxide consists only of oxygen bound to tellurium. We applied a refined theoretical model of the surface layer to evaluate the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. In this way we studied the dynamics and growth rate of the oxide layer within a month after chemical etching of the samples. We observed two phases in the evolution of the oxide layer on all studied samples. A rapid growth was visible within five days after the chemical treatment followed by semi-saturation and a decrease in the growth rate after the first week. After one month all the samples showed an oxide layer about 3 nm thick. The oxide thickness was correlated with leakage current degradation with time after surface preparation.

  20. Estimation of Basis Line-Integrals in a Spectral Distortion-Modeled Photon Counting Detector Using Low-Order Polynomial Approximation of X-ray Transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkyun Lee; Kappler, Steffen; Polster, Christoph; Taguchi, Katsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Photon counting detector (PCD)-based computed tomography exploits spectral information from a transmitted x-ray spectrum to estimate basis line-integrals. The recorded spectrum, however, is distorted and deviates from the transmitted spectrum due to spectral response effect (SRE). Therefore, the SRE needs to be compensated for when estimating basis line-integrals. One approach is to incorporate the SRE model with an incident spectrum into the PCD measurement model and the other approach is to perform a calibration process that inherently includes both the SRE and the incident spectrum. A maximum likelihood estimator can be used to the former approach, which guarantees asymptotic optimality; however, a heavy computational burden is a concern. Calibration-based estimators are a form of the latter approach. They can be very efficient; however, a heuristic calibration process needs to be addressed. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient three-step estimator for the former approach using a low-order polynomial approximation of x-ray transmittance. The low-order polynomial approximation can change the original non-linear estimation method to a two-step linearized approach followed by an iterative bias correction step. We show that the calibration process is required only for the bias correction step and prove that it converges to the unbiased solution under practical assumptions. Extensive simulation studies validate the proposed method and show that the estimation results are comparable to those of the ML estimator while the computational time is reduced substantially.

  1. Characterization and error analysis of an N×N unfolding procedure applied to filtered, photoelectric x-ray detector arrays. II. Error analysis and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Fehl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A five-channel, filtered-x-ray-detector (XRD array has been used to measure time-dependent, soft-x-ray flux emitted by z-pinch plasmas at the Z pulsed-power accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The preceding, companion paper [D. L. Fehl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120402 (2010PRABFM1098-4402] describes an algorithm for spectral reconstructions (unfolds and spectrally integrated flux estimates from data obtained by this instrument. The unfolded spectrum S_{unfold}(E,t is based on (N=5 first-order B-splines (histograms in contiguous unfold bins j=1,…,N; the recovered x-ray flux F_{unfold}(t is estimated as ∫S_{unfold}(E,tdE, where E is x-ray energy and t is time. This paper adds two major improvements to the preceding unfold analysis: (a Error analysis.—Both data noise and response-function uncertainties are propagated into S_{unfold}(E,t and F_{unfold}(t. Noise factors ν are derived from simulations to quantify algorithm-induced changes in the noise-to-signal ratio (NSR for S_{unfold} in each unfold bin j and for F_{unfold} (ν≡NSR_{output}/NSR_{input}: for S_{unfold}, 1≲ν_{j}≲30, an outcome that is strongly spectrally dependent; for F_{unfold}, 0.6≲ν_{F}≲1, a result that is less spectrally sensitive and corroborated independently. For nominal z-pinch experiments, the combined uncertainty (noise and calibrations in F_{unfold}(t at peak is estimated to be ∼15%. (b Generalization of the unfold method.—Spectral sensitivities (called here passband functions are constructed for S_{unfold} and F_{unfold}. Predicting how the unfold algorithm reconstructs arbitrary spectra is thereby reduced to quadratures. These tools allow one to understand and quantitatively predict algorithmic distortions (including negative artifacts, to identify potentially troublesome spectra, and to design more useful response functions.

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  3. Properties and applications of photon counting and energy resolved X-ray matrix detectors; Eigenschaften und Einsatzgebiete photonenzaehlender und energieaufloesender Roentgenmatrixdetektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, David; Zscherpel, Uwe; Ewert, Uwe [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Ullberg, Christer; Weber, Niclas; Urech, Mattias [XCounter AB, Danderyd (Sweden); Pantsar, Tuomas; Perez-Fuster, Katya [Ajat Oy Ltd., Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    The use of highly absorbing photoconductor materials (e.g. CdTe) for the production of matrix X-ray detectors allows for a number of years, the direct conversion of X-rays into evaluable electrical signals, for the NDT energy to 300 keV too. The conventional scintillator is omitted, resulting in a reduction of image blurring and an increase in efficiency due to the much larger absorption thicknesses result. Also can be at a sufficiently fast readout speed (50 - 100 ns dead time) count single photons and determine their energy. Thus, the readout noise and the dark image correction omitted. Furthermore, one can detect or hide selectively certain areas of the X-ray energy spectrum by defining energy threshold values. This feature allows one the one hand, the discrimination of materials through the dual energy technology and on the other hand, the reduction of the detected scattered radiation, thereby increasing the contrast sensitivity. In order to use these advantages efficiently, a special calibration procedure is required, which must take into account time-dependent processes in the detector layer. Presented here are the properties of this new generation of X-ray detectors matrix compared to traditional indirect converting detectors based on reference measurements on fiber composite components and thick-walled steel tubes (up to 35 mm). Further possible applications in NDT are discussed with regard to the material discrimination especially within fiber composites (eg CFRP and GFRP).(Contains PowerPoint slides). [German] Der Einsatz von hochabsorbierenden Photoleitermaterialien (z.B. CdTe) zur Herstellung von Roentgen-Matrixdetektoren ermoeglicht seit einigen Jahren die direkte Konvertierung von Roentgenstrahlen in auswertbare elektrische Signale, auch fuer den ZfP-Energiebereich bis 300 keV. Die herkoemmliche Szintillatorschicht entfaellt, was eine Verringerung der Bildunschaerfe und eine Effizienzsteigerung aufgrund der deutlich groesseren Absorptionsdicken zur

  4. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  5. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in particular. SOXS mission is composed of two solid state detectors, viz., Si and CZT semiconductors ...

  6. Focal spot size reduction using asymmetric collimation to enable reduced anode angles with a conventional angiographic x-ray tube for use with high resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2017-03-01

    The high-resolution requirements for neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) necessitate the use of a small focal-spot size; however, the maximum tube output limits for such small focal-spot sizes may not enable sufficient x-ray fluence after attenuation through the human head to support the desired image quality. This may necessitate the use of a larger focal spot, thus contributing to the overall reduction in resolution. A method for creating a higher-output small effective focal spot based on the line-focus principle has been demonstrated and characterized. By tilting the C-arm gantry, the anode-side of the x-ray field-of-view is accessible using a detector placed off-axis. This tilted central axis diminishes the resultant focal spot size in the anode-cathode direction by the tangent of the effective anode angle, allowing a medium focal spot to be used in place of a small focal spot with minimal losses in resolution but with increased tube output. Images were acquired of two different objects at the central axis, and with the C-arm tilted away from the central axis at 1° increments from 0°-7°. With standard collimation settings, only 6° was accessible, but using asymmetric extended collimation a maximum of 7° was accessed for enhanced comparisons. All objects were positioned perpendicular to the anode-cathode direction and images were compared qualitatively. The increasing advantage of the off-axis focal spots was quantitatively evidenced at each subsequent angle using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability metric (GM-ROD). This anode-tilt method is a simple and robust way of increasing tube output for a small field-of-view detector without diminishing the overall apparent resolution for neuro-EIGIs.

  7. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  8. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... show up on chest X-rays. Breast cancer. Mammography is a special type of X-ray test used to examine breast tissue. Enlarged heart. This sign of congestive heart failure shows up clearly on X-rays. Blocked blood vessels. Injecting a contrast material that contains iodine can help highlight sections ...

  9. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  10. GaAs High Breakdown Voltage Front and Back Side Processed Schottky Detectors for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    a few materials that fulfill these requirements are gallium-arsenic (GaAs) and cadmium-zinc-tellurium ( CdZnTe or CZT). They are viable alternative...Lingren, C.L. Progress in Development of Large Area Sub-millimeter Resolution CdZnTe Strip Detectors. Proceedings from SPIE 1996, 2859, 29. 2...Verger, L.; Bonnefoy, J.P.; Glasser, F.; Ouvrier-Buffet, P. New developments in CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for X and gamma – ray applications. J

  11. Spectral and spatial resolution properties of photon counting X-ray detectors like the Medipix-Detector; Spektrale und bildgebende Eigenschaften photonenzaehlender Roentgendetektoren am Beispiel des Medipix-Detektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, A.

    2007-05-14

    The Medipix detector is a hybrid photon counting X-ray detector, consisting of an ASIC and a semiconducting layer as the sensor. This makes the Medipix a direct converting detector. A special feature of the Medipix is a signal processing circuit in every single pixel. This circuit amplifies the input signal triggered by a photon and then transforms the pulse into a digital signal. This early stage digitalisation is one of the main advantages of the detector, since no dark currents are integrated into the signal. Furthermore, the energy information of each single photon is partly preserved. The high number of pixels lends the detector a wide dynamic range, starting from single counts up to a rate of 1010 photons per cm2 and second. Apart from the many advantages, there are still some problems with the detector. Some effects lead to a deterioration of the energy resolution as well as the spatial resolution. The main reasons for this are two effects occuring in the detector, charge sharing and backscattering inside the detector. This study investigates the influence of those two effects on both the energy and spatial resolution. The physical causes of these effects are delineated and their impact on the detector output is examined. In contrast to high energy photon detectors, the repulsion of the charge carriers drifting inside the sensor must not be neglected in a detailed model of X-ray detectors with an energy range of 5 keV-200 keV. For the simulation of the Medipix using Monte Carlo simulations, the software ROSI was augmented. The added features allow a detailed simulation of the charge distribution, using the relevant physical effects that alter the distribution width during the drift towards the sensor electrodes as well further influences on the detector output, including electronical noise, threshold noise or the geometry of the detector. The measured energy and spatial resolution of several different models of Medipix is compared to the simulated

  12. Characterisation of silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-03-15

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb{sup -1}, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1 x 10{sup 16} 1 MeV neutrons per cm{sup 2}. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). Sub-strip resolution of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. Investigation of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips is shown in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stops regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch. The collected signal allowed for the identification of operating thresholds for both devices, making it possible to compare signal response between different versions of silicon strip detector modules.

  13. Application of commercial MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the therapeutic x-ray range from 80 kV to 250 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehringfeld, Christian; Schmid, Susanne; Poljanc, Karin; Kirisits, Christian; Aiginger, Hannes; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% degrees C(-1)) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 degrees C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to +/-5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy.

  14. Conversion of mammographic images to appear with the noise and sharpness characteristics of a different detector and x-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R; Workman, Adam; Yip, Mary; Wells, Kevin; Young, Kenneth C

    2012-05-01

    Undertaking observer studies to compare imaging technology using clinical radiological images is challenging due to patient variability. To achieve a significant result, a large number of patients would be required to compare cancer detection rates for different image detectors and systems. The aim of this work was to create a methodology where only one set of images is collected on one particular imaging system. These images are then converted to appear as if they had been acquired on a different detector and x-ray system. Therefore, the effect of a wide range of digital detectors on cancer detection or diagnosis can be examined without the need for multiple patient exposures. Three detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASE), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream CR (CR)] were characterized in terms of signal transfer properties, noise power spectra (NPS), modulation transfer function, and grid properties. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure noise) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic polynomial at each spatial frequency of the NPS against air kerma. A methodology was developed to degrade the images to have the characteristics of a different (target) imaging system. The simulated images were created by first linearizing the original images such that the pixel values were equivalent to the air kerma incident at the detector. The linearized image was then blurred to match the sharpness characteristics of the target detector. Noise was then added to the blurred image to correct for differences between the detectors and any required change in dose. The electronic, quantum, and structure noise were added appropriate to the air kerma selected for the simulated image and thus ensuring that the noise in the simulated image had the same magnitude and correlation as the target image. A correction was also made for differences in primary grid transmission, scatter, and veiling glare. The method was validated by

  15. Conversion of mammographic images to appear with the noise and sharpness characteristics of a different detector and x-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Workman, Adam; Yip, Mary; Wells, Kevin; Young, Kenneth C. [National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Northern Ireland Regional Medical Physics Service, Forster Green Hospital, Belfast, BT8 4HD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); National Coordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Undertaking observer studies to compare imaging technology using clinical radiological images is challenging due to patient variability. To achieve a significant result, a large number of patients would be required to compare cancer detection rates for different image detectors and systems. The aim of this work was to create a methodology where only one set of images is collected on one particular imaging system. These images are then converted to appear as if they had been acquired on a different detector and x-ray system. Therefore, the effect of a wide range of digital detectors on cancer detection or diagnosis can be examined without the need for multiple patient exposures. Methods: Three detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASE), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream CR (CR)] were characterized in terms of signal transfer properties, noise power spectra (NPS), modulation transfer function, and grid properties. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure noise) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic polynomial at each spatial frequency of the NPS against air kerma. A methodology was developed to degrade the images to have the characteristics of a different (target) imaging system. The simulated images were created by first linearizing the original images such that the pixel values were equivalent to the air kerma incident at the detector. The linearized image was then blurred to match the sharpness characteristics of the target detector. Noise was then added to the blurred image to correct for differences between the detectors and any required change in dose. The electronic, quantum, and structure noise were added appropriate to the air kerma selected for the simulated image and thus ensuring that the noise in the simulated image had the same magnitude and correlation as the target image. A correction was also made for differences in primary grid transmission, scatter, and veiling glare. The method was

  16. Dosimetric characterization and behaviour in small X-ray fields of a microchamber and a plastic scintillator detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, Massimo; Cutaia, Claudia; Radici, Lorenzo; Valzano, Serena; Gino, Eva; Cavedon, Carlo; Stasi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the main dosimetric characteristics and the performance of an A26 Exradin ionization microchamber (A26 IC) and a W1 Exradin plastic scintillation detector (W1 PSD) in small photon beam dosimetry for treatment planning system commissioning and quality assurance programme. Detector characterization measurements (short-term stability, dose linearity, angular dependence and energy dependence) were performed in water for field sizes up to 10 × 10 cm(2). Polarity effect (Ppol) was examined for the A26 IC. The behaviour of the detectors in small field relative dosimetry [percentage depth dose, dose profiles often called the off-axis ratio and output factors (OFs)] was investigated for field sizes ranging from 1 × 1 to 3 × 3 cm(2). Results were compared with those obtained with other detectors we already use for small photon beam dosimetry. A26 IC and W1 PSD showed a linear dose response. While the A26 IC showed no energy dependence, the W1 PSD showed energy dependence within 2%; no angular dependence was registered. Ppol values for A26 IC were below 0.9% (0.5% for field size >2 × 2 cm(2)). A26 IC and W1 PSD depth-dose curves and lateral profiles agreed with those obtained with an EDGE diode. No differences were observed among the detectors in OF measurement for field sizes larger than 1 × 1 cm(2), with average differences water equivalence of EDGE diode become significant. A26 IC OF values were significantly lower than EDGE diode and W1 PSD values, with percentage differences of about -23 and -13% for the smallest field, respectively. W1 PSD OF values lay between ion chambers and diode values, with a maximum percentage difference of about -10% with respect to the EDGE diode, for a 6 × 6-mm(2) field size. The results of our investigation confirm that A26 IC and W1 PSD could play an important role in small field relative dosimetry. Advances in knowledge: Dosimetric characteristics of Exradin A26

  17. Fabrication and imaging characterization of high sensitive CsI(Tl) and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S(Tb) scintillator screens for X-ray imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Bo Kyung, E-mail: goldrain99@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Yul [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Joo; Sim, Cheulmuu [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyuseong [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Indirect-detection methods consisted of an X-ray converter and photodiode arrays are more widely used in medical diagnosis and industrial fields. Two major scintillation materials such as terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb, Gadox) and thallium-doped cesium iodide(CsI:Tl) are commonly used. In this work, Gadox screens were manufactured by particle in binder (PIB) layer method and CsI:Tl scintillator films with columnar structure were also fabricated by thermal evaporation method onto glass substrates. Furthermore, two sample screens were coated to increase the light collection efficiency by white TiO{sub 2} reflective layers. The scintillation properties, such as emission spectrum and light output of these materials were measured by X-ray luminescence condition. In order to investigate the imaging performance of both Gadox and CsI:Tl scintillation screens as converters of X-ray imaging detectors, these materials were optically coupled with a 2D CCD image sensor. The light response to X-ray dose, spatial resolution and X-ray images were measured and analyzed under X-ray imaging system condition.

  18. VEGA: A low-power front-end ASIC for large area multi-linear X-ray silicon drift detectors: Design and experimental characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Macera, Daniele; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Malcovati, Piero; Grassi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the first experimental characterization of VEGA, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed to read out large area monolithic linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD's). VEGA consists of an analog and a digital/mixed-signal section to accomplish all the functionalities and specifications required for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 500 eV and 50 keV. The analog section includes a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper with 3-bit digitally selectable shaping times from 1.6 μs to 6.6 μs and a peak stretcher/sample-and-hold stage. The digital/mixed-signal section includes an amplitude discriminator with coarse and fine threshold level setting, a peak discriminator and a logic circuit to fulfill pile-up rejection, signal sampling, trigger generation, channel reset and the preamplifier and discriminators disabling functionalities. A Serial Peripherical Interface (SPI) is integrated in VEGA for loading and storing all configuration parameters in an internal register within few microseconds. The VEGA ASIC has been designed and manufactured in 0.35 μm CMOS mixed-signal technology in single and 32 channel versions with dimensions of 200 μm×500 μm per channel. A minimum intrinsic Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 12 electrons r.m.s. at 3.6 μs peaking time and room temperature is measured and the linearity error is between -0.9% and +0.6% in the whole input energy range. The total power consumption is 481 μW and 420 μW per channel for the single and 32 channels version, respectively. A comparison with other ASICs for X-ray SDD's shows that VEGA has a suitable low noise and offers high functionality as ADC-ready signal processing but at a power consumption that is a factor of four lower than other similar existing ASICs.

  19. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  20. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W., E-mail: gaowu@nwpu.edu.cn; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S–K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e{sup −} at zero farad plus 14 e{sup −} per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of {sup 241}Am source.

  1. Multiple beam x-ray diffraction tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, C.M.; Davis, J.R.; Coyle, R.A. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Department of Physics

    1999-12-01

    Full text: X-ray diffraction computed tomography (XDT) is an imaging modality that utilises scattered x-rays to reconstruct an image. Since its inception in 1985, various detection scenarios and imaging techniques have been developed to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of XDT. Many of the previous methods for measuring the scattered x-rays from an object utilise detectors that accept x-rays scattered from the entire length of the raypath through the object. The detector apertures must therefore have dimensions similar to the largest width of the scanned object. This creates a situation where the detected x-rays are not derived from a single scattering angle. A new method of scanning the x-rays scattered from an object is presented which allows quantitative determination of the spatial distribution of differential scattering cross section within a cross-sectional plane of the object. The new method incorporates a position sensitive detector and an arrangement of Soller slits. The acquired data represents both spatial and angular information. For each raypath through the object, a partial diffraction projection is measured at the off-axis detector and a set of diffraction projections is assembled by combining the diffracted signal from all rays through the object. A reconstruction strategy that accounts for attenuation of the primary beam and the scattered beam allows us to reconstruct a map of the differential scattering cross section in the sample for a given angle. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. 3 refs.

  2. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, T; Kaneko, J H; Arikawa, Y; Isobe, M; Sato, Y; Tsubota, M; Nagai, T; Kojima, S; Abe, Y; Sakata, S; Fujioka, S; Nakai, M; Shiraga, H; Azechi, H; Chayahara, A; Umezawa, H; Shikata, S

    2015-05-01

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10(7) cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10(7) cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5-1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10(9) neutrons/shot.

  3. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  4. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  5. High-resolution coded-aperture design for compressive X-ray tomography using low resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Edson; Pertuz, Said; Arguello, Henry

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Computed Tomography (CT) is obtaining accurate reconstructions of the imaged object while keeping a low radiation dose in the acquisition process. In order to solve this problem, several researchers have proposed the use of compressed sensing for reducing the amount of measurements required to perform CT. This paper tackles the problem of designing high-resolution coded apertures for compressed sensing computed tomography. In contrast to previous approaches, we aim at designing apertures to be used with low-resolution detectors in order to achieve super-resolution. The proposed method iteratively improves random coded apertures using a gradient descent algorithm subject to constraints in the coherence and homogeneity of the compressive sensing matrix induced by the coded aperture. Experiments with different test sets show consistent results for different transmittances, number of shots and super-resolution factors.

  6. Simple and economical instrumentation for automatization of the detectors repositioning in gamma and X-rays set-up; Instrumentacao simples e economica para a automatizacao no reposicionamento de detectores em set-up de raios-X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luiz A. Pereira dos; Banevides, Clayton A.; Barros, Fabio R. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: luiz.aps@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    An optoelectronic system was developed for position sensing of radiation detectors in gamma and X-ray set-up. The electronic part consists basically in a single chip logic circuit which yields a read-out proportional to the detected light intensity. Infrared emitting diode and silicon photodetector were used in the optical part to minimize the contribution from visible spectrum. The system response can give a spatial resolution about 10{sup -5} meter. The spatial resolution is a light source collimation function and it can be adjusted by using lens. (author)

  7. Real time implementation of anti-scatter grid artifact elimination method for high resolution x-ray imaging CMOS detectors using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2017-03-01

    Scatter is one of the most important factors effecting image quality in radiography. One of the best scatter reduction methods in dynamic imaging is an anti-scatter grid. However, when used with high resolution imaging detectors these grids may leave grid-line artifacts with increasing severity as detector resolution improves. The presence of such artifacts can mask important details in the image and degrade image quality. We have previously demonstrated that, in order to remove these artifacts, one must first subtract the residual scatter that penetrates through the grid followed by dividing out a reference grid image; however, this correction must be done fast so that corrected images can be provided in real-time to clinicians. In this study, a standard stationary Smit-Rontgen x-ray grid (line density - 70 lines/cm, grid ratio - 13:1) was used with a high-resolution CMOS detector, the Dexela 1207 (pixel size - 75 micron) to image anthropomorphic head phantoms. For a 15 x 15 cm field-of-view (FOV), scatter profiles of the anthropomorphic head phantoms were estimated then iteratively modified to minimize the structured noise due to the varying grid-line artifacts across the FOV. Images of the head phantoms taken with the grid, before and after the corrections, were compared, demonstrating almost total elimination of the artifact over the full FOV. This correction is done fast using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), with 7-8 iterations and total time taken to obtain the corrected image of only 87 ms, hence, demonstrating the virtually real-time implementation of the grid-artifact correction technique.

  8. Impacts of Filtration on Contrast-Detail Detectability of an X-ray Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qirong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of added filtration on the contrast-detail detectability of a digital X-ray imaging system for small animal studies. A digital X-ray imaging system specifically designed for small animal studies was used. This system is equipped with a micro X-ray source with a tungsten target and a beryllium window filtration and a CCD-based digital detector. Molybdenum filters of 0 mm, 0.02 mm, and 0.05 mm in thickness were added. The corresponding X-ray spectra and contrast-detail detectabilities were measured using two phantoms of different thicknesses simulating breast tissue under different exposures. The added Mo filters reduced the low-energy as well as the high-energy photons, hence providing a narrowband for imaging quality improvement. In the experiments with a 1.15 cm phantom, the optimal image detectability was observed using 22 kVp and the 0.05 mm Mo filter. With the 2.15 cm phantom, the best detectability was obtained with 22 kVp and the 0.02 mm Mo filter. Our experiments showed that appropriate filtrations could reduce certain low- and high-energy components of X-ray spectra which have limited contributions to image contrast. At the same time, such filtration could improve the contrast-detail detectability, particularly at relatively low kVp and high filtration. Therefore, optimal image quality can be obtained with the same absorbed radiation dose by the subjects when appropriate filtration is used.

  9. Portable gamma- and X-ray analyzers based on CdTe p-i-n detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, A K; Bahlanov, S V; Derbin, A V; Ivanov, V V; Lysenko, V V; Morozov, F; Mouratov, V G; Muratova, V N; Petukhov, Y A; Pirogov, A M; Polytsia, O P; Saveliev, V D; Solovei, V A; Yegorov, K A; Zhucov, M P

    1999-01-01

    Several portable instruments are designed using previously reported CdTe detector technology. These can be divided into three groups according to their energy ranges: (1) 3-30 keV XRF analyzers, (2) 5-120 keV wide range XRF analyzers and (3) gamma-ray spectrometers for operation up to 1500 keV. These instruments are used to inspect several hundreds of samples in situ during a working day in applications such as a metal alloy verification at customs control. Heavy metals are identified through a 3-100 mm thick package with these instruments. Surface contamination by heavy metals (for example toxins such as Hg, Th and Pb in housing environmental control), the determination of Pb concentration in gasoline, geophysical control in mining, or nuclear material control are other applications. The weight of these XRF probes is about 1 kg and two electronic designs are used: one with embedded computer and another based on a standard portable PC. The instruments have good precision and high productivity for measurements...

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    means of measuring ultrashort x-ray pulse durations. LAPE may also serve as the basis for a gated x-ray detector.

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ...

  13. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis complicated by acute thromboembolic disease: chest X-ray, HRCT and multi-detector row CT angiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Luigi; Campanile, Francesco; Imbriaco, Massimo; Ippolito, Renato; Sirignano, Cesare; Santoro, Ciro; Galderisi, Maurizio; Salvatore, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic diffuse interstitial disease characterized by a predominant reticular pattern of involvement of the lung parenchyma which can be well documented by High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). While almost half of the patients with IPF may develop pulmonary arterial hypertension, the occurrence of superimposed acute thrombo-embolic disease is rare.We describe a case of an 87 yrs old female who was found to have IPF complicated by acute pulmonary thrombo-embolism during the clinical and radiological investigation of a rapidly worsening dyspnea. While chest x-ray findings were initially considered consistent with a congestive heart failure, a bed side echocardiography revealed findings suggestive of pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure with enlargement of both right cavities and associated valvular regurgitations. An acute thrombo-embolic disease was initially ruled out by a perfusion lung scintigraphy and subsequently confirmed by contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT which showed an embolus at the emergency of the right inter-lobar artery with associated signs of chronic pulmonary hypertension. However, unenhanced scans performed with both conventional and high resolution techniques also depicted a reticular pattern of involvement of lung parenchyma considered suggestive of IPF despite a atypical upper lobe predominance. IPF was later confirmed by further clinical, serological and instrumental follow-up.

  14. Determination of radial location of rotating magnetic islands by use of poloidal soft x-ray detector arrays in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M.; Xiao, C.; Elgriw, S.; Trembach, D.; Wolfe, S.; Hirose, A.

    2011-05-01

    A technique is presented for determining the radial location of the rotating magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak by use of soft x-ray (SXR) detector arrays. The location is determined by examining the difference in the integrated SXR emission intensities through two adjacent lines of sight. A model for calculating dependence of the line integrated SXR emission intensity on the radius, the mode numbers and the magnetic island geometry, has been developed. The SXR difference signal shows phase inversion when the impact parameter of the line of sight sweeps across the magnetic islands. Experimentally, the difference SXR signals significantly reduce noise and suppress the influence of background plasma fluctuations through common mode rejection when a dominant mode exists in the STOR-M tokamak. The radial locations of the m = 2 magnetic islands have been determined under several experimental conditions in the STOR-M discharges. With the decrease in the tokamak discharge current and thus the increase of the safety factor at the edge, the radial location of the m = 2 magnetic islands has been found to move radially inward.

  15. Measurement of X-ray spectra using a Lu2(SiO4)O-multipixel-photon detector with changes in the pixel number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Ryuji; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Yabuushi, Tomonori; Ariga, Hisanori; Ehara, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    To measure X-ray spectra with high count rates, we developed a detector consisting of a Lu2(SiO4)O [LSO] crystal with a decay time of 40 ns and a multipixel photon counter (MPPC). The photocurrents flowing through the MPPC are converted into voltages and amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and event pulses from the amplifier are sent to a multichannel analyzer to measure spectra. We used three MPPCs of 100, 400 and 1600 pixels/mm(2), and the MPPCs were driven under pre-Geiger mode at a temperature of 20 °C. At a tube voltage of 100 kV and a tube current of 5.0 μA, the maximum count rate was 12.8 kilo-counts per second. The event-pulse widths were 200 ns, and the energy resolution was 53% at 59.5 keV using a 100-pixel MPPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of columnar CsI x-ray detector responses obtained with hybridMANTIS, a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo code for coupled x-ray, electron, and optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2013-03-01

    hybridMANTIS is a Monte Carlo package for modeling indirect x-ray imagers using columnar geometry based on a hybrid concept that maximizes the utilization of available CPU and graphics processing unit processors in a workstation. The authors compare hybridMANTIS x-ray response simulations to previously published MANTIS and experimental data for four cesium iodide scintillator screens. These screens have a variety of reflective and absorptive surfaces with different thicknesses. The authors analyze hybridMANTIS results in terms of modulation transfer function and calculate the root mean square difference and Swank factors from simulated and experimental results. The comparison suggests that hybridMANTIS better matches the experimental data as compared to MANTIS, especially at high spatial frequencies and for the thicker screens. hybridMANTIS simulations are much faster than MANTIS with speed-ups up to 5260. hybridMANTIS is a useful tool for improved description and optimization of image acquisition stages in medical imaging systems and for modeling the forward problem in iterative reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Light collection enhancement of the digital x-ray detector using Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb and CsI:Tl phosphors in the aspect of nano-scale light dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Taeho, E-mail: thw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk-daero 1045, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The nano-scopic light collection is investigated for the Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs). The simulations using two kinds of screens are shown for light collection of x-rays. Enhancement of the light collection is accomplished by the microlens system incorporated with x-ray detector. For digital radiographic and mammographic applications, indirect detection imagers use Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb or CsI:Tl scintillation screens to convert the x-ray into visible photons. The light collection efficiencies for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S and CsI are obtained. In Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S, the 27 kVp and 82 {mu}m are the highest light collection cases in both Lambertian and Isotropic geometries. In CsI, 20 keV and 150 {mu}m case have the highest light collection efficiency. So, x-ray energy and scintillator thicknesses are considered as the optimized light collection. The optimum thickness and x-ray energy combination are used for the detector of this study. In this paper, it is concluded that the screens between 17 kVp and 25 kVp have higher light collections, which could be considered as the clinical purposes if it is necessary. This energy range is compared with other energy cases, which are examined in the study. - Highlights: > The light collection efficiency could be increased by the microlens optically focusing method. > The lens focuses on the lights of the nano-scale photon distributions. > This depends on the angular distribution of the photons. > The quantum quantity is obtained by the x-ray energy and screen thickness. > The image blur can be decreased by the photon detection numbers in the photodetector.

  18. Advanced light element and low energy X-ray line analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) with Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, T.; Palasse, L.; Berlin, J.; Hansen, B.; Terborg, R.; Falke, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Characterization at the micro- to nano-scale is crucial for understanding many processes in earth, planetary, material and biological sciences. The composition of thin electron transparent samples can be analyzed in the nm-range using transmission electron microscopes (TEM) or, specific sample holders provided, in the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Nevertheless both methods often require complex sample preparation. An alternative method is to analyze bulk samples with a FE-SEM. In order to decrease the excitation volume for generated X-rays, low accelerating voltages (HVsystem with an XFlash Silicon Drift Detector acquired EDS spectra in spectrum images. To separate overlapping peaks, an extended atomic database [1] was used. For single channel EDS the electron beam current, solid angle, take-off angle and exposure time can be optimized to investigate the element composition. Multiple SDD setups ensure an even higher efficiency and larger collection angles for the X-ray analysis than single channel detectors. Shadowing effects are minimized in element distribution maps so that samples can be investigated quickly and sometimes in a close to natural state, with little preparation. A new type of EDS detector, the annular four channel SDD (XFlash 5060F), is placed between the pole piece and sample. It covers a very large solid angle (1.1 sr) and allows sufficient data collection at low beam currents on beam sensitive samples with substantial surface topography. Examples of applications: Results demonstrate that SDD-based EDS analysis contributes essential information on the structure at the micro- to nano scale of the investigated sample types. These include stardust analogue impact experiments [2], Chicxulub asteroid impactites [3,4], ore characterization of the Sudbury igneous complex [5], biomineralization in bacteria and insects [6], and characterization of ceramics [7] and ceramic metal joints [8]. We conclude that improvements

  19. The qualitative f-ratio method applied to electron channelling-induced x-ray imaging with an annular silicon drift detector in a scanning electron microscope in the transmission mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-09-01

    Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition. To circumvent this issue, the recently developed f-ratio method was applied to display qualitatively the true net intensity x-ray variations in a thin specimen of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a scanning electron microscope in transmission mode. The diffraction contrast observed in the x-ray images was successfully cancelled through the use of f-ratios and the true composition variations at the grain boundaries could be observed in relation to the dislocation alignment prior to the β-phase nucleation. The qualitative effectiveness in removing channelling effects demonstrated in this work makes the f-ratio, in its quantitative form, a possible alternative to the ZAF method in channelling conditions. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Performance of a four-element Si drift detector for X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy: resolution, maximum count rate, and dead-time correction with incorporation into the ATHENA data analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, J C; Ravel, B; Fischer, D A; Newburgh, W J

    2010-05-01

    The performance of a four-element Si drift detector for energy-dispersive fluorescence-yield X-ray absorption fine-structure measurements is reported, operating at the National Institute of Standards and Technology beamline X23A2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detector can acquire X-ray absorption fine-structure spectra with a throughput exceeding 4 x 10(5) counts per second per detector element (>1.6 x 10(6) total counts per second summed over all four channels). At this count rate the resolution at 6 keV is approximately 220 eV, which adequately resolves the Mn Kalpha and Kbeta fluorescence lines. Accurate dead-time correction is demonstrated, and it has been incorporated into the ATHENA data analysis program. To maintain counting efficiency and high signal to background, it is suggested that the incoming count rate should not exceed approximately 70% of the maximum throughput.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of high-speed, time-gated microchannel-plate-based x-ray detectors: saturation effects in dc and pulsed modes and detector dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Craig A; Wu, Ming; Moy, Ken; Rochau, Greg

    2008-10-01

    We present here results of continued efforts to understand the performance of microchannel plate (MCP)-based, high-speed, gated, x-ray detectors. This work involves the continued improvement of a Monte Carlo simulation code to describe MCP performance coupled with experimental efforts to better characterize such detectors. Our goal is a quantitative description of MCP saturation behavior in both static and pulsed modes. A new model of charge buildup on the walls of the MCP channels is briefly described. The simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with a short-pulse, high-intensity ultraviolet laser, and good agreement is found. These results indicate that a weak saturation can change the exponent of gain with voltage and that a strong saturation leads to a gain plateau. These results also demonstrate that the dynamic range of a MCP in pulsed mode has a value of between 10(2) and 10(3).

  2. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  3. X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenster, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, J.P. Robarts Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Yaffe, M.J. [Univ. of Toronto, Depts. of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, North York, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    In this article, we briefly review the principles of x-ray imaging, consider some of its applications in medicine and describe some of the developments in this area which have taken place in Canada. X rays were first used for diagnosis and therapy in medicine almost immediately after the report of their discovery by Roentgen in 1895. X-ray imaging has remained the primary tool for the investigation of structures within the body up to the present time (Johns and Cunningham 1983). Medical x rays are produced in a vacuum tube by the electron bombardment of a metallic target. Electrons emitted from a heated cathode are accelerated through an electric field to energies of 20-150 keV (wavelength 6.2-0.83 nm) and strike a target anode. X rays appear in a spectrum of bremsstrahlung radiation with energies ranging from 0 to a value that is numerically equal to the peak voltage applied between the cathode and anode of the x-ray tube (Figure 1). In addition, where the energy of the impinging electrons exceeds the binding energy of inner atomic orbitals of the target material, electrons may be ejected from those shells. Filling of these shells by more loosely-bound electrons gives rise to x rays whose energies are equal to the difference of the binding energies of the donor and acceptor shells. The energies of these characteristic x rays are unique to the target material. Less than 1% of the energy of the incident electrons is converted to that of x rays, while the remainder is dissipated as heat in the target. For this reason, a tremendous amount of engineering has gone into the design of x-ray tubes that can yield a large fluence rate of quanta from a small effective source size, while withstanding the enormous applied heat loading (e.g. 10 kJ per exposure). Tungsten is by far the most common material used for targets in tubes for diagnostic radiology, because of its high melting point and its high atomic number; the efficiency of x-ray production is proportional to Z of the

  4. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  7. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Comparative studies on intraoral analog and digital X-ray image detector systems; Vergleichende Untersuchung analoger und digitaler intraoraler Roentgenbild-Empfaengersysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blendl, C.; Stengel, C.; Zdunczyk, S. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Photoingenieurwesen

    2000-06-01

    The object of this investigation was to compare different intraoral, analog and digital X-ray image detector systems with respect to the diagnostic performance and to the relation of dose and image quality. Methods: Three different intraoral film types and one digital system were compared. The same basic image quality-related technical parameters were measured, Contrast detail diagrams and images of pig teeths were captured and evaluated by visual inspection. Results: The digital system has a speed that is twice as high as least of the most sensitive analog systems. Compared to the analog system, the digital system visualizes better low contrast structures such as carious defects, but shows problems in visualisation of high dynamic ranges such as crown margins or fillings: insufficient suitable dynamic range. Larger objects such as incisors could not be imaged in one exposure due to the small area of the digital detector (24.3x18.2 mm). Retakes may be required due to the small dynamic range and detector area. Conclusions: The complete imaging of a tooth with crown and apical region, as required in the 'radiological guidelines' is in doubt with digital systems having small active areas. The image quality of digital systems differs significantly from that of analog systems, nevertheless, the achievable image quality fulfills the requirements of intraoral dental radiology. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, intraorale, analoge und digitale Roentgenbild-Empfaengersysteme in Bezug auf ihre diagnostische Leistungsfaehigkeit, ihr Verhaeltnis von Dosis und Bildqualitaet miteinander zu vergleichen. Methoden: Es wurden drei verschiedene intraorale Filmtypen und ein digitales System miteinander verglichen. Dazu wurden einige bildtechnisch notwendige technische Kenngroessen ermittelt, Kontrast-Detail-Diagramme sowie Schweinezahn-Aufnahmen angefertigt und visuell ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass das digitale System mindestens doppelt so empfindlich ist

  9. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  15. Sinus x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection and inflammation of the sinuses called sinusitis . A sinus x-ray is ordered when you have any of the following: Symptoms of sinusitis Other sinus disorders, such as a deviated septum ( ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight November is National Lung Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  19. X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray References Geleijns J, Tack D. Medical physics: radiation risks. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. ... University in Durham, North Carolina. I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  3. Propagation-based phase-contrast enhancement of nanostructure images using a debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source and an LiF crystal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatoly Ya; Gasilov, Sergei V; Skobelev, Igor Yu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Homma, Takayuki; Kawase, Keigo; Hayashi, Yukio; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2009-11-10

    We demonstrate in-line phase-contrast imaging of nanothickness foils by using a relatively large, polychromatic, debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source, and a high-resolution, large dynamic range LiF crystal detector. The spatial coherence length of radiation in our setup reached a value of 5 microm on the sample plane, which is enough to observe phase-contrast enhancement in the images registered by the detector placed only a few hundred micrometers behind the object. We have developed a tabletop soft x-ray emission source, which emits radiation within a 4pi sr solid angle, and which allows one to obtain contact and propagation-based phase-contrast imaging of nanostructures with 700 nm spatial resolutions. This advance could be of utility for metrology applications.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  11. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence of discarded tire samples, using a Si-PIN detector; Fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia de amostras de pneus inserviveis com detector de Si-Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: bonn@uel.b [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Melquiades, Fabio L. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    The determination of zinc concentration in samples of discarded tires is of great environmental interest because the process for manufacturing tyres uses S for rubber vulcanization, and ZnO is the reaction catalyst. Discarded tyres are being used in asphalt paving, in the burning process of thermoelectric and cement industries and also for controlling erosion in agricultural areas. Analysis of tyre samples usually requires chemical digestion which is slow and expensive. Aiming to eliminate those limitations, this work uses energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a portable equipment, once it is a simultaneous multi-element analytical technique, requiring minimal sample preparation. Five samples of discarded tyres have been ground and analysed in the form of pastilles, using a mini X-ray tube (Ag target, MO filter, 25 kV/20 muA) for 200 s, and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Zinc concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 mug g{sup -1} have been obtained, representing 0.4% of the tire composition, which is below the maximum value (2%) recommended by the European Tyre Recycling Association. Concentrations between 0.15 and 0.52 mug g{sup -1} were obtained for Fe

  12. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence from useless tyres samples with a Si PIN detector; Fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao em energia de amostras de pneus inserviveis com detector de Si-PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Fabio; Scheibel, Viviane [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada]. E-mail: bonn@uel.br; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Moraes, Liz Mary Bueno de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The concentration of Zn from discard tyre samples is of environmental interest, since on its production are used S for the rubber vulcanization process, and Zn O as reaction catalyze. The useless tyres are been used for asphalt pave, burn in cement industry and thermoelectric power plant and in erosion control of agriculture areas. Analyses of these samples requires frequently chemical digestion that is expensive and take a long time. Trying to eliminate these limitations, the objective of this work was use Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) with a portable system as the technique is multi elementary and needs a minimum sample preparation. Five useless tyres samples were grind in a knife mill and after this in a cryogenic mill, and analyzed in pellets form, using a X ray mini tube (Ag target, Mo {sub l}ter, 25 kV/20 {sub A}) for 200 s and a Si-PIN semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Were obtained Zn concentrations in the range of 40.6 to 44.2 {sub g} g{sub 1}, representing nearly 0.4. (author)

  13. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  14. X-ray diffraction imaging of material microstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Laszlo

    2016-10-20

    Various examples are provided for x-ray imaging of the microstructure of materials. In one example, a system for non-destructive material testing includes an x-ray source configured to generate a beam spot on a test item; a grid detector configured to receive x- rays diffracted from the test object; and a computing device configured to determine a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the test object. In another example, a method for determining a microstructure of a material includes illuminating a beam spot on the material with a beam of incident x-rays; detecting, with a grid detector, x-rays diffracted from the material; and determining, by a computing device, a microstructure image based at least in part upon a diffraction pattern of the x-rays diffracted from the material.

  15. Optical absorption characteristics in the assessment of powder phosphor-based x-ray detectors: from nano- to micro-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaparinos, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray phosphor-based detectors have enormously improved the quality of medical imaging examinations through the optimization of optical diffusion. In recent years, with the development of science and technology in the field of materials, improved powder phosphors require structural and optical properties that contribute to better optical signal propagation. The purpose of this paper was to provide a quantitative and qualitative understanding of the optical absorption characteristics in the assessment of powder phosphor-based detectors (from nano- scale up to micro-scale). Variations on the optical absorption parameters (i.e. the light extinction coefficient {{m}\\text{ext}} and the percentage probability of light absorption p%) were evaluated based on Mie calculations examining a wide range of light wavelengths, particle refractive indices and sizes. To model and assess the effects of the aforementioned parameters on optical diffusion, Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed considering: (i) phosphors of different layer thickness, 100 μm (thin layer) and 300 μm (thick layer), respectively, (ii) light extinction coefficient values, 1, 3 and 6 μm-1, and (iii) percentage probability of light absorption p% in the range 10-4-10-2. Results showed that the {{m}\\text{ext}} coefficient is high for phosphor grains in the submicron scale and for low light wavelengths. At higher wavelengths (above 650 nm), optical quanta follow approximately similar depths until interaction for grain diameter 500 nm and 1 μm. Regarding the variability of the refractive index, high variations of the {{m}\\text{ext}} coefficient occurred above 1.6. Furthermore, results derived from Monte Carlo modeling showed that high spatial resolution phosphors can be accomplished by increasing the {{m}\\text{ext}} parameter. More specifically, the FWHM was found to decrease (i.e. higher resolution): (i) 4.8% at 100 μm and (ii) 9.5%, at 300 μm layer thickness. This study attempted to

  16. Factors influencing uncertainties of in vivo bone lead measurement using a (109)Cd K X-ray fluorescence clover leaf geometry detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behinaein, Sepideh; Chettle, David R; Marro, Leonora; Malowany, Morie; Fisher, Mandy; Fleming, David E B; Healey, Norm; Inskip, Mike; Arbuckle, Tye E; McNeill, Fiona E

    2014-12-01

    A (109)Cd K X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) measurement system consisting of four detectors in clover-leaf geometry is a non-invasive, low-radiation-dose method of measuring bone lead concentration. Its high precision in estimating the bone lead content makes it a promising tool for the determination of the low levels of lead currently found in the general population. After developing the clover-leaf geometry system, the system was used for the first time in a major survey in 2008 to measure the lead levels of 497 smelter employees (an occupationally exposed group with high lead levels). Since the delivered effective dose of the bone lead system in clover-leaf geometry is small (on the order of nSv), the technique can be used to measure the bone lead of sensitive populations such as the elderly and children. This detector system was used from 2009 to 2011, in a pilot study that measured the bone lead concentration of 263 environmentally exposed individuals (termed the EG group) residing in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In this paper, the factors that influence uncertainties in lead content in tibia (cortical bone) and calcaneus (trabecular bone) are discussed based on gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression models. Results from the two study groups (the EG group versus the occupationally exposed smelter employees) are compared where appropriate (i.e. for males older than 20). Results from univariate analyses showed that females have higher tibia uncertainty compared to males. We observed significant differences for both calcaneus and tibia uncertainty measures (p < 0.0005) among different age groups, where the uncertainties were highest in the lowest age group (<11 years). Lastly, and perhaps most significantly, we found that the product of source activity and measurement time influenced the precision of measurements greatly, and that this factor alone could account for the higher uncertainties observed for

  17. 3D information extraction based on a novel x ray imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunyu; Kong, Lingli; Zhang, Junju; Zhang, Shengdong

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, a novel x-ray imaging system was introduced. It was a CCD based system, but different from the traditional CCD based x-ray imaging system, which was composed of the x-ray intensifying screen, the CCD and the low light level image intensifier, specially using the zoom lens for coupling. Zoom lens can give a continuous variable visual field, which not only reduce the geometrical blur but also can produce several image pairs for stereo imaging. It is convenient for three dimension information extraction from a group of two dimension x-ray images and is valuable for stereovision radiography in the application of medical diagnosis, security checking, non-destructive testing, and industry detection. This stereo imaging method is also referential for the three dimension reconstruction daily living.

  18. Determination of the laser intensity applied to a Ta witness plate from the measured x-ray signal using a pulsed micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, L. A.; Rosen, M. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hinkel, D. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Kauffman, R. L.; Wu, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    The laser intensity distribution at the surface of a high-Z material, such as Ta, can be deduced from imaging the self-emission of the produced x-ray spot using suitable calibration data. This paper presents a calibration method which uses the measured x-ray emissions from laser spots of different intensities hitting a Ta witness plate. The x-ray emission is measured with a micro-channel plate (MCP) based x-ray framing camera plus filters. Data from different positions on one MCP strip or from different MCP assemblies are normalized to each other using a standard candle laser beam spot at ∼1 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The distribution of the resulting dataset agrees with results from a pseudo spectroscopic model for laser intensities between 4 and 15 × 1013 W/cm2 . The model is then used to determine the absolute scaling factor between the experimental results from assemblies using two different x-ray filters. The data and model method also allows unique calibration factors for each MCP system and each MCP gain to be compared. We also present simulation results investigating alternate witness plate materials (Ag, Eu and Au).

  19. Measurement of photoneutron doses in and out of high-energy X-ray beam of a SATURNE-20 medical linear accelerator by ECE polycarbonate detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    Photoneutron contaminations in and out of high energy X-ray beams of the medical linear accelerator SATURNE 20 (CGR) of the Radiotherapy Department of Omeed Hospital in Isfahan, Iran, have been determined using 250 mu m polycarbonate (PC) dosimeters, in strips or in sheets, processed by electrochemical etching (ECE) using specially designed ECE chambers to etch larger sheets. A two dimensional or topographical distribution of neutron contamination was also determined in a full size beam. The neutron dose equivalents (Hn) in the beam of 18 MV X-rays at 80 cm FSD were determined to be linear functions of X-ray dose equivalents (Hx) up to 1400 cSv. The distribution of the Hn at different X-ray doses showed bell-shape profiles with maxima at the isocenter. The ratios of dose equivalents of neutrons to those of X-rays increased as the field size increased having values of 0.22%, 0.28%, 0.31% and 0.37% for field sizes of 10x10, 20x20, 30x30, and 40x40 cm sup 2 respectively. Although such neutron dose equivalents ca...

  20. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  1. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  2. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used ...

  4. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... be placed over the lower part of your spine. You will be asked to hold your breath ... x-ray. The most common reason for lumbosacral spine x-ray is to look for the cause ...

  5. High-contrast X-ray micro-radiography and micro-CT of ex-vivo soft tissue murine organs utilizing ethanol fixation and large area photon-counting detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, Jan; Zemlicka, Jan; Karch, Jakub; Patzelt, Matej; Mrzilkova, Jana; Zach, Petr; Hermanova, Zuzana; Kvacek, Jiri; Krejci, Frantisek

    2016-07-27

    Using dedicated contrast agents high-quality X-ray imaging of soft tissue structures with isotropic micrometre resolution has become feasible. This technique is frequently titled as virtual histology as it allows production of slices of tissue without destroying the sample. The use of contrast agents is, however, often an irreversible time-consuming procedure and despite the non-destructive principle of X-ray imaging, the sample is usually no longer usable for other research methods. In this work we present the application of recently developed large-area photon counting detector for high resolution X-ray micro-radiography and micro-tomography of whole ex-vivo ethanol-preserved mouse organs. The photon counting detectors provide dark-current-free quantum-counting operation enabling acquisition of data with virtually unlimited contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thanks to the very high CNR even ethanol-only preserved soft-tissue samples without addition of any contrast agent can be visualized in great detail. As ethanol preservation is one of the standard steps of tissue fixation for histology, the presented method can open a way for widespread use of micro-CT with all its advantages for routine 3D non-destructive soft-tissue visualisation.

  6. CCD-based optical CT scanning of highly attenuating phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nowais, Shamsa [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Doran, Simon J [CRUK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Simon.Doran@icr.ac.uk

    2009-05-01

    The introduction of optical computed tomography (optical-CT) offers economic and easy to use 3-D optical readout for gel dosimeters. However, previous authors have noted some challenges regarding the accuracy of such imaging techniques at high values of optical density. In this paper, we take a closer look at the 'cupping' artefact evident in both light-scattering polymer systems and highly light absorbing phantoms using our CCD-based optical scanner. In addition, a technique is implemented whereby the maximum measurable optical absorbance is extended to correct for any errors that may have occurred in the estimated value of the dark current or ambient light reaching the detector. The results indicate that for absorbance values up to 2.0, the optical scanner results have good accuracy, whereas this is not the case at high absorbance values for reasons yet to be explained.

  7. Handbook of X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith A. (Editor); Smith, Randall K.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    X-ray astronomy was born in the aftermath of World War II as military rockets were repurposed to lift radiation detectors above the atmosphere for a few minutes at a time. These early flights detected and studied X-ray emission from the Solar corona. The first sources beyond the Solar System were detected during a rocket flight in 1962 by a team headed by Riccardo Giaccom at American Science and Engineering, a company founded by physicists from MIT. The rocket used Geiger counters with a system designed to reduce non-X-ray backgrounds and collimators limiting the region of sky seen by the counters. As the rocket spun, the field of view (FOV) happened to pass over what was later found to be the brightest non-Solar X-ray source; later designated See X-1. It also detected a uniform background glow which could not be resolved into individual sources. A follow-up campaign using X-ray detectors with better spatial resolution and optical telescopes identified See X-1 as an interacting binary with a compact (neutron star) primary. This success led to further suborbital rocket flights by a number of groups. More X-ray binaries were discovered, as well as X-ray emission from supernova remnants, the radio galaxies M87 and Cygnus-A, and the Coma cluster. Detectors were improved and Geiger counters were replaced by proportional counters, which provided information about energy spectra of the sources. A constant challenge was determining precise positions of sources as only collimators were available.

  8. Characterization of X-ray CdTe detector for medical imaging; Caracterisation de structures de detection X a base de CdTe pour l'imagerie medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, R

    2004-07-01

    X ray imaging begins to be interested in the systems exploiting the potential of CZT semi conductors at ambient temperature. (CZT are CdTe or CdZnTe semi conductors). The principal advantages are the compactness, and the performances of these materials coming from the direct conversion of photons in electric charges. The laboratory studies a detector with CZT material associated to a CMOS circuit using an innovative principle of photons counting in order to answer at best to the speed constraints, resolution and numerical treatment that require the applications of x-ray imaging. This work comes in the progressive mock-up characterization under x radiation, in the irradiation conditions of a scanner, in order to validate the feasibility of these imagers. (N.C.)

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight November is National Lung Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions ... Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, ...

  11. Pelvis x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    The x-ray is used to look for: Fractures Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... Abnormal results may suggest: Pelvic fractures Arthritis of the hip joint ... spondylitis (abnormal stiffness of the spine and joint) ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology (IDoR) Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound November 8 is ...

  13. The quantum X-ray radiology apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Hilt, B; Prevot, G

    2000-01-01

    The paper entitled 'New Quantum Detection System for Very Low Dose X-ray Radiology', presented at the talk session, discusses the preliminary data obtained using a new quantum X-ray radiology system with a high-efficiency solid-state detector and highly sensitive electronics, making it possible to reduce significantly the dose administered to a patient in X-ray radiology examinations. The present paper focuses more on the technological aspects of the apparatus, such as the integration of the detector with the two Asics, and the computer system. Namely, it is shown how the computer system calibrates the detection system, acquires the data in real time, and controls the scan parameters and image filtering process.

  14. X-ray polarimetry an upcoming 'new' tool in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffitta, P.

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive X-ray polarimetry promises to solve many different issues in X-ray Astronomy: from disentangling physics from geometry removing degeneracies in models of magnetars and X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars, to mapping ordered magnetic fields in Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae. It constrains emission mechanisms in blazars and solves the mistery of X-ray emission from cold molecular clouds in the galactic center. Moreover it can answer to questions of fundamental physics. XIPE the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer accomplished phase A as an ESA M4 candidate and IXPE the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry explorer was selected as next SMEX mission by NASA for a flight in late 2020. In this talk I will describe both missions and their ability to make energy, time and angle resolved polarimetry thanks to a detector developed at this aim and to X-ray optics with a large effective area.

  15. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...... of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstra