WorldWideScience

Sample records for ccd cameras

  1. CCD Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Roger R.

    1983-01-01

    A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation eminating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other.

  2. CCD Luminescence Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom

    1987-01-01

    New diagnostic tool used to understand performance and failures of microelectronic devices. Microscope integrated to low-noise charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera to produce new instrument for analyzing performance and failures of microelectronics devices that emit infrared light during operation. CCD camera also used to indentify very clearly parts that have failed where luminescence typically found.

  3. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  4. Wide Dynamic Range CCD Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, J. M.; Gove, R. J.; Penz, P. A.; Russell, D. E.

    1984-11-01

    A liquid crystal attenuator (LCA) operated as a variable neutral density filter has been attached to a charge-coupled device (CCD) imager to extend the dynamic range of a solid-state TV camera by an order of magnitude. Many applications are best served by a camera with a dynamic range of several thousand. For example, outside security systems must operate unattended with "dawn-to-dusk" lighting conditions. Although this can be achieved with available auto-iris lens assemblies, more elegant solutions which provide the small size, low power, high reliability advantages of solid state technology are now available. This paper will describe one such unique way of achieving these dynamic ranges using standard optics by making the CCD imager's glass cover a controllable neutral density filter. The liquid crystal attenuator's structure and theoretical properties for this application will be described along with measured transmittance. A small integrated TV camera which utilizes a "virtual-phase" CCD sensor coupled to a LCA will be described and test results for a number of the camera's optical and electrical parameters will be given. These include the following camera parameters: dynamic range, Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), spectral response, and uniformity. Also described will be circuitry which senses the ambient scene illuminance and automatically provides feedback signals to appropriately adjust the transmittance of the LCA. Finally, image photographs using this camera, under various scene illuminations, will be shown.

  5. Calibration Tests of Industrial and Scientific CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, M. R.; Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Small format, medium resolution CCD cameras are at present widely used for industrial metrology applications. Large format, high resolution CCD cameras are primarily in use for scientific applications, but in due course should increase both the range of applications and the object space accuracy achievable by close range measurement. Slow scan, cooled scientific CCD cameras provide the additional benefit of additional quantisation levels which enables improved radiometric resolution. The calibration of all types of CCD cameras is necessary in order to characterize the geometry of the sensors and lenses. A number of different types of CCD cameras have been calibrated a the NASA Langley Research Center using self calibration and a small test object. The results of these calibration tests will be described, with particular emphasis on the differences between standard CCD video cameras and scientific slow scan CCD cameras.

  6. CCD characterization for a range of color cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    CCD cameras are widely used for remote sensing and image processing applications. However, most cameras are produced to create nice images, not to do accurate measurements. Post processing operations such as gamma adjustment and automatic gain control are incorporated in the camera. When a (CCD) cam

  7. Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise

  8. BUNDLE ADJUSTMENTS CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON COLLINEARITY EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changying; Yu Zhijing; Che Rensheng; Ye Dong; Huang Qingcheng; Yang Dingning

    2004-01-01

    The solid template CCD camera calibration method of bundle adjustments based on collinearity equation is presented considering the characteristics of space large-dimension on-line measurement. In the method, a more comprehensive camera model is adopted which is based on the pinhole model extended with distortions corrections. In the process of calibration, calibration precision is improved by imaging at different locations in the whole measurement space, multi-imaging at the same location and bundle adjustments optimization. The calibration experiment proves that the calibration method is able to fulfill calibration requirement of CCD camera applied to vision measurement.

  9. CCD Color Camera Characterization for Image Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we will analyze a range of different types of cameras for its use in measurements. We verify a general model of a charged coupled device camera using experiments. This model includes gain and offset, additive and multiplicative noise, and gamma correction. It is shown that for sever

  10. A New Technique for CCD Camera Auto-Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Zhang; Changku Sun; Zhixiong Wang; Wei Wei

    2003-01-01

    A novel feature-round-based coplanar drone for the CCD camera auto-calibration is designed. Based on the ellipse similarity, an ellipse recognition algorithm is proposed. The experiment indicates the calibration error is less than 0.4 pixel.

  11. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  12. The development of high-speed 100 fps CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development of a high-speed CCD digital camera system. The system has been designed to use CCDs from various manufacturers with minimal modifications. The first camera built on this design utilizes a Thomson 512 x 512 pixel CCD as its sensor, which is read out from two parallel outputs at a speed of 15 MHz/pixel/output. The data undergo correlated double sampling after which it is digitized into 12 bits. The throughput of the system translates into 60 MB/second, which is either stored directly in a PC or transferred to a custom-designed VXI module. The PC data acquisition version of the camera can collect sustained data in real time that is limited to the memory installed in the PC. The VXI version of the camera, also controlled by a PC, stores 512 MB of real-time data before it must be read out to the PC disk storage. The uncooled CCD can be used either with lenses for visible light imaging or with a phosphor screen for X-ray imaging. This camera has been tested with a phosphor screen coupled to a fiber-optic face plate for high-resolution, high-speed X-ray imaging. The camera is controlled through a custom event-driven user-friendly Windows package. The pixel clock speed can be changed from 1 to 15 MHz. The noise was measured to be 1.05 bits at a 13.3 MHz pixel clock. This paper will describe the electronics, software, and characterizations that have been performed using both visible and X-ray photons. (orig.)

  13. CCD camera full range pH sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, A; Maleki, N; Rostamzadeh, A; Maesum, S

    2007-01-15

    Changes in colors of an array of optical sensors that responds in full pH range were recorded using a CCD camera. The data of the camera were transferred to the computer through a capture card. Simple software was written to read the specific color of each sensor. In order to associate sensor array responses with pH values, a number of different mathematics and chemometrics methods were investigated and compared. The results show that the use of "Microsoft Excel's Solver" provides results which are in very good agreement with those obtained with chemometric methods such as artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square (PLS) methods. PMID:19071333

  14. The SXI: CCD camera onboard the NeXT mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Dotani, Tadayasu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Bautz, Marshall W.

    2008-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) is the X-ray CCD camera on board the NeXT mission that is to be launched around 2013. We are going to employ the CCD chips developed at Hamamatsu Photonics, K.K. We have been developing two types of the CCD: an N-channel chip and a P-channel chip. The effective area of the detector system will be 5-6 cm square with a depletion layer of 100-200μm. The P-channel chip will have thicker depletion layer that makes it easy to develop it to back-illuminated type CCD. It will need a year or so for us to reach the final conclusion which type will be available. Based on the Suzaku experience, we will incorporate the charge injection gate so that we can reduce the proton damage. Furthermore, we will employ a mechanical cooler to keep the CCD working temperature down to -120°C in spite that NeXT will be in the low earth orbit. We can expect the radiation damage on our system very small. The CCD will have an Al coat on the chip to prevent optical photons from entering. This also eliminates the vacuum-tight chamber and the door-opening mechanism. We are planning to employ a custom-made analog ASIC that will reduce the power consumption and the size. The ASIC may speed up the frame-time if we can use a multi-node CCD. With using the focal length of 6m, the SXI will fully function with the optics around 20" resolution. We will report the current plan of the SXI in detail.

  15. A luminescence imaging system based on a CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Markey, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Stimulated luminescence arising from naturally occurring minerals is likely to be spatially heterogeneous. Standard luminescence detection systems are unable to resolve this variability. Several research groups have attempted to use imaging photon detectors, or image intensifiers linked...... to photographic systems, in order to obtain spatially resolved data. However, the former option is extremely expensive and it is difficult to obtain quantitative data from the latter. This paper describes the use of a CCD camera for imaging both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The system...

  16. CCD camera automatic calibration technology and ellipse recognition algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changku Sun; Xiaodong Zhang; Yunxia Qu

    2005-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) pattern used in camera calibration is presented. With one feature circle located at the center, an array of circles is photo-etched on this pattern. An ellipse recognition algorithm is proposed to implement the acquisition of interest calibration points without human intervention. According to the circle arrangement of the pattern, the relation between three-dimensional (3D) and 2D coordinates of these points can be established automatically and accurately. These calibration points are computed for intrinsic parameters calibration of charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with Tsai method. A series of experiments have shown that the algorithm is robust and reliable with the calibration error less than 0.4 pixel. This new calibration pattern and ellipse recognition algorithm can be widely used in computer vision.

  17. Beam profile monitor using alumina screen and CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pair of beam profile monitors using alumina ceramic screens (Al2O3) and CCD cameras has been developed for diagnosis of a linac beam at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo (INS-ES). Since both the light decay-time of the screen and a shutter speed of the camera are relatively short, about 10 msec or less and 1 msec, respectively, this system is able to measure the beam profile for each pulse of the linac beam operated at a repetition rate of 21.5 Hz. Detailed analysis of the beam profile is made using the stored data on the personal computer. On the other hand, a light spot on the screen is displayed directly on a monitor display. (author)

  18. CCD Camera Lens Interface for Real-Time Theodolite Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Shane; Scott, V. Stanley, III

    2012-01-01

    Theodolites are a common instrument in the testing, alignment, and building of various systems ranging from a single optical component to an entire instrument. They provide a precise way to measure horizontal and vertical angles. They can be used to align multiple objects in a desired way at specific angles. They can also be used to reference a specific location or orientation of an object that has moved. Some systems may require a small margin of error in position of components. A theodolite can assist with accurately measuring and/or minimizing that error. The technology is an adapter for a CCD camera with lens to attach to a Leica Wild T3000 Theodolite eyepiece that enables viewing on a connected monitor, and thus can be utilized with multiple theodolites simultaneously. This technology removes a substantial part of human error by relying on the CCD camera and monitors. It also allows image recording of the alignment, and therefore provides a quantitative means to measure such error.

  19. Research of fiber position measurement by multi CCD cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zengxiang; Hu, Hongzhuan; Wang, Jianping; Zhai, Chao; Chu, Jiaru; Liu, Zhigang

    2014-07-01

    Parallel controlled fiber positioner as an efficiency observation system, has been used in LAMOST for four years, and will be proposed in ngCFHT and rebuilt telescope Mayall. The fiber positioner research group in USTC have designed a new generation prototype by a close-packed module robotic positioner mechanisms. The prototype includes about 150 groups fiber positioning module plugged in 1 meter diameter honeycombed focal plane. Each module has 37 12mm diameter fiber positioners. Furthermore the new system promotes the accuracy from 40 um in LAMOST to 10um in MSDESI. That's a new challenge for measurement. Close-loop control system are to be used in new system. The CCD camera captures the photo of fiber tip position covered the focal plane, calculates the precise position information and feeds back to control system. After the positioner rotated several loops, the accuracy of all positioners will be confined to less than 10um. We report our component development and performance measurement program of new measuring system by using multi CCD cameras. With the stereo vision and image processing method, we precisely measure the 3-demension position of fiber tip carried by fiber positioner. Finally we present baseline parameters for the fiber positioner measurement as a reference of next generation survey telescope design.

  20. White-light interference fringe detection using color CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Jedlička, Petr; Matějka, Milan; Kolařík, Vladimír; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2009, 5308093: 1-5. ISBN 978-1-4244-3918-8. [Africon 2009. Nairobi (KE), 23.09.2009-25.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133; GA MPO 2A-3TP1/113; GA ČR GA102/07/1179; GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA ČR GA102/09/1276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : white- light source * phase-crossing algorithm * gauge block * color CCD camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Perfecting the Photometric Calibration of the ACS CCD Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlin, Ralph C

    2016-01-01

    Newly acquired data and improved data reduction algorithms mandate a fresh look at the absolute flux calibration of the CCD cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The goals are to achieve a 1\\% accuracy and to make this calibration more accessible to the HST guest investigator. Absolute fluxes from the CALSPEC\\footnote{http://www.stsci.edu/hst/observatory/crds/calspec.html} database for three primary hot 30,000--60,000K WDs define the sensitivity calibrations for the WFC and HRC filters. The external uncertainty for the absolute flux is $\\sim$1\\%, while the internal consistency of the sensitivities in the broadband ACS filters is $\\sim$0.3\\% among the three primary WD flux standards. For stars as cool as K type, the agreement with the CALSPEC standards is within 1\\% at the WFC1-1K subarray position, which achieves the 1\\% precision goal for the first time. After making a small adjustment to the filter bandpass for F814W, the 1\\% precision goal is achieved over the full ...

  2. Calibration to the image position of CCD camera and correction of q profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration to the image position of CCD camera used in the HL-1M tokamak has been carried out. Based on the calibration, the safety factor profile measured with the CCD camera during pellet injection is corrected. Points for attention are discussed, and some measures for improvement are proposed

  3. VME image acquisition and processing using standard TV CCD cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESRF has released the first version of a low-cost image acquisition and processing system based on a industrial VME board and commercial CCD TV cameras. The images from standard CCIR (625 lines) or EIA (525 lines) inputs are digitised with 8-bit dynamic range and stored in a general purpose frame buffer to be processed by the embedded firmware. They can also be transferred to a UNIX workstation through the network for display in a X11 window, or stored in a file for off-line processing with image analysis packages like KHOROS, IDL, etc. The front-end VME acquisition system can be controlled with a Graphic Users' Interface (GUI) based on X11/Motif running under UNIX. The first release of the system is in operation and allows one to observe and analyse beam spots around the accelerators. The system has been extended make it possible to position a micro sample (less than 10 μm2) not visible to the naked eye. This system is a general purpose image acquisition system which may have wider applications. ((orig.))

  4. A luminescence imaging system based on a CCD camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Markey, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    spectrum, the CCD system is less sensitive than the standard bi-alkali photocathode photomultipliers that are commonly used. However, the CCD has a peak performance between 500 and 900 nm. and is more sensitive than the photomultiplier tube over this range. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  5. The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Godet, O.; Abbey, A. F.; Goad, M. R.; Page, K. L.; Wells, A. A.; Angelini, L; Burrows, D. N.; S. Campana; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Hill, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 144 eV FWHM at 6.5 keV. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Loss of temperature control motivated a laboratory program to re-optimize the CCD substrate volt...

  6. A Low Noise, High QE, Large Format CCD Camera System for the NASA MIGHTI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, J. J.; Cardon, J.; Watson, M.; Cook, J.; Whiteley, M.; Beukers, J.; Englert, C. R.; Brown, C. M.; Harlander, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument is part of the NASA Ionspheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission designed to uncover the mysteries of the extreme variability of the Earth's ionosphere. MIGHTI consists of two identical units positioned to observe the Earth's low latitude thermosphere from perpendicular viewing directions. The MIGHTI instrument is a spatial heterodyne spectrometer and requires a low noise, high QE, large format camera system to detect slight phase changes in the fringe patterns which reveal the neutral wind velocity. The MIGHTI camera system uses a single control electronics box to operate two identical CCD camera heads and communicate with the ICON payload electronics. The control electronics are carefully designed for a low noise implementation of CCD biases, clocking, and CCD output digitization. The camera heads consist of a 2k by 2K, back-illuminated, frame transfer CCD provided by e2v. The CCD's are both TEC cooled and have butcher-block filters mounted in close proximity of the active area. The CCDs are nominally operated in binned mode, the control electronics register settings provide flexibility for binning and gain control. An engineering model of the camera system has been assembled and tested. The EM camera system characterization meets all performance requirements. Performance highlights include a measured read noise of 5.7 electrons and dark current of 0.01 electronics/pixel/second. The camera system design and characterization results will be presented.

  7. Opinion rating of comparison photographs of television pictures from CCD cameras under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the development of a general method of testing the effects of gamma radiation on CCD television cameras, this is a report of an experimental study on the optimisation of still photographic representation of video pictures recorded before and during camera irradiation. (author)

  8. A Large Area CCD Camera for the Schmidt Telescope at the Venezuelan National Astronomical Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Baltay, C.; Snyder, J. A.; Andrews, P.; Emmet, W.; Schaefer, B.; Sinnott, J.; Bailyn, C.; de Coppi, P.; Oemler, A.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sofia, S.; van Altena, W.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C; Briceno, C.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and put into operation a large area CCD camera that covers a large fraction of the image plane of the 1 meter Schmidt telescope at Llano del Hato in Venezuela. The camera consists of 16 CCD devices arranged in a 4 x 4 mosaic covering 2.3 degrees x 3.5 degrees of sky. The CCDs are 2048 x 2048 LORAL devices with 15 micron pixels. The camera is optimized for drift scan photometry and objective prism spectroscopy. The design considerations, construction features and ...

  9. A Large Area CCD Camera for the Schmidt Telescope at the Venezuelan National Astronomical Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Baltay, C; Andrews, P; Emmet, W; Schaefer, B; Sinnott, J; Bailyn, C D; Coppi, P S; Oemler, A E; Sabbey, C N; Sofia, S; Van Altena, W F; Vivas, A K; Abad, C; Briceño, C; Bruzual, G; Magris, G; Stock, J; Prugna, F D; Sánchez, G; Schenner, H; Adams, B; Gebhard, M; Honeycutt, R K; Musser, J; Harris, F; Geary, J; Sanchez, Ge.; Sanchez, Gu.

    2002-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and put into operation a large area CCD camera that covers a large fraction of the image plane of the 1 meter Schmidt telescope at Llano del Hato in Venezuela. The camera consists of 16 CCD devices arranged in a 4 x 4 mosaic covering 2.3 degrees x 3.5 degrees of sky. The CCDs are 2048 x 2048 LORAL devices with 15 micron pixels. The camera is optimized for drift scan photometry and objective prism spectroscopy. The design considerations, construction features and performance parameters are described in the following article.

  10. Radiation damage of the PCO Pixelfly VGA CCD camera of the BES system on KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Náfrádi, Gábor, E-mail: nafradi@reak.bme.hu [NTI, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Kovácsik, Ákos, E-mail: kovacsik.akos@reak.bme.hu [NTI, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Pór, Gábor, E-mail: por@reak.bme.hu [NTI, BME, EURATOM Association, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Lampert, Máté, E-mail: lampert.mate@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Un Nam, Yong, E-mail: yunam@nfri.re.kr [NFRI, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Zoletnik, Sándor, E-mail: zoletnik.sandor@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner RCP, RMI, EURATOM Association, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-01-11

    A PCO Pixelfly VGA CCD camera which is part a of the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) used for spatial calibrations, suffered from serious radiation damage, white pixel defects have been generated in it. The main goal of this work was to identify the origin of the radiation damage and to give solutions to avoid it. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) model was built using Monte Carlo Modeling Interface Program (MCAM) and calculations were carried out to predict the neutron and gamma-ray fields in the camera position. Besides the MCNPX calculations pure gamma-ray irradiations of the CCD camera were carried out in the Training Reactor of BME. Before, during and after the irradiations numerous frames were taken with the camera with 5 s long exposure times. The evaluation of these frames showed that with the applied high gamma-ray dose (1.7 Gy) and dose rate levels (up to 2 Gy/h) the number of the white pixels did not increase. We have found that the origin of the white pixel generation was the neutron-induced thermal hopping of the electrons which means that in the future only neutron shielding is necessary around the CCD camera. Another solution could be to replace the CCD camera with a more radiation tolerant one for example with a suitable CMOS camera or apply both solutions simultaneously.

  11. High-speed optical shutter coupled to fast-readout CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, George J.; Pena, Claudine R.; McDonald, Thomas E., Jr.; Gallegos, Robert A.; Numkena, Dustin M.; Turko, Bojan T.; Ziska, George; Millaud, Jacques E.; Diaz, Rick; Buckley, John; Anthony, Glen; Araki, Takae; Larson, Eric D.

    1999-04-01

    A high frame rate optically shuttered CCD camera for radiometric imaging of transient optical phenomena has been designed and several prototypes fabricated, which are now in evaluation phase. the camera design incorporates stripline geometry image intensifiers for ultra fast image shutters capable of 200ps exposures. The intensifiers are fiber optically coupled to a multiport CCD capable of 75 MHz pixel clocking to achieve 4KHz frame rate for 512 X 512 pixels from simultaneous readout of 16 individual segments of the CCD array. The intensifier, Philips XX1412MH/E03 is generically a Generation II proximity-focused micro channel plate intensifier (MCPII) redesigned for high speed gating by Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by Philips Components. The CCD is a Reticon HSO512 split storage with bi-direcitonal vertical readout architecture. The camera main frame is designed utilizing a multilayer motherboard for transporting CCD video signals and clocks via imbedded stripline buses designed for 100MHz operation. The MCPII gate duration and gain variables are controlled and measured in real time and up-dated for data logging each frame, with 10-bit resolution, selectable either locally or by computer. The camera provides both analog and 10-bit digital video. The camera's architecture, salient design characteristics, and current test data depicting resolution, dynamic range, shutter sequences, and image reconstruction will be presented and discussed.

  12. Measurement of soft x-ray image by using CCD camera for long pulse discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft x-ray imaging was made a CCD camera installed to a tangential port in LHD. The large number of pixels (1024x512) of with CCD gives a good spatial resolution of 1.8 mm. The tangential soft x-ray image is obtained during long pulse discharge on LHD with a time resolution of 0.5 s. The shift of x-ray emission profile is found for plasmas with different magnetic axes. (J.P.N.)

  13. The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera during 2006-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Tyler, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A. A.; Angelini, L; S. Campana; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument res...

  14. The in-flight spectroscopic calibration of the Swift XRT CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera houses a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response of 145 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. We describe the status of the CCD X-ray spectral redistribution matrices, which are made using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique based on physical models of the CCD response. We emphasize how the model has been refined following in-flight experience with celestial and on-board calibration sources. Residuals less than 10% are typically observed for astrophysical sources

  15. Recording of radiation-induced optical density changes in doped agarose gels with a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Spatially resolved dose measurement with iron-doped agarose gels is continuing to be investigated for applications in radiotherapy dosimetry. It has previously been proposed to use optical methods, rather than MRI, for dose measurement with such gels and this has been investigated using a spectrophotometer (Appleby A and Leghrouz A, Med Phys, 18:309-312, 1991). We have previously studied the use of a pencil beam laser for such optical density measurement of gels and are currently investigating charge-coupled devices (CCD) camera imaging for the same purpose but with the advantages of higher data acquisition rates and potentially greater spatial resolution. The gels used in these studies were poured, irradiated and optically analysed in Perspex casts providing gel sections 1 cm thick and up to 20 cm x 30 cm in dimension. The gels were also infused with a metal indicator dye (xylenol orange) to render the radiation induced oxidation of the iron in the gel sensitive to optical radiation, specifically in the green spectral region. Data acquisition with the CCD camera involved illumination of the irradiated gel section with a diffuse white light source, with the light from the plane of the gel section focussed to the CCD array with a manual zoom lens. The light was also filtered with a green colour glass filter to maximise the contrast between unirradiated and irradiated gels. The CCD camera (EG and G Reticon MC4013) featured a 1024 x 1024 pixel array and was interfaced to a PC via a frame grabber acquisition board with 8 bit resolution. The performance of the gel dosimeter was appraised in mapping of physical and dynamic wedged 6 MV X-ray fields. The results from the CCD camera detection system were compared with both ionisation chamber data and laser based optical density measurements of the gels. Cross beam profiles were extracted from each measurement system at a particular depth (eg. 2.3 cm for the physical wedge field) for direct comparison. A

  16. Images processing in hostile nuclear environments. Experimental CCD cameras tests results for robotic operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes succinctly the hostile aspect of nuclear environment for visual sensors and transmissions. It approaches the new field of nuclear Robotic and its constraints about vision process. Tolerance tests of CCD cameras in gamma radiations environment are displayed: - gamma dosimetry measures, - electrical measurement process, - views during testing, - degradations and better tolerance hypothesis

  17. Absolute spectral calibration of an intensified CCD camera using twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Peřina Jr., J.; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2014), B1-B7. ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spectral calibration * intensified CCD camera * twin beams * photon pairs Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  18. White-light fringe detection based on novel light-source and colour CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Brno : CMI, 2010. M05. [NanoScale 2010 - 9th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (QM) and 5th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods. 27.10.2010-29.10.2010, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * fringe analysis * CCD camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. The Experimental Study of Bubble Formation: Acoustics and CCD Camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunganič, Radovan; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    - : -, 2005. 7.5.. [Conference on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactor Engineering /7./. 21.08.2005-24.08.2005, Strasbourg] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0826; GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2566 Grant ostatní: BEMUSAC(XE) G1MA/CT/2002/04019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * acoustic emissions * high-speed camera Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Perfecting the Photometric Calibration of the ACS CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.

    2016-09-01

    Newly acquired data and improved data reduction algorithms mandate a fresh look at the absolute flux calibration of the charge-coupled device cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The goals are to achieve a 1% accuracy and to make this calibration more accessible to the HST guest investigator. Absolute fluxes from the CALSPEC1 database for three primary hot 30,000–60,000K WDs define the sensitivity calibrations for the Wide Field Channel (WFC) and High Resolution Channel (HRC) filters. The external uncertainty for the absolute flux is ˜1%, while the internal consistency of the sensitivities in the broadband ACS filters is ˜0.3% among the three primary WD flux standards. For stars as cool as K type, the agreement with the CALSPEC standards is within 1% at the WFC1-1K subarray position, which achieves the 1% precision goal for the first time. After making a small adjustment to the filter bandpass for F814W, the 1% precision goal is achieved over the full F814W WFC field of view for stars of K type and hotter. New encircled energies and absolute sensitivities replace the seminal results of Sirianni et al. that were published in 2005. After implementing the throughput updates, synthetic predictions of the WFC and HRC count rates for the average of the three primary WD standard stars agree with the observations to 0.1%.

  1. A Simple Approach of CCD Camera Calibration for Optical Diagnostics Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Leslie, Fred W.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solid State array sensors are ubiquitous nowadays for obtaining gross field images in numerous scientific and engineering applications including optical diagnostics and instrumentation. Linear responses of these sensors are often required as in interferometry, light scattering and attenuation measurements, and photometry. In most applications, the linearity is usually taken to be granted without thorough quantitative assessment or correction through calibration. Upper-grade CCD cameras of high price may offer better linearity: however, they also require linearity checking and correction if necessary. Intermediate- or low-grade CCD cameras are more likely to need calibration for linearity . Here, we present two very simple approaches: one for quickly checking camera linearity without any additional setup and one for precisely correcting nonlinear sensor responses. It is believed that after calibration, those sensors of intermediate or low grade can function as effectively as their expensive counterpart.

  2. The University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy CCD camera control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, K. T. C.; Yamada, H. T.; Luppino, G. A.; Hlivak, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy CCD Camera Control System consists of a NeXT workstation, a graphical user interface, and a fiber optics communications interface which is connected to a San Diego State University CCD controller. The UH system employs the NeXT-resident Motorola DSP 56001 as a real time hardware controller. The DSP 56001 is interfaced to the Mach-based UNIX of the NeXT workstation by DMA and multithreading. Since the SDSU controller also uses the DPS 56001, the NeXT is used as a development platform for the embedded control software. The fiber optic interface links the two DSP 56001's through their Synchronous Serial Interfaces. The user interface is based on the NeXTStep windowing system. It is easy to use and features real-time display of image data and control over all camera functions. Both Loral and Tektronix 2048 x 2048 CCD's have been driven at full readout speeds, and the system is intended to be capable of simultaneous readout of four such CCD's. The total hardware package is compact enough to be quite portable and has been used on five different telescopes on Mauna Kea. The complete CCD control system can be assembled for a very low cost. The hardware and software of the control system has proven to be quite reliable, well adapted to the needs of astronomers, and extensible to increasingly complicated control requirements.

  3. Use of a C.C.D. array in an X-ray pinhole camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray imaging adapted to the laser-matter interaction experiments consits in recording plasma images from its X-ray emission; those phenomena have between 100 ps and some nanoseconds duration. When we only need spatial information on 1-10 keV X-ray emission, the most simple imaging device is the pinhole camera; the two dimension image of the plasma is temporally integrated by an X-ray sensitive detector. Until now, X-ray film was used. Its operation and processing were long and tedious, so we replaced it by a television camera built around a Charge Coupled device (C.C.D.). This camera is directly integrated in the pinhole camera. The X-ray detection is made by the silicon substrat of a C.C.D. without input window working in the vacuum of the experiment chamber; a compact camera head (40 mm diameter, 120 mm length) located near the C.C.D. (1 to 2 cm) makes the charge voltage conversion and the signal amplification. The immediate operation of images is done by an image acquisition and processing unit after digitizing the video signal on 8 bits. From measurements made on a continuous X-ray source (5,4 keV) we could point out the fact that a THOMSON-CSF THX 31135 CCD is 10 times more sensitive than the X-ray SB2 KODAK film that we use in pinhole cameras. The dynamic range measured in these conditions was about 300. The first experimental results obtained on a pulsed X-ray source are presented

  4. Subpixel characterization of a PIV-CCD camera using a laser spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method for charge-coupled device (CCD; or CMOS) sensor characterization by using a subpixel laser spot. This method is used to measure the variations in sensitivity of the 2D sensor array systems equipped with a microlens array. The experimental results show that there is variation in the sensitivity for each position on the CCD of the camera, and the pixel optical center error with respect to the geometrical center is in the range of one-tenth that of a pixel. The disparity observed is attributed to the coherence of the laser light used that generates interference at the scale of the pixel. This may have significant consequences for coherent light imaging using CCD (or CMOS) such as particle image velocimetry. (paper)

  5. PIV camera response to high frequency signal: comparison of CCD and CMOS cameras using particle image simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a quantitative comparison between FlowMaster3 CCD and Phantom V9.1 CMOS cameras’ response in the scope of application to particle image velocimetry (PIV). First, the subpixel response is characterized using a specifically designed set-up. The crosstalk between adjacent pixels for the two cameras is then estimated and compared. Then, the camera response is experimentally characterized using particle image simulation. Based on a three-point Gaussian peak fitting, the bias and RMS errors between locations of simulated and real images for the two cameras are accurately calculated using a homemade program. The results show that, although the pixel response is not perfect, the optical crosstalk between adjacent pixels stays relatively low and the accuracy of the position determination of an ideal PIV particle image is much better than expected. (paper)

  6. Application of CCD-camera for size measuring of electron ring by means of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method is described and the results of measuring of electron ring density distribution are presented. A TV-camera on the basis of a CCD matrix is used as a sensing element. The camera is connected through the interface unit in CAMAC standard with the SM-4 computer. The time exposition of radiaiton is realized by using an electro-optic sutter in the time interval from 0.01 to 1 ms at an operation voltage of 1 kV. 5 refs

  7. Observation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type correlations with an electron multiplying CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Edgar, Matthew P; Izdebski, Frauke; Warburton, Ryan E; Leach, Jonathan; Agnew, Megan; Buller, Gerald S; Boyd, Robert W; Padgett, Miles J

    2012-01-01

    The light produced by parametric down-conversion shows strong spatial entanglement that leads to violations of EPR criteria for separability. Historically, such studies have been performed by scanning a single-element, single-photon detector across a detection plane. Here we show that modern electron-multiplying CCD cameras can measure correlations in both position and momentum across a multi-pixel field of view. This capability allows us to observe entanglement of around 2500 spatial states and demonstrate EPR-type correlations by more than two orders of magnitude. More generally, our work shows that such cameras can lead to important new capabilities in quantum optics and quantum information science.

  8. Development and characterization of a CCD camera system for use on six-inch manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed, constructed, and fielded a compact CCD camera system for use on the Six Inch Manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages on all active SIM-based diagnostics. The unit's electronic package is constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity using proprietary printed circuit board technology, thus reducing the size of the overall camera and improving its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova laser target chamber. The camera has been calibrated and found to yield a linear response, with superior dynamic range and signal-to-noise levels as compared to T-Max 3200 optic film, while providing real-time access to the data. Limiting factors related to fielding such devices on Nova will be discussed, in addition to planned improvements of the current design

  9. The ARGOS wavefront sensor pnCCD camera for an ELT: characteristics, limitations and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Xivry, G. Orban; Ihle, S.; Ziegleder, J.; Barl, L.; Hartmann, R.; Rabien, S.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.

    2011-09-01

    From low-order to high-order AO, future wave front sensors on ELTs require large, fast, and low-noise detectors with high quantum efficiency and low dark current. While a detector for a high-order Shack-Hartmann WFS does not exist yet, the current CCD technology pushed to its limits already provides several solutions for the ELT AO detector requirements. One of these devices is the new WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS, the Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics system (GLAO) for LUCIFER at LBT. Indeed, with its 264x264 pixels, 48 mu m pixel size and 1kHz frame rate, this camera provides a technological solution to different needs of the AO systems for ELTs, such as low-order but as well possibly higher order correction using pyramid wavefront sensing. In this contribution, we present the newly developped WFS pnCCD camera of ARGOS and how it fulfills future detector needs of AO on ELTs.

  10. The X-ray CCD camera of the MAXI experiment on the ISS/JEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), is the X-ray observatory on the Japanese experimental module (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is a slit scanning camera which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors: one is a one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter with a total area of ∼5000 cm2, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC), and the other is an X-ray CCD array with a total area of ∼200 cm2, the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). The GSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. x180 deg. while the SSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. times a little less than 180 deg. . In the course of one station orbit, MAXI can scan almost the entire sky with a precision of 1 deg. and with an X-ray energy range of 0.5-30 keV. We have developed the engineering model of CCD chips and the analogue electronics for the SSC. The energy resolution of EM CCD for Mn Kα has a full-width at half-maximum of ≅182 eV. Readout noise is ≅11 e- rms

  11. Modeling of the over-exposed pixel area of CCD cameras caused by laser dazzling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, Koen W.; Schleijpen, Ric H. M. A.

    2014-10-01

    A simple model has been developed and implemented in Matlab code, predicting the over-exposed pixel area of cameras caused by laser dazzling. Inputs of this model are the laser irradiance on the front optics of the camera, the Point Spread Function (PSF) of the used optics, the integration time of the camera, and camera sensor specifications like pixel size, quantum efficiency and full well capacity. Effects of the read-out circuit of the camera are not incorporated. The model was evaluated with laser dazzle experiments on CCD cameras using a 532 nm CW laser dazzler and shows good agreement. For relatively low laser irradiance the model predicts the over-exposed laser spot area quite accurately and shows the cube root dependency of spot diameter on laser irradiance, caused by the PSF as demonstrated before for IR cameras. For higher laser power levels the laser induced spot diameter increases more rapidly than predicted, which probably can be attributed to scatter effects in the camera. Some first attempts to model scatter contributions, using a simple scatter power function f(θ), show good resemblance with experiments. Using this model, a tool is available which can assess the performance of observation sensor systems while being subjected to laser countermeasures.

  12. Electro-optical testing of fully depleted CCD image sensors for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope camera

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Peter Edward; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Chiang, James; Gilmore, D. Kirk; Guyonnet, Augustin; Huang, Dajun; Kelly, Heather; Kotov, Ivan; Kubanek, Petr; Nomerotski, Andrei; O’Connor, Paul; Rasmussen, Andrew; Riot, Vincent J.; Stubbs, Christopher William

    2014-01-01

    The LSST Camera science sensor array will incorporate 189 large format Charge Coupled Device (CCD) image sensors. Each CCD will include over 16 million pixels and will be divided into 16 equally sized segments and each segment will be read through a separate output amplifier. The science goals of the project require CCD sensors with state of the art performance in many aspects. The broad survey wavelength coverage requires fully depleted, 100 micrometer thick, high resistivity, bulk silicon a...

  13. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1∼3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a dose

  14. A directional fast neutron detector using scintillating fibers and an intensified CCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing and testing a scintillating fiber detector (SFD) for use as a fast neutron sensor which can discriminate against neutrons entering at angles non-parallel to the fiber axis (''directionality''). The detector/convertor component is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 10 cm long and either 0.3 mm or 0.5 mm in diameter. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were made to optimize the bundle response to a range of fast neutron energies and to intense fluxes of high energy gamma-rays. The bundle is coupled to a set of gamma-ray insenitive electro-optic intensifiers whose output is viewed by a CCD camera directly coupled to the intensifiers. Two types of CCD cameras were utilized: 1) a standard, interline RS-170 camera with electronic shuttering and 2) a high-speed (up to 850 frame/s) field-transfer camera. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency and directionality were made using 14 MeV neutrons, and the response to gamma-rays was performed using intense fluxes from radioisotopic sources (up to 20 R/h). Recently, the detector was constructed and tested using a large 10 cm by 10 cm square fiber bundle coupled to a 10 cm diameter GEN I intensifier tube. We present a description of the various detector systems and report the results of experimental tests. ((orig.))

  15. Experience of in-cell visual inspection using CCD camera in hot cell of Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the selection, customization and operating experience of the visual inspection system for the hot cell of a Reprocessing Plant. For process equipment such as fuel chopping machine, dissolver, centrifuge, centrifugal extractors etc., viewing of operations and maintenance using manipulators is required. For this, the service of in-cell camera is essential. The ambience of the hot cell of Compact facility for Reprocessing of Advanced fuels in Lead cell (CORAL) for the reprocessing of fast reactor spent fuel has high gamma radiation and acidic vapors. Black and white Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera has been used in CORAL incorporating in-house modifications to suit the operating ambient conditions, thereby extending the operating life of the camera. (author)

  16. Proton radiation damage experiment on P-Channel CCD for an X-ray CCD camera onboard the ASTRO-H satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a proton radiation damage experiment on P-channel CCD newly developed for an X-ray CCD camera onboard the ASTRO-H satellite. The device was exposed up to 109 protons cm−2 at 6.7 MeV. The charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) was measured as a function of radiation dose. In comparison with the CTI currently measured in the CCD camera onboard the Suzaku satellite for 6 years, we confirmed that the new type of P-channel CCD is radiation tolerant enough for space use. We also confirmed that a charge-injection technique and lowering the operating temperature efficiently work to reduce the CTI for our device. A comparison with other P-channel CCD experiments is also discussed. -- Author-Highlights: •We performed a proton radiation damage experiment on a new P-channel CCD. •The device was exposed up to 109 protons cm−2 at 6.7 MeV. •We confirmed that it is radiation tolerant enough for space use. •We confirmed that a charge-injection technique reduces the CTI. •We confirmed that lowering the operating temperature also reduces the CTI

  17. Non-Metric CCD Camera Calibration Algorithm in a Digital Photogrammetry System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hua-chao; DENG Ka-zhong; ZHANG Shu-bi; GUO Guang-li; ZHOU Ming

    2006-01-01

    Camera calibration is a critical process in photogrammetry and a necessary step to acquire 3D information from a 2D image. In this paper, a flexible approach for CCD camera calibration using 2D direct linear transformation (DLT) and bundle adjustment is proposed. The proposed approach assumes that the camera interior orientation elements are known, and addresses a new closed form solution in planar object space based on homogenous coordinate representation and matrix factorization. Homogeneous coordinate representation offers a direct matrix correspondence between the parameters of the 2D DLT and the collinearity equation. The matrix factorization starts by recovering the elements of the rotation matrix and then solving for the camera position with the collinearity equation. Camera calibration with high precision is addressed by bundle adjustment using the initial values of the camera orientation elements. The results show that the calibration precision of principal point and focal length is about 0.2 and 0.3 pixels respectively, which can meet the requirements of close-range photogrammetry with high accuracy.

  18. A pnCCD-based, fast direct single electron imaging camera for TEM and STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new camera that is based on a pnCCD sensor for applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Emerging new microscopy techniques demand improved detectors with regards to readout rate, sensitivity and radiation hardness, especially in scanning mode. The pnCCD is a 2D imaging sensor that meets these requirements. Its intrinsic radiation hardness permits direct detection of electrons. The pnCCD is read out at a rate of 1,150 frames per second with an image area of 264 x 264 pixel. In binning or windowing modes, the readout rate is increased almost linearly, for example to 4000 frames per second at 4× binning (264 x 66 pixel). Single electrons with energies from 300 keV down to 5 keV can be distinguished due to the high sensitivity of the detector. Three applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy are highlighted to demonstrate that the pnCCD satisfies experimental requirements, especially fast recording of 2D images. In the first application, 65536 2D diffraction patterns were recorded in 70 s. STEM images corresponding to intensities of various diffraction peaks were reconstructed. For the second application, the microscope was operated in a Lorentz-like mode. Magnetic domains were imaged in an area of 256 x 256 sample points in less than 37 seconds for a total of 65536 images each with 264 x 132 pixels. Due to information provided by the two-dimensional images, not only the amplitude but also the direction of the magnetic field could be determined. In the third application, millisecond images of a semiconductor nanostructure were recorded to determine the lattice strain in the sample. A speed-up in measurement time by a factor of 200 could be achieved compared to a previously used camera system

  19. A pnCCD-based, fast direct single electron imaging camera for TEM and STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryll, H.; Simson, M.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Huth, M.; Ihle, S.; Kondo, Y.; Kotula, P.; Liebel, A.; Müller-Caspary, K.; Rosenauer, A.; Sagawa, R.; Schmidt, J.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a new camera that is based on a pnCCD sensor for applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Emerging new microscopy techniques demand improved detectors with regards to readout rate, sensitivity and radiation hardness, especially in scanning mode. The pnCCD is a 2D imaging sensor that meets these requirements. Its intrinsic radiation hardness permits direct detection of electrons. The pnCCD is read out at a rate of 1,150 frames per second with an image area of 264 x 264 pixel. In binning or windowing modes, the readout rate is increased almost linearly, for example to 4000 frames per second at 4× binning (264 x 66 pixel). Single electrons with energies from 300 keV down to 5 keV can be distinguished due to the high sensitivity of the detector. Three applications in scanning transmission electron microscopy are highlighted to demonstrate that the pnCCD satisfies experimental requirements, especially fast recording of 2D images. In the first application, 65536 2D diffraction patterns were recorded in 70 s. STEM images corresponding to intensities of various diffraction peaks were reconstructed. For the second application, the microscope was operated in a Lorentz-like mode. Magnetic domains were imaged in an area of 256 x 256 sample points in less than 37 seconds for a total of 65536 images each with 264 x 132 pixels. Due to information provided by the two-dimensional images, not only the amplitude but also the direction of the magnetic field could be determined. In the third application, millisecond images of a semiconductor nanostructure were recorded to determine the lattice strain in the sample. A speed-up in measurement time by a factor of 200 could be achieved compared to a previously used camera system.

  20. Calibration of the photometric method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously developed method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion has been significantly improved. The charge measurements are based on analysis of photometric profiles of the particle tracks in emulsion. These profiles are obtained using a CCD camera mounted on an optical microscope. So far, the manual charge determination by delta ray counting had to be used for calibration of the photometric method. In this paper a complete procedure for calibration of the photometric method is shown, without resorting to the manual method

  1. White-light fringe detection based on a novel light source and colour CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2011), 094031:1-6. ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * CCD camera * gauge block Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2011

  2. Upwelling radiance at 976 nm measured from space using the OPALS CCD camera on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Abrahamson, Matthew; Wright, Malcolm W.

    2015-03-01

    The Optical Payload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System on-board the International Space Station uses a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to detect a beacon laser from Earth. Relative measurements of the background contributed by upwelling radiance under diverse illumination conditions and varying surface terrain is presented. In some cases clouds in the field-of-view allowed a comparison of terrestrial and cloud-top upwelling radiance. In this paper we will report these measurements and examine the extent of agreement with atmospheric model predictions.

  3. Calibration of the photometric method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion using a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Kudzia, D; Wilczynski, H

    2002-01-01

    A previously developed method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion has been significantly improved. The charge measurements are based on analysis of photometric profiles of the particle tracks in emulsion. These profiles are obtained using a CCD camera mounted on an optical microscope. So far, the manual charge determination by delta ray counting had to be used for calibration of the photometric method. In this paper a complete procedure for calibration of the photometric method is shown, without resorting to the manual method.

  4. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Kudzia, D; Dabrowska, A; Deines-Jones, P; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Nilsen, B S; Sen-Gupta, K; Szarska, M; Trzupek, A; Waddington, C J; Wefel, J P; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K

    1999-01-01

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  5. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  6. Surface Diagnostics using Low-Coherence Interferometry and Colour Single CCD Camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Ottawa : International ASET, 2010, 517: 1-6. ISBN 978-0-9867183-0-4. [Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications. Ottawa (CA), 04.08.2010-06.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * surface diagnostics * CCD camera * white- light fringe analysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  7. Development of the X-ray CCD camera for the MAXI mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is an astrophysical payload for the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is designed for full-sky monitoring in the 0.5-30keV X-ray band. The Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) is the X-ray CCD Camera for the MAXI mission. We have developed an engineering model (EM) of the SSC. Combined with the EM electronics, we achieved low readout noise (∼5e-rms) and good energy resolution (150eV at 5.9keV). We also examine the energy scale and the energy resolution as a function of energy using our calibration system. From these results, we conclude that the performance of the SSC-EM almost fulfills our requirements and that the final performance goals will be obtained in the flight model

  8. LAIWO: a new wide-field CCD camera for Wise Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Harald; Afonso, Cristina; Marien, Karl-Heinz; Klein, Ralf

    2006-06-01

    LAIWO is a new CCD wide-field camera for the 40-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope at Wise Observatory in Mitzpe Ramon/Israel. The telescope is identical to the 40-in. telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, which is described in [2]. LAIWO was designed and built at Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. The scientific aim of the instrument is to detect Jupiter-sized extra-solar planets around I=14-15 magnitude stars with the transit method, which relies on the temporary drop in brightness of the parent star harboring the planet. LAIWO can observe a 1.4 x 1.4 degree field-of-view and has four CCDs with 4096*4096 pixels each The Fairchild Imaging CCDs have a pixel size of 15 microns. Since they are not 2-side buttable, they are arranged with spacings between the chips that is equal to the size of a single CCD minus a small overlap. The CCDs are cooled by liquid nitrogen to a temperature of about -100 °C. The four science CCDs and the guider CCD are mounted on a common cryogenic plate which can be adjusted in three degrees of freedom. Each of these detectors can also be adjusted independently by a similar mechanism. The instrument contains large shutter and filter mechanisms, both designed in a modular way for fast exchange and easy maintenance.

  9. Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.12.174

    2011-01-01

    We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCDcamera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of =<30 uV at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of about 150 mW/chip. The input signal range of 720 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed ...

  10. Front- vs. back-illuminated CCD cameras for photometric surveys: a noise budget analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzet, Nicolas; Fressin, Francois; Blazit, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Exoplanetary transit and stellar oscillation surveys require a very high precision photometry. The instrumental noise has therefore to be minimized. First, we perform a semi-analytical model of different noise sources. We show that the noise due the CCD electrodes can be overcome using a Gaussian PSF (Point Spread Function) of full width half maximum larger than 1.6 pixels. We also find that for a PSF size of a few pixels, the photometric aperture has to be at least 2.5 times larger than the PSF full width half maximum. Then, we compare a front- with a back-illuminated CCD through a Monte-Carlo simulation. Both cameras give the same results for a PSF full width half maximum larger than 1.5 pixels. All these simulations are applied to the A STEP (Antarctica Search for Transiting Extrasolar Planets) project. As a result, we choose a front-illuminated camera for A STEP because of its better resolution and lower price, and we will use a PSF larger than 1.6 pixels.

  11. A novel approach to accurate portal dosimetry using CCD-camera based EPIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for portal dosimetry using CCD camera-based electronic portal imaging devices (CEPIDs) is demonstrated. Unlike previous approaches, it is not based on a priori assumptions concerning CEPID cross-talk characteristics. In this method, the nonsymmetrical and position-dependent cross-talk is determined by directly imaging a set of cross-talk kernels generated by small fields ('pencil beams') exploiting the high signal-to-noise ratio of a cooled CCD camera. Signal calibration is achieved by imaging two reference fields. Next, portal dose images (PDIs) can be derived from electronic portal dose images (EPIs), in a fast forward-calculating iterative deconvolution. To test the accuracy of these EPI-based PDIs, a comparison is made to PDIs obtained by scanning diode measurements. The method proved accurate to within 0.2±0.7% (1 SD), for on-axis symmetrical and asymmetrical fields with different field widths and homogeneous phantom thicknesses, off-axis Alderson thorax fields and a strongly modulated IMRT field. Hence, the proposed method allows for fast, accurate portal dosimetry. In addition, it is demonstrated that the CEPID cross-talk signal is not only induced by optical photon reflection and scatter within the CEPID structure, but also by high-energy back-scattered radiation from CEPID elements (mirror and housing) towards the fluorescent screen

  12. STRIPING NOISE REMOVAL OF IMAGES ACQUIRED BY CBERS 2 CCD CAMERA SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amraei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.

  13. Performance of a slow-scan CCD camera for macromolecular imaging in a 400 kV electron cryomicroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M B; Brink, J; Chiu, W

    1996-04-01

    The feasibility and limitations of a 1024 x 1024 slow-scan charge-coupled device (CCD) camera were evaluated for imaging in a 400kV electron cryomicroscope. Catalase crystals and amorphous carbon film were used as test specimens. Using catalase crystals, it was found that the finite (24 microns) pixel size of the slow-scan CCD camera governs the ultimate resolution in the acquired images. For instance, spot-scan images of ice-embedded catalase crystals showed resolutions of 8 A and 4 A at effective magnifications of 67,000 x and 132,000 x, respectively. Using an amorphous carbon film, the damping effect of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the slow-scan CCD camera on the specimen's Fourier spectrum relative to that of the photographic film was evaluated. The MTF of the slow-scan CCD camera fell off more rapidly compared to that of the photographic film and reached the value of 0.2 at the Nyquist frequency. Despite this attenuation, the signal-to-noise ratio of the CCD data, as determined from reflections of negatively-stained catalase crystals, was found to decrease to approximately 50% of that of photographic film data. The phases computed from images of the same negatively-stained catalase crystals recorded consecutively on both the slow-scan CCD camera and photographic film were found to be comparable to each other within 12 degrees. Ways of minimizing the effect of the MTF of the slow-scan CCD camera on the acquired images are also presented. PMID:8858867

  14. Benchmarking of Back Thinned 512x512 X-ray CCD Camera Measurements with DEF X-ray film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambo, N. A.; Workman, J.; Kyrala, G.; Hurry, T.; Gonzales, R.; Evans, S. C.

    1999-11-01

    Using the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory 25-micron thick, 2mm diameter titanium disks were shot with a 527nm(green) laser light to measure x-ray yield. 1.0 mil and 0.5 mil Aluminum steps were used to test the linearity of the CCD Camera and DEF X-ray film was used to test the calibration of the CCD Camera response at 4.75keV. Both laser spot size and incident laser intensity were constrained to give constancy to the experimental data. This poster will discuss both the experimental design and results.

  15. Application of CCD Cameras to Investigations of Mixing on Boundaries of a Thermal Plasma Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.HLINA; J.(S)ONSKY; J.(S)LECHTA

    2007-01-01

    Mixing of a thermal plasma jet with the surrounding atmosphere was studied using two CCD cameras (PCO SensiCam) situated detecting simultaneously the radiation of argon and nitrogen.The evaluation of image differences between two records showed that the location of regions on plasma jet boundaries characterised by stronger nitrogen radiation changes with the plasma flow rate.Close-to-laminar flow results in a small mixing rate and consequently low nitrogen optical emission on plasma jet boundaries.The increase of the flow rate leads to the formation of a relatively thick and stable layer on the boundaries characterised by strong nitrogen radiation.Further enhancement of the flow rate results in the formation of unstable regions of excited nitrogen molecules moving along the jet.

  16. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  17. A reflectance model for non-contact mapping of venous oxygen saturation using a CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Dunmire, Barbrina; Beach, Kirk W.; Leotta, Daniel F.

    2013-11-01

    A method of non-contact mapping of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) is presented. A CCD camera is used to image skin tissue illuminated alternately by a red (660 nm) and an infrared (800 nm) LED light source. Low cuff pressures of 30-40 mmHg are applied to induce a venous blood volume change with negligible change in the arterial blood volume. A hybrid model combining the Beer-Lambert law and the light diffusion model is developed and used to convert the change in the light intensity to the change in skin tissue absorption coefficient. A simulation study incorporating the full light diffusion model is used to verify the hybrid model and to correct a calculation bias. SvO2 in the fingers, palm, and forearm for five volunteers are presented and compared with results in the published literature. Two-dimensional maps of venous oxygen saturation are given for the three anatomical regions.

  18. Radiometric calibration of frame transfer CCD camera with uniform source system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Yuying; Shen, Weimin

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a radiometric calibration method based on visibility function and uniform source system. The uniform system is mainly comprised of an integrating sphere and a monitoring silicon detector. The current of the silicon detector with a visibility function filter corresponds to the luminance at the exit port of integrating sphere through standard luminance meter transfer. The radiance at the camera entrance pupil is calculated for different solar zenith angles and Earth surface albedos by the MODTRAN atmospheric code. To simplify the calibration process, the radiance at its entrance pupil is integrated by visibility function. The shift smear of the frame transfer CCD is removed by the radiometric calibration and the amending ratio factor is introduced in the retrieving methods. The imaging experiment verifies the reliability of the calibration method and retrieves good quality image.

  19. White-light fringe analysis with low-cost CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Jedlička, Petr; Matějka, Milan; Kolařík, Vladimír; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2009, s. 149-152. ISBN 978-3-642-03050-5. [Fringe 2009 - International Workshop on Advanced Optical Metrology /6./. Nürtinger (DE), 13.09.2009-16.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133; GA MPO 2A-3TP1/113; GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA ČR GA102/09/1276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : white- light fringe analysis * CCD camera * low-coherence interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  20. Surface diagnostics using low-coherence interferometry and colour single CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Žilina : Žilinská univerzita, 2010. s. 40. ISBN 978-80-554-0238-3. [Slovak-Czech-Polish Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /17./. 06.09.2010, Liptovsky Jan] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * CCD camera * gauge block Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Surface diagnostics using low-coherence interferometry and colour single CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2010, 77461D: 1-6. ISBN 978-0-8194-8236-5. [Slovak-Czech-Polish Optical Conference on Wave and Quantum Aspects of Contemporary Optics /17./. Liptovsky Jan (SK), 06.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * CCD camera * gauge block Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  2. Quantum efficiency of the CCD camera (XIS) for the ASTRO-E mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the optical and the X-ray transmission of the optical blocking filters for the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XISs) which are the X-ray CCD cameras of the ASTRO-E satellite. We conclude that the oxidation of the aluminum reduces the optical transmission down to ∼60-70% of the theoretical value of the aluminum. We achieved optical transmission below 5x10-5 in the range from 4000 to 9500 A by using aluminum thickness of 1200 A, while the theoretical calculation requires 800 A. The measurement of absolute quantum efficiency of XIS is also performed at several particular energies. We confirmed 20% quantum efficiency at 0.5 keV for the XIS engineering model (XIS EM)

  3. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate ∼.05 V/rad responsivity with ≥1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ''peaks'' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 105 to 107 n/cm2 range indicate smearing over ∼1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels

  4. Applications in radiation therapy of a scintillating screen viewed by a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, J M; Luijk, P V

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) dosimetry system has been designed for position-sensitive dose-measurement applications in modern radiation therapy. The system consists of a scintillating screen (Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S : Tb), observed by a low-noise CCD camera with a long integration time. The system allows reliable and accurate simultaneous 2D imaging of therapeutic dose distributions in the scintillator with sub millimeter spatial resolution. This system has been applied successfully at different applications in radiation therapy. Results of dose measurements in a treatment modality using a scanning proton beam are reported. It is shown that a quick and reliable measurement can be done. The screen+CCD system has proven to perform accurate dosimetry in applications where beams with a small (1-5 mm) diameter are used and where absolute dosimetry by means of standard ionization chambers is not possible due to their relatively large size. For the routine measurements of the alignment of therapeutic beams with respect to the...

  5. Contrast reduction in digital images due to x-ray induced damage to a TV camera's CCD image receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CCD image receptor in a monochrome TV camera was irradiated in the dark with a single-phase 80 kVp narrow beam carrying an additional 0.5 mm Al filter. It was found that the CCD responded to the x-rays with a transient signal which would reach a maximum value at about 70 mR per image frame. The signal's contrast would reach a maximum of about 7%, but was detectable at much lower exposure rates. Continuous irradiation of the CCD image receptor created a 'lesion' at the point of incidence that remained after the x-ray beam was switched off. This signal seemed to be due to permanent damage to the CCD and could be detected after a cumulative exposure of less than 20 R. It was shown that such damage could be created much more effectively if the TV camera was switched off rather than on and the maximum contrast was achieved with about 75 R and 220 R respectively. The maximum contrast achieved was about 8%. Further increase in the cumulative exposure of a particular location on the CCD image receptor was not investigated but it seemed reasonable that much higher contrast values could be reached if irradiation was continued. The latter damage described here was found to persist for at least several weeks and hence it will probably prevent any normal use of the TV camera in the future. (author)

  6. Masking a CCD camera allows multichord charge exchange spectroscopy measurements at high speed on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O.; Burrell, K. H.; Chavez, J. A.; Kaplan, D. H.; Chrystal, C.; Pablant, N. A.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-02-01

    Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques used in tokamak research to determine ion temperature, rotation speed, particle density, and radial electric field. Configuring a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to serve as a detector in such a system requires a trade-off between the competing desires to detect light from as many independent spatial views as possible while still obtaining the best possible time resolution. High time resolution is essential, for example, for studying transient phenomena such as edge localized modes. By installing a mask in front of a camera with a 1024 × 1024 pixel CCD chip, we are able to acquire spectra from eight separate views while still achieving a minimum time resolution of 0.2 ms. The mask separates the light from the eight spectra, preventing spatial and temporal cross talk. A key part of the design was devising a compact translation stage which attaches to the front of the camera and allows adjustment of the position of the mask openings relative to the CCD surface. The stage is thin enough to fit into the restricted space between the CCD camera and the spectrometer endplate.

  7. Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbalan-Fuertes, Montserrat; Millan, Maria S.; Yzuel, Maria J.

    2000-06-01

    We have analyzed the accuracy of the compensating performance of the white-balance mechanism of a 3CCD camera for the three common types of light--fluorescent (F), incandescent (I), and daylight (D). We study the behavior of the camera using the RGB and CIELAB coordinates for a wide set of color samples covering the visible spectrum. CIELAB coordinates are obtained from the tristimulus XYZ. Using linear methods, we obtain the XYZ values from the (RGB)CCD values acquired by a 3CCD camera. We propose two different approaches: the first is specific for each particular light source (F, I, and D); the second considers the equienergetic spectral light source as an approximation for white lighting. We measure the mean color difference in the CIELAB space under a change of illuminant and compare the results in order to evaluate the performance of the response of a 3CCD camera. The transformations that are specific for a given light source allow an improved response under change of illuminant in terms of color constancy.

  8. Masking a CCD camera allows multichord charge exchange spectroscopy measurements at high speed on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques used in tokamak research to determine ion temperature, rotation speed, particle density, and radial electric field. Configuring a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to serve as a detector in such a system requires a trade-off between the competing desires to detect light from as many independent spatial views as possible while still obtaining the best possible time resolution. High time resolution is essential, for example, for studying transient phenomena such as edge localized modes. By installing a mask in front of a camera with a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD chip, we are able to acquire spectra from eight separate views while still achieving a minimum time resolution of 0.2 ms. The mask separates the light from the eight spectra, preventing spatial and temporal cross talk. A key part of the design was devising a compact translation stage which attaches to the front of the camera and allows adjustment of the position of the mask openings relative to the CCD surface. The stage is thin enough to fit into the restricted space between the CCD camera and the spectrometer endplate.

  9. Establishment and Optimization of Rigorous Geometric Model of Push-broom Camera Using TDI CCD Arranged in an Alternating Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Weican

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Push-broom cameras using TDI CCD arranged in an alternating pattern are widely carried by typical high-resolution optical satellites in order to obtain high space resolution and enough strip width. For this kind of cameras, several TDI CCD are arranged in an alternating pattern in two lines on the focal plane and push-broom imaging mode is always adopted. Imaging principle and characteristic of this kind of camera is introduced. Exterior parameters of TDI CCD are modeled together based on their same values in any instant of time and an integrated geometric model is finally established. Error compensation methods are designed to remove exterior error and interior error based on this integrated geometric model. A series of tests are designed to verify models and methods proposed in this paper using original image of TH-1 Satellite HR Camera whose detectors are divided into 8 modules arranged in an alternating pattern. As the results, the imaging geometry of this kind of camera can be rigorously described by this integral geometrical model. The positioning accuracy can be obviously improved by our exterior error compensation method, however, different residual error would be remained for different TDI CCD. The positioning accuracy will not be obviously improved while systematic errors of different TDI CCD can be effectively removed by the interior error compensation method. 2 m positioning accuracy in X, Y and Z directions can be achieved and different systematic errors can be removed when both exterior and interior error were compensated. The same accuracy can be achieved in the other scenes when the calculated inner distortion parameters are adopted.

  10. STUDY ON THE LINE SCAN CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION OF VEHICLE-BORNE 3D DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y.; Yang, B; Zhang, F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characters of the line scan CCD camera and the Vehicle-borne 3D data acquisition system, it presented a novel method to calibrate the line Scan Camera (LSC) based on the laser scanner. Using the angle information in the original laser scanner data, combing the principle of the line scan camera, it built a calibration model for LSC and designed some experiment methods to implement that. Using the new model and the special experiment methods it computed out high precision ...

  11. Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio Rinaudo; Roberto Chiabrando; Dario Piatti; Filiberto Chiabrando

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the acquired data. In order to evaluate these errors, some experimental tests on a CCD/CMOS ToF camera sensor, the SwissRanger (SR)-4000 camera, were performed and reported in this paper. In particular, two main aspects are tre...

  12. Maximum-likelihood scintillation detection for EM-CCD based gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma cameras based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to continuous scintillation crystals can combine a good detection efficiency with high spatial resolutions with the aid of advanced scintillation detection algorithms. A previously developed analytical multi-scale algorithm (MSA) models the depth-dependent light distribution but does not take statistics into account. Here we present and validate a novel statistical maximum-likelihood algorithm (MLA) that combines a realistic light distribution model with an experimentally validated statistical model. The MLA was tested for an electron multiplying CCD optically coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators of different thicknesses. For 99mTc imaging, the spatial resolution (for perpendicular and oblique incidence), energy resolution and signal-to-background counts ratio (SBR) obtained with the MLA were compared with those of the MSA. Compared to the MSA, the MLA improves the energy resolution by more than a factor of 1.6 and the SBR is enhanced by more than a factor of 1.3. For oblique incidence (approximately 450), the depth-of-interaction corrected spatial resolution is improved by a factor of at least 1.1, while for perpendicular incidence the MLA resolution does not consistently differ significantly from the MSA result for all tested scintillator thicknesses. For the thickest scintillator (3 mm, interaction probability 66% at 141 keV) a spatial resolution (perpendicular incidence) of 147 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained with an energy resolution of 35.2% FWHM. These results of the MLA were achieved without prior calibration of scintillations as is needed for many statistical scintillation detection algorithms. We conclude that the MLA significantly improves the gamma camera performance compared to the MSA.

  13. Development of proton CT imaging system using plastic scintillator and CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sodai; Nishio, Teiji; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Tsuneda, Masato; Kabuki, Shigeto; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    A proton computed tomography (pCT) imaging system was constructed for evaluation of the error of an x-ray CT (xCT)-to-WEL (water-equivalent length) conversion in treatment planning for proton therapy. In this system, the scintillation light integrated along the beam direction is obtained by photography using the CCD camera, which enables fast and easy data acquisition. The light intensity is converted to the range of the proton beam using a light-to-range conversion table made beforehand, and a pCT image is reconstructed. An experiment for demonstration of the pCT system was performed using a 70 MeV proton beam provided by the AVF930 cyclotron at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Three-dimensional pCT images were reconstructed from the experimental data. A thin structure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed, with spatial resolution of pCT images at the same level as that of xCT images. The pCT images of various substances were reconstructed to evaluate the pixel value of pCT images. The image quality was investigated with regard to deterioration including multiple Coulomb scattering.

  14. Optical Readout of a Two Phase Liquid Argon TPC using CCD Camera and TGEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrokoridis, K; Carroll, J; Lazos, M; McCormick, K J; Smith, N A; Touramanis, C; Walker, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study into the use of CCDs to image secondary scintillation light generated by Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (TGEMs) in a two phase LAr TPC. A Sony ICX285AL CCD chip was mounted above a double TGEM in the gas phase of a 40 litre two-phase LAr TPC with the majority of the camera electronics positioned externally via a feedthrough. An Am-241 source was mounted on a rotatable motion feedthrough allowing the positioning of the alpha source either inside or outside of the field cage. Developed for and incorporated into the TPC design was a novel high voltage feedthrough featuring LAr insulation. Furthermore, a range of webcams were tested for operation in cryogenics as an internal detector monitoring tool. Of the range of webcams tested the Microsoft HD-3000 (model no:1456) webcam was found to be superior in terms of noise and lowest operating temperature. In ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure 1 ppm pure argon gas, the TGEM gain was approximately 1000 and using a 1 msec...

  15. Development of proton CT imaging system using plastic scintillator and CCD camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sodai; Nishio, Teiji; Matsushita, Keiichiro; Tsuneda, Masato; Kabuki, Shigeto; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    A proton computed tomography (pCT) imaging system was constructed for evaluation of the error of an x-ray CT (xCT)-to-WEL (water-equivalent length) conversion in treatment planning for proton therapy. In this system, the scintillation light integrated along the beam direction is obtained by photography using the CCD camera, which enables fast and easy data acquisition. The light intensity is converted to the range of the proton beam using a light-to-range conversion table made beforehand, and a pCT image is reconstructed. An experiment for demonstration of the pCT system was performed using a 70 MeV proton beam provided by the AVF930 cyclotron at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Three-dimensional pCT images were reconstructed from the experimental data. A thin structure of approximately 1 mm was clearly observed, with spatial resolution of pCT images at the same level as that of xCT images. The pCT images of various substances were reconstructed to evaluate the pixel value of pCT images. The image quality was investigated with regard to deterioration including multiple Coulomb scattering. PMID:27191962

  16. Photometric correction and reflectance calculation for lunar images from the Chang'E-1 CCD stereo camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Qin, Qiming; Chen, Li; Zheng, Hong; Fa, Wenzhe; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Zhang, Chengye

    2015-12-01

    Photometric correction and reflectance calculation are two important processes in the scientific analysis and application of Chang'E-1 (CE-1) charge-coupled device (CCD) stereo camera data. In this paper, the methods of photometric correction and reflectance calculation were developed. On the one hand, in considering the specificity of datasets acquired by the CE-1 CCD stereo camera, photometric correction was conducted based on the digital number value directly using the revised Lommel-Seeliger factor. On the other hand, on the basis of laboratory-measured bidirectional reflectances, the relative reflectance was then calculated using the empirical linear model. The presented approach can be used to identify landing sites, obtain global images, and produce topographic maps of the lunar surface. PMID:26831395

  17. Development of a CCD camera for an automated supernova search and observations of a supernova in NGC 5033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley supernova search uses an automated telescope along with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and a dedicated minicomputer to automatically scan galaxies for supernovae. The system is currently able to observe about 500 galaxies in a full night of observing. These images are stored on video tapes that are brought back to the lab the next day for analysis. This paper begins with a brief summary of the observational and theoretical understanding of supernovae. The design of the search system is discussed with an emphasis on its current operation. The development and performance of the CCD camera is described in detail, as well as the performance of the entire system. Finally, observations of a supernova in NGC 5033 are presented

  18. Tests of a new CCD-camera based neutron radiography detector system at the reactor stations in Munich and Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, E.; Pleinert, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schillinger, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Koerner, S. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    The performance of the new neutron radiography detector designed at PSI with a cooled high sensitive CCD-camera was investigated under real neutronic conditions at three beam ports of two reactor stations. Different converter screens were applied for which the sensitivity and the modulation transfer function (MTF) could be obtained. The results are very encouraging concerning the utilization of this detector system as standard tool at the radiography stations at the spallation source SINQ. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  19. Classification of volcanic ash particles from Sakurajima volcano using CCD camera image and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, T.; Shimano, T.; Nishimura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative and speedy characterization of volcanic ash particle is needed to conduct a petrologic monitoring of ongoing eruption. We develop a new simple system using CCD camera images for quantitatively characterizing ash properties, and apply it to volcanic ash collected at Sakurajima. Our method characterizes volcanic ash particles by 1) apparent luminance through RGB filters and 2) a quasi-fractal dimension of the shape of particles. Using a monochromatic CCD camera (Starshoot by Orion Co. LTD.) attached to a stereoscopic microscope, we capture digital images of ash particles that are set on a glass plate under which white colored paper or polarizing plate is set. The images of 1390 x 1080 pixels are taken through three kinds of color filters (Red, Green and Blue) under incident-light and transmitted-light through polarizing plate. Brightness of the light sources is set to be constant, and luminance is calibrated by white and black colored papers. About fifteen ash particles are set on the plate at the same time, and their images are saved with a bit map format. We first extract the outlines of particles from the image taken under transmitted-light through polarizing plate. Then, luminances for each color are represented by 256 tones at each pixel in the particles, and the average and its standard deviation are calculated for each ash particle. We also measure the quasi-fractal dimension (qfd) of ash particles. We perform box counting that counts the number of boxes which consist of 1×1 and 128×128 pixels that catch the area of the ash particle. The qfd is estimated by taking the ratio of the former number to the latter one. These parameters are calculated by using software R. We characterize volcanic ash from Showa crater of Sakurajima collected in two days (Feb 09, 2009, and Jan 13, 2010), and apply cluster analyses. Dendrograms are formed from the qfd and following four parameters calculated from the luminance: Rf=R/(R+G+B), G=G/(R+G+B), B=B/(R+G+B), and

  20. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  1. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soman, M.R., E-mail: m.r.soman@open.ac.uk [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hall, D.J.; Tutt, J.H.; Murray, N.J.; Holland, A.D. [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-12-11

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 µm from the current 24 µm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV–1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 µm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  2. Laboratory x-ray CCD camera electronics: a test bed for the Swift X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Zugger, Michael E.; Shoemaker, Jason; Witherite, Mark E.; Koch, T. Scott; Chou, Lester L.; Case, Traci; Burrows, David N.

    2000-12-01

    The Penn State University Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics has been active in the design of X-ray CCD cameras for astronomy for over two decades, including sounding rocket systems, the CUBIC instrument on the SAC-B satellite and the ACIS camera on the Chandra satellite. Currently the group is designing and building an X-ray telescope (XRT), which will comprise part of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer satellite. The Swift satellite, selected in October 1999 as one of two winners of NASA Explorer contracts, will -- within one minute -- detect, locate, and observe gamma-ray bursts simultaneously in the optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma- ray wavelengths using three co-aligned telescopes. The XRT electronics is required to read out the telescope's CCD sensor in a number of different ways depending on the observing mode selected. Immediately after the satellite re-orients to observe a newly detected burst, the XRT will enter an imaging mode to determine the exact position of the burst. The location will then be transmitted to the ground, and the XRT will autonomously enter other modes as the X-ray intensity of the burst waxes and wanes. This paper will discuss the electronics for a laboratory X-ray CCD camera, which serves as a test bed for development of the Swift XRT camera. It will also touch upon the preliminary design of the flight camera, which is closely related. A major challenge is achieving performance and reliability goals within the cost constraints of an Explorer mission.

  3. Self-shunted streamer chamber spectrometer with CCD video cameras for studying pion interactions with light nuclei at energies below the Δ-resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of the detector system (a self-shunted streamer chamber in a magnetic field, equipped with two CCD video cameras) developed by the DUBTO collaboration for studying pion interactions with light nuclei at the JINR phasotron

  4. Developments of engineering model of the X-ray CCD camera of the MAXI experiment onboard the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is an X-ray observatory on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is a slit scanning camera which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors: one is a one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter with a total area of ∼5000 cm2, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC), and the other is an X-ray CCD array with a total area ∼200 cm2, the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). The GSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. x180 deg. while the SSC subtends a field of view with an angular dimension of 1 deg. times a little less than 180 deg. . In the course of one station orbit, MAXI can scan almost the entire sky with a precision of 1 deg. and with an X-ray energy range 0.5-30 keV. We have developed an engineering model (EM) for all components of the SSC. Their performance test is underway. We have also developed several kinds of CCDs fabricated from different wafers. Since the thermal condition of the ISS is not suitable for the CCD operation, the operating temperature of the CCD is estimated to be -85 deg. to -50 deg. C at the end of mission life. We therefore carefully need to choose CCD considering not only detection efficiency and readout noise but also the dark current. Here we report the current status of the EM of the SSC and the X-ray responsivity of CCDs

  5. MISR Level 1A CCD Science data, all cameras V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Reformatted Annotated Level 1A product for the CCD science data. The data numbers (DN) have been commuted from 12-bit numbers to 16-bit byte aligned...

  6. A high resolution Small Field Of View (SFOV) gamma camera: a columnar scintillator coated CCD imager for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a high resolution, small field of view (SFOV), Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based camera for imaging small volumes of radionuclide uptake in tissues. The Mini Gamma Ray Camera (MGRC) is a collimated, scintillator-coated, low cost, high performance imager using low noise CCDs. The prototype MGRC has a 600 μm thick layer of columnar CsI(Tl) and operates in photon counting mode using a thermoelectric cooler to achieve an operating temperature of - 10deg C. Collimation was performed using a pin hole collimator. We have measured the spatial resolution, energy resolution and efficiency using a number of radioisotope sources including 140 keV gamma-rays from 99mTc in a specially designed phantom. We also describe our first imaging of a volunteer patient.

  7. A toolkit for the characterization of CCD cameras for transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulovic, M.; Rieger, B.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Koster, A.J.; Ravelli, R.B.G.

    2009-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are nowadays commonly utilized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for applications in life sciences. Direct access to digitized images has revolutionized the use of electron microscopy, sparking developments such as automated collection of tomographic data, focal

  8. Automated CCD camera characterization. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbermann, J. [Penfield High School, NY (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The OMEGA system uses CCD cameras for a broad range of applications. Over 100 video rate CCD cameras are used for such purposes as targeting, aligning, and monitoring areas such as the target chamber, laser bay, and viewing gallery. There are approximately 14 scientific grade CCD cameras on the system which are used to obtain precise photometric results from the laser beam as well as target diagnostics. It is very important that these scientific grade CCDs are properly characterized so that the results received from them can be evaluated appropriately. Currently characterization is a tedious process done by hand. The operator must manually operate the camera and light source simultaneously. Because more exposures means more accurate information on the camera, the characterization tests can become very length affairs. Sometimes it takes an entire day to complete just a single plot. Characterization requires the testing of many aspects of the camera`s operation. Such aspects include the following: variance vs. mean signal level--this should be proportional due to Poisson statistics of the incident photon flux; linearity--the ability of the CCD to produce signals proportional to the light it received; signal-to-noise ratio--the relative magnitude of the signal vs. the uncertainty in that signal; dark current--the amount of noise due to thermal generation of electrons (cooling lowers this noise contribution significantly). These tests, as well as many others, must be conducted in order to properly understand a CCD camera. The goal of this project was to construct an apparatus that could characterize a camera automatically.

  9. Variable high-resolution color CCD camera system with online capability for professional photo studio application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfelder, Stefan; Reichel, Frank R.; Gaertner, Ernst; Hacker, Erich J.; Cappellaro, Markus; Rudolf, Peter; Voelk, Ute

    1998-04-01

    Digital cameras are of increasing significance for professional applications in photo studios where fashion, portrait, product and catalog photographs or advertising photos of high quality have to be taken. The eyelike is a digital camera system which has been developed for such applications. It is capable of working online with high frame rates and images of full sensor size and it provides a resolution that can be varied between 2048 by 2048 and 6144 by 6144 pixel at a RGB color depth of 12 Bit per channel with an also variable exposure time of 1/60s to 1s. With an exposure time of 100 ms digitization takes approx. 2 seconds for an image of 2048 by 2048 pixels (12 Mbyte), 8 seconds for the image of 4096 by 4096 pixels (48 Mbyte) and 40 seconds for the image of 6144 by 6144 pixels (108 MByte). The eyelike can be used in various configurations. Used as a camera body most commercial lenses can be connected to the camera via existing lens adaptors. On the other hand the eyelike can be used as a back to most commercial 4' by 5' view cameras. This paper describes the eyelike camera concept with the essential system components. The article finishes with a description of the software, which is needed to bring the high quality of the camera to the user.

  10. Implementation of a parallel-beam optical-CT apparatus for three-dimensional radiation dosimetry using a high-resolution CCD camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wen-Tzeng [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Minghsin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Chin-Hsing [Department of Management Information Systems, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chao-Nan; Tuan, Chiu-Ching [Graduate Institute of Computer and Communication Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yuan-Jen, E-mail: ronchang@ctust.edu.tw [Department of Management Information Systems, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with 2-megapixel (1920×1080-pixel) and 12-bit resolution was developed for optical computed tomography(optical CT). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of our system was 30.12 dB, better than that of commercially available CCD cameras (25.31 dB). The 50% modulation transfer function (MTF50) of our 1920×1080-pixel camera gave a line width per picture height (LW/PH) of 745, which is 73% of the diffraction-limited resolution. Compared with a commercially available 1-megapixel CCD camera (1296×966-pixel) with a LW/PH=358 and 46.6% of the diffraction-limited resolution, our camera system provided higher spatial resolution and better image quality. The NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the optical CT with a 2-megapixel CCD. A clinical five-field irradiation treatment plan was generated using the Eclipse planning system (Varian Corp., Palo Alto, CA, USA). The gel phantom was irradiated using a 6-MV Varian Clinac IX linear accelerator (Varian). The measured NIPAM gel dose distributions and the calculated dose distributions, generated by the treatment planning software (TPS), were compared using the 3% dose-difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria. The gamma pass rate was as high as 98.2% when 2-megapixel CCD camera was used in optical CT. However, the gamma pass rate was only 96.0% when a commercially available 1-megapixel CCD camera was used. - Highlights: • An optical CT system with a 2-megapixel CCD showed high uniformity of reconstructed images of the gel phantom. • The gamma pass rate was as high as 98.2% with the 3% dose difference and 3 mm dose to agreement criteria. • Our CCD with 12-bit information could guarantee better SNR performance, of 30.12 dB. • Our 2-megapixel CCD camera gave a LW/PH of 745, 73% of the diffraction-limited resolution.

  11. Alignment method for 50 m distance using laser and CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interference pattern of laser light on the CCD device is suppressed by removing the cover glass in front of the device. The reference plane of the quadrupole magnets after division and restoration becomes unreliable for six years. The measurement tool for mechanical center of the multipole magnet is useful for checking the alignment. Few magnets of which reference planes were unreliable were aligned by using this tool. This also can measure the twist between the poles. It is quite important for the suppression of light fluctuation to choose pipe material. Temperature gradient refracts the light more in the pipe. Copper pipe is better than the paper one. (author)

  12. Biofeedback control analysis using a synchronized system of two CCD video cameras and a force-plate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Masako; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunji

    1999-01-01

    The biofeedback control analysis of human movement has become increasingly important in rehabilitation, sports medicine and physical fitness. In this study, a synchronized system was developed for acquiring sequential data of a person's movement. The setup employs a video recorder system linked with two CCD video cameras and fore-plate sensor system, which are configured to stop and start simultaneously. The feedback control movement of postural stability was selected as a subject for analysis. The person's center of body gravity (COG) was calculated by measured 3-D coordinates of major joints using videometry with bundle adjustment and self-calibration. The raw serial data of COG and foot pressure by measured force plate sensor are difficult to analyze directly because of their complex fluctuations. Utilizing auto regressive modeling, the power spectrum and the impulse response of movement factors, enable analysis of their dynamic relations. This new biomedical engineering approach provides efficient information for medical evaluation of a person's stability.

  13. LED characterization for development of on-board calibration unit of CCD-based advanced wide-field sensor camera of Resourcesat-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Verma, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    The Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) camera caters to high temporal resolution requirement of Resourcesat-2A mission with repeativity of 5 days. The AWiFS camera consists of four spectral bands, three in the visible and near IR and one in the short wave infrared. The imaging concept in VNIR bands is based on push broom scanning that uses linear array silicon charge coupled device (CCD) based Focal Plane Array (FPA). On-Board Calibration unit for these CCD based FPAs is used to monitor any degradation in FPA during entire mission life. Four LEDs are operated in constant current mode and 16 different light intensity levels are generated by electronically changing exposure of CCD throughout the calibration cycle. This paper describes experimental setup and characterization results of various flight model visible LEDs (λP=650nm) for development of On-Board Calibration unit of Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) camera of RESOURCESAT-2A. Various LED configurations have been studied to meet dynamic range coverage of 6000 pixels silicon CCD based focal plane array from 20% to 60% of saturation during night pass of the satellite to identify degradation of detector elements. The paper also explains comparison of simulation and experimental results of CCD output profile at different LED combinations in constant current mode.

  14. Beam profile analysis using the CCD camera with cameralink in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had measured a beam position and beam size by the analog video camera system with the fluorescence plate in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line. It was difficult to estimate the seasonal change of the beam position and size quantitatively. We started building up the digital beam profile acquisition system which used a digital CCD camera with the external trigger synchronous capturing function in 2007. In the accelerator parameter tuning between operation cycles, it is necessary to understand the change of a beam orbit and shape from latest cycle quickly in limited tuning time. Thus, we need both information of real-time picture images for visual confirmation and computing real-time analysis results of beam position and size. In this case, the LED light for reading the scale on the fluorescence plate becomes a background noise for a calculation of the beam profile analysis. We improved the analysis program of beam position and size in order to separates the LED light and beam light from a captured image. By this improvement, the reproducibility and adjustment accuracy of orbital steering have been improved. We will report the program flow and the details from an image capture to a beam profile analysis. (author)

  15. Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems UnISIS Bow Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, L A; Crawford, S L; Leach, R W; Thompson, Laird A.; Teare, Scott W.; Crawford, Samuel L.; Leach, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Laser guide star systems based on Rayleigh scattering require some means to deal with the flash of low altitude laser light that follows immediately after each laser pulse. These systems also need a fast shutter to isolate the high altitude portion of the focused laser beam to make it appear star-like to the wavefront sensor. We describe how these tasks are accomplished with UnISIS, the Rayleigh laser guided adaptive optics system at the Mt. Wilson Observatory 2.5-m telescope. We use several methods: a 10,000 RPM rotating disk, dichroics, a fast sweep and clear mode of the CCD readout electronics on a 10 $\\mu$s timescale, and a Pockel's cell shutter system. The Pockel's cell shutter would be conventional in design if the laser light were naturally polarized, but the UnISIS 351 nm laser is unpolarized. So we have designed and put into operation a dual Pockel's cell shutter in a unique bow tie arrangement.

  16. Experimental comparison of the high-speed imaging performance of an EM-CCD and sCMOS camera in a dynamic live-cell imaging test case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope T Beier

    Full Text Available The study of living cells may require advanced imaging techniques to track weak and rapidly changing signals. Fundamental to this need is the recent advancement in camera technology. Two camera types, specifically sCMOS and EM-CCD, promise both high signal-to-noise and high speed (>100 fps, leaving researchers with a critical decision when determining the best technology for their application. In this article, we compare two cameras using a live-cell imaging test case in which small changes in cellular fluorescence must be rapidly detected with high spatial resolution. The EM-CCD maintained an advantage of being able to acquire discernible images with a lower number of photons due to its EM-enhancement. However, if high-resolution images at speeds approaching or exceeding 1000 fps are desired, the flexibility of the full-frame imaging capabilities of sCMOS is superior.

  17. Spatial resolution limit study of a CCD camera and scintillator based neutron imaging system according to MTF determination and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial resolution limit is a very important parameter of an imaging system that should be taken into consideration before examination of any object. The objectives of this work are the determination of a neutron imaging system's response in terms of spatial resolution. The proposed procedure is based on establishment of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The imaging system being studied is based on a high sensitivity CCD neutron camera (2×10−5 lx at f1.4). The neutron beam used is from the horizontal beam port (H.6) of the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor. Our contribution is on the MTF determination by proposing an accurate edge identification method and a line spread function undersampling problem-resolving procedure. These methods and procedure are integrated into a MatLab code. The methods, procedures and approaches proposed in this work are available for any other neutron imaging system and allow for judging the ability of a neutron imaging system to produce spatial (internal details) properties of any object under examination. - Highlights: ► Determination of spatial response of a neutron imaging system. ► Ability of a neutron imaging system to reproduce spatial properties of any object. ► Spatial resolution limits measurement using MTF with the slanted edge method. ► Accurate edge identification and line spread function sampling improvement. ► Development of a MatLab code to compute automatically the MTF.

  18. Investigation of temporal evolution and spatial distribution of dust creation events in DITS campaign using visible CCD cameras in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suk-Ho [Association EURATOM-CEA/Cadarache, IRFM/SIPP/GIPP, St. Paul les Durance 13108 (France)], E-mail: sukhhong@nfri.re.kr; Grisolia, Christian; Monier-Gabet, Pascale [Association EURATOM-CEA/Cadarache, IRFM/SIPP/GIPP, St. Paul les Durance 13108 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Images of wide-angle visible CCD cameras contain information on dust creation events (flaking) that occur during plasma operations. Due to the interaction with plasma, flakes entering into the plasma left straight line-like visible traces behind in the images. Analyzing these traces by image processing, the temporal evolution, spatial distribution, and statistics on dust creation events in DITS campaign in Tore Supra were obtained.

  19. An improved method of Lambertian CCD-camera radiation flux measurement based on SMARTS (simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine) to reduce spectral errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lambertian CCD-camera method is convenient to measure concentrating radiation fluxes, where a crucial factor, a calibration factor, always varies with spectra and brings errors. In this paper, a new calibration method is proposed based on spectral normalization calculation and tries to reduce spectral errors in Lambertian CCD-camera measurement. The calibration factor for AM1.5 is standardized over a transmittance range by matching gray values of photos to readings of calorimeter. A spectrum is calculated by SMARTS (simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine) according to the local time, latitude and longitude. A calibration factor is adjusted by calculated spectral offsets accordingly. Therefore an absolute radiation flux distribution is obtained by a gray value captured by the CCD-camera without calorimeter. Calculated results indicate that spectral irradiance between 700 and 800 nm dominates gray values on the target for solar radiation flux measurement. The offsets are increasing continuously from AM1 to AM5, which are validated by experimental results. The difference between measured and calculated calibration factors is 11%, which fits to the results of error estimate. These indicate that the improved method was feasible and reliable to measure concentrating radiation fluxes easily. - Highlights: • An improved Lambertian CCD-camera radiation measurement method is proposed. • The spectral errors are reduced by the calculated offsets based on SMARTS (simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine). • The absolute radiation flux distributions can be obtained without calorimeter. • The total estimated error for the simulator is ±13.17%. • The results of validation experiment demonstrate an error of 11%

  20. High-resolution application of YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce imaging detectors with a CCD X-ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touš, Jan; Horváth, Martin; Pína, Ladislav; Blažek, Karel; Sopko, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    A high-resolution CCD X-ray camera based on YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce thin scintillators is presented. High-resolution in low-energy X-ray radiation is proved with several objects. The spatial resolution achieved in the images is about 1 μm. The high-resolution imaging system is a combination of a high-sensitivity digital CCD camera and an optical system with a thin scintillator-imaging screen. The screen can consist of YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce inorganic scintillator [J.A. Mares, Radiat. Meas. 38 (2004) 353]. These materials have the advantages of mechanical and chemical stability and non-hygroscopicity. The high-resolution imaging system can be used with different types of radiation (X-ray, electrons, UV, and VUV [M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (2006) R37]). The objects used for the imaging tests are grids and small animals with features of several microns in size. The resolution capabilities were tested using different types of CCD cameras and scintillation imaging screens.

  1. Near infrared thermography by CCD cameras and application to first wall components of Tore Supra tokamak; Thermographie proche infrarouge par cameras CCD et application aux composants de premiere paroi du tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.

    1996-06-07

    In the Tokamak TORE-SUPRA, the plasma facing components absorbs and evacuate (active cooling) high power fluxes (up to 10 MW/m{sup 2}). Their thermal behavior study is essential for the success of controlled thermonuclear fusion line. The first part is devoted to the study of power deposition on the TORE-SUPRA actively cooled limiters. A model of power deposition on one of the limiters is developed. It takes into account the magnetic topology and a description of the plasma edge. The model is validated with experimental calorimetric data obtained during a series of shots. This will allow to compare the surface temperature measurements with the predicted ones. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop a new temperature measurement system. It works in the near infrared range (890 nm) and is designed to complete the existing thermographic diagnostic of TORE-SUPRA. By using the radiation laws (for a blackbody and the plasma) and the laboratory calibration one can estimate the surface temperature of the observed object. We evaluate the performances and limits of such a device in the harsh conditions encountered in a Tokamak environment. On the one hand, in a quasi ideal situation, this analysis shows that the range of measurements is 600 deg. C to 2500 deg. C. On the other hand, when one takes into account of the plasma radiation (with an averaged central plasma density of 6.10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), we find that the minimum surface temperature rise to 900 deg. C instead of 700 deg. C. In the near future, according to the development of IR-CCD cameras working in the near infrared range up to 2 micrometers, we will be able to keep the good spatial resolution with an improved lower limit for the temperature down to 150 deg. C. The last section deals with a number of computer tools to process the images obtained from experiments on TORE-SUPRA. A pattern recognition application was developed to detect a complex plasma iso-intensity structure. 87 refs.

  2. A New Remote Sensing Filter Radiometer Employing a Fabry-Perot Etalon and a CCD Camera for Column Measurements of Methane in the Earth Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Huang, W.; Heaps, W. S.

    2012-01-01

    A portable remote sensing system for precision column measurements of methane has been developed, built and tested at NASA GSFC. The sensor covers the spectral range from 1.636 micrometers to 1.646 micrometers, employs an air-gapped Fabry-Perot filter and a CCD camera and has a potential to operate from a variety of platforms. The detector is an XS-1.7-320 camera unit from Xenics Infrared solutions which combines an uncooled InGaAs detector array working up to 1.7 micrometers. Custom software was developed in addition to the graphical user basic interface X-Control provided by the company to help save and process the data. The technique and setup can be used to measure other trace gases in the atmosphere with minimal changes of the etalon and the prefilter. In this paper we describe the calibration of the system using several different approaches.

  3. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  4. An approach to the optical characteristics calibration of the CCD camera system%CCD摄像系统光学特性的一种标定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕伟涛; 陶善昌

    2001-01-01

    从定量化光学遥感测量的需求出发,给出了一种对CCD摄像系统的像素间隔、光电响应的非 线性和非均匀性等光学特性进行标定的方法,详细介绍了标定过程,并给出了部分测试结果。%In order to meet the demand of quantitative optical remote sense measurement, an approach to calibrate the pixels' interval, the photo-electric response non-l inearity and non-uniformity in CCD camera system is provided in this paper. Th e calibration procedure is introduced in details, and some experiment results are also given out.

  5. A method for distinguishing between static and dynamic X-ray exposure of a personal TL-badge using the CCD camera TL reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports initial attempts to apply a thermoluminescent (TL) reader with CCD camera to identify cases of static and dynamic exposure of personal dosemeters to doses relevant for radiation protection. Standard MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) TL pellets with diameter of 4.5 mm and thickness of 0.9 mm were used in a standard DOSACUS/RADOS personal dosimetry badge (holder). Pb, Cu and Al filters were installed instead of the standard Al 264 mg cm-2 filters used in the RADOS badge. The badges were exposed statically and dynamically to X-rays ranging from 28 keV (molybdenum anode) to 125 keV (tungsten anode) and to 137Cs (662 keV) gamma rays. The absorbed doses (in tissue) ranged from 20 to 100 mSv. Detectors were readout in the CCD reader and 2-D images were collected. The results obtained indicated that it was possible to identify the static, front exposure of the personal dosemeters equipped with Cu filter for doses >20 mGy for X-rays up to 125 keV. (authors)

  6. A stroboscopic technique for using CCD cameras in flow visualization systems for continuous viewing and stop action photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Dismond, Harriet R.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for synchronizing a pulse light source to charge coupled device cameras is presented. The technique permits the use of pulse light sources for continuous as well as stop action flow visualization. The technique has eliminated the need to provide separate lighting systems at facilities requiring continuous and stop action viewing or photography.

  7. Photometric characteristics of the Vega 1 and Vega 2 CCD cameras for the observation of Comet Halley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, A; Bertaux, J L; Avanessov, G A; Tarnopolsky, V I; Zhukov, B S

    1987-10-15

    The first pictures of the nucleus of Comet Halley were returned from the CCD TV system (TVS) placed onboard the two Soviet spacecraft Vega 1 and 2. Comet Halley was observed from 4 to 11 Mar. 1986, and ~1500 images were transmitted to the earth. The raw data are given in digital numbers which must be converted into units of brightness. After a brief description of the experiment, the on-ground calibration tests are discussed. Many images were registered and processed to obtain standard correcting images and absolute calibration. Photometric performance could also be checked during flight with observations of Jupiter; in-flight and on-ground performances are compared. PMID:20523385

  8. STEM strain analysis at sub-nanometre scale using millisecond frames from a direct electron read-out CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on strain analysis by nano-beam electron diffraction with a spatial resolution of 0.5nm and a strain precision in the 4–7·10−4 range. Series of up to 160000 CBED patterns have been acquired in STEM mode with a semi-convergence angle of the incident probe of 2.6mrad, which enhances the spatial resolution by a factor of 5 compared to nearly parallel illumination. Firstly, we summarise 3 different algorithms to detect CBED disc positions accurately: selective edge detection and circle fitting, radial gradient maximisation and cross-correlation with masks. They yield equivalent strain profiles in growth direction for a stack of 5 InxGa1−xNyAs1−y/GaAs layers with tensile and compressive strain. Secondly, we use a direct electron read-out pnCCD detector with ultrafast readout hardware and a quantum efficiency close to 1 both to show that the same strain profiles are obtained at 200 times higher readout rates of 1kHz and to enhance strain precision to 3.5·10−4 by recording the weak 008 disc

  9. Automatic sorting installation based on two CCD cameras for measuring gauge diameter and ellipticity of pulp extractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry L.; Akhtiamov, Rishad A.; Dorogov, Nikolai V.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Yusupov, Alfred Y.

    2000-12-01

    The concrete problem, which decision is presented in given paper, consists in measuring of pulp extractor diameter apart 1 mm from its operating end and their automatic sorting. The range of measuring sizes is 180-260 micrometers , necessary measurement accuracy is 1 micrometers . The sorting is carried out on 8 subranges in 10 micrometers . The ellipticity of a pulp extractor is analyzed additionally and used as a qualitative index. The comparative analysis of different tools on metrology performances and cost problems of their embodying has allowed to select television system, as the class on the basis of which is necessary to build a required system. Problems decided at built-up of a system are: use of short focus lenses with major augmentation for shaping pulse duration solved for measuring to within 1 micrometers error; the account of lenses aberrations influence on a measuring error; use of cameras with a size of pixels in 0.7-1 micrometers ; definition of the line number, which corresponds to a gauge diameter of a pulp extractor; holding of a statistical average and extrapolation of data of measuring; the analysis of system variants with the purpose of its simplification and cost decreasing.

  10. Single event effect characterization of the mixed-signal ASIC developed for CCD camera in space use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi, E-mail: nakajima@ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fujikawa, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Kan, Hiroaki; Ueda, Shutaro; Kosugi, Hiroko; Anabuki, Naohisa; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Doty, John P. [Noqsi Aerospace Ltd., 2822 South Nova Road, Pine, CO 80470 (United States); Ikeda, Hirokazu [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio [National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    We present the single event effect (SEE) tolerance of a mixed-signal application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a charge-coupled device camera onboard a future X-ray astronomical mission. We adopted proton and heavy ion beams at HIMAC/NIRS in Japan. The particles with high linear energy transfer (LET) of 57.9MeVcm{sup 2}/mg is used to measure the single event latch-up (SEL) tolerance, which results in a sufficiently low cross-section of σ{sub SEL}<4.2×10{sup −11}cm{sup 2}/(Ion×ASIC). The single event upset (SEU) tolerance is estimated with various kinds of species with wide range of energy. Taking into account that a part of the protons creates recoiled heavy ions that have higher LET than that of the incident protons, we derived the probability of SEU event as a function of LET. Then the SEE event rate in a low-earth orbit is estimated considering a simulation result of LET spectrum. SEL rate is below once per 49 years, which satisfies the required latch-up tolerance. The upper limit of the SEU rate is derived to be 1.3×10{sup −3} events/s. Although the SEU events cannot be distinguished from the signals of X-ray photons from astronomical objects, the derived SEU rate is below 1.3% of expected non-X-ray background rate of the detector and hence these events should not be a major component of the instrumental background.

  11. HiPERCAM: A high-speed, quintuple-beam CCD camera for the study of rapid variability in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, V S; Bezawada, N; Black, M; Dixon, S; Gamble, T; Henry, D; Kerry, P; Littlefair, S P; Lunney, D W; Morris, T; Osborn, J; Wilson, R W

    2016-01-01

    HiPERCAM is a high-speed camera for the study of rapid variability in the Universe. The project is funded by a 3.5MEuro European Research Council Advanced Grant. HiPERCAM builds on the success of our previous instrument, ULTRACAM, with very significant improvements in performance thanks to the use of the latest technologies. HiPERCAM will use 4 dichroic beamsplitters to image simultaneously in 5 optical channels covering the u'g'r'i'z' bands. Frame rates of over 1000 per second will be achievable using an ESO CCD controller (NGC), with every frame GPS timestamped. The detectors are custom-made, frame-transfer CCDs from e2v, with 4 low-noise (2.5e-) outputs, mounted in small thermoelectrically-cooled heads operated at 180 K, resulting in virtually no dark current. The two reddest CCDs will be deep-depletion devices with anti-etaloning, providing high quantum efficiencies across the red part of the spectrum with no fringing. The instrument will also incorporate scintillation noise correction via the conjugate-p...

  12. Method of CCD Camera Calibration Based On OpenCV%基于OpenCV的CCD摄像机标定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷铭哲; 孙少杰; 陈晋良; 陶磊; 魏坤

    2014-01-01

    计算机视觉在工业,农业,军事,交通等领域都有着广泛应用。摄像机标定是视觉系统的重要环节,也是研究的关键领域。以摄像机标定技术为研究对象,选取针孔成像模型,简述了世界坐标系、摄像机坐标系和图像坐标系及其相互间的位置关系,对标定过程进行了深入研究。特别地,为提高标定精度,充分考虑了透镜径向和切向畸变影响及其求解方法,制作了棋盘格平面标定模板,基于开放计算机视觉函数库(OpenCV)实现了摄像机标定。该标定算法能够充分发挥OpenCV函数库功能,对于图像处理与计算机视觉方面的应用设计具有实用价值。实验结果表明该方法取得了较高精度,能够满足视觉检测或其他计算机视觉系统的应用需要。%Computer vision has been widely used in industry,agriculture,military,transportation area and so on. Camera calibration is very important and also the key research field of vision system. This paper mainly researches on the method of CCD camera calibration,the pin-hole model has been introduced and applied in process of calibration. Specially,in order to improve the accuracy,both radial and tangential lens distortion have been taken into account during the implement of calibration based on OpenCV. This kind of arithmetic has practical value on the application design of image processing and computer vision,and experiment results show good precision,which can meet the application need of visual inspection or other vision systems well.

  13. 基于OpenCV的CCD摄像机标定方法%Method of CCD Camera Calibration Based On OpenCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷铭哲; 孙少杰; 陈晋良; 陶磊; 魏坤

    2014-01-01

    计算机视觉在工业,农业,军事,交通等领域都有着广泛应用。摄像机标定是视觉系统的重要环节,也是研究的关键领域。以摄像机标定技术为研究对象,选取针孔成像模型,简述了世界坐标系、摄像机坐标系和图像坐标系及其相互间的位置关系,对标定过程进行了深入研究。特别地,为提高标定精度,充分考虑了透镜径向和切向畸变影响及其求解方法,制作了棋盘格平面标定模板,基于开放计算机视觉函数库(OpenCV)实现了摄像机标定。该标定算法能够充分发挥OpenCV函数库功能,对于图像处理与计算机视觉方面的应用设计具有实用价值。实验结果表明该方法取得了较高精度,能够满足视觉检测或其他计算机视觉系统的应用需要。%Computer vision has been widely used in industry,agriculture,military,transportation area and so on. Camera calibration is very important and also the key research field of vision system. This paper mainly researches on the method of CCD camera calibration,the pin-hole model has been introduced and applied in process of calibration. Specially,in order to improve the accuracy,both radial and tangential lens distortion have been taken into account during the implement of calibration based on OpenCV. This kind of arithmetic has practical value on the application design of image processing and computer vision,and experiment results show good precision,which can meet the application need of visual inspection or other vision systems well.

  14. CCD sensors.

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Neuimin; S. M. Dyachenko

    2010-01-01

    The principle of action, the basic parameters, the application CCD and achievements of the leading companies in their improved performance are considered. Methods of color image acquisition existing today are described. The table of parameters of modern image sensors which are used in modern technics are made.

  15. CCD sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Neuimin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The principle of action, the basic parameters, the application CCD and achievements of the leading companies in their improved performance are considered. Methods of color image acquisition existing today are described. The table of parameters of modern image sensors which are used in modern technics are made.

  16. A Simple Method Based on the Application of a CCD Camera as a Sensor to Detect Low Concentrations of Barium Sulfate in Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Rodrigo Caciano; Soares, Matheus; Pereira, Maria Luiza Oliveira; da Silva, Rogério Cruz Domingues; do Rosário, Francisca Ferreira; da Silva, Joao Francisco Cajaiba

    2011-01-01

    The development of a simple, rapid and low cost method based on video image analysis and aimed at the detection of low concentrations of precipitated barium sulfate is described. The proposed system is basically composed of a webcam with a CCD sensor and a conventional dichroic lamp. For this purpose, software for processing and analyzing the digital images based on the RGB (Red, Green and Blue) color system was developed. The proposed method had shown very good repeatability and linearity and also presented higher sensitivity than the standard turbidimetric method. The developed method is presented as a simple alternative for future applications in the study of precipitations of inorganic salts and also for detecting the crystallization of organic compounds. PMID:22346607

  17. A Simple Method Based on the Application of a CCD Camera as a Sensor to Detect Low Concentrations of Barium Sulfate in Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Francisco Cajaiba da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a simple, rapid and low cost method based on video image analysis and aimed at the detection of low concentrations of precipitated barium sulfate is described. The proposed system is basically composed of a webcam with a CCD sensor and a conventional dichroic lamp. For this purpose, software for processing and analyzing the digital images based on the RGB (Red, Green and Blue color system was developed. The proposed method had shown very good repeatability and linearity and also presented higher sensitivity than the standard turbidimetric method. The developed method is presented as a simple alternative for future applications in the study of precipitations of inorganic salts and also for detecting the crystallization of organic compounds.

  18. Soft X-ray transmission of optical blocking filters for the X-ray CCD cameras onboard Astro-E 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamoto, Shunji E-mail: kitamoto@rikkyo.ac.jp; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Saito, Harue; Takano, Haruko; Suga, Kazuharu; Ozawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kazuma; Kato, Risa; Tachibana, Yusuke; Tsuji, Yusuke; Koganei, Ken; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Enoguchi, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Yusuke; Shiroshouji, Takayuki

    2003-06-11

    We measured soft X-ray transmission of Optical Blocking Filters for Charge Coupled Device cameras, which will be launched as focal plane detectors of X-ray telescopes onboard the Japanese fifth X-ray astronomical satellite, Astro-E 2. The filters were made from polyimide coated with Al. The X-ray absorption fine structures at the K edges of C, N, O and Al were measured. The depth of the absorption edge of O was deep, compared to the other elements of polyimide. This is the evidence of the oxidation of Al.

  19. Ground-based CCD astrometry with wide field imagers. IV. An improved Geometric Distortion Correction for the Blue prime-focus Camera at the LBT

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, A; 10.1051/0004-6361/200913783

    2010-01-01

    High precision astrometry requires an accurate geometric distortion solution. In this work, we present an average correction for the Blue Camera of the Large Binocular Telescope which enables a relative astrometric precision of ~15 mas for the B_Bessel and V_Bessel broad-band filters. The result of this effort is used in two companion papers: the first to measure the absolute proper motion of the open cluster M67 with respect to the background galaxies; the second to decontaminate the color-magnitude diagram of M67 from field objects, enabling the study of the end of its white dwarf cooling sequence. Many other applications might find this distortion correction useful.

  20. Linear CCD attitude measurement system based on the identification of the auxiliary array CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghui; Yuan, Feng; Li, Kai; Wang, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Object to the high precision flying target attitude measurement issues of a large space and large field of view, comparing existing measurement methods, the idea is proposed of using two array CCD to assist in identifying the three linear CCD with multi-cooperative target attitude measurement system, and to address the existing nonlinear system errors and calibration parameters and more problems with nine linear CCD spectroscopic test system of too complicated constraints among camera position caused by excessive. The mathematical model of binocular vision and three linear CCD test system are established, co-spot composition triangle utilize three red LED position light, three points' coordinates are given in advance by Cooperate Measuring Machine, the red LED in the composition of the three sides of a triangle adds three blue LED light points as an auxiliary, so that array CCD is easier to identify three red LED light points, and linear CCD camera is installed of a red filter to filter out the blue LED light points while reducing stray light. Using array CCD to measure the spot, identifying and calculating the spatial coordinates solutions of red LED light points, while utilizing linear CCD to measure three red LED spot for solving linear CCD test system, which can be drawn from 27 solution. Measured with array CCD coordinates auxiliary linear CCD has achieved spot identification, and has solved the difficult problems of multi-objective linear CCD identification. Unique combination of linear CCD imaging features, linear CCD special cylindrical lens system is developed using telecentric optical design, the energy center of the spot position in the depth range of convergence in the direction is perpendicular to the optical axis of the small changes ensuring highprecision image quality, and the entire test system improves spatial object attitude measurement speed and precision.

  1. Intensified CCD Image Sensor①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJikun; ZHAOBaoyun

    1997-01-01

    Work has been done with extending the useful imaging and detection rage of CCD.This was accomplished through direct optical coupling and bonding of image intensifiers to the CCD.It has been shown that the useful range of a CCD may be extended two orders of magnitude using these techniques in coupling a microchannel plate image intensifier to the CCD array.All of these works were done with presently available CCD made by China

  2. Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, F. M.; Vílchez Medina, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryostat which will harbor the CCD detector for the spectrograph. The selected cryogenic device is an LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at INAOE. A complete description of the cryostat main body and CCD head is presented as well as all the vacuum and temperature sub-systems to operate it. The CCD is surrounded by a radiation shield to improve its performance and is placed in a custom made mechanical mounting which will allow physical adjustments for alignment with the spectrograph camera. The 4k x 4k pixel CCD231 is our selection for the cryogenically cooled detector of MEGARA. The characteristics of this CCD, the internal cryostat cabling and CCD controller hardware are discussed. Finally, static structural finite element modeling and thermal analysis results are shown to validate the cryostat model.

  3. Testing fully depleted CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan

    2014-08-01

    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  4. EL Sistema CCD de Tonantzintla. Pruebas Y Planes Futuros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, O.; Chavira, E.; Furenlid, L.; Iriarte, B.

    1987-05-01

    We present results of the laboratory tests of the CCD camera system recently acquired by INAOE, also the theoretical and observational performance of the instrument with the one meter telescope of UNAM. The system has a TI 4849 CCD with 390 >c 584 pixels. We will present the future plans of its use in the new 2.1 m telescope at Cananea, onora.

  5. Large area CCD image sensors for space astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a substantial program to develop a 2200 x 2200 pixel CCD (Charge Coupled Device) mosaic array made up of 400 individual CCD's, 110 x 110 pixels square. This type of image sensor appeared to have application in space and ground-based astronomy. Under this grant a CCD television camera system was built which was capable of operating an array of 4 CCD's to explore the suitability of the CCD's to explore the suitability of the CCD for astronomical applications. Two individual packaged CCD's were received and evaluated. Evaluation of the basic characteristics of the best individual chips was encouraging, but the manufacturer found that their yield in manufacturing this design is two low to supply sufficient CDD's for the DARPA mosaic array. The potential utility of large mosaic arrays in astronomy is still substantial and continued monitoring of the manufacturers progress in the coming year is recommended.

  6. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on 55Fe data analysis. 55Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  7. On Single-scanline Camera Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Horaud, Radu; Mohr, Roger; Lorecki, Boguslaw

    1993-01-01

    A method for calibrating single scanline CCD cameras is described. It is shown that the more classical 2D camera calibration techniques are necessary but not sufficient for solving the 1D camera calibration problem. A model for single scanline cameras is proposed, and a two-step procedure for estimating its parameters is provided. It is also shown how the extrinsic camera parameters can be determined geometrically without making explicit the intrinsic camera parameters. The accuracy of the ca...

  8. System for Digital 1D-Image Processing with 1024 Pixel CCD Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    J. Misun; M. Chrenek; Sevcik, P; P. Kulla

    1993-01-01

    The conception of system for digital 1D-images processing with digital CCD camera is presented. The system is created from these three basic parts: the digital CCD camera with linear image sensor CCD L133C, 8-bit interface and a personal computer. The scanning digital CCD camera generated a video signals, which are processed in the analog signal processor. The output signal is continually converted to 8-bit data words in A/D converter. This data words maybe transfer over a bus driver to the o...

  9. The BCAM Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi, K S

    2000-01-01

    The BCAM, or Boston CCD Angle Monitor, is a camera looking at one or more light sources. We describe the application of the The BCAM, or Boston CCD Angle Monitor, is a camera looking at one or more light sources. We describe the application of the BCAM to the ATLAS forward muon detector alignment system. We show that the camera's performance is only weakly dependent upon the brightness, focus and diameter of the source image. Its resolution is dominated by turbulence along the external light path. The camera electronics is radiation-resistant. With a field of view of ± 10 mrad, it tracks the bearing of a light source 16 m away with better than 3 µrad accuracy, well within the ATLAS requirements.

  10. Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca Rodríguez, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; E. Carrasco; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Gil De Paz, Armando; F. M. Sánchez; Vílchez, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrografo en GTC de Alta Resolucion para Astronomia) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryost...

  11. CCD Imaging of KIC 8462852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Adam

    2016-06-01

    A particularly interesting star, KIC 8562852, recently became famous for its enigmatic dips in brightness. The interpretation broadcast by many popular media outlets was that the dips were caused by a megastructure built around the star by an intelligent civilization. The best scientific hypothesis relies on a natural phenomenon: the break-up of a comet orbiting the star. To further address this problem, we have measured the star for four months using BGSU’s 0.5m telescope and digital CCD camera, and we present the star’s brightness as a function of time. Using three very clear nights, we refined the brightness of four comparison stars which can be used by the local astronomical community to monitor the star’s brightness. These newly refined magnitudes should reduce the uncertainties in our brightness measurements; this error analysis is essential in determining the significance of any brightness deviations. An observed dip in brightness would confirm the comet hypothesis by establishing a cyclical pattern, or may serve as a basis for new understanding of variable stars. An additional element to the project involves creating CCD calibration images and a well-documented procedure for future use.

  12. Development of the X-ray CCD in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the progress of X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) development and related issues in Japan. They are summarized into the following topics: (1) We demonstrated, for the first time, that a CCD could detect X-ray polarization, by studying the event profiles generated from individual X-ray photons. This is based on the fact that a photoelectron is preferentially injected in the direction of X-ray polarization. (2) Before developing a CCD with a thick depletion layer, we modified a CCD for optical use by removing the absorption layer. This made it possible to detect emission lines from Ge-L (53 eV) in detail. (3) A mesh experiment was introduced to measure the quantum efficiency (QE) in detail within a pixel. We could directly measure the thickness of the gates and their overlaps with each other. This experimentally revealed how the X-ray event grades were produced within a pixel. (4) As an application of the mesh experiment, we could also measure the shape of the charge cloud generated by an X-ray photon. Once we know the charge-cloud shape, we can precisely determine the point of interaction of the X-ray photon within a pixel. This makes the position resolution of the CCD much better than the pixel size. (5) So far, we have developed X-ray astronomy satellites, ASCA, ASTRO-E2 and MAXI, equipped with CCD cameras. CCD cameras on ASCA and ASTRO-E2 were developed through collaborative work with MIT. A future Japanese satellite, NeXT, will also be equipped with a CCD camera. We will design the CCD such that it can function simultaneously with a high-energy detector in order to cover a wide energy range

  13. System for Digital 1D-Image Processing with 1024 Pixel CCD Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Misun

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The conception of system for digital 1D-images processing with digital CCD camera is presented. The system is created from these three basic parts: the digital CCD camera with linear image sensor CCD L133C, 8-bit interface and a personal computer. The scanning digital CCD camera generated a video signals, which are processed in the analog signal processor. The output signal is continually converted to 8-bit data words in A/D converter. This data words maybe transfer over a bus driver to the operation memory of personal computer, by setting one of the three work regimes of digital CCD camera. Some application possibilities and basic technical parameters of this system are given.

  14. CCD image sensor induced error in PIV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The readout procedure of charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is known to generate some image degradation in different scientific imaging fields, especially in astrophysics. In the particular field of particle image velocimetry (PIV), widely extended in the scientific community, the readout procedure of the interline CCD sensor induces a bias in the registered position of particle images. This work proposes simple procedures to predict the magnitude of the associated measurement error. Generally, there are differences in the position bias for the different images of a certain particle at each PIV frame. This leads to a substantial bias error in the PIV velocity measurement (∼0.1 pixels). This is the order of magnitude that other typical PIV errors such as peak-locking may reach. Based on modern CCD technology and architecture, this work offers a description of the readout phenomenon and proposes a modeling for the CCD readout bias error magnitude. This bias, in turn, generates a velocity measurement bias error when there is an illumination difference between two successive PIV exposures. The model predictions match the experiments performed with two 12-bit-depth interline CCD cameras (MegaPlus ES 4.0/E incorporating the Kodak KAI-4000M CCD sensor with 4 megapixels). For different cameras, only two constant values are needed to fit the proposed calibration model and predict the error from the readout procedure. Tests by different researchers using different cameras would allow verification of the model, that can be used to optimize acquisition setups. Simple procedures to obtain these two calibration values are also described. (paper)

  15. Characterization of the Series 1000 Camera System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrough, J; Moody, J; Bell, P; Landen, O

    2004-04-07

    The National Ignition Facility requires a compact network addressable scientific grade CCD camera for use in diagnostics ranging from streak cameras to gated x-ray imaging cameras. Due to the limited space inside the diagnostic, an analog and digital input/output option in the camera controller permits control of both the camera and the diagnostic by a single Ethernet link. The system consists of a Spectral Instruments Series 1000 camera, a PC104+ controller, and power supply. The 4k by 4k CCD camera has a dynamic range of 70 dB with less than 14 electron read noise at a 1MHz readout rate. The PC104+ controller includes 16 analog inputs, 4 analog outputs and 16 digital input/output lines for interfacing to diagnostic instrumentation. A description of the system and performance characterization is reported.

  16. Colorized linear CCD data acquisition system with automatic exposure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    Colorized linear cameras deliver superb color fidelity at the fastest line rates in the industrial inspection. It's RGB trilinear sensor eliminates image artifacts by placing a separate row of pixels for each color on a single sensor. It's advanced design minimizes distance between rows to minimize image artifacts due to synchronization. In this paper, the high-speed colorized linear CCD data acquisition system was designed take advantages of the linear CCD sensor μpd3728. The hardware and software design of the system based on FPGA is introduced and the design of the functional modules is performed. The all system is composed of CCD driver module, data buffering module, data processing module and computer interface module. The image data was transferred to computer by Camera link interface. The system which automatically adjusts the exposure time of linear CCD, is realized with a new method. The integral time of CCD can be controlled by the program. The method can automatically adjust the integration time for different illumination intensity under controlling of FPGA, and respond quickly to brightness changes. The data acquisition system is also offering programmable gains and offsets for each color. The quality of image can be improved after calibration in FPGA. The design has high expansibility and application value. It can be used in many application situations.

  17. Based on line scan CCD print image detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new method based on machine vision is proposed for the defects of the traditional manual inspection of the quality of printed matter. With the aid of on line array CCD camera for image acquisition, using stepper motor as a sampling of drive circuit. Through improvement of driving circuit, to achieve the different size or precision image acquisition. In the terms of image processing, the standard image registration algorithm then, because of the characteristics of CCD-image acquisition, rigid body transformation is usually used in the registration, so as to achieve the detection of printed image.

  18. Single-spin CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, T. A.; Shafiei, M.; Fujita, T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2016-04-01

    Spin-based electronics or spintronics relies on the ability to store, transport and manipulate electron spin polarization with great precision. In its ultimate limit, information is stored in the spin state of a single electron, at which point quantum information processing also becomes a possibility. Here, we demonstrate the manipulation, transport and readout of individual electron spins in a linear array of three semiconductor quantum dots. First, we demonstrate single-shot readout of three spins with fidelities of 97% on average, using an approach analogous to the operation of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Next, we perform site-selective control of the three spins, thereby writing the content of each pixel of this ‘single-spin charge-coupled device’. Finally, we show that shuttling an electron back and forth in the array hundreds of times, covering a cumulative distance of 80 μm, has negligible influence on its spin projection. Extrapolating these results to the case of much larger arrays points at a diverse range of potential applications, from quantum information to imaging and sensing.

  19. The Dark Energy Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  20. The Dark Energy Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Flaugher, B; Honscheid, K; Abbott, T M C; Alvarez, O; Angstadt, R; Annis, J T; Antonik, M; Ballester, O; Beaufore, L; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bigelow, B; Bonati, M; Boprie, D; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E J; Campa, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Castander, F J; Castilla, J; Cease, H; Cela-Ruiz, J M; Chappa, S; Chi, E; Cooper, C; da Costa, L N; Dede, E; Derylo, G; DePoy, D L; de Vicente, J; Doel, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Eiting, J; Elliott, A E; Emes, J; Estrada, J; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flores, R; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M D; Gregory, B; Gutierrez, G R; Hao, J; Holland, S E; Holm, S; Huffman, D; Jackson, C; James, D J; Jonas, M; Karcher, A; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Kessler, R; Kozlovsky, M; Kron, R G; Kubik, D; Kuehn, K; Kuhlmann, S; Kuk, K; Lahav, O; Lathrop, A; Lee, J; Levi, M E; Lewis, P; Li, T S; Mandrichenko, I; Marshall, J L; Martinez, G; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Munoz, F; Neilsen, E H; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Olsen, J; Palio, N; Patton, K; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Rauch, J; Reil, K; Rheault, J -P; Roe, N A; Rogers, H; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schindler, R H; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, R; Schubnell, M; Schultz, K; Schurter, P; Scott, L; Serrano, S; Shaw, T M; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Stefanik, A; Stuermer, W; Suchyta, E; Sypniewski, A; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tighe, R; Tran, C; Tucker, D; Walker, A R; Wang, G; Watson, M; Weaverdyck, C; Wester, W; Woods, R; Yanny, B

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2kx4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2kx2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 microns x15 microns pixels with a plate scale of 0.263 arc sec per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construct...

  1. A CCD fitted to the UV Prime spectrograph: Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CCD camera was fitted to the 3.6 m French-Canadian telescope in Hawai. Performance of the system and observations of elliptic galaxies (stellar content and galactic evolution in a cluster) and quasars (absorption lines in spectra) are reported. In spite of its resolution being only average, the extremely rapid optics of the UV spectrograph gives good signal to noise ratios enabling redshifts and velocity scatter to be calculated with an accuracy better than 30 km/sec

  2. CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Stephen C.; Gunn, James E.; Loomis, Craig P.; Fitzgerald, Roger E.; Peacock, Grant O.

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band from 380 nm to 1260 nm through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k x 4...

  3. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  4. Spectroheliograms recorded using the CCD camera in the OAUC,

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, A.; Klvaňa, Miroslav; Sobotka, Michal; Bumba, Václav

    Hurbanovo : Slovenská ústredná hvezdáreň, 2010, 42/1-42/4. ISBN 978-80-85221-68-8. [Celoštátny slnečný seminár /20./. Papradno (SK), 31.05.2010-04.06. 2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * telescopes * spectroheliograph Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  5. Inspection focus technology of space tridimensional mapping camera based on astigmatic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Liping

    2010-10-01

    The CCD plane of the space tridimensional mapping camera will be deviated from the focal plane(including the CCD plane deviated due to camera focal length changed), under the condition of space environment and vibration, impact when satellite is launching, image resolution ratio will be descended because defocusing. For tridimensional mapping camera, principal point position and focal length variation of the camera affect positioning accuracy of ground target, conventional solution is under the condition of vacuum and focusing range, calibrate the position of CCD plane with code of photoelectric encoder, when the camera defocusing in orbit, the magnitude and direction of defocusing amount are obtained by photoelectric encoder, then the focusing mechanism driven by step motor to compensate defocusing amount of the CCD plane. For tridimensional mapping camera, under the condition of space environment and vibration, impact when satellite is launching, if the camera focal length changes, above focusing method has been meaningless. Thus, the measuring and focusing method was put forward based on astigmation, a quadrant detector was adopted to measure the astigmation caused by the deviation of the CCD plane, refer to calibrated relation between the CCD plane poison and the asrigmation, the deviation vector of the CCD plane can be obtained. This method includes all factors caused deviation of the CCD plane, experimental results show that the focusing resolution of mapping camera focusing mechanism based on astigmatic method can reach 0.25 μm.

  6. PAU camera: detectors characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

  7. Accurate calibration of stereo cameras for machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liangfu; Feng, Zuren; Feng, Yuanjing

    2004-01-01

    Camera calibration is an important task for machine vision, whose goal is to obtain the internal and external parameters of each camera. With these parameters, the 3D positions of a scene point, which is identified and matched in two stereo images, can be determined by the triangulation theory. This paper presents a new accurate estimation of CCD camera parameters for machine vision. We present a fast technique to estimate the camera center with special arrangement of calibration target and t...

  8. Influences of CCD nonlinear response on measurement of propagation factor M2 of a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nonlinear optoelectronic response on the measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 at different laser wavelengths. According to our theoretical investigation, the size of a laser beam with a standard Gaussian distribution will be estimated as larger than the real value when the response of a commercial non-calibrated CCD camera has a nonlinear relation to the recorded signal intensity. It has been demonstrated that the measurement accuracy in M2 becomes considerably worse by using such a CCD camera. The conclusion is thought to be useful for evaluation of the laser features in both research activities and industrial applications

  9. CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Stephen C.; Gunn, James E.; Loomis, Craig P.; Fitzgerald, Roger E.; Peacock, Grant O.

    2014-07-01

    The following paper details the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). PFS is designed to gather spectra from 2394 objects simultaneously, covering wavelengths that extend from 380 nm to 1260 nm. The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k × 4k, 15 μm pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k × 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k × 4k detector and Teledyne's ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems - the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main interface to the Subaru messaging hub and controls other peripheral devices associated with the camera, while the FPGA is used to generate the necessary clocks and transfer image data from the CCDs. The FEE board sets clock biases, substrate bias, and CDS offsets. It also monitors bias voltages, offset voltages, power rail voltage, substrate voltage and CCD temperature. The board translates LVDS clock signals to biased clocks and returns digitized analog data via LVDS. Monitoring and control messages are sent from the BEE to the FEE using a standard serial interface. The Pre-amplifier board resides behind the detectors and acts as an interface to the two Hamamatsu CCDs. The Pre-amplifier passes clocks and biases to the CCDs, and analog CCD data is buffered and amplified prior to being returned to the FEE. In this paper we describe the

  10. Performance comparison of streak camera recording systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streak camera based diagnostics are vital to the inertial confinement fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories. Performance characteristics of various readout systems coupled to an EGG-AVO streak camera were analyzed and compared to scaling estimates. The purpose of the work was to determine the limits of the streak camera performance and the optimal fielding conditions for the Amador Valley Operations (AVO) streak camera systems. The authors measured streak camera limitations in spatial resolution and sensitivity. Streak camera limits on spatial resolution are greater than 18 lp/mm at 4% contrast. However, it will be difficult to make use of any resolution greater than this because of high spatial frequency variation in the photocathode sensitivity. They have measured a signal to noise of 3,000 with 0.3 mW/cm2 of 830 nm light at a 10 ns/mm sweep speed. They have compared lens coupling systems with and without micro-channel plate intensifiers and systems using film or charge coupled device (CCD) readout. There were no conditions where film was found to be an improvement over the CCD readout. Systems utilizing a CCD readout without an intensifier have comparable resolution, for these source sizes and at a nominal cost in signal to noise of 3, over those with an intensifier. Estimates of the signal-to-noise for different light coupling methods show how performance can be improved

  11. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I.; Kubánek, Petr; O´Connor, P.; Prouza, Michael; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 695, Dec (2012), 188-192. ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CCD * characterization * test automation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  12. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  13. CCD Photometry of bright stars using objective wire mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Zgórz, Marika [Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, Słoneczna 36, 60-286 Poznań (Poland); Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Aleksander, E-mail: chrisk@amu.edu.pl [Copernicus Astronomical Centre, ul. Bartycka 18, PL 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-01

    Obtaining accurate photometry of bright stars from the ground remains problematic due to the danger of overexposing the target and/or the lack of suitable nearby comparison stars. The century-old method of using objective wire mesh to produce multiple stellar images seems promising for the precise CCD photometry of such stars. Furthermore, our tests on β Cep and its comparison star, differing by 5 mag, are very encouraging. Using a CCD camera and a 20 cm telescope with the objective covered by a plastic wire mesh, in poor weather conditions, we obtained differential photometry with a precision of 4.5 mmag per two minute exposure. Our technique is flexible and may be tuned to cover a range as big as 6-8 mag. We discuss the possibility of installing a wire mesh directly in the filter wheel.

  14. Development of a 300,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, H.; Hayashida, T.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Poggemann, D.; Ruckelshausen, A.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.

    2006-02-01

    We are developing an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity broadcast camera that is capable of capturing clear, smooth slow-motion videos even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. In earlier work, we developed an ultrahigh-speed broadcast color camera1) using three 80,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed, highsensitivity CCDs2). This camera had about ten times the sensitivity of standard high-speed cameras, and enabled an entirely new style of presentation for sports broadcasts and science programs. Most notably, increasing the pixel count is crucially important for applying ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs to HDTV broadcasting. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at improving the resolution of CCD even further: a new ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD that increases the pixel count four-fold to 300,000 pixels.

  15. CCD Readout Electronics for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Stephen C; Loomis, Craig P; Fitzgerald, Roger E; Peacock, Grant O

    2014-01-01

    We present details of the design for the CCD readout electronics for the Subaru Telescope Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). The spectrograph is comprised of four identical spectrograph modules, each collecting roughly 600 spectra. The spectrograph modules provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over the entire band from 380 nm to 1260 nm through the use of three separate optical channels: blue, red, and near infrared (NIR). A camera in each channel images the multi-object spectra onto a 4k x 4k, 15 um pixel, detector format. The two visible cameras use a pair of Hamamatsu 2k x 4k CCDs with readout provided by custom electronics, while the NIR camera uses a single Teledyne HgCdTe 4k x 4k detector and ASIC Sidecar to read the device. The CCD readout system is a custom design comprised of three electrical subsystems: the Back End Electronics (BEE), the Front End Electronics (FEE), and a Pre-amplifier. The BEE is an off-the-shelf PC104 computer, with an auxiliary Xilinx FPGA module. The computer serves as the main...

  16. Camera calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Cetto, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a tutorial on pattern based camera calibration for computer vision. The methods presented here allow for the computation of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a camera. These methods are widely available in the literature, and they are only summarized here as an easy and comprehensive reference for researchers at the Institute and their collaborators.

  17. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  18. The research and development of CCD-based slab continuous casting mold copper surface imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Liugang; Xie, Haihua; Long, Liaosha; Yu, Wenyong

    2011-11-01

    An imaging system for the continuous casting mold copper surface is researched and developed, to replace the on-line manual measuring method, which is used to checking Copper defects such as wearing, scratches and coating loss and other phenomena. Method: The imaging system proposes a special optical loop formed by three Mirrors, selects light source, CCD camera and lens type, designs mechanical transmission system and installation platform. Result: the optical loop and light source can insure imaging large-format object in narrow space. The CCD camera and lens determine the accuracy of horizontal scanning, and the mechanical transmission system ensures accuracy of the vertical scan. The installation platform supplies base and platform for the system. Conclusions: CCD-based copper surface imaging system effectively prevent defects such as missed measuring and low efficiency, etc. It can automatically and accurately shoot copper surface images on-line, and supply basis for image processing, defects identification and copper changing in the late.

  19. Digital X-ray detector based on a CCD matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of charge-coupled devices (CCD) as position-sensitive detectors for X-ray radiation is discussed. The experimental scheme contains a videotransmission camera to detect pulsed X-ray radiation and Vektor analog-to-digital converters and computer interface. It is shown that the sensitivity range of a K1200TsM1 matrix to bremsstrahlung with an average energy of 75 keV is 2.7·10-8-0.8·10-6 J/cm2. The spatial resolution of the resultant X-ray image is discussed. 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. Method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binhua; Song, Qian; He, Chun; Jin, Jianhui; He, Lin

    2010-07-01

    With the advance of the PFPA technology, the design methodology of digital systems is changing. In recent years we develop a method to implement the CCD timing generator based on FPGA and VHDL. This paper presents the principles and implementation skills of the method. Taking a developed camera as an example, we introduce the structure, input and output clocks/signals of a timing generator implemented in the camera. The generator is composed of a top module and a bottom module. The bottom one is made up of 4 sub-modules which correspond to 4 different operation modes. The modules are implemented by 5 VHDL programs. Frame charts of the architecture of these programs are shown in the paper. We also describe implementation steps of the timing generator in Quartus II, and the interconnections between the generator and a Nios soft core processor which is the controller of this generator. Some test results are presented in the end.

  1. A fast double shutter system for CCD image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fast shutter system for CCD sensor-based cameras is presented. This system is capable of providing for the first time short exposure times for two consecutive frames recorded in fast succession with high spatial resolutions. In addition, a third frame can be recorded with a long exposure time, this then corresponding to the well-known ‘double shutter’. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) will benefit from the new fast shutter when being used in bright environments. Using the optional third frame, advanced evaluation schemes can be implemented to measure acceleration, increase the dynamic range of the velocity measurements or reduce the number of false matches (ghost particles) in tomographic PIV or particle tracking. It will be shown that for double-frame applications this new shutter timing outperforms even the latest commercially available single-chip high-speed cameras. (paper)

  2. LiCHy: The CAF’s LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral Integrated Airborne Observation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Pang; Zengyuan Li; Hongbo Ju; Hao Lu; Wen Jia; Lin Si; Ying Guo; Qingwang Liu; Shiming Li; Luxia Liu; Binbin Xie; Bingxiang Tan; Yuanyong Dian

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, implementation and performance of a novel airborne system, which integrates commercial waveform LiDAR, CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) camera and hyperspectral sensors into a common platform system. CAF’s (The Chinese Academy of Forestry) LiCHy (LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral) Airborne Observation System is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation vertical structure, horizontal pattern, and foliar spectra from different view angles at very high sp...

  3. Scintillation camera and positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of earlier forms of the gamma-ray camera. The principle of operation of the scintillation camera is reviewed. Here the locations of scintillations occurring in a flat thallium-activated sodium iodide crystal are determined from the amount of light picked up by a number of phototubes simultaneously viewing the crystal. The signals from the phototubes are fed to a deflection computor circuit which reproduces the scintillations on a cathode-ray tube screen. There they are photographed by a conventional scope camera. Examples are shown of the resolution now obtained as shown by test phantoms. A discussion is presented of the camera's use in visualizing the thyroid in clinical practice. (author)

  4. Measurement of spatial object's exterior attitude based on linear CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to realize real-time measurement of exterior attitude by the traditional systems based on the area image sensor which have conflict between speed and accuracy.The subsystem for three-dimensional (3D) coordinate rcconstruction of point target (S3DCRPT) which is composed of three one-dimensional (1D) cameras based on linear charge-coupled device (CCD) can determine the distant light spots' spatial position. The attitude angle of the measured object is determined by the spatial solution while the coordinate reconstruction is separately carried on by the S3DCRPT with some point cooperation targets (PCTs) on the measured object. A new optical system is designed to solve the interference problem with one-to-one relationship between the PCTs and the S3DCRPT optical subsystems,which improves the measurement accuracy and saves space. The mathematical model of the attitude measurement is established,and partial and global calibrations are realized for the multi-camera attitude measurement system.The test results show the feasibility of the exterior attitude measurement based on linear CCD.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, Brenna

    2012-03-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 520 Megapixel CCD camera which is being mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to carry out the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey, using 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. Construction of DECam is complete. The final components were shipped to Chile in Dec. 2011 and post-shipping checkout is in progress in Dec-Jan. Installation and commissioning on the telescope are taking place in 2012. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  6. CCD flux measurement system Prohermes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroger-Vodde, A. [University of Almeria, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain); Hollander, A. [German Aerospace Center, Plataforma de Almeria, Head of Engineering (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    At the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) a new, PC based, 14 bit CCD video flux measurement system, called PROHERMES, has been introduced to improve the precision of data acquisition and includes with Optimas a flexible, more user friendly, easy adaptable software environment. The hardware and software is described. Macros have been created to meet the special requirements of the tasks at the PSA. As an example for a macro, the program flow structure is given for the acquisition of the moving-bar sequence to measure the performance of receivers like in the REFOS project. The results are exported to Excel. The comparison with the former measurement system HERMES II concludes the new system as an important progress. Future efforts will focus on the further automation of flux measurements and heliostat controls. (authors)

  7. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  8. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  9. The Dark Energy Camera (DECam)

    CERN Document Server

    Honscheid, K; Abbott, T; Annis, J; Antonik, M; Barcel, M; Bernstein, R; Bigelow, B; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Campa, J; Cardiel, L; Castander, F; Castilla, J; Cease, H; Chappa, S; Dede, E; Derylo, G; Diehl, T; Doel, P; De Vicente, J; Eiting, J; Estrada, J; Finley, D; Flaugher, B; Gaztañaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Guarino, V; Gutíerrez, G; Hamilton, J; Haney, M; Holland, S; Huffman, D; Karliner, I; Kau, D; Kent, S; Kozlovsky, M; Kubik, D; Kühn, K; Kuhlmann, S; Kuk, K; Leger, F; Lin, H; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Merritt, W; Mohr, J; Moore, P; Moore, T; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Olsen, J; Onal, B; Peoples, J; Qian, T; Roe, N; Sánchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, R; Schubnell, M; Schultz, K; Selen, M; Shaw, T; Simaitis, V; Slaughter, J; Smith, C; Spinka, H; Stefanik, A; Stuermer, W; Talaga, R; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Walker, A; Worswick, S; Zhao, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which will be the primary instrument used in the Dark Energy Survey. DECam will be a 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). It consists of a large mosaic CCD focal plane, a five element optical corrector, five filters (g,r,i,z,Y), a modern data acquisition and control system and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane includes of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27"/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the roughly 2.2 degree diameter field of view and 12 smaller 2K x 2K CCDs for guiding, focus and alignment. The CCDs will be 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Production of the CCDs and fabrication of the optics, mechanical structure, mechanisms, and control system for DECam are underway; delivery of the instrument to CTIO is scheduled ...

  10. CCD technology beyond fibre optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 25 years the accepted method of viewing inside industrial components, or indeed the human body, has been by the use of either flexible or rigid fibre optics. In the last five years however, many developments have enabled television cameras to reduce to a size small enough to allow internal viewing of an object, without prior dismantling. This concept was achieved five years ago, with the Welch Allyn Videoprobe 2000, a charge coupled device. (author)

  11. Flat-Field Calibration of CCD Detector for Long Trace Profilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers requires x-ray optical systems with extremely high-performance, generally, of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of such optics requires highly accurate metrology. In the present paper, we discuss a way to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used at synchrotron facilities to characterize x-ray optics at high-spatial-wavelengths from approximately 2 mm to 1 m. One of the major sources of LTP systematic error is the detector. For optimal functionality, the detector has to possess the smallest possible pixel size/spacing, a fast method of shuttering, and minimal non-uniformity of pixel-to-pixel photoresponse. While the first two requirements are determined by choice of detector, the non-uniformity of photoresponse of typical detectors such as CCD cameras is around 2-3 percent. We describe a flat-field calibration setup specially developed for calibration of CCD camera photo-response and dark current with an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent. Such accuracy is adequate for use of a camera as a detector for an LTP with performance of ∼0.1 microradian (rms). We also present the design details of the calibration system and results of calibration of a DALSA CCD camera used for upgrading our LTP-II instrument at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory

  12. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  13. Scintillating track image camera-SCITIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Akira; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iwata, Soma; Kadowaki, Tetsuhito; Kurosawa, Maki; Nagae, Tomohumi; Nakai, Kozi

    2004-01-01

    A new type of track detector, scintillating track image camera (SCITIC) has been developed. Scintillating track images of particles in a scintillator are focused by an optical lens system on a photocathode on image intesifier tube (IIT). The image signals are amplified by an IIT-cascade and stored by a CCD camera. The performance of the detector has been tested with cosmic-ray muons and with pion- and proton-beams from the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. Data of the test experiments have shown promising features of SCITIC as a triggerable track detector with a variety of possibilities. 7 Refs.

  14. Scintillating track image camera-SCITIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of track detector, scintillating track image camera (SCITIC) has been developed. Scintillating track images of particles in a scintillator are focused by an optical lens system on a photocathode on image intensifier tube (IIT). The image signals are amplified by an IIT-cascade and stored by a CCD camera. The performance of the detector has been tested with cosmic-ray muons and with pion- and proton-beams from the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. Data of the test experiments have shown promising features of SCITIC as a triggerable track detector with a variety of possibilities. (author)

  15. A Simple Illustrative Model of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Michael F.

    2009-10-01

    Many students (as well as the general public) use modern technology without an understanding of how these devices actually work. They are what scientists refer to in the laboratory as "black boxes." Students often wonder how physics relates to the technology used in the real world and are interested in such applications. An example of one such "black box" is the charge-coupled device (CCD), an electronic imaging sensor invented in 1970 by Bell Labs researchers Willard Boyle and George Smith. Astronomers first embraced CCD technology in the early 1980s because CCDs are very light sensitive, consume low amounts of power, and generate digital images quickly. More than three decades later, CCDs have become ubiquitous, as they are found in consumer digital cameras, scanners, photocopiers, medical imaging devices and spectroscopic detectors. This paper presents a model of a CCD "chip" that can be easily adapted as a classroom demonstration.

  16. Měření absolutní kvantové účinnosti iCCD kamer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin; Haderka, O.; Peřina, J.; Machulka, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 24-27. ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum efficiency * intensified CCD camera * standardless measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Imaging the Moon II: Webcam CCD observations & analysis (a two week lab for non-majors)

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Presented is a successful two week lab involving real sky observations of the Moon in which students make telescopic observations and analyze their own images. Originally developed around the 35 mm film camera as a common household object adapted for astronomical work, the lab transitioned to use the webcam as film photography evolved into an obscure specialty technology and increasing numbers of students had little familiarity with it. The printed circuit board with the CCD is harvested from...

  18. CCD photometry of the sparse halo cluster E3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New photometry in B and V for the sparse halo cluster E3 has been obtained with the prime-focus CCD camera at the CTIO 4-m telescope. The principal sequences are better defined than in the previous color-magnitude (C-M) diagrams, but the large scatter of evolved stars above the turnoff remains. The C-M morphology, inferred old age, and position in the halo definitely indicate that E3 is a globular cluster. Evidence for possible main-sequence binaries appears in the C-M diagram in the form of a sequence parallel to the cluster main sequence and three-quarters of a magnitude above it. The luminosity function drops off sharply, about 2.5 mag below the turnoff, supporting the suggestion by van den Bergh, Demers, and Kunkel (1980), that the cluster is severely truncated by tidal forces. 34 references

  19. Pengembangan Metoda Deteksi Rintangan untuk Traktor tanpa Awak Menggunakan Kamera CCD

    OpenAIRE

    Usman Ahmad; Desrial; Mudho Saksono

    2012-01-01

    For unmanned tractor guided by global positioning system, ability for eluding obstacles such as trees, big stone, cavity, bund, people, and other objects in the work area is very important in order not to stop the operation.Surrounding detection system using CCD camera makes it possible for unmanned tractor to detect obstacles in front of it realtime. However, with so many different objects that may captured by the camera, it will need a lot of image processing steps that takes a lot of time ...

  20. Timing with the EPIC pn Camera of XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Benlloch, S; Becker, W; Lammers, U; Vacanti, G; Serpell, E; Kuster, Markus; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Benlloch, Sara; Becker, Werner; Lammers, Uwe; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Serpell, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    The EPIC pn CCD camera on board of XMM-Newton is designed to perform high throughput imaging and spectroscopy as well as high resolution timing observations in the energy range of 0.1-15 keV. A temporal resolution of milliseconds or microseconds, depending on the instrument mode and detector, is outstanding for CCD based X-ray cameras. In order to calibrate the different observing modes of the EPIC pn CCD, XMM-Newton observations of the pulsars PSR B1509-58, PSR B0540-69 and the Crab were performed during the calibration and performance verification phase. To determine the accuracy of the on board clock against Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), PSR B1509-58 was observed simultaneously with XMM-Newton and RXTE in addition. The paper summarizes the current status of the clock calibration.

  1. Design for the correction system of the real time nonuniformity of large area-array CCD image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Chunmei; Lei, Ning

    2012-10-01

    With the robust thriving of aviation cameras and remote sensing technology, the linear-array CCD (charge-coupled device) and area CCD have developed toward large area CCD, which has a broad coverage and avoids the difficulty in jointing small area CCDs in addition to improving time resolution. However, due to the high amount of pixels and channels of large area CCD, photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) is severe. In this paper, a real time non-uniformity correction system is introduced for a sort of large area full frame transfer CCD. First, the correction algorithm is elaborated according to CCD's working principle. Secondly, due to the high number of pixels and correction coefficient, ordinary chip memory cannot meet the requirement. The combination of external flash memory and DDR described in the paper satisfies large capacity memory and rapid real time correction. The methods and measurement steps for obtaining correction factors are provided simultaneously. At the end, an imaging test is made. The non-uniformity of the image is reduced to 0.38 % from the pre-correction 2.96 %, achieving an obvious reduction of non-uniformity. The result shows that the real time non-uniformity correction system can meet the demands of large area-array CCD.

  2. New trends in developments of CCD arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. O.

    2005-06-01

    Currently the number of foreign companies manufacturing the charge-coupled devices (CCD) comes to many tens, and manufacture of CCDs for different applications exceeds 10 million pieces per year. With the purpose to provide competition ability of our CCDs our enterprise has concentrated efforts on the manufacture of customized CCDs designed either for military or civilian applications. The main trends in the CCD developments are presented.

  3. New camera systems for fuel services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA NP Fuel Services have many years of experience in visual examination and measurements on fuel assemblies and associated core components by using state of the art cameras and measuring technologies. The used techniques allow the surface and dimensional characterization of materials and shapes by visual examination. New enhanced and sophisticated technologies for fuel services f. e. are two shielded color camera systems for use under water and close inspection of a fuel assembly. Nowadays the market requirements for detecting and characterization of small defects (lower than the 10th of one mm) or cracks and analyzing surface appearances on an irradiated fuel rod cladding or fuel assembly structure parts have increased. Therefore it is common practice to use movie cameras with higher resolution. The radiation resistance of high resolution CCD cameras is in general very low and it is not possible to use them unshielded close to a fuel assembly. By extending the camera with a mirror system and shielding around the sensitive parts, the movie camera can be utilized for fuel assembly inspection. AREVA NP Fuel Services is now equipped with such kind of movie cameras. (orig.)

  4. Radiation effects on CCD image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, the micro process technology has advanced and some elaborate semiconductor devices with many microscopic elements in a cell of about 10 μm x 10 μm can be successfully used as radiation detectors and related parts in the field of nuclear physics and engineering. A CCD image sensor, for example, effectively measures details of particle-beam profiles in accelerator applications. This paper describes radiation effects on CCD image sensors. Some CCD samples were irradiated with 60Co gamma-rays and DD and DT neutrons for the examination of the reliability of CCDs used in radiation environments. This paper shows experimental data on radiation effects on CCDs and then discusses the difference in the radiation effects between gamma-rays and neutrons. The following two radiation effects on CCDs are described. One is the transient effect, which is induced by the ionisation process of radiations and is not permanent but recoverable. A CCD responds to radiations as well as light and outputs pseudo signals induced by radiation reactions in the normal video signals during irradiation. The other is the permanent effect, which is caused by the generation of the defects. A CCD image sensor is easily influenced by the trapped holes produced by ionisation in the gate oxide. The defects cause the generation of the leakage current within the depletion region, the trapping of signal charge within the channel of the charge shift register, and the flat band voltage shift which affects the CCD operating bias. (author)

  5. Short on camera geometry and camera calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Maria

    2010-01-01

    We will present the basic theory for the camera geometry. Our goal is camera calibration and the tools necessary for this. We start with homogeneous matrices that can be used to describe geometric transformations in a simple manner. Then we consider the pinhole camera model, the simplified camera model that we will show how to calibrate. A camera matrix describes the mapping from the 3D world to a camera image. The camera matrix can be determined through a number of corresponding points measu...

  6. Explosive Transient Camera (ETC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, George

    1991-01-01

    Since the inception of the ETC program, a wide range of new technologies was developed to support this astronomical instrument. The prototype unit was installed at ETC Site 1. The first partially automated observations were made and some major renovations were later added to the ETC hardware. The ETC was outfitted with new thermoelectrically-cooled CCD cameras and a sophisticated vacuum manifold, which, together, made the ETC a much more reliable unit than the prototype. The ETC instrumentation and building were placed under full computer control, allowing the ETC to operate as an automated, autonomous instrument with virtually no human intervention necessary. The first fully-automated operation of the ETC was performed, during which the ETC monitored the error region of the repeating soft gamma-ray burster SGR 1806-21.

  7. Feasibility study of a lens-coupled charge-coupled device gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) is generally used in a digital camera as a light-collecting device such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Because of its low sensitivity and very high dark current, CCD have not been popularly used for gamma imaging systems. However, a recent CCD technological breakthrough has improved CCD sensitivity, and the use of a Peltier cooling system can significantly minimize the dark current. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a prototype CCD gamma camera consisting of a CsI scintillator, optical lenses, and a CCD module. Despite electron-multiplying (EM) CCDs having higher performance, in this study, we built a cost-effective system consisted of low-cost components compared to EMCCDs. Our prototype detector consists of a CsI scintillator, two optical lenses, and a conventional Peltier-cooled CCD. The performance of this detector was evaluated by acquiring the sensitivity, resolution, and the modulation transfer function (MTF). The sensitivity of the prototype detector showed excellent linearity. With a 1 mm-diameter pinhole collimator, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a 1.1 mm Tc-99m line source image was 2.85 mm. These results show that the developed prototype camera is feasible for small animal gamma imaging.

  8. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  9. Proactive PTZ Camera Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    We present a visual sensor network—comprising wide field-of-view (FOV) passive cameras and pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) active cameras—capable of automatically capturing closeup video of selected pedestrians in a designated area. The passive cameras can track multiple pedestrians simultaneously and any PTZ camera can observe a single pedestrian at a time. We propose a strategy for proactive PTZ camera control where cameras plan ahead to select optimal camera assignment and handoff with respect to predefined observational goals. The passive cameras supply tracking information that is used to control the PTZ cameras.

  10. Space station application of CCD image sensors for x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge Coupled Device (CCD) type solid state image sensors are employed in a number of space based imaging experiments and will be the basis for a camera system to acquire x-ray diffraction images on board the Space Station. This paper will present the system engineering considerations that led to the selection of CCDs over other x-ray imaging technologies and the design of the camera system. This will include discussion of the special requirements imposed by the space environment and this x-ray crystallography mission. This systems engineering discussion will be followed by a summary of high spatial resolution CCDs that are candidates for this camera, what may become available in the future, and what improvements would make CCDs even more suited to such X-ray imaging applications on the ground as well as in space

  11. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  12. Laboratory geometric calibration of areal digital aerial camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital aerial camera is non-metric camera. Geometric calibration, including the determination of interior orientation elements and distortion parameters, is the base of high precision photogrammetry. In this paper, a laboratory geometric calibration system of areal digital aerial cameras is developed. This system uses a collimator and a star tester as the target generator. After measurement of the coordinates of targets on the CCD plane and corresponding angles of parallel lights, the geometric calibration of digital aerial camera can be realized according to the geometric calibration model of this paper. Geometric calibration experiments are taken out based on this system using two kinds of mainstream digital aerial cameras, Cannon EOS 5D Mark II and Hasselblad H3D. Experiment results show that this system can satisfy the calibration requirements of aerial photogrammetric application and prove the correctness and the reliability of this calibration method

  13. Protein diffraction experiments with Atlas CCD detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnálek, Jan; Kovaľ, Tomáš; Dušek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. - abstracts (2008), C192. ISSN 0108-7673. [Congress of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) /21./. 23.08.2008-31.08.2008, Osaka] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : x-ray data collection * CCD detectors * protein crystallography applications Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. A quadrant-CCD star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.; Durrance, S. T.; Barkhouser, R.; Golimowski, D. A.; Wald, A.; Fastie, W. G.; Heidtmann, D. L.; Blouke, Morley M.; Westphal, James A.; Janesick, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of a quadrant-CCD designed for pointing and tracking are discussed with reference to its use in an adaptive optics program. The quadrant-CCD is used to correct stellar image motion proceeding from atmospheric turbulence by means of a system in which a sensor measures the image offset and sends data to a high-speed tip/tilt mirror. The design and control of the device are detailed, including four 100-micron-square pixels, the quadrant architecture, controller electronics, and data acquisition computer and interface. The transfer function is set forth in the x and y directions, and transfer curves are shown. A laboratory simulation of random image motion was conducted to evaluate the performance of the quadrant-CCD as an image motion sensor, and the experimental results are presented. The suitability of the quadrant-CCD for space-based pointing and tracking uses is demonstrated by this test and two earlier theoretical studies. Some future developments which improve performance capabilities are mentioned.

  15. Calibrating Images from the MINERVA Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes Colón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) consists of an array of robotic telescopes located on Mount Hopkins, Arizona with the purpose of performing transit photometry and spectroscopy to find Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. In order to make photometric observations, it is necessary to perform calibrations on the CCD cameras of the telescopes to take into account possible instrument error on the data. In this project, we developed a pipeline that takes optical images, calibrates them using sky flats, darks, and biases to generate a transit light curve.

  16. Using APART for wall visibility calculations in the calibration channel of wide field planetary camera II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, James W.; Scholl, Marija S.

    1993-01-01

    The cone visibility from the CCD detector array plane in the calibration channel of wide field planetary camera II (WFPC II) is analyzed, using APART, for three representative wavelengths as characterized by indices of refraction. The light pipe walls are visible from the corners of the equivalent CCD detector array when imaging with the smallest index of refraction, n = 1.375. Painting the inside of the light pipe walls will result in a decrease in their visibility.

  17. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  18. True RGB line-scan camera for color machine vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstrom, Guy F.

    1994-10-01

    The design and technical capabilities of a true RGB 3 CCD chip color line scan camera are presented within this paper. The camera was developed for accurate color monitoring and analysis in industrial applications. A black & white line scan camera has been designed and built utilizing the same modular architecture of the color line scan camera. Color separation is made possible with a tri-chromatic RGB beam splitter. Three CCD linear arrays are precisely mounted to the output surfaces of the prism and the outputs of each CCD are exactly matched pixel by pixel. The beam splitter prism can be tailored to separate other spectral components than the standard RGB. A typical CCD can detect between 200 and 100 nm. Either two or three spectral regions can be separated using a beam splitter prism. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough of local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure minute color differences, enabling the separation or grading of objects such as minerals, food or other materials that could not otherwise be measured with a black and white camera.

  19. Pengembangan Metoda Deteksi Rintangan untuk Traktor tanpa Awak Menggunakan Kamera CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For unmanned tractor guided by global positioning system, ability for eluding obstacles such as trees, big stone, cavity, bund, people, and other objects in the work area is very important in order not to stop the operation.Surrounding detection system using CCD camera makes it possible for unmanned tractor to detect obstacles in front of it realtime. However, with so many different objects that may captured by the camera, it will need a lot of image processing steps that takes a lot of time so it is no longer suitable for realtime detection in application. The proposed research is aimed to develop a simpler obstacle detection method by adding a red laser pointer to the CCD camera used to capture scene in front of the tractor. The red laser light that reflected by an obstacle gives an important information in the image, and the distance of the obstacle could be calculated based on phytagoras theory. The results showed that all obstacles with 1 m distance, 80% obstacles with 2 m distance, and 40% obstacles with 3 m distance could be detected. Obstacles with more than 3 m distances could not be detected due to weak laser light for the distances. The accuracy of distance prediction for all situation is 67.5%, which is still need improvements.

  20. Flat-Field Calibration of CCD Detector for Long TraceProfilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Franck, Keith D.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison,Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-07-31

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasersrequires x-ray optical systems with extremely high-performance,generally, of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of suchoptics requires highly accurate metrology. In the present paper, wediscuss a way to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler(LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used at synchrotron facilitiesto characterize x-ray optics at high-spatial-wavelengths fromapproximately 2 mm to 1 m. One of the major sources of LTP systematicerror is the detector. For optimal functionality, the detector has topossess the smallest possible pixel size/spacing, a fast method ofshuttering, and minimal non-uniformity of pixel-to-pixel photoresponse.While the first two requirements are determined by choice of detector,the non-uniformity of photoresponse of typical detectors such as CCDcameras is around 2-3 percent. We describe a flat-field calibration setupspecially developed for calibration of CCD camera photo-response and darkcurrent with an accuracy of better than 0.5 percent. Such accuracy isadequate for use of a camera as a detector for an LTP with performance of~;0.1 microradian (rms). We also present the design details of thecalibration system and results of calibration of a DALSA CCD camera usedfor upgrading our LTP-II instrument at the ALS Optical MetrologyLaboratory.

  1. Blind identification of cellular phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliktutan, Oya; Avcibas, Ismail; Sankur, Bülent

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. It is known various artifacts in the image processing pipeline, such as pixel defects or unevenness of the responses in the CCD sensor, black current noise, proprietary interpolation algorithms involved in color filter array [CFA] leave telltale footprints. These artifacts, although often imperceptible, are statistically stable and can be considered as a signature of the camera type or even of the individual device. For this purpose, we explore a set of forensic features, such as binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet statistics in conjunction SVM classifier to identify the originating cell-phone type. We provide identification results among 9 different brand cell-phone cameras. In addition to our initial results, we applied a set of geometrical operations to original images in order to investigate how much our proposed method is robust under these manipulations.

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Using CCD/ CMOS Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Khee Lam; Joanna, Tan Choay Ee; Sim, Keat; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; and, Khiruddin Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we showed a method for measuring of the air quality index by using the CCD/CMOS sensor. We showed two examples to obtain index values by using webcam and CCTV. Both devices provided a high correlation between the measured and estimated PM10. So, the imaging method is capable to measure PM10 values in the environment. Futher application can be conducted using different devices.

  3. Measuring flying object velocity with CCD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricny, Vaclav; Mikulec, Jiri

    1994-06-01

    An autonomous optoelectronic method of measuring the flying objects track velocity vector (TVV) using digital signal two-line CCD sensors has been developed and simulated at the Department of Radioelectronics at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic. The principle of the method, the computer simulation of measuring device operations, the application of statistic estimates for the precision of values measured, and the presentation of the results achieved are described.

  4. PSF and MTF measurement methods for thick CCD sensor characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, P. Z.; Kotov, I.; Frank, J.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al.1 and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen2 that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include 55Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/# close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  5. PSF and MTF Measurement Methods for Thick CCD Sensor Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al. and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include 55Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/number close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  6. Design of low noise, high performance X-ray charge-coupled-device cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, J. P.; Luppino, Gerard A.; Ricker, George R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes some of the critical details of the MIT X-ray CCD camera design. Special attention is given to those portions of the system that deviate from conventional practice in the design of CCD cameras. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to generalize the design so that both optical and X-ray requirements can be satisfied whenever possible. Currently, noise levels of less than 8 electrons rms are routinely achieved with this design, and even lower levels (less than 5 electrons) should be realizable.

  7. Characteristic analysis on the thermal noise of infrared CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-zhu; Yu, Xing; Liu, Guo-dong

    2014-09-01

    1.064 μm, 1.319 μm and 10.6 μm laser were used to irradiate silicon-based HgCdTe CCD image system. The temperature distribution of detector induced by infrared laser irradiating in the experiment above was simulated. The influence of temperature on photoelectric parameters of HgCdTe CCD was calculated. A CCD physical model of crosstalk saturation was built and the response characteristic of CCD under the influence of thermal noise was analyzed. Result indicated that the rise of temperature induced by laser irradiating little influenced imaging effect of CCD.

  8. The Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a next generation optical survey aimed at understanding the expansion rate of the Universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the survey, the DES Collaboration is building the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera that will be mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. CCD production has finished, yielding roughly twice the required 62 2k x 4k detectors. The construction of DECam is nearly finished. Integration and commissioning on a 'telescope simulator' of the major hardware and software components, except for the optics, recently concluded at Fermilab. Final assembly of the optical corrector has started at University College, London. Some components have already been received at CTIO. 'First-light' will be sometime in 2012. This oral presentation concentrates on the technical challenges involved in building DECam (and how we overcame them), and the present status of the instrument.

  9. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  10. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 106 frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs

  11. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

  12. Performance measurement of commercial electronic still picture cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Feng; Tseng, Shinn-Yih; Chiang, Hwang-Cheng; Cheng, Jui-His; Liu, Yuan-Te

    1998-06-01

    Commercial electronic still picture cameras need a low-cost, systematic method for evaluating the performance. In this paper, we present a measurement method to evaluating the dynamic range and sensitivity by constructing the opto- electronic conversion function (OECF), the fixed pattern noise by the peak S/N ratio (PSNR) and the image shading function (ISF), and the spatial resolution by the modulation transfer function (MTF). The evaluation results of individual color components and the luminance signal from a PC camera using SONY interlaced CCD array as the image sensor are then presented.

  13. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  14. Harpicon camera for HDTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanada, Jun

    1992-08-01

    Ikegami has been involved in broadcast equipment ever since it was established as a company. In conjunction with NHK it has brought forth countless television cameras, from black-and-white cameras to color cameras, HDTV cameras, and special-purpose cameras. In the early days of HDTV (high-definition television, also known as "High Vision") cameras the specifications were different from those for the cameras of the present-day system, and cameras using all kinds of components, having different arrangements of components, and having different appearances were developed into products, with time spent on experimentation, design, fabrication, adjustment, and inspection. But recently the knowhow built up thus far in components, , printed circuit boards, and wiring methods has been incorporated in camera fabrication, making it possible to make HDTV cameras by metbods similar to the present system. In addition, more-efficient production, lower costs, and better after-sales service are being achieved by using the same circuits, components, mechanism parts, and software for both HDTV cameras and cameras that operate by the present system.

  15. Digital Pinhole Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  16. Preliminary evaluation of charge-coupled device (CCD) multispectral analysis in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described was originally aimed at providing a new diagnostic technique for the early detection of malignant ocular tumors through their spectral signature. The instrument developed comprises a modified fundus camera, a Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a 16 bit microcomputer equipped with floopy disk drives and a 512 x 512 x 8-bit display device. The system allows the recording of digitized fundus or iris reflectance pictures in eight spectral bands between 500 and 1100 nm. After calibration and preprocessing of the data, a multispectral analysis is performed by means of a VAX computer. The image processing methods are described and their ability to characterize pigmented lesions or other ocular anatomical features through their spectral signature is evaluated

  17. Auto-Guiding System for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Eunbin; Jeong, Hyenju; Kim, Jinyoung; Kuehne, John; Kim, Dong Han; Kim, Han Geun; Odons, Peter S; Chang, Seunghyuk; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2011-01-01

    To perform imaging observation of optically red objects such as high redshift quasars and brown dwarfs, the Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU) recently developed an optical CCD camera, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse(CQUEAN), which is sensitive at 0.7-1.1 um. To enable observations with long exposures, we developed an auto-guiding system for CQUEAN. This system consist of an off-axis mirror, a baffle, a CCD camera, a motor and a differential decelerator. To increase the number of available guiding stars, we designed a rotating mechanism for the off-axis guiding camera. The guiding field can be scammed along the 10 acrmin ring offset from the optical axis of the telescope. Combined with the auto-guiding software of the McDonald Observatory, we confirmed that a stable image can be obtained with an exposure time as long as 1200 seconds.

  18. Ghost Images in Schmidt CCD Photometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wide field of the Schmidt telescope implies a greater chance of the field containing bright objects, and the presence of a corrector lens produces a certain type of ghost images. We summarize and confirm the features of such ghost images in Schmidt CCD photometry. The ghost images could be star-like under special observational conditions. The zenith distance of the telescope, among other factors, is found to correlate with different patterns of the ghost images. Some relevant issues are discussed and possible applications of our results are suggested.

  19. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  20. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tong-Ding; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

  1. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen......- erate cinematographic game experiences reducing, however, the player’s feeling of agency. We propose a methodology to integrate the player in the camera control loop that allows to design and generate personalised cinematographic expe- riences. Furthermore, we present an evaluation of the afore......- mentioned methodology showing that the generated camera movements are positively perceived by novice asnd intermediate players....

  2. Automated Camera Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  3. CCD developed for scientific application by Hamamatsu

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaguchi, K; Dezaki, J; Yamamoto, K

    1999-01-01

    We have developed CCDs for scientific applications that feature a low readout noise of less than 5 e-rms and low dark current of 10-25 pA/cm sup 2 at room temperature. CCDs with these characteristics will prove extremely useful in applications such as spectroscopic measurement and dental radiography. In addition, a large-area CCD of 2kx4k pixels and 15 mu m square pixel size has recently been completed for optical use in astronomical observations. Applications to X-ray astronomy require the most challenging device performance in terms of deep depletion, high CTE, and focal plane size, among others. An abuttable X-ray CCD, having 1024x1024 pixels and 24 mu m square pixel size, is to be installed in an international space station (ISS). We are now striving to achieve the lowest usable cooling temperature by means of a built-in TEC with limited power consumption. Details on the development status are described in this report. We would also like to present our future plans for a large active area and deep depleti...

  4. Which part of a CCD pixel is sensitive to the proton damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mesh experiment is, so far, the only practical technique to study charge-coupled devices (CCD) response with subpixel resolution. Since the Chandra ACIS was seriously damaged by low-energy protons in orbit, we undertook a mesh experiment with a relatively low-energy proton beam. The CCD used was designed for the Solid Slit Camera (SSC) employed by the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) mission that is scheduled to be onboard the International Space Station in 2007. It consists of 1024x1024 pixels, each 24 μm square. Each pixel is equipped with a 'notch' structure in the center to make it radiation hard. A proton beam energy has been selected so that the protons passing through the mesh holes, 2 μm in diameter, will penetrate into the CCD chip and damage the transfer channel. At the beginning of the experiment, we used a low intensity proton beam and operated the CCD in proton count mode in order to precisely determine the mutual alignment between the mesh and the CCD. Then, we irradiated the CCD with a strong proton beam, which increased the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) from 10-6 to 10-4. After the proton irradiation, we removed the mesh and measured the CTI with X-rays. In this way, we determined the CTI for individual pixels. We see that there is a high CTI region running through the center of the pixels from top to bottom. This corresponds to the notch region where the charge is transferred. Pixels whose notch structures are damaged show a CTI of ∼3x10-4 that is about three times worse than those damaged outside the notch regions. When the proton damages in the notch structure, the signal charges are easily trapped, resulting in a high CTI. Our results clearly show that the non-uniformity of the CTI is due to the notch structure. This result is consistent with other experiments showing the effectiveness of the notch structure

  5. Calibration and Characterization of Single Photon Counting Cameras for Short-Pulse Laser Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photon counting efficiency of various CCD based cameras was studied as a function of x-ray energy and exposure. A pair of Spectral Instruments Model 800 CCD cameras fitted with 16 (micro)m thick back-illuminated CCDs were calibrated at low x-ray energy using two well established histogram methods, a standard pixel for pixel histogram and the single pixel event histogram method. In addition, two new thick substrate CCDs were evaluated for use at high energy. One was a commercially available Princeton Instruments LCX1300 deep depletion CCD camera while the other was a custom designed 650 (micro)m thick partially depleted CCD fitted to a SI 800 camera body. It is shown that at high x-ray energy, only a pixel-summing algorithm was able to derive spectral data due to the spreading of x-ray events over many pixels in the thicker substrate CCDs. This paper will describe the different algorithms used to extract spectra and the absolute detection efficiencies using these algorithms. These detectors will be very useful to detect high-energy x-ray photons from high-intensity short pulse laser interactions

  6. A high-resolution airborne four-camera imaging system for agricultural remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the design and testing of an airborne multispectral digital imaging system for remote sensing applications. The system consists of four high resolution charge coupled device (CCD) digital cameras and a ruggedized PC equipped with a frame grabber and image acquisition software. T...

  7. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these

  8. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  9. Campaign of sky brightness and extinction measurements using a portable CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a 12-yr campaign devoted to monitoring the sky brightness affected by different levels of light pollution. Different sites characterized by different altitudes and atmospheric transparency have been considered. The standard photometric Johnson B and V bands were used. An extinction measurement was performed for each site and each night, along with a calibration of the instrument. These measurements have allowed us to build sky brightness maps of the hemisphere above each observing site; each map contains up to 200 data points spread around the sky. We have found a stop in zenith sky brightness growth at the two sites where a time series exists. Using zenith sky brightness measurements taken with and without extensive snow coverage, we weighted the importance of direct versus indirect flux in producing sky glow at several sites.

  10. High resolution low energy X-ray microradiography using a CCD camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Touš, J.; Horodysky, P.; Blažek, K.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, C1 (2011), s. 1-5. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : X-ray radiography and digital radiography * inspection with x-rays * detection of defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  11. Rayleigh Laser Guide Star Systems: UnISIS Bow Tie Shutter and CCD39 Wavefront Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Laird A.; Teare, Scott W.; Crawford, Samuel L.; Leach, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Laser guide star systems based on Rayleigh scattering require some means to deal with the flash of low altitude laser light that follows immediately after each laser pulse. These systems also need a fast shutter to isolate the high altitude portion of the focused laser beam to make it appear star-like to the wavefront sensor. We describe how these tasks are accomplished with UnISIS, the Rayleigh laser guided adaptive optics system at the Mt. Wilson Observatory 2.5-m telescope. We use several ...

  12. Preliminary clinical experience with digital X-ray television using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new digital X-ray television system developed in the G.D.R. was constructed and successfully tested. The examination of patients showed the advantages of the system with respect to the quality of diagnostic work and radiation protection. The essential technical parameters and the medical and technical prospects of the system are pointed out. (author)

  13. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  14. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  15. Resolved CCD Photometry of Pluto and Charon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly resolved CCD images of Pluto and Charon near maximum separation are measured with point spread function fitting techniques to determine independent magnitudes and an accurate separation for Pluto and Charon. A measured separation of 0.923 + or - 0.005 arcsec at a position angle of 173.3 + or - 0.3 deg on June 18, 1987 UT produced a value of 19558.0 + or - 153.0 km for the radius of Charon's orbit. An apparent B magnitude of 14.877 + or - 0.009 and (B-I) color of 1.770 + or - 0.015 are determined for Pluto, while Charon is fainter with B = 18.826 + or - 0.011 and slightly bluer with (B-I) = 1.632 + or - 0.018. 18 references

  16. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Polarization encoded color camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  18. LSST Camera Optics Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N

    2012-05-24

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  19. True RGB line scan camera for color machine vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstrom, Guy F.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper a true RGB 3-chip color line scan camera is described. The camera was mainly developed for accurate color measuring in industrial applications. Due to the camera's modularity it's also possible to use it as a B/W-camera. The color separation is made with a RGB-beam splitter. The CCD linear arrays are fixed with a high accuracy to the beam splitters output in order to match the pixels of the three different CCDs on each other. This makes the color analyses simple compared to color line arrays where line or pixel matching has to be done. The beam splitter can be custom made to separate spectral components other than standard RGB. The spectral range is from 200 to 1000 nm for most CCDs and two or three spectral areas can be separately measured with the beam splitter. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure color differences of small amounts to separate or grade objects such as minerals, food or other materials that can't be measured with a black and white camera.

  20. Development of soft x-ray large solid angle camera onboard WF-MAXI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masashi; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yatsu, Yoichi; Arimoto, Makoto; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field MAXI (WF-MAXI) planned to be installed in Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" Exposed Facility of the international space station (ISS). WF-MAXI consists of two types of cameras, Soft X-ray Large Solid Angle Camera (SLC) and Hard X-ray Monitor (HXM). HXM is multi-channel arrays of CsI scintillators coupled with avalanche photodiodes (APDs) which covers the energy range of 20 - 200 keV. SLC is arrays of CCD, which is evolved version of MAXI/SSC. Instead of slit and collimator in SSC, SLC is equipped with coded mask allowing its field of view to 20% of all sky at any given time, and its location determination accuracy to few arcminutes. In older to achieve larger effective area, the number of CCD chip and the size of each chip will be larger than that of SSC. We are planning to use 59 x 31 mm2 CCD chip provided by Hamamatsu Photonics. Each camera will be quipped with 16 CCDs and total of 4 cameras will be installed in WF-MAXI. Since SLC utilize X-ray CCDs it must equip active cooling system for CCDs. Instead of using the peltier cooler, we use mechanical coolers that are also employed in Astro-H. In this way we can cool the CCDs down to -100C. ISS orbit around the earth in 90 minutes; therefore a point source moves 4 arcminutes per second. In order to achieve location determination accuracy, we need fast readout from CCD. The pulse heights are stacked into a single row along the vertical direction. Charge is transferred continuously, thus the spatial information along the vertical direction is lost and replaced with the precise arrival time information. Currently we are making experimental model of the camera body including the CCD and electronics for the CCDs. In this paper, we show the development status of SLC.

  1. An Efficient Image Compressor for Charge Coupled Devices Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT- based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the lp-norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000.

  2. An efficient image compressor for charge coupled devices camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the discrete wavelet transforms- (DWT-) based compressor, such as JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC, is widely seen as the state of the art compression scheme for charge coupled devices (CCD) camera. However, CCD images project on the DWT basis to produce a large number of large amplitude high-frequency coefficients because these images have a large number of complex texture and contour information, which are disadvantage for the later coding. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity posttransform coupled with compressing sensing (PT-CS) compression approach for remote sensing image. First, the DWT is applied to the remote sensing image. Then, a pair base posttransform is applied to the DWT coefficients. The pair base are DCT base and Hadamard base, which can be used on the high and low bit-rate, respectively. The best posttransform is selected by the l p -norm-based approach. The posttransform is considered as the sparse representation stage of CS. The posttransform coefficients are resampled by sensing measurement matrix. Experimental results on on-board CCD camera images show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the CCSDS-IDC-based coder, and its performance is comparable to that of the JPEG2000 at low bit rate and it does not have the high excessive implementation complexity of JPEG2000. PMID:25114977

  3. A High Dose-Rate Gamma Irradiation Test of Passive Elements of Radiation- Tolerant Camera System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a high dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation test of passive elements, which are components of radiation-tolerant camera system, is described. In the overhaul period of the nuclear power plant, integrity of the neutron-irradiated fuel assembly is evaluated. Among the evaluation methods for the integrity of the neutron-irradiated fuel assembly during the normal operation cycle of the nuclear power plant, VT(visual test) of the four face of nuclear fuel assembly is a major concern. As the neutron-irradiated fuel assembly is a high dose-rate gamma-ray source, approximately a few kGy, radiation-hardened camera composed of vidicon tube-type image sensors is used in the VT. The VT of the four face of nuclear fuel assembly, which is a high dose-rate gamma source, is performed in the canal. The width of canal, d.., is about 1,500mm. As the distance, d2, between the fuel assembly (d3 , 224mm) and the camera system, assumed that the width of camera system is about 200mm, is short below one tenth shielding thickness of gamma-ray of water, about 660mm, a COTS CCD device can not be used directly. As the image resolution of the COTS CCD device is higher than vidicon-tube type image sensor, the VT of the four face of the nuclear fuel assembly is clearly performed, if assumed that the radiation-weakened CCD device is properly shielded from the high dose rate gamma-ray source. In this paper, it is assumed that a radiation-tolerant camera system, which are composed of COTS CCD camera, zoom lens, anti-reflection mirror, and visible window, is used in the VT of the nuclear fuel assembly. And the COTS CCD camera and zoom lens module are shielded from a high dose-rate gamma-ray source using the high-density material, lead or tungsten. The passive elements, mirror and visible window, which are placed in the optical path of CCD camera, are exposed to a high dose-rate gamma-ray source directly. So, the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of passive elements, is needed to test

  4. Camera Operator and Videographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. They use various cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. Those who film or…

  5. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  6. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas...... detection, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  7. X-ray framing camera for pulsed, high current, electron beam x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Failor, B H; Riordan, j c; Lojewski, D Y

    2007-01-01

    High power x-ray sources built for nuclear weapons effects testing are evolving toward larger overall diameters and smaller anode cathode gaps. We describe a framing camera developed to measure the time-evolution of these 20-50 ns pulsed x-ray sources produced by currents in the 1.5-2.5 MA range and endpoint voltages between 0.2 and 1.5 MV. The camera has up to 4 frames with 5 ns gate widths; the frames are separated by 5 ns. The image data are recorded electronically with a gated intensified CCD camera and the data are available immediately following a shot. A fast plastic scintillator (2.1 ns decay time) converts the x-rays to visible light and, for high sensitivity, a fiber optic imaging bundle carries the light to the CCD input. Examples of image data are shown.

  8. Development of automatic data extraction technique from visible CCD images for in-vessel dust study in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suk-Ho [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, YuSung-Gu, DaeJeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Grisolia, Christian; Monier-Garbet, Pascale [Association EURATOM-CEA/DSM/IRFM/SIPP, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul les Durance (France)], E-mail: sukhhong@nfri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    In-vessel dusts will be an important issue in next generation fusion devices. They affect not only plasma operations but also safety limits. A new image processing technique for in-vessel dust research is developed in Tore Supra (TS). This paper describes the image processing technique for in-vessel dust study based on simple standard image processing techniques. The technique is intended to use visible standard RGB CCD cameras at a standard frame rate already installed in TS. Studying the traces of straight line-like dust trajectories appearing in the CCD images during the plasma shots, the temporal evolution and the spatial locations of dust creation events (DCEs) can be monitored. Building a database of DCEs, information on the short/long term behavior of in-vessel dusts are obtained. Analyzing the database, statistics on DCEs can be found. Finally, DCEs during 22 ohmic discharges in 2006 CIMES campaign in TS are illustrated as an example.

  9. Backside illuminated CCD operating at 16,000,000 frames per second with sub-ten-photon sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultra-high-speed and very high sensitivity video camera is developed. The highest frame rate reaches 16,000,000 frames per second (16 Mfps). The full well capacity is 22,000e- at frame rates up to 4 Mfps, and 8000e- at 16 Mfps. The pixel count is 165,072 (362x456) pixels. The total number of consecutive frames is 117, which can be doubled to 234 by interlaced imaging operation. The sensitivity is less than 10 photons/pixel. - Highlights: → A high-speed high-sensitivity CCD image sensor was developed. → It has a special structure processed on a wafer with p/n double epi-layers. → The highest frame rate is 16,000,000 fps for 165,000 (=456x362) pixels. → The CCM (EM-CCD) is mounted, which makes the sensitivity less than 10 photons/pixel.

  10. Development of automatic data extraction technique from visible CCD images for in-vessel dust study in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vessel dusts will be an important issue in next generation fusion devices. They affect not only plasma operations but also safety limits. A new image processing technique for in-vessel dust research is developed in Tore Supra (TS). This paper describes the image processing technique for in-vessel dust study based on simple standard image processing techniques. The technique is intended to use visible standard RGB CCD cameras at a standard frame rate already installed in TS. Studying the traces of straight line-like dust trajectories appearing in the CCD images during the plasma shots, the temporal evolution and the spatial locations of dust creation events (DCEs) can be monitored. Building a database of DCEs, information on the short/long term behavior of in-vessel dusts are obtained. Analyzing the database, statistics on DCEs can be found. Finally, DCEs during 22 ohmic discharges in 2006 CIMES campaign in TS are illustrated as an example.

  11. Fotometria CCD della cometa Hale-Bopp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuz, H.; Dintinjana, B.

    1999-10-01

    This contribution is based on the authors' five-year program of CCD photometry of faint comets, performed mainly with 20-cm and 36-cm telescopes, V filter and two CCDs. Recent apparition of comet Hale-Bopp proved to be an excellent opportunity to test the observing method, instrumentation and software even on a very bright comet. The authors found that their V observations of faint comets tend to be systematically fainter by 0.5 - 1 magnitude in spite of the fact that the CCDs record systematically more coma than human eye. The authors explained this with the fact that the human eye and V filter passbands are not the same and have thus different response to C2 which is the main emission from the coma. Additional troubles may appear with bright comets that have prominent inner tails, composed mainly of dust particles. In case of comet Hale-Bopp, it is shown that by carefully choosing the aperture radius, the resulting total V magnitudes are in good agreement with total values of experienced visual observers.

  12. CCD UBVRI photometry of NGC 6811

    CERN Document Server

    Yontan, T; Bostancı, Z F; Ak, T; Karaali, S; Güver, T; Ak, S; Duran, S; Paunzen, E

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of CCD UBVRI observations of the open cluster NGC 6811 obtained on 18th July 2012 with the 1m telescope at the T\\"UB\\.ITAK National Observatory (TUG). Using these photometric results, we determine the structural and astrophysical parameters of the cluster. The mean photometric uncertainties are better than 0.02 mag in the V magnitude and B-V, V-R, and V-I colour indices to about 0.03 mag for U-B among stars brighter than magnitude V=18. Cluster member stars were separated from the field stars using the Galaxia model of Sharma et al. (2011) together with other techniques. The core radius of the cluster is found to be $r_{c}$=3.60 arcmin. The astrophysical parameters were determined simultaneously via Bayesian statistics using the colour-magnitude diagrams V versus B-V, V versus V-I, V versus V-R, and V versus R-I of the cluster. The resulting most likely parameters were further confirmed using independent methods, removing any possible degeneracies. The colour excess, distance modulus, m...

  13. Structural and Thermodynamic Characterization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Natalie; Hohlweg, Walter; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Respondek, Michal; Buts, Lieven; Haesaerts, Sarah; Lah, Jurij; Zangger, Klaus; Loris, Remy

    2010-01-01

    CcdBVfi from Vibrio fischeri is a member of the CcdB family of toxins that poison covalent gyrase-DNA complexes. In solution CcdBVfi is a dimer that unfolds to the corresponding monomeric components in a two-state fashion. In the unfolded state, the monomer retains a partial secondary structure. This observation correlates well with the crystal and NMR structures of the protein, which show a dimer with a hydrophobic core crossing the dimer interface. In contrast to its F plasmid homologue, CcdBVfi possesses a rigid dimer interface, and the apparent relative rotations of the two subunits are due to structural plasticity of the monomer. CcdBVfi shows a number of non-conservative substitutions compared with the F plasmid protein in both the CcdA and the gyrase binding sites. Although variation in the CcdA interaction site likely determines toxin-antitoxin specificity, substitutions in the gyrase-interacting region may have more profound functional implications. PMID:19959472

  14. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Natalie; Hohlweg, Walter; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Respondek, Michal; Buts, Lieven; Haesaerts, Sarah; Lah, Jurij; Zangger, Klaus; Loris, Remy

    2010-02-19

    CcdB(Vfi) from Vibrio fischeri is a member of the CcdB family of toxins that poison covalent gyrase-DNA complexes. In solution CcdB(Vfi) is a dimer that unfolds to the corresponding monomeric components in a two-state fashion. In the unfolded state, the monomer retains a partial secondary structure. This observation correlates well with the crystal and NMR structures of the protein, which show a dimer with a hydrophobic core crossing the dimer interface. In contrast to its F plasmid homologue, CcdB(Vfi) possesses a rigid dimer interface, and the apparent relative rotations of the two subunits are due to structural plasticity of the monomer. CcdB(Vfi) shows a number of non-conservative substitutions compared with the F plasmid protein in both the CcdA and the gyrase binding sites. Although variation in the CcdA interaction site likely determines toxin-antitoxin specificity, substitutions in the gyrase-interacting region may have more profound functional implications. PMID:19959472

  15. Structured light camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbat, P.; Skarbek, W.; Tomaszewski, M.

    2013-03-01

    Structured light camera which is being designed with the joined effort of Institute of Radioelectronics and Institute of Optoelectronics (both being large units of the Warsaw University of Technology within the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology) combines various hardware and software contemporary technologies. In hardware it is integration of a high speed stripe projector and a stripe camera together with a standard high definition video camera. In software it is supported by sophisticated calibration techniques which enable development of advanced application such as real time 3D viewer of moving objects with the free viewpoint or 3D modeller for still objects.

  16. Camera as Cultural Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What does the use of cameras entail for the production of cultural critique in anthropology? Visual anthropological analysis and cultural critique starts at the very moment a camera is brought into the field or existing visual images are engaged. The framing, distances, and interactions between...... researchers, cameras, and filmed subjects already inherently comprise analytical decisions. It is these ethnographic qualities inherent in audiovisual and photographic imagery that make it of particular value to a participatory anthropological enterprise that seeks to resist analytic closure and seeks instead...

  17. Streak camera time calibration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J.; Jackson, I.

    1978-01-01

    Time calibration procedures for streak cameras utilizing a modulated laser beam are described. The time calibration determines a writing rate accuracy of 0.15% with a rotating mirror camera and 0.3% with an image converter camera.

  18. 多通道CCD信号模拟器实现方法研究%Research on design method of multichannel CCD signal simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 刘琦; 尹娜; 万旻

    2012-01-01

    卫星相机视频处理电路CCD芯片在测试过程中容易损坏且价格昂贵,为满足卫星相机视频处理电路的测试需求,研究并设计了一种多通道CCD信号模拟器,能够模拟最多16路线阵或面阵等多种类型的CCD信号.以Xilinx公司XC5V型号FPGA为核心,采用VHDL语言实现CCD信号发生的逻辑设计,利用RS232接口接收上位机指令实现不同种类CCD信号的选择输出.实际应用表明,该模拟器具有很好的通用性和灵活性,能够满足多种卫星相机视频处理电路的测试需求.%CCDs used in video process circuit of satellite cameras are expensive and possible to be damaged while testing. To satisfy the needs for testing video process circuit of satellite cameras,a design is provided to achieve a multichannel CCD signal simulator. Up to 16 CCD signal channels can be generated. An FPGA of Xilinx XC5V was adopted to make a center unit, the logic of CCD signals generating is developed with VHDL. The RS232 interface is used to receive instructions from the host computer, and different types of signals are generated and outputted depending on the instructions. Practical applications show that the CCD simulator is flexible and can work well. The design of the CCD simulator meets the requirements of testing video process circuit in several different types of satellite cameras.

  19. A new approach to modelling radiation noise in CCD's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy depositions reported by Monte Carlo electron-photon irradiation transport codes are subject to a random error due to the finite number of particle histories used to generate the results. These statistical variations, normally a nuisance, may also be identified with the real radiation noise effects experienced by CCD pixels in persistent radiation environments. This paper explores the practicability of such radiation noise modelling by applying the ACCEPT code from the ITS suite to the case of a shielded CCD exposed to an electron flux. The results are compared with those obtained in a subsequent electron irradiation of the CCD by a Van de Graaff accelerator

  20. Inner FoV Stitching of Spaceborne TDI CCD Images Based on Sensor Geometry and Projection Plane in Object Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinming Tang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High-quality inner FoV (Field of View stitching is currently a prerequisite step for photogrammetric processing and application of image data acquired by spaceborne TDI CCD cameras. After reviewing the technical development in the issue, we present an inner FoV stitching method based on sensor geometry and projection plane in object space, in which the geometric sensor model of spaceborne TDI CCD images is used to establish image point correspondence between the stitched image and the TDI CCD images, using an object-space projection plane as the intermediary. In this study, first, the rigorous geometric sensor model of the TDI CCD images is constructed. Second, principle and implementation of the stitching method are described. Third, panchromatic high-resolution (HR images of ZY-1 02C satellite and triple linear-array images of ZY-3 satellite are utilized to validate the correctness and feasibility of the method. Fourth, the stitching precision and geometric quality of the generated stitched images are evaluated. All the stitched images reached the sub-pixel level in precision. In addition, the geometric models of the stitched images can be constructed with zero loss in geometric precision. Experimental results demonstrate the advantages of the method for having small image distortion when on-orbit geometric calibration of satellite sensors is available. Overall, the new method provide a novel solution for inner FoV stitching of spaceborne TDI CCD images, in which all the sub-images are projected to the object space based on the sensor geometry, performing indirect image geometric rectification along and across the target trajectory. At present, this method has been successfully applied in the daily processing system for ZY-1 02C and ZY-3 satellites.

  1. TARGETLESS CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In photogrammetry a camera is considered calibrated if its interior orientation parameters are known. These encompass the principal distance, the principal point position and some Additional Parameters used to model possible systematic errors. The current state of the art for automated camera calibration relies on the use of coded targets to accurately determine the image correspondences. This paper presents a new methodology for the efficient and rigorous photogrammetric calibration of digital cameras which does not require any longer the use of targets. A set of images depicting a scene with a good texture are sufficient for the extraction of natural corresponding image points. These are automatically matched with feature-based approaches and robust estimation techniques. The successive photogrammetric bundle adjustment retrieves the unknown camera parameters and their theoretical accuracies. Examples, considerations and comparisons with real data and different case studies are illustrated to show the potentialities of the proposed methodology.

  2. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved Anger-type gamma ray camera utilizes a proximity-type image intensifier tube. It has a greater capability for distinguishing between incident and scattered radiation, and greater spatial resolution capabilities

  3. Camera Calibration Using Silhouettes

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Edmond

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the problem of estimating camera parameters from images where object silhouettes only are known. Several modeling applications make use of silhouettes, and while calibration methods are well known when considering points or lines matched along image sequences, the problem appears to be more difficult when considering silhouettes. However, such primitives encode also information on camera parameters by the fact that their associated viewing cones should present a common i...

  4. TOUCHSCREEN USING WEB CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal B. Adak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a web camera based touchscreen system which uses a simple technique to detect and locate finger. We have used a camera and regular screen to achieve our goal. By capturing the video and calculating position of finger on the screen, we can determine the touch position and do some function on that location. Our method is very easy and simple to implement. Even our system requirement is less expensive compare to other techniques.

  5. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  6. Spacecraft camera image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  7. CCD image data acquisition system for optical astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, P. N.; Patnaik, K.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Patnaik, A. R.; Prabhu, T. P.

    1990-11-01

    A complete image processing system based on a charge coupled device (CCD) has been developed at TIFR, Bombay, for use in optical astronomy. The system consists of a P-8600/B GEC CCD chip, a CCD controller, a VAX 11/725 mini-computer to carry out the image acquisition and display on a VS-11 monitor. All the necessary software and part of the hardware were developed locally, integrated together and installed at the Vainu Bappu Observatory at Kavalur. CCD as an imaging device and its advantages over the conventional photographic plate is briefly reviewed. The acquisition system is described in detail. The preliminary results are presented and the future research programme is outlined.

  8. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  9. Atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images with MODIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junsheng; ZHANG Bing; CHEN Zhengchao; SHEN Qian

    2006-01-01

    China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS) CCD images have much potential for inland water environmental monitoring. However, their atmospheric accuracy correction can affect their quantitative applications. This paper contains an atmospheric correction algorithm for CBERS CCD images with MODIS data from the same day, the use of which improves the atmospheric correction algorithm of ocean color remote sensing developed by Gordon (1993, 1994) and makes it applicable to inland waters. The improved algorithm retrieves atmospheric parameters from MODIS data and uses them to perform the atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images. Experimental results show that the atmospheric correction algorithm of CBERS CCD images assisted by MODIS data is reliable. Furthermore, MODIS data can be freely obtained on a daily basis, making the algorithm developed in this paper useful for environmental monitoring of inland waters.

  10. Imaging the Moon II: Webcam CCD observations & analysis (a two week lab for non-majors)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Presented is a successful two week lab involving real sky observations of the Moon in which students make telescopic observations and analyze their own images. Originally developed around the 35 mm film camera as a common household object adapted for astronomical work, the lab transitioned to use the webcam as film photography evolved into an obscure specialty technology and increasing numbers of students had little familiarity with it. The printed circuit board with the CCD is harvested from a retail webcam and affixed to a tube to mount on a telescope in place of an eyepiece. Image frames are compiled to form a lunar mosaic and crater sizes are measured. Students also work through the logistical steps of telescope time assignment and scheduling, keeping to schedule and working with uncertainties of weather, in ways paralleling research observations. Because there is no need for a campus observatory, this lab can be replicated at a wide variety of institutions.

  11. Commissioning of the CCD231 4K×4K detector for PMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Martin M.; Fechner, Thomas; Wolter, Dieter; Sandin, Christer; Kelz, Andreas; Bauer, Svend M.; Popow, Emil; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Kehrig, Carolina; Streicher, Ole

    2010-07-01

    The PMAS integral field spectrophotometer, operated at the Calar Alto Observatory 3.5m Telescope, is one of the most demanded instruments of its kind. The optical system was designed for a camera field of view to accommodate a 4K×4K detector with 15μm pixels. However, due to a failure of one of the initially foreseen 2K×4K CCDs in a mosaic configuration, only half of the available field of view could be covered to date. Owing to the high demand from the user community, an upgrade to the full complement of 4K×4K pixels was envisaged, based on the availability of the new e2v CCD231 device. We describe the specification, implementation, test, and commissioning of this new detector for PMAS.

  12. Soft X-ray response of a CCD with a grating spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calibrate the X-ray imaging spectrometers, which are CCD cameras installed on the ASTRO-E satellite, by using dispersed continuous soft X-rays from a grating spectrometer. We obtained the signal-pulse height and energy-resolution as a function of X-ray energies continuously. However, the wings of the line spread function of the grating distorts the center of the signal-pulse height derived by a simple analysis. An estimation of this distortion is presented. We also describe two methods of extracting the pure signal-pulse-height distribution from the data using the spectrometer. A brief description of the low-energy tail is presented

  13. Photon counting imaging and centroiding with an electron-bombarded CCD using single molecule localisation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Barber, Matthew J.; Suhling, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Photon event centroiding in photon counting imaging and single-molecule localisation in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy share many traits. Although photon event centroiding has traditionally been performed with simple single-iteration algorithms, we recently reported that iterative fitting algorithms originally developed for single-molecule localisation fluorescence microscopy work very well when applied to centroiding photon events imaged with an MCP-intensified CMOS camera. Here, we have applied these algorithms for centroiding of photon events from an electron-bombarded CCD (EBCCD). We find that centroiding algorithms based on iterative fitting of the photon events yield excellent results and allow fitting of overlapping photon events, a feature not reported before and an important aspect to facilitate an increased count rate and shorter acquisition times.

  14. Application of CCD measurement technique for wear on pantograph sliding plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wang, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Zhao, Quanke; Wang, Zeyong; Peng, Chaoyong

    2009-05-01

    Pantograph sliding plate is the most important electricity-collecting part in locomotive power supply system. Once the sliding plates are disabled, they will be severe dangerous for safety. The measurement for pantograph of 27.5KV is especially difficult. The article uses non-contact and online dynamic detection by utilizing CCD technique to solve the problem. The system will get all images of sliding plates after triggering by space arrangement of CCD cameras cooperated with flashlights. The precision of demarcate is guaranteed by special methods. It adopts directional edge search to get sliding plates, and connect the images of different CCDS. It also makes use of conditional Hough transformation to locate the wire. The wear on sliding plates will be given after complicated processing. The system is applicable to the detection for all kinds of pantographs by adding different arithmetic amends. At last the precision can achieve +/-0.5mm . At the same time a database is setup which can give the trend curve of wear, it can predict the limit time of the sliding plates.

  15. Evaluation of the fully-depleted back-illuminated CCD for Subaru Suprime-Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyata, Emi; Muramatsu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Hisanori; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve the quantum efficiency (QE) at longer wavelength, we have developed fully-depleted backilluminated CCDs in collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K (HPK). Recently, HPK delivered 10 CCDs for Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). These CCDs are made on N-type, high resistivity silicon wafers. Each CCD has a 200 μm thick depletion layer. The CCD format is four-side buttable, 2k × 4k, 15 μm square pixels with 4 low noise output amplifiers. The characteristics of the CCDs have been tested in the laboratory before they are installed into Suprime-Cam dewar. These CCDs have excellent performance; readout noise 0.999995, and full-well ~ 180,000 e-. The QE of λ = 1 μm was 40 % at -100°C. All CCDs have good cosmetics. Surface flatness is ~ 25 μm peak to value (P-V). The specification was acceptable. We are also developing CCDs for Hype Suprime-Cam (HSC), the next generation instrument for Subaru Telescope. HPK optimized back side process and has developed blue enhanced CCDs for HSC.

  16. CCD-based high resolution digital radiography system for non destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Film radiography has long served the aerospace industry as a principal method for hardware flaw detection. Although excellent in performance, this method is extremely time consuming, labor intensive, costly, and is unsuitable for real time inspections. Modem digital radiographic systems overcome some of these difficulties but are also limited in terms of speed of operation due to persistence of the sensor and a problematic tradeoff between the X-ray detection efficiency and spatial resolution. We are developing an innovative X-ray imaging detector consisting of a novel microstructured CsI scintillator coupled to a fiberoptic taper-based CCD. Thin-film deposition techniques, previously developed to produce thin, structured CsI screens have been extended to fabricate CsI screens, up to 450 mg/cm2 (1,000 μm) in thickness. These sensors are suitable to provide high detection efficiency with high image quality for NDE applications. A prototype high energy imaging system was constructed by integrating these screens into a fiber-optic-based CCD camera. The performance was compared to that of the same system using a standard polycrystalline phosphor for NDE imaging applications. The experimental evaluations were carried out at Scientific Measurement Systems, Inc., Austin, TX

  17. A Two-Colour CCD Survey of the North Celestial Cap: I. The Method

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbikov, Evgeny; Afonso, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    We describe technical aspects of an astrometric and photometric survey of the North Celestial Cap (NCC), from the Pole (DEC=90 deg) to DEC=80 deg, in support of the TAUVEX mission. This region, at galactic latitudes from ~ 17 deg to ~ 37 deg, has poor coverage in modern CCD-based surveys. The observations are performed with the Wise Observatory one-meter reflector and with a new mosaic CCD camera (LAIWO) that images in the Johnson-Cousins R and I bands a one-square-degree field with subarcsec pixels. The images are treated using IRAF and SExtractor to produce a final catalogue of sources. The astrometry, based on the USNO-A2.0 catalogue, is good to ~ 1 arcsec and the photometry is good to ~ 0.1 mag for point sources brighter than R=20.0 or I=19.1 mag. The limiting magnitudes of the survey, defined at photometric errors smaller than 0.15 mag, are 20.6 mag (R) and 19.6 (I). We separate stars from non-stellar objects based on the object shapes in the R and I bands, attempting to reproduce the SDSS star/galaxy di...

  18. A new method of CCD dark current correction via extracting the dark information from scientific images

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bin; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46$^\\circ$C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3$e^-$/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10$e^-$/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the s...

  19. A new method of CCD dark current correction via extracting the dark Information from scientific images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng

    2014-07-01

    We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46°C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3e-/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10e-/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the scientific images. We have applied this method to the AST3 data, and demonstrated that it can reduce the noise to a level roughly as low as the photon noise of the sky brightness, solving the high noise problem and improving the photometric precision. This method will also be helpful for other projects that suffer from similar issues.

  20. First observations from a CCD all-sky spectrograph at Barentsburg (Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital CCD all-sky spectrograph was made by the Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI to support IPY activity in auroral research. The device was tested at the Barentsburg observatory of PGI during the winter season of 2005–2006. The spectrograph is based on a cooled CCD and a transmission grating. The main features of this spectrograph are: a wide field of view (~180°, a wide spectral range (380–740 nm, a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm, a background level of about 100 R at 1-min exposure time. Several thousand spectra of nightglow and aurora were recorded during the observation season. It was possible to register both the strong auroral emissions, as well as weak ones. Spectra of aurora, including nitrogen and oxygen molecular and atomic emissions, as well as OH emissions of the nightglow are shown. A comparison has been conducted of auroral spectra obtained by the film all-sky spectral camera C-180-S at Spitsbergen during IGY, with spectra obtained at Barentsburg during the last winter season. The relationship between the red (630.0 nm and green (557.7 nm auroral emissions shows that the green emission is dominant near the minimum of the solar cycle activity (2005–2006. The opposite situation is observed during 1958–1959, with a maximum solar cycle activity.

  1. Design of Frame-transferred Surface Array CCD Imaging System for Dark Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-heng; Yan, Yi-hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the requirement of low-noise observations of dark objects in deep-space explorations, the design method for a simple and stable space camera imaging system is proposed in this paper. Based on the back-illuminated frame-transferred surface array CCD (CCD47-20AIMO) produced by the British E2V company, the circuitry design is given for the every part of the system. In which the applications of the correlated double-sampling analog-digital converter (AD) and the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) can effectively suppress the correlated noise in the image signal. In addition, a drive control method favorable to the adjustment of exposure time is proposed, in the light-sensing stage it provides the exposure time with an independent and adjustable time delay to make the imaging system satisfy the requirement of long exposure time setting. The imaging system adopts the Cyclone III-series EP3C25Q240C8 field programable gate array produced by the Altera company as the kernel control device, and the drives are programmed in modules according to the function of the every device, in favor of transplantation. The simulative and experimental results indicate that the drive circuitry works normally, and that the system design can satisfy the preset requirement.

  2. Follow-up study of children with cerebral coordination disturbance (CCD, Vojta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, S; Sakuma, K; Takahashi, T

    1983-01-01

    713 children (from newborn to 12-month-old) with delayed motor development were carefully examined and classified into normal, very light cerebral coordination disturbance (CCD, Vojta), light CCD, moderate CCD, severe CCD, suspected cerebral palsy (CP) and other diseases at their first visit, and were followed up carefully. Finally, 89.0% of very light CCD, 71.4% of light CCD, 56.0% of moderate CCD and 30.0% of severe CCD developed into normal. 59.5% of moderate CCD and 45.5% of severe CCD among children who were given Vojta's physiotherapy developed into normal. The classification of cases with delayed motor development into very light, light, moderate and severe CCD based on the extent of abnormality in their postural reflexes is useful and well correlated with their prognosis. Treatment by Vojta's method seems to be efficient and helpful for young children with delayed motor development. PMID:6614390

  3. In-process automatic wavelength calibration for CCD-spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Mirapeix Serrano, Jesús María; Cobo García, Adolfo; Cubillas de Cos, Ana María; Conde Portilla, Olga María; López Higuera, José Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In CCD-spectrometers, the relation between the CCD-pixel number and the associated wavelength is established by means of a calibration polynomial, whose coefficients are typically obtained using a calibration lamp with known emission line wavelengths and a regression procedure. A recalculation of this polynomial has to be performed periodically, as the pixel number versus wavelength relation can change with ambient temperature variations or modifications in the optics attached to the spectrom...

  4. Medical x-ray-sensitive array based on CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedenko, Valeri G.; Krasnjuk, Andrey A.; Larionov, Sergei V.; Phainberg, Evgeni M.; Shilin, Victor A.; Skrylev, Alexander S.; Stenin, Vladimir J.

    1996-04-01

    The achievements of CCD technology allow to design X-ray sensitive solid-state images for various medicine applications. The first medical systems have been created for using in dental practice and diagnosis. This radiovisiographic method allows to reduce X-ray exposure by 80%, except any films and provide paralleled diagnosis capacities which revolutionize every day practice. In the future a mosaic scanner with CCD chips will be used for detecting breast cancer.

  5. High-speed multicolor photometry with CMOS cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Pokhvala, S M; Reshetnyk, V M

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of testing the commercial digital camera Nikon D90 with a CMOS sensor for high-speed photometry with a small telescope Celestron 11" on Peak Terskol. CMOS sensor allows to perform photometry in 3 filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR color system of CMOS sensors is close to the Johnson BVR system. The results of testing show that we can measure the stars up to V $\\simeq$ 14 with the precision of 0.01 mag. Stars up to magnitude V $\\sim$ 10 can shoot at 24 frames per second in the video mode.

  6. SIMULTANEOUS RECORDING OF FRINGE PATTERNS WITH ONE CAMERA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Fei; DAI Fulong; CHIAN Kerm Sin; YI Sung

    2004-01-01

    A novel method to separate and simultaneously record the Moiré interferometry fringe patterns of three deformation fields with only one CCD camera is developed; details of its operation principle, key points and error analysis are presented. With this technique, the deformation in U, V and W fields can be measured simultaneously, so dynamic test with comprehensive information can be performed. The advantage of this technique over other similar techniques lies in its simplicity, easy implementation and low cost. An application of this technique is given to show its feasibility. Technical problems that may be caused with this technique are also analyzed.

  7. Development of SED Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Ji, Tae-Geun; Hyun, Minhee; Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the characteristics and performance of a camera system, Spectral energy distribution Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN). It was developed to measure SEDs of high redshift quasar candidates (z $\\gtrsim$ 5) and other targets, e.g., young stellar objects, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts, and to trace the time variability of SEDs of objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SQUEAN consists of an on-axis focal plane camera module, an auto-guiding system, and mechanical supporting structures. The science camera module is composed of a focal reducer, a customizable filter wheel, and a CCD camera on the focal plane. The filter wheel uses filter cartridges that can house filters with different shapes and sizes, enabling the filter wheel to hold twenty filters of 50 mm $\\times$ 50 mm size, ten filters of 86 mm $\\times$ 86 mm size, or many other combinations. The initial filter mask was applied to calibrate the filter wheel with high accuracy and we verified that the filter position is repea...

  8. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems. PMID:27410361

  9. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 106 - 108 rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  10. Precision Multiband Photometry with a DSLR Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Csubry, Z.; Hartman, J. D.; Bhatti, W.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-03-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HAT Network of Telescopes (HATNet), and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDS, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a DSLR camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in three colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation of 4.6 mmag per 180 s exposure when the DSLR color channels are combined, and 1000 stars are measured to better than 10 mmag (1%). Also, we achieve 10 mmag or better photometry in the individual colors. This is good enough to detect transiting hot Jupiters. We performed a candidate search on all stars and found four candidates, one of which is KELT-3b, the only known transiting hot Jupiter in our selected field. We conclude that the Canon 60D is a cheap, lightweight device capable of useful photometry in multiple colors.

  11. Characterization of an x-ray framing camera utilizing a charge coupled device or film as recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera system has been designed and characterized for use in the six inch manipulator (SIM) at the Nova laser facility. The camera system has been designed to directly replace the 35 mm film packages currently used in SIM-based x-ray imaging diagnostics. The unit close-quote s electronic package has been constructed for small size and high thermal conductivity which reduces the overall camera size and improves its performance when operated within the vacuum environment of the Nova target chamber. Measurements of the x-ray imager close-quote s contrast transfer function (CTF) were made under a variety of operating conditions on a static x-ray Manson source using both the CCD and Kodak T-Max 3200 film as recording media. The CTF data were converted to an equivalent modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF plots show that the microchannel plate has a uniform response within our measurement accuracy along its strips. In a direction normal to the strip, however, the MTF is reduced due to the slant angle of the pores in the MCP. The measurements show that the CCD camera has a lower MTF response than T-MAX film for all spatial frequencies and configurations measured. However, data obtained from the film exhibited reciprocity failure and border effects that are not observed in the CCD data. Measurements indicate that the signal-to-noise ratio for the CCD data is four to six times larger than that obtained with film and higher photon flux levels were recorded. The CCD-based diagnostic offers immediate access to the data, improved dynamic range, and reduced turnaround time, while eliminating the need for film development, digitization, equipment, and personnel. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Camera Calibration: a USU Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lili; Chen, YangQuan; Moore, Kevin L.

    2003-01-01

    The task of camera calibration is to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of a camera model. Though there are some restricted techniques to infer the 3-D information about the scene from uncalibrated cameras, effective camera calibration procedures will open up the possibility of using a wide range of existing algorithms for 3-D reconstruction and recognition. The applications of camera calibration include vision-based metrology, robust visual platooning and visual docking of mobil...

  13. Extrinsic recalibration in camera networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Chris; Dumont, Maarten; Bekaert, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This work addresses the practical problem of keeping a camera network calibrated during a recording session. When dealing with real-time applications, a robust calibration of the camera network needs to be assured, without the burden of a full system recalibration at every (un)intended camera displacement. In this paper we present an efficient algorithm to detect when the extrinsic parameters of a camera are no longer valid, and reintegrate the displaced camera into the previously calibrated ...

  14. Selective-imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Landa, Joseph; Cha, Jae H.; Krapels, Keith A.

    2015-05-01

    How can we design cameras that image selectively in Full Electro-Magnetic (FEM) spectra? Without selective imaging, we cannot use, for example, ordinary tourist cameras to see through fire, smoke, or other obscurants contributing to creating a Visually Degraded Environment (VDE). This paper addresses a possible new design of selective-imaging cameras at firmware level. The design is consistent with physics of the irreversible thermodynamics of Boltzmann's molecular entropy. It enables imaging in appropriate FEM spectra for sensing through the VDE, and displaying in color spectra for Human Visual System (HVS). We sense within the spectra the largest entropy value of obscurants such as fire, smoke, etc. Then we apply a smart firmware implementation of Blind Sources Separation (BSS) to separate all entropy sources associated with specific Kelvin temperatures. Finally, we recompose the scene using specific RGB colors constrained by the HVS, by up/down shifting Planck spectra at each pixel and time.

  15. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  16. Artificial human vision camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  17. The Star Formation Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and ...

  18. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  19. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M. C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; Briones, Jorge; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Campa, Juila; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco; Castilla, Javier; Cease, Herman; Chappa, Steve; Chi, Edward C.; da Costa, Luis; DePoy, Darren L.; Derylo, Gregory; de Vincente, Juan; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Estrada, Juan; Eiting, Jacob; Elliott, Anne E.; Finley, David A.; Flores, Rolando; Frieman, Josh; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Gerdes, David; Gladders, Mike; Guarino, V.; Gutierrez, G.; Grudzinski, Jim; Hanlon, Bill; Hao, Jiangang; Holland, Steve; Honscheid, Klaus; Huffman, Dave; Jackson, Cheryl; Jonas, Michelle; Karliner, Inga; Kau, Daekwang; Kent, Steve; Kozlovsky, Mark; Krempetz, Kurt; Krider, John; Kubik, Donna; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve E.; Kuk, Kevin; Lahav, Ofer; Langellier, Nick; Lathrop, Andrew; Lewis, Peter M.; Lin, Huan; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Martinez, Gustavo; McKay, Timothy; Merritt, Wyatt; Meyer, Mark; Miquel, Ramon; Morgan, Jim; Moore, Peter; Moore, Todd; Neilsen, Eric; Nord, Brian; Ogando, Ricardo; Olson, Jamieson; Patton, Kenneth; Peoples, John; Plazas, Andres; Qian, Tao; Roe, Natalie; Roodman, Aaron; Rossetto, B.; Sanchez, E.; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Scarpine, Vic; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; Schmidt, Ricardo; Schmitt, Richard; Schubnell, Mike; Schultz, Kenneth; Selen, M.; Serrano, Santiago; Shaw, Terri; Simaitis, Vaidas; Slaughter, Jean; Smith, R. Christopher; Spinka, Hal; Stefanik, Andy; Stuermer, Walter; Sypniewski, Adam; Talaga, R.; Tarle, Greg; Thaler, Jon; Tucker, Doug; Walker, Alistair R.; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Wester, William; Woods, Robert J.; Worswick, Sue; Zhao, Allen

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  20. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  1. Exploration of Underwater Laser Breakdown Using Two Synchronized Gated Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwel, Lutz; Baumgart, Clayton; Betts, Susannah; Morgan, Thomas J.; Graham, William G.

    2014-10-01

    Using two synchronized intensified CCD cameras, we have studied spatial and temporal characteristics of optical breakdown in water created by a focused 10 ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. For three water samples with different impurity content (ultrapure, distilled, and tap water), the plasma evolution was monitored up to 1 ms after breakdown. Images taken by the two cameras, systematically delayed relative to each other, reveal that the center of emission intensity does not remain at a fixed location. In single plasma events, the center first moves, on average, toward the incoming laser beam. Then, at about 100 to 200 ns, the apparent direction of motion reverses and the center returns towards the focal point. On the other hand, in repetitive breakdown the time averaged center moves steadily downstream with each subsequent pulse. Details of this behavior depend on repetition frequency. We will also present shadowgraphy results revealing time resolved speeds of both shockwave and bubble expansion.

  2. Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) on Board MAXI

    CERN Document Server

    Tomida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kitayama, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Ueno, Shiro; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro; Daikyuji, Arata; Isobe, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC) is an X-ray camera onboard the MAXI mission of the International Space Station. Two sets of SSC sensors view X-ray sky using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 0.5--12\\,keV band. The total area for the X-ray detection is about 200\\,cm$\\rm ^2$ which is the largest among the missions of X-ray astronomy. The energy resolution at the CCD temperature of $-$70 \\degc is 145\\,eV in full width at the half maximum (FWHM) at 5.9\\,keV, and the field of view is 1\\deg .5 (FWHM) $\\times$ 90\\deg for each sensor. The SSC could make a whole-sky image with the energy resolution good enough to resolve line emissions, and monitor the whole-sky at the energy band of $<$ 2\\,keV for the first time in these decades.

  3. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  4. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  5. Make a Pinhole Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    On Earth, using ordinary visible light, one can create a single image of light recorded over time. Of course a movie or video is light recorded over time, but it is a series of instantaneous snapshots, rather than light and time both recorded on the same medium. A pinhole camera, which is simple to make out of ordinary materials and using ordinary…

  6. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  7. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  8. The LSST Camera Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Kirk; Kahn, Steven A.; Nordby, Martin; Burke, David; O' Connor, Paul; Oliver, John; Radeka, Veljko; Schalk, Terry; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    The LSST camera is a wide-field optical (0.35-1um) imager designed to provide a 3.5 degree FOV with better than 0.2 arcsecond sampling. The detector format will be a circular mosaic providing approximately 3.2 Gigapixels per image. The camera includes a filter mechanism and, shuttering capability. It is positioned in the middle of the telescope where cross-sectional area is constrained by optical vignetting and heat dissipation must be controlled to limit thermal gradients in the optical beam. The fast, f/1.2 beam will require tight tolerances on the focal plane mechanical assembly. The focal plane array operates at a temperature of approximately -100 C to achieve desired detector performance. The focal plane array is contained within an evacuated cryostat, which incorporates detector front-end electronics and thermal control. The cryostat lens serves as an entrance window and vacuum seal for the cryostat. Similarly, the camera body lens serves as an entrance window and gas seal for the camera housing, which is filled with a suitable gas to provide the operating environment for the shutter and filter change mechanisms. The filter carousel can accommodate 5 filters, each 75 cm in diameter, for rapid exchange without external intervention.

  9. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  10. Multiple solutions of CCD equations for PPP model of benzene

    CERN Document Server

    Podeszwa, R; Jankowski, K; Rubiniec, K; Podeszwa, Rafa{\\l}; Stolarczyk, Leszek Z.; Jankowski, Karol; Rubiniec, Krzysztof

    2002-01-01

    To gain some insight into the structure and physical significance of the multiple solutions to the coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) equations corresponding to the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model of cyclic polyenes, complete solutions to the CCD equations for the A^{-}_{1g} states of benzene are obtained by means of the homotopy method. By varying the value of the resonance integral beta from -5.0 eV to -0.5 eV, we cover the so-called weakly, moderately, and strongly correlated regimes of the model. For each value of beta 230 CCD solutions are obtained. It turned out, however, that only for a few solutions a correspondence with some physical states can be established. It has also been demonstrated that, unlike for the standard methods of solving CCD equations, some of the multiple solutions to the CCD equations can be attained by means of the iterative process based on Pulay's direct inversion in the iterative subspace (DIIS) approach.

  11. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdBVfi) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I213, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdBVfi with the GyrA14Vfi fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14Ec crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdBVfi and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdAF crystallizes in space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution

  12. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jonge, Natalie, E-mail: ndejonge@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence [Laboratoire de Génétique des Procaryotes, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-04-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB{sub Vfi}) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB{sub Vfi} with the GyrA14{sub Vfi} fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14{sub Ec} crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB{sub Vfi} and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA{sub F} crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  13. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a Hemispherical Sky Imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated by spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelength 380 nm to 760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less then 20% for all sky conditions.

  14. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a hemispherical sky imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images, non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated using spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelengths 380–760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less than 20% for all sky conditions.

  15. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  16. The Magellan Adaptive Secondary VisAO Camera: Diffraction- Limited Broadband Visible Imaging and 20mas Fiber Array IFS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Magellan Adaptive Secondary AO system, scheduled for first light in the fall of 2011, will be able to simultaneously perform diffraction limited AO science in both the mid-IR, using the BLINC/MIRAC4 10\\{mu}m camera, and in the visible using our novel VisAO camera. The VisAO camera will be able to operate as either an imager, using a CCD47 with 8.5 mas pixels, or as an IFS, using a custom fiber array at the focal plane with 20 mas elements in its highest resolution mode. In imaging mode, t...

  17. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter...

  18. Computer-aided analysis of CCD linear image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    Special test equipment and techniques to collect and process image information from charge coupled devices (CCDs) by digital computer were reviewed. The video channel was traced from the CCD to the direct memory access bus of the Interdata Computer. Software was developed to evaluate and characterize a CCD for (1) dark signal versus temperature relationship, (2) calculation of temporal noise magnitude and noise shape for each pixel, (3) spatial noise into the video chain due to dark signal, (4) response versus illumination relationship (gamma), (5) response versus wavelength of illumination (spectral), (6) optimization of forcing functions, and (7) evaluation of an image viewed by a CCD. The basic software differences and specific examples of each program operating on real data are presented.

  19. The research on calibration methods of dual-CCD laser three-dimensional human face scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Yang, Fengting; Shi, Shendong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, on the basis of considering the performance advantages of two-step method, we combines the stereo matching of binocular stereo vision with active laser scanning to calibrate the system. Above all, we select a reference camera coordinate system as the world coordinate system and unity the coordinates of two CCD cameras. And then obtain the new perspective projection matrix (PPM) of each camera after the epipolar rectification. By those, the corresponding epipolar equation of two cameras can be defined. So by utilizing the trigonometric parallax method, we can measure the space point position after distortion correction and achieve stereo matching calibration between two image points. Experiments verify that this method can improve accuracy and system stability is guaranteed. The stereo matching calibration has a simple process with low-cost, and simplifies regular maintenance work. It can acquire 3D coordinates only by planar checkerboard calibration without the need of designing specific standard target or using electronic theodolite. It is found that during the experiment two-step calibration error and lens distortion lead to the stratification of point cloud data. The proposed calibration method which combining active line laser scanning and binocular stereo vision has the both advantages of them. It has more flexible applicability. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable.

  20. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Zielcke, J.; H. Delgado Granados; L. Vogel; J. M. Alvarez Nieves; Kern, C.; Illing, S.; N. Bobrowski; P. Lübcke; U. Platt

    2012-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach ...

  1. Absolute calibration of a charge-coupled device camera with twin beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the absolute calibration of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera by exploiting quantum correlation. This method exploits a certain number of spatial pairwise quantum correlated modes produced by spontaneous parametric-down-conversion. We develop a measurement model accounting for all the uncertainty contributions, and we reach the relative uncertainty of 0.3% in low photon flux regime. This represents a significant step forward for the characterization of (scientific) CCDs used in mesoscopic light regime.

  2. General Attitude Control Algorithm for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    realized on an integrated circuit. This paper considers two issues: slew maneuver with a feature of avoiding direct exposure of the camera's CCD chip to the Sun %, three-axis attitude control and optimal control torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized...... applying the energy shaping technique, where the desired potential function is carefully designed using a physical insight into the nature of the problem. The system stability is thoroughly analyzed and the control performance simulated...

  3. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Lübcke, P.; N. Bobrowski; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; J. M. Alvarez Nieves; Vogel, L.; J. Zielcke; H. Delgado Granados; U. Platt

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission rate measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 300 and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. One important step for ...

  4. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Granada; Julia Armesto; Joaquín Collazo; Pablo Eguía; Belén Riveiro; Jacobo Porteiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. ...

  5. Positioning of Screw Holes Group Based on Digital Camera and Digital Control Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao; LI Jiansong; YAN Li; SU Guozhong; YUAN Xiuxiao; ZHONG Shengzhang; JI Huiming

    2004-01-01

    Positioning of screw holes is an important production procedure for steel construction connecting with bolts. In this paper, a new production method is presented, in which the digital camera is used for taking pictures of screw holes and other techniques are advanced. This paper also indicates that the pixels of CCD chip in photogrammetry should be chosen as all geometric units in an image, such as interior elements and all kinds of distortions. The measure can also simplify the camera calibration for determining the size of non-square pixel.

  6. Wide Field Camera 3: A Powerful New Imager for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a powerful UV/visible/near-infrared camera in development for installation into the Hubble Space Telescope during upcoming Servicing Mission 4. WFC3 provides two imaging channels. The UVIS channel incorporates a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD focal plane with sensitivity from 200 to 1000 nm. The IR channel features a 1024 x 1024 pixel HgCdTe focal plane covering 850 to 1700 nm. We report here on the design of the instrument, the performance of its flight detectors, results of the ground test and calibration program, and the plans for the Servicing Mission installation and checkout.

  7. LLiST - a new star tracker camera for tip-tilt correction at IOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, P.A.; Lacasse, M. G.; Lydon, D.; McGonagle, W. H.; Pedretti, E; Reich, R. K.; Schloerb, F. P.; Traub, W. A.

    2004-01-01

    The tip-tilt correction system at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) has been upgraded with a new star tracker camera. The camera features a backside-illuminated CCD chip offering doubled overall quantum efficiency and a four times higher system gain compared to the previous system. Tests carried out to characterize the new system showed a higher system gain with a lower read-out noise electron level. Shorter read-out cycle times now allow to compensate tip-tilt fluctuations so that ...

  8. LLiST - a new star tracker camera for tip-tilt correction at IOTA

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, P A; Lydon, D; McGonagle, W H; Pedretti, E; Reich, R K; Schloerb, F P; Traub, W A

    2004-01-01

    The tip-tilt correction system at the Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) has been upgraded with a new star tracker camera. The camera features a backside-illuminated CCD chip offering doubled overall quantum efficiency and a four times higher system gain compared to the previous system. Tests carried out to characterize the new system showed a higher system gain with a lower read-out noise electron level. Shorter read-out cycle times now allow to compensate tip-tilt fluctuations so that their error imposed on visibility measurements becomes comparable to, and even smaller than, that of higher-order aberrations.

  9. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  10. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  11. The LSST camera 500-watt -130°C mixed refrigerant cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R.; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam

    2014-07-01

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology's Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described.

  12. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology's Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  13. An introduction to some imperfections of CCD sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    CCD sensors do not deliver a perfect image of the light they receive. Beyond the well known linear image smearing due to diffusion of charges during their drift towards the pixel wells, non-linear effects are at play in these sensors. We now have ample evidence for both a flux- dependent and static image distortions, especially but not only, on deep-depleted CCDs. For large surveys relying on CCD sensors, these effects should now be taken into account when reducing data. We present here a summary of current results on sensor characterization and mitigation methods.

  14. An introduction to some imperfections of CCD sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCD sensors do not deliver a perfect image of the light they receive. Beyond the well known linear image smearing due to diffusion of charges during their drift towards the pixel wells, non-linear effects are at play in these sensors. We now have ample evidence for both a flux-dependent and static image distortions, especially but not only, on deep-depleted CCDs. For large surveys relying on CCD sensors, these effects should now be taken into account when reducing data. We present here a summary of current results on sensor characterization and mitigation methods

  15. An introduction to some imperfections of CCD sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    CCD sensors do not deliver a perfect image of the light they receive. Beyond the well known linear image smearing due to diffusion of charges during their drift towards the pixel wells, non-linear effects are at play in these sensors. We now have ample evidence for both a flux- dependent and static image distortions, especially but not only, on deep-depleted CCDs. For large surveys relying on CCD sensors, these effects should now be taken into account when reducing data. We present here a sum...

  16. 2048 pixel front illuminated linear CCD for spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-min; Liu, Chang-ju; Zheng, Yu; Li, Ping

    2009-07-01

    The charge couple device(CCD) used in spectroscopy requests good response to the wave bands between 190-1000 nm. The common measure to carry out UV response is phosphor coatings or back illuminated. Among them, phosphors are wavelength converters that convert short-wavelength light into the visible spectral region. This technology needs adding special process which not only raises cost, reduces yield, but also reduces the resolution of the image. Back illuminated is reducing CCD thickness to 15um which is thinner than the normal paper by mechanical polishing and chemical corrosion after completing the front processes of CCD. This technology needs special instrument, complex process , and the yield is also low. Both phosphor coatings and back illuminated have some disadvantages such as low space resolution, complex process, low yield, high cost etc. The CCD of traditional structure has no response to the wavelength less than 350nm, the reason is that the length of UV penetrating through Si is shallow, the penetrating length is only 6.5nm of 300nm UV, the shorter wavelength UV, the shallower penetrating length. The junction depth of normal CCD process is above 200nm, some realize shallow junction through molecular beam epitaxy, but the instrument is expensive and the cost is high. The photosensitive area of normal structure CCD adopting portrait P-N junction, light incidences from N area, N area can't be completely depleted because of the restrict of physics, photon can't arrive depletion area directly. On the basis of thorough analysis traditional UV CCD, horizontal P-N junction structure of Photosensitive area is put forward, whose depletion can reach the surface, the photon falls depletion area directly, which can effectively carry out the absorption of the UV light and the collection of photoelectron. As the latent absorption of Si3N4 to UV with less than 248nm wavelength, the Si3N4 passivation on the photosensitive area is take out. The improved 2048 elements

  17. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  18. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  19. Volumetric particle image velocimetry with a single plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Lynch, Kyle P.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2015-11-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D), three-component (3C) particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique based on volume illumination and light field imaging with a single plenoptic camera is described. A plenoptic camera uses a densely packed microlens array mounted near a high resolution image sensor to sample the spatial and angular distribution of light collected by the camera. The multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) computed tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct a volumetric intensity field from individual snapshots and a cross-correlation algorithm is used to estimate the velocity field from a pair of reconstructed particle volumes. This work provides an introduction to the basic concepts of light field imaging with a plenoptic camera and describes the unique implementation of MART in the context of plenoptic image data for 3D/3C PIV measurements. Simulations of a plenoptic camera using geometric optics are used to generate synthetic plenoptic particle images, which are subsequently used to estimate the quality of particle volume reconstructions at various particle number densities. 3D reconstructions using this method produce reconstructed particles that are elongated by a factor of approximately 4 along the optical axis of the camera. A simulated 3D Gaussian vortex is used to test the capability of single camera plenoptic PIV to produce a 3D/3C vector field, where it was found that lateral displacements could be measured to approximately 0.2 voxel accuracy in the lateral direction and 1 voxel in the depth direction over a 300× 200× 200 voxel volume. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated experimentally using a home-built plenoptic camera based on a 16-megapixel interline CCD camera and a 289× 193 array of microlenses and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. 3D/3C measurements were performed in the wake of a low Reynolds number circular cylinder and compared with measurements made using a conventional 2D/2C PIV system. Overall, single camera

  20. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  1. Automated Camera Array Fine Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Daniel; Padgett, Curtis; Ansar, Adnan; Cheng, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using aerial imagery, the JPL FineCalibration (JPL FineCal) software automatically tunes a set of existing CAHVOR camera models for an array of cameras. The software finds matching features in the overlap region between images from adjacent cameras, and uses these features to refine the camera models. It is not necessary to take special imagery of a known target and no surveying is required. JPL FineCal was developed for use with an aerial, persistent surveillance platform.

  2. Camera Surveillance Quadrotor

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Emil; Yousif, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors placed at equal distance from the crafts centre of gravity, controlled by letting the different rotors generate different amount of thrust. It uses various sensors to stay stable in the air, correct readings from these sensors are therefore critical. By reducing vibrations, electromagnetic interference and external disturbances the quadrotor’s stability can increase. The purpose of this project is to analyse the feasibility of a quadrotor camera su...

  3. Development of an n-channel CCD, CCD-NeXT1, for Soft X-ray Imager onboard the NeXT satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Takagi, Shin-ichiro; Inui, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Hironori; Koyama, Katsuji; Ozawa, Hideki; Tohiguchi, Masakuni; Matsuura, Daisuke; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Miyaguchi, Kazuhisa; Maeda, Kentaro; Kohno, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    NeXT (New X-ray Telescope) is the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite mission after the Suzaku satellite. NeXT aims to perform wide band imaging spectroscopy. Due to the successful development of a multilayer coated mirror, called a supermirror, NeXT can focus X-rays in the energy range from 0.1 keV up to 80 keV. To cover this wide energy range, we are in the process of developing a hybrid X-ray camera, Wideband X-ray Imager (WXI) as a focal plane detector of the supermirror. The WXI consists of X-ray CCDs (SXI) and CdTe pixelized detectors (HXI), which cover the lower and higher X-ray energy bands of 0.1-80 keV, respectively. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI are stacked above the CdTe pixelized detectors of the HXI. The X-ray CCDs of the SXI detect soft X-rays below $\\sim$ 10 keV and allow hard X-rays pass into the CdTe detectors of the HXI without loss. Thus, we have been developing a "back-supportless CCD" with a thick depletion layer, a thinned silicon wafer, and a back-supportless structure. In this pape...

  4. The DRAGO gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present the results of the experimental characterization of the DRAGO (DRift detector Array-based Gamma camera for Oncology), a detection system developed for high-spatial resolution gamma-ray imaging. This camera is based on a monolithic array of 77 silicon drift detectors (SDDs), with a total active area of 6.7 cm2, coupled to a single 5-mm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillator crystal. The use of an array of SDDs provides a high quantum efficiency for the detection of the scintillation light together with a very low electronics noise. A very compact detection module based on the use of integrated readout circuits was developed. The performances achieved in gamma-ray imaging using this camera are reported here. When imaging a 0.2 mm collimated 57Co source (122 keV) over different points of the active area, a spatial resolution ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm was measured. The depth-of-interaction capability of the detector, thanks to the use of a Maximum Likelihood reconstruction algorithm, was also investigated by imaging a collimated beam tilted to an angle of 45 deg. with respect to the scintillator surface. Finally, the imager was characterized with in vivo measurements on mice, in a real preclinical environment.

  5. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  6. The DRAGO gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, C.; Gola, A.; Peloso, R.; Longoni, A.; Lechner, P.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Martelli, C.; Lui, R.; Madaschi, L.; Belloli, S.

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we present the results of the experimental characterization of the DRAGO (DRift detector Array-based Gamma camera for Oncology), a detection system developed for high-spatial resolution gamma-ray imaging. This camera is based on a monolithic array of 77 silicon drift detectors (SDDs), with a total active area of 6.7 cm2, coupled to a single 5-mm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillator crystal. The use of an array of SDDs provides a high quantum efficiency for the detection of the scintillation light together with a very low electronics noise. A very compact detection module based on the use of integrated readout circuits was developed. The performances achieved in gamma-ray imaging using this camera are reported here. When imaging a 0.2 mm collimated C57o source (122 keV) over different points of the active area, a spatial resolution ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm was measured. The depth-of-interaction capability of the detector, thanks to the use of a Maximum Likelihood reconstruction algorithm, was also investigated by imaging a collimated beam tilted to an angle of 45° with respect to the scintillator surface. Finally, the imager was characterized with in vivo measurements on mice, in a real preclinical environment.

  7. Combining HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data to Generate Daily High Spatial Resolution Synthetic Data for Environmental Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-01

    The limitations of satellite data acquisition mean that there is a lack of satellite data with high spatial and temporal resolutions for environmental process monitoring. In this study, we address this problem by applying the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to combine Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD), Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate daily high spatial resolution synthetic data for land surface process monitoring. Actual HJ CCD and GF-1 WFV data were used to evaluate the precision of the synthetic images using the correlation analysis method. Our method was tested and validated for two study areas in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that both the ESTARFM and STDFA can be applied to combine HJ CCD and MODIS reflectance data, and GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data, to generate synthetic HJ CCD data and synthetic GF-1 WFV data that closely match actual data with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.8989 and 0.8643, respectively. Synthetic red- and near infrared (NIR)-band data generated by ESTARFM are more suitable for the calculation of Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) than the data generated by STDFA. PMID:26308017

  8. Riprese CCD della chioma interna della cometa Ikeya-Zhang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comolli, Lorenzo

    2003-03-01

    During the period of maximum brightness of comet Ikeya-Zhang we acquired many unsaturated CCD images thanks to a period of good weather. The series of images of about 2 weeks can be animated so that changes in the inner coma are made evident. Elaborations with Larson-Sekanina filter and masking filters evidence details like concentric halos, jets and shells.

  9. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  10. SCREEN photometric property detection system based on area CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fu-cai; Ye, Wei; Xu, Yu; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu-wei

    2011-08-01

    The photometric property detection of screen display is crucial for screen display quality test. Traditional photometry detection technologies were based on photoelectric sensors such as silicon photocell, photo-electric multiplier and CdS, which can detect only some isolated points. To break the limitation of randomness, incompleteness and detection accuracy in current technologies, we designed a screen photometric detection system based on area CCD. The system consists of photometric image sensor, photometric image acquisition hardware and photometric image analyzing software. The photometric image sensor, which adopts optical lens, optical filters and area CCD, adapts its spectrum response property to fit the spectrum luminous efficiency curve V (λ) by adjusting the thickness and quantity of appropriate optical filters. photometric image acquisition hardware adopts the DSP as a core processor to drive the area CCD, to sample, acquire , process and save the image from image sensor, to transmit the image to computer. For real-time performance of transmitting, the hardware system adopts the transmission protocol of USB2.0. The uploaded image will be processed by photometric image analyzing software, and then displayed in real time with detection results. The screen photometric detection technology based on area CCD can detect specifications of the whole screen such as luminance, contrast, onoff ratio and uniformity, breaks the limitation of randomness and incompleteness in current detection technology, exactly and fully reflects the integrated display quality of the whole screen. According to the test results, the accuracy of this system has reached the accuracy level one in China.

  11. CCD photometry of the Globular Cluster NGC 6093

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelas-Mayorga, A; Bernal-Herrera, C A; Nigoche-Netro, A; Echevarria, J; Garcia, A M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present photometric CCD observations of the globular cluster NGC 6093 (M80) in filters B, V , R and I. We produce the colour-magnitude diagrams for this object and obtain values for its metallicity [Fe/H], reddening E(V-B), E(V-I) and distance modulus (m - M)_0.

  12. Diagnostics of the CCD using the mesh experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tsunemi, H; Mori, K; Yoshita, K; Miyata, E

    1999-01-01

    We present here the results of a mesh experiment with which we can measure the shape of a charge cloud generated by the photoabsorption of X-rays inside a charge-coupled device (CCD). The mesh used is made of gold of 13-mu m thickness, and has many holes of 1.4 mu m diameter spaced 48 mu m apart. The CCD used has 12 mu m square pixels. A new criterion with which we can determine the precise alignment in the experiment is introduced to eliminate uncertainties. We measured the charge cloud size at three X-ray energies: Al-K (1.5 keV), Mo-L (2.3 keV) and Ti-K (4.5 keV). The shapes can be well represented not by a point-symmetric Gaussian function, but by an axial symmetric Gaussian function with sigma of 0.7-1.5 mu m. The charge cloud size depends weakly on the mean absorption length in silicon. We find that the charge cloud size can be well explained by a simple model inside the CCD. We discuss that the knowledge of the charge cloud size will enable us to improve the position resolution of the CCD.

  13. Reducing Scattered Light in CCD Images at the CTIO 0.9m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, D.; Rauscher, B. J.

    1998-12-01

    We have been studying luminous halos around spiral galaxies in very deep near-infrared K-band images (limiting surface brightness =24 mag arcsec(-2) ; lambda_ {c} = 2.35 mu m). Following our successful detection of a halo around the southern spiral galaxy ESO 240-G11 (Rauscher et al. 1998), we collected optical CCD images of candidate galaxies at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) 0.9 m telescope from 17-21 Sept 1998. Because light scattered by the telescope can mask or mimic faint, extended emission, we took precautions to minimize stray and scattered light. To assess the amount of scattered light, we collected images of the telescope pupil using a pinhole camera, which we constructed by laying a sheet of aluminum foil, perforated with a submillimeter hole, 19 mm in front of the CCD. These images showed that the telescope did scatter light on the order of a few percent over a radius of about 2 arcminutes. Supressing this extraneous light was highly desirable, since halo surface brightness can be baffles. One baffle consisted of a 0.95 m diameter tube added as an extension to the telescope, which has a closed-tube design. The other 2 baffles were diaphragms mounted between the primary baffle (the ``chimney'') and the shutter. These baffles effectively eliminated the largest sources of scattered light, which appear to be the edge of the secondary baffle and the inner surface of the chimney (Figure 1, http:// astro.uchicago.edu/home/web/barnaby/sctrdlite98.html). In this paper, we quantify the reduction in scattered light and examine the most useful location to add baffles to this telescope. Acknowledgements. We thank the CTIO Telescope Operations staff for their help in constructing and installing the baffles. We also thank support astronomer Nick Suntzeff for suggesting the pinhole tests. Rauscher, B. J. et al. 1998, ApJ, 506, 116

  14. Programmable CCD imaging system for synchrotron radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time imaging system for x-ray detection has been developed. The CAMAC-based system has a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) as its active detection element. The electronics consist of a CAMAC-crate-based dedicated microprocessor coupled to arbitrary waveform generators, programmable timing, and ADC modules. The hardware flexibility achievable through this system enables one to use virtually any commercially available CCD. A dedicated CAMAC-based display driver allows for real-time imaging on a high-resolution color monitor. An optional front end consisting of a fiber-optic taper and a focusing optical lens system coupled to a phosphor screen allows for large area imaging. Further, programming flexibility, in which the detector can be used in different read-out modes, enables it to be exploited for time-resolved experiments. In one mode, sections of the CCD can be read-out with millisecond time-resolution and, in another, the use of the CCD as a storage device is exploited resulting in microsecond time-resolution. Three different CCDs with radically different read-out timings and waveforms have been tested: the TI 4849, a 39Ox584 pixel array; TC 215, a 1024x1O24 pixel array; and the TH 7883, a 576x384 pixel array. The TC 215 and TI 4849 are single-phase CCDs manufactured by Texas Instruments, and the TH 7883 is a four-phase device manufactured by Thomson-CSF. The CCD characterized for uniformity, charge transfer efficiency (CTE), linearity, and sensitivity is the TC215

  15. Comparative Analysis of GF-1 WFV, ZY-3 MUX, and HJ-1 CCD Sensor Data for Grassland Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of Chinese sensor types used for terrestrial remote sensing has necessitated an additional effort to evaluate and standardize the data they acquire. In this study, we assessed the potential use of GF-1 WFV (Wild Field Camera, ZY-3 MUX (Multi-spectral camera, and HJ-1 CCD (Charge Coupled Device sensor data for grassland monitoring by comparing spectral field measurements, vegetation coverage, and the leaf area index (LAI of grassland stands with reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Based on spectral field measurements, the characteristic differences of spectral response functions of the sensors were analyzed. Based on simulations using the SAIL bidirectional canopy reflectance model coupled with the PROSPECT leaf optical properties model (PROSAIL, we investigated the effects of changes in the sensors’ zenith angle caused by side sway. The following conclusions were drawn. (1 Differences in the adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 exist when comparing correlations between the reflectances from the three sensor types in different bands. The values of R2 are 0.556–0.893 and 0.819–0.850 for the infrared and red bands, respectively, and these data show a better correlation for the red band than for the infrared band. Fitted slope equations revealed inconsistencies in the data between the different sensor types. In the red band, GF-1 WFV and HJ-1 CCD data are the most consistent, but in the near-infrared band, GF-1 WFV and ZY-3 MUX data are the most consistent; (2 The correlation of NDVIs obtained from the different sensor types is high (R2 between 0.758 and 0.852; however, the consistency is low in that the NDVI based on GF-1 WFV data is significantly higher than that based on ZY-3 MUX and HJ-1 CCD data. In contrast, the mean difference is small between the NDVIs based on ZY-3 MUX and HJ-1 CCD; (3 Correlation analysis between ground grass-coverage and

  16. Characterization of a parallel-beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2007-07-01

    3D measurement of optical attenuation is of interest in a variety of fields of biomedical importance, including spectrophotometry, optical projection tomography (OPT) and analysis of 3D radiation dosimeters. Accurate, precise and economical 3D measurements of optical density (OD) are a crucial step in enabling 3D radiation dosimeters to enter wider use in clinics. Polymer gels and Fricke gels, as well as dosimeters not based around gels, have been characterized for 3D dosimetry over the last two decades. A separate problem is the verification of the best readout method. A number of different imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, x-ray CT and ultrasound) have been suggested for the readout of information from 3D dosimeters. To date only MRI and laser-based optical CT have been characterized in detail. This paper describes some initial steps we have taken in establishing charge coupled device (CCD)-based optical CT as a viable alternative to MRI for readout of 3D radiation dosimeters. The main advantage of CCD-based optical CT over traditional laser-based optical CT is a speed increase of at least an order of magnitude, while the simplicity of its architecture would lend itself to cheaper implementation than both MRI and laser-based optical CT if the camera itself were inexpensive enough. Specifically, we study the following aspects of optical metrology, using high quality test targets: (i) calibration and quality of absorbance measurements and the camera requirements for 3D dosimetry; (ii) the modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections; (iii) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the projection and reconstruction domains; (iv) distortion in the projection domain, depth-of-field (DOF) and telecentricity. The principal results for our current apparatus are as follows: (i) SNR of optical absorbance in projections is better than 120:1 for uniform phantoms in absorbance range 0.3 to 1.6 (and better than 200:1 for absorbances 1.0 to

  17. Stereoscopic camera design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David J.; Jones, Christopher K.; Stewart, James N.; Smith, Alan

    2002-05-01

    It is clear from the literature that the majority of work in stereoscopic imaging is directed towards the development of modern stereoscopic displays. As costs come down, wider public interest in this technology is expected to increase. This new technology would require new methods of image formation. Advances in stereo computer graphics will of course lead to the creation of new stereo computer games, graphics in films etc. However, the consumer would also like to see real-world stereoscopic images, pictures of family, holiday snaps etc. Such scenery would have wide ranges of depth to accommodate and would need also to cope with moving objects, such as cars, and in particular other people. Thus, the consumer acceptance of auto/stereoscopic displays and 3D in general would be greatly enhanced by the existence of a quality stereoscopic camera. This paper will cover an analysis of existing stereoscopic camera designs and show that they can be categorized into four different types, with inherent advantages and disadvantages. A recommendation is then made with regard to 3D consumer still and video photography. The paper will go on to discuss this recommendation and describe its advantages and how it can be realized in practice.

  18. Sensor modeling, self-calibration and accuracy testing of panoramic cameras and laser scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Parian, Jafar; Gruen, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial Linear Array CCD-based panoramic cameras have been used for purely imaging purposes, but they also have a high potential for use in high accuracy measurement applications. The imaging geometry and the high information content of those images make them suitable candidates for quantitative image analysis. For that a particular sensor model has to be established and the inherent accuracy potential has to be investigated. We developed a sensor model for terrestrial Linear Array-based panoramic cameras by means of a modified bundle adjustment with additional parameters, which models substantial deviations of a real camera from the ideal one. We used 3D straight-line information in addition to tie points to conduct a full calibration and orientation without control point information. Due to the similarity of the operation of laser scanners to panoramic cameras the sensor model of the panoramic cameras was extended for the self-calibration of laser scanners. We present the joint sensor model for panoramic cameras and laser scanners and the results of self-calibration, which indicate a subpixel accuracy level for such highly dynamic systems. Finally we demonstrate the systems' accuracy of two typical panoramic cameras in 3D point positioning, using both a minimal number of control points and a free network adjustment. With these new panoramic imaging devices we have additional powerful sensors for image recording and efficient 3D object modeling.

  19. Optomechanical System Development of the AWARE Gigapixel Scale Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hui S.

    Electronic focal plane arrays (FPA) such as CMOS and CCD sensors have dramatically improved to the point that digital cameras have essentially phased out film (except in very niche applications such as hobby photography and cinema). However, the traditional method of mating a single lens assembly to a single detector plane, as required for film cameras, is still the dominant design used in cameras today. The use of electronic sensors and their ability to capture digital signals that can be processed and manipulated post acquisition offers much more freedom of design at system levels and opens up many interesting possibilities for the next generation of computational imaging systems. The AWARE gigapixel scale camera is one such computational imaging system. By utilizing a multiscale optical design, in which a large aperture objective lens is mated with an array of smaller, well corrected relay lenses, we are able to build an optically simple system that is capable of capturing gigapixel scale images via post acquisition stitching of the individual pictures from the array. Properly shaping the array of digital cameras allows us to form an effectively continuous focal surface using off the shelf (OTS) flat sensor technology. This dissertation details developments and physical implementations of the AWARE system architecture. It illustrates the optomechanical design principles and system integration strategies we have developed through the course of the project by summarizing the results of the two design phases for AWARE: AWARE-2 and AWARE-10. These systems represent significant advancements in the pursuit of scalable, commercially viable snapshot gigapixel imaging systems and should serve as a foundation for future development of such systems.

  20. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented. PMID:26931959

  1. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  2. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  3. Evaluation of a CCD-based tissue imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital tissue imaging system based on a cooled charge coupled device (CCD) has been developed at the Physics Department of the Institute of Cancer Research. The system images low energy X-ray emissions and β particle emissions from a variety of isotopes, with a position resolution approaching 20μm and sensitivity approaching 100%. Because of the frame-by-frame composite way in which images are constructed, the dynamic range of the system is 16 bit, limited only by the microcomputer used to acquire and store the images. Images have been obtained of isotope distributions in tissue with radioactivity levels which were too low to be detected using conventional technology. Room temperature operation of the CCD in the inverted mode has been investigated

  4. CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy has emerged as a high resolution, non-contact imaging technique for thermal profiling and performance and reliability analysis of numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices at the micro-scale. This thermography technique, which is based on measuring the relative change in reflectivity of the device surface as a function of change in temperature, provides high-resolution thermal images that are useful for hot spot detection and failure analysis, mapping of temperature distribution, measurement of thermal transient, optical characterization of photonic devices and measurement of thermal conductivity in thin films. In this paper we review the basic physical principle behind thermoreflectance as a thermography tool, discuss the experimental setup, resolutions achieved, signal processing procedures and calibration techniques, and review the current applications of CCD-based thermoreflectance microscopy in various devices. (topical review)

  5. Characterization of a CCD array for Bragg spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Indelicato, P J; Gotta, D; Hennebach, M; Le Bigot, E O; Nelms, N; Simons, L M; Trassinelli, M; Bigot, Eric-Olivier Le; David, Christian; Gotta, Detlev; Hennebach, Maik; Indelicato, Paul; Nelms, Nick; Simons, Leopold M.; Trassinelli, Martino

    2006-01-01

    The average pixel distance as well as the relative orientation of an array of 6 CCD detectors have been measured with accuracies of about 0.5 nm and 50 $\\mu$rad, respectively. Such a precision satisfies the needs of modern crystal spectroscopy experiments in the field of exotic atoms and highly charged ions. Two different measurements have been performed by illuminating masks in front of the detector array by remote sources of radiation. In one case, an aluminum mask was irradiated with X-rays and in a second attempt, a nanometric quartz wafer was illuminated by a light bulb. Both methods gave consistent results with a smaller error for the optical method. In addition, the thermal expansion of the CCD detectors was characterized between -105 C and -40 C.

  6. The readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honscheid, Klaus; Elliott, Ann; Annis, James; Bonati, Marco; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Castander, Francisco; daCosta, Luiz; Fausti, Angelo; Karliner, Inga; Kuhlmann, Steve; Neilsen, Eric; Patton, Kenneth; Reil, Kevin; Roodman, Aaron; Thaler, Jon; Serrano, Santiago; Soares Santos, Marcelle; Suchyta, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a new 520 Mega Pixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view designed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES is a high precision, multi-bandpass, photometric survey of 5000 square degrees of the southern sky. DECam is currently being installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-m telescope at the Cerro- Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). In this paper we describe SISPI, the data acquisition and control system of the Dark Energy Camera. SISPI is implemented as a distributed multi-processor system with a software architecture based on the Client-Server and Publish-Subscribe design patterns. The underlying message passing protocol is based on PYRO, a powerful distributed object technology system written entirely in Python. A distributed shared variable system was added to support exchange of telemetry data and other information between different components of the system. We discuss the SISPI infrastructure software, the image pipeline, the observer console and user interface architecture, image quality monitoring, the instrument control system, and the observation strategy tool.

  7. Precision multi-band photometry with a DSLR camera

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, M; Penev, K; Csubry, Z; Hartman, J D; Bhatti, W; de Val-Borro, M

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATNet and KELT have discovered close to two hundred transiting extrasolar planets in the past several years. The strategy of these surveys is to look at a large field of view and measure the brightnesses of its bright stars to around half a percent per point precision, which is adequate for detecting hot Jupiters. Typically, these surveys use CCD detectors to achieve high precision photometry. These CCDs, however, are expensive relative to other consumer-grade optical imaging devices, such as digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs). We look at the possibility of using a digital single-lens reflex camera for precision photometry. Specifically, we used a Canon EOS 60D camera that records light in 3 colors simultaneously. The DSLR was integrated into the HATNet survey and collected observations for a month, after which photometry was extracted for 6600 stars in a selected stellar field. We found that the DSLR achieves a best-case median absolute deviation (MA...

  8. Quantum efficiency measurements in the swept charge device CCD236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The e2v technologies plc. CCD236 is a Swept Charge Device (SCD) designed as a large area (20 mm × 20 mm) soft X-ray detector for spectroscopy in the range 0.8 keV to 10 keV. It benefits from improvements in design over the previous generation, the e2v CCD54, such as: a 4 times increased detector area, a reduction in split X-ray events due to the 100 μm × 100 μm 'pixel' size, and improvements to radiation hardness. The CCD236 will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) instrument and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Measurements of the Quantum Efficiency (QE) have been obtained relative to a NIST calibrated photodiode over the energy range 0.2 keV to 1.9 keV, using the BESSY II X-ray synchrotron in Berlin. Two X-ray event counting methods are described and compared, and QE for soft X-ray interaction is reported. Uniformity of QE across the device is also investigated at energies between 0.52 keV and 1.5 keV in different areas of the detector. This work will enable the actual number of photons incident on the detectors to be calculated, thus ensuring that the CCD236 detectors provide valuable scientific data during use. By comparing the QE methods in this paper with the event processing techniques to be used with CLASS, an estimate of the instrument-specific QE for CLASS can be provided

  9. Building a CCD Spectrograph for Educational or Amateur Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kannappan, Sheila J.; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Hughes, Charles B.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the design of an inexpensive, high-throughput CCD spectrograph for a small telescope. By using optical fibers to carry the light from the telescope focus to a table-top spectrograph, one can minimize the weight carried by the telescope and simplify the spectrograph design. We recently employed this approach in the construction of IntroSpec, an instrument built for the 16-inch Knowles Telescope on the Harvard College campus.

  10. Wavelength Calibration Accuracy for the STIS CCD and MAMA Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Hodge, Phil; Proffitt, Charles R.; Ayres, T.

    2011-03-01

    Two calibration programs were carried out to determine the accuracy of the wavelength solutions for the most used STIS CCD and MAMA modes after Servicing Mission 4. We report here on the analysis of this dataset and show that the STIS wavelength solution has not changed after SM4. We also show that a typical accuracy for the absolute wavelength zero-points is 0.1 pixels while the relative wavelength accuracy is 0.2 pixels.

  11. Stable vacuum UV CCD detectors designed for space flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socker, Dennis G.; Marchywka, Mike; Taylor, G. C.; Levine, P.; Rios, R.; Shallcross, F.; Hughes, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thinned, backside-illuminated, p-channel CCD images are under development which can exploit the surface potential in VUV applications, yielding enhanced quantum efficiency to wavelengths as short as 1100 A. The current goal is production of large-format, 5-micron pixel imagers for spectrographic and imaging VUV spaceflight experiments. Model predictions of the effect of device design on quantum efficiency, well capacity, and crosstalk are presented for such 5-micron-approaching pixel sizes.

  12. Study of pixel area variations in fully depleted thick CCD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Kotov, A.I.; Frank, J.; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; O´Connor, P.O.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2010 - (Holland, A.; Dorn, D.), 774206/1-774206/8. (Proceedings of the SPIE. 7742). ISBN 9780819482327. [High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy /4./. San Diego (US), 27.06.2010-04.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CCD * pixel size * charge diffusion Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.856519

  13. Novel gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray cameras described are based on radiation imaging devices which permit the direct recording of the distribution of radioactive material from a radiative source, such as a human organ. They consist in principle of a collimator, a converter matrix converting gamma photons to electrons, and an electron image multiplier producing a multiplied electron output, and means for reading out the information. The electron image multiplier is a device which produces a multiplied electron image. It can be in principle, either gas avalanche electron multiplier or a multi-channel plate. The multi-channel plate employed is a novel device, described elsewhere. The three described embodiments, in which the converter matrix can be either of metal type or of scintillation crystal type, were designed and are being developed

  14. Neutron Imaging Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; DeNolfo, Georgia; Floyd, Sam; Krizmanic, John; Link, Jason; Son, Seunghee; Guardala, Noel; Skopec, Marlene; Stark, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Neutron Imaging Camera (NIC) being developed for DTRA applications by NASA/GSFC and NSWC/Carderock. The NIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics applications. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approximately 0.4 mm resolution. 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of fast neutrons, E(sub N) > 0.5 MeV. arc reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the proton and triton fragments resulting from 3He(n,p)3H interactions in the 3-DTI volume. We present angular and energy resolution performance of the NIC derived from accelerator tests.

  15. Focussed radiographic camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic camera of the form employing a scintillator for producing optical photons in response to incident gamma and x-radiation is described. A collimator is positioned between a subject emitting such radiation and the scintillator for guiding the radiation to the scintillator and a detector of optical photons for signaling the positions of points of impingement of quanta of the incident radiation upon the scintillator to produce an image of the subject. A Fresnel focussing means is located alongside the scintillator for directing the optical photons to the detector. The Fresnel focussing means takes the form of a segmented mirror at the front surface of the scintillator and a Fresnel lens at the back surface of the scintillator

  16. Methode nouvelle pour la mesure CCD du diametre solaire avec un astrolabe. A new method for CCD measurements of the solar diameter with an astrolabe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinceac, V.; Chollet, F.; Laclare, F.; Delmas, C.

    1998-03-01

    the luminosity function along each of the 256 useful lines (the matrix is 512 by 512 pixels). This means that a numerical derivation is performed on every other line of the CCD video camera which has to stand as vertical as possible. Then, for every frame, and through the 256 points, a parabola is fitted, using the least squares method. The top of this parabola materializes the prospective characteristic point. The sets of such points associated with the corresponding times of acquisition, are collected for both images and the exact time of contact of the two images may be obtained. This time is also the time when the solar edge crosses the almucantar. The results for the semi-diameter obtained during 1996 campaign are derived from sixty measurements with the revolving mask and sixty seven without it, performed on the Solar Astrolabe. They give a mean value of 959\\farcs39 +/- 0\\farcs 03 with a scatter of 0\\farcs 29. It is interesting to remark that the values of the error bar and the scatter obtained do not depend on the definition of the Solar edge, whereas the mean value does depend on it. It is noticed that going with the method is made a systematic error which slightly shrinks the diameter, but this value can be known statistically and the correction can easily be done. Choosing the best definition of the Solar edge will be the matter of a following article. The main advantage of such a digital acquisition procedure has to be stressed, as it enables to store the full data for further reference and, if possible, better future processing.

  17. High-sensitivity CCD-based x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detector is designed for imaging measurements requiring relatively high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The detector can discriminate single X-ray photons, yet has the wide dynamic range (∼10000:1) associated with integrating detectors. A GdO2S2 phosphor screen converts the incoming X-ray image into an optical image. The optical image is coupled (without demagnification) to the CCD image sensor using a fiber optic faceplate. The CCD (Philips Semiconductors) has an area of 4.9 x 8.6 cm with 4000 x 7000 12 μm pixels. A single 12 keV X-ray photon produces a signal of 100 e-. With 2 x 2 pixel binning, the total noise per 24 μm pixel in a 100 s image is ∼30 e-, the detective quantum efficiency is >0.6 at 1 X-ray photon per pixel, and the full image can be read out in <4 s. The spatial resolution is 50 μm. The CCD readout system is fully computer-controlled, allowing flexible operation in time-resolved experiments. The detector has been characterized using visible-light images, X-ray images and time-resolved muscle diffraction measurements.

  18. LiCHy: The CAF’s LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral Integrated Airborne Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design, implementation and performance of a novel airborne system, which integrates commercial waveform LiDAR, CCD (Charge-Coupled Device camera and hyperspectral sensors into a common platform system. CAF’s (The Chinese Academy of Forestry LiCHy (LiDAR, CCD and Hyperspectral Airborne Observation System is a unique system that permits simultaneous measurements of vegetation vertical structure, horizontal pattern, and foliar spectra from different view angles at very high spatial resolution (~1 m on a wide range of airborne platforms. The horizontal geo-location accuracy of LiDAR and CCD is about 0.5 m, with LiDAR vertical resolution and accuracy 0.15 m and 0.3 m, respectively. The geo-location accuracy of hyperspectral image is within 2 pixels for nadir view observations and 5–7 pixels for large off-nadir observations of 55° with multi-angle modular when comparing to LiDAR product. The complementary nature of LiCHy’s sensors makes it an effective and comprehensive system for forest inventory, change detection, biodiversity monitoring, carbon accounting and ecosystem service evaluation. The LiCHy system has acquired more than 8000 km2 of data over typical forests across China. These data are being used to investigate potential LiDAR and optical remote sensing applications in forest management, forest carbon accounting, biodiversity evaluation, and to aid in the development of similar satellite configurations. This paper describes the integration of the LiCHy system, the instrument performance and data processing workflow. We also demonstrate LiCHy’s data characteristics, current coverage, and potential vegetation applications.

  19. A single-photon CCD-based setup for in situ measurement of the X-ray spectrum of mammographic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique enabling in situ measurements of the spectrum of X-ray tubes employed in mammographic screenings is described. The technique involves the use of a commercially available CCD camera and a set of metal foils and is particularly useful to perform a fast evaluation of the spectral properties of a Mo anode mammographic system operating at standard flux levels. A description of the detector calibration procedure is first given, followed by a discussion of the study and choice of an appropriate set of X-ray attenuation foils. Finally, the use of the system for a spectroscopic characterization of a mammographic system is reported

  20. Influence of scattered light on accurate CCD flat fielding --- necessity of modifying baffles of some existent reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B. A.; Zhang, C. S.; Sheng, C. J.; Peng, Y. L.

    2005-07-01

    This paper is the continuation of paper [1]. In this paper we further show that the difference between twilight flat field and night sky exposure is mainly due to the existence of scattered light. Like Grundahl and Sorensen, we also made the pinhole images of the 1.56m at the Shanghai Observatory and the 63cm of the Nanjing University to show the existence of scattered light intuitively. Both the 1.56m and the 63cm reflectors have normal designed baffles. Therefore it is the common weakness of all standard designed reflectors having only two baffles mounted in front of the primary and secondary mirrors which are not enough to protect the CCD cameras from scattered light in getting accurate flat fields. It is of great importance to modify the primary mirror baffle of all similar reflectors in order to get more accurate flat fielding.

  1. Imaging the Moon II: Webcam CCD Observations and Analysis (a Two-Week Lab for Non-Majors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.

    2014-07-01

    Imaging the Moon is a successful two-week lab involving real sky observations of the Moon in which students make telescopic observations and analyze their own images. Originally developed around the 35 mm film camera, a common household object adapted for astronomical work, the lab now uses webcams as film photography has evolved into an obscure specialty technology and increasing numbers of students have little familiarity with it. The printed circuit board with the CCD is harvested from a commercial webcam and affixed to a tube to mount on a telescope in place of an eyepiece. Image frames are compiled to form a lunar mosaic, and crater sizes are measured. Students also work through the logistical steps of telescope time assignment and scheduling. They learn to keep a schedule and work with uncertainties of weather in ways paralleling research observations. Because there is no need for a campus observatory, this lab can be replicated at a wide variety of institutions.

  2. Experimentálne štúdium tvorby bublín: akustika a ccd kamera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunganič, Radovan; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Praha : Procesní inženýrství, 2005 - (Bočková, J.; Halfar, R.). s. 222 ISBN 80-86059-42-1. [Konference chemického a procesního inženýrství CHISA 2005 /52./. 17.10.2005-20.10.2005, Srní, Šumava] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GD104/03/H141 Grant ostatní: BEMUSAC(XE) G1MA/CT/2002/04019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : optical probe * ccd camera Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  4. Cross calibration of INSAT 3A CCD channel radiances with IRS P6 AWiFS sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Singh; B K Bhattacharya; A V Kulkarni

    2013-08-01

    Indian National Satellite (INSAT) 3A was launched in the year 2003 with communication and remote sensing payloads. The later payloads contain very high resolution radiometer (VHRR) and charge coupled devices (CCD) camera. In this paper, post-launch calibration of INSAT 3A CCD is discussed. A cross radiometric calibration was carried out with well calibrated advanced wide field of view sensor (AWiFS) of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS P6). Three concurrent scenes of December, January and February were used in this study. Calibration was carried out under different land cover classes such as snow, vegetation, forest, water and cloud. Regression analysis suggests correlation coefficient of 0.95, 0.92 and 0.60 for Red, NIR and SWIR channels with slope values 1.839, 1.589 and 2.232, respectively. New calibration coefficients were used to estimate at-sensor radiance and reflectance in all the three channels. Dynamic range of reflectances was found to be improved by using new calibration coefficients. Normalized difference snow index and vegetation index (NDSI and NDVI) have shown an improvement with new coefficients and were found closer to represent in situ data of different land covers and cloud.

  5. Noise and dark performance for the FIREBall-2 EMCCD delta-doped UV optimized CCD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Lingner, Nicole; Kyne, Gillian; Morrissey, Patrick; Martin, Christopher D.; FIREBall-2 Team

    2016-01-01

    The Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is a UV multi-object spectrograph experiment designed to observe low-density emission from HI, CIV, and OVI in the circum-galactic medium (CGM) around low-redshift galaxies (z=0.3-1.0) from a high altitude balloon. To detect this diffuse emission, we have chosen to use a high-efficiency photon-counting EMCCD as part of FIREBall-2's detector system. The flight camera system includes a custom printed circuit board, a mechanical cryo-cooler, zeolite and charcoal getters, and a NUVU controller, for fast read-out speeds and waveform shaping. Here we report on overall detector system performance. We describe our characterization of detector noise from a delta-doped, anti-reflection-coated, electron-multiplying e2v CCD201-20. We describe our use of a NUVU controller to create custom waveforms that reduce clock-induced charge (CIC). We detail the clock frequencies, waveform shapes, and well depths required to reduce parallel and serial CIC to acceptable levels for our application (~10-3 events/pix/frame), at a range of substrate voltages. We also describe dark current measurements at several temperatures, including at our operating temperature of -115°C, with the flight set-up.

  6. Subaru next-generation wide-field camera: HyperSuprime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Furusawa, Hisanori; Takeshi, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    We summarize the design and the specification of a next generation instrument for Subaru Telescope: a very wide-field (2°φ) CCD camera which we name HyperSuprime. The latest design of the corrector ensures 80% encircled energy diameter of 0".3 from 600 nm to 1100 nm over the 2°φ field of view. The size of the focal plane is 612 mm in diameter and covered by about 170 four side buttable 2kx4k CCDs. Fully depleted CCD which is now being developed is the primary candidate for HyperSuprime. The readout electronics is connected behind the CCD and this CCD package is screwed to the cold plate with three positioning pins. The large entrance window of the dewar is supported with additional ribs so that the dewar is evacuated and CCDs are cooled down to about -80°C. HyperSuprime equips with a filter exchanger which can accommodate four large mosaicked filters and a roll-type shutter.

  7. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajgfinger, T.; Dominjon, A.; Barbier, R.

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 μm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  8. Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)

    2015-07-01

    The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.

  9. Optical design of the comet Shoemaker-Levy speckle camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    An optical design is presented in which the Lick 3 meter telescope and a bare CCD speckle camera system was used to image the collision sites of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet with the Planet Jupiter. The brief overview includes of the optical constraints and system layout. The choice of a Risley prism combination to compensate for the time dependent atmospheric chromatic changes are described. Plate scale and signal-to-noise ratio curves resulting from imaging reference stars are compared with theory. Comparisons between un-corrected and reconstructed images of Jupiter`s impact sites. The results confirm that speckle imaging techniques can be used over an extended time period to provide a method to image large extended objects.

  10. Camera Gap Removal in SOLIS/VSM Images

    CERN Document Server

    Marble, Andrew R; Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) instrument on the Synoptic Optical Longterm Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope is capable of obtaining spectropolarimetry for the full Sun (or a select latitudinal range) with one arcsecond spatial resolution and 0.05 Angstrom spectral resolution. This is achieved by scanning the Sun in declination and building up spectral cubes for multiple polarization states, utilizing a beamsplitter and two separate 2k x 2k CCD cameras. As a result, the eastern and western hemispheres of the Sun are separated in preliminary VSM images by a vertical gap with soft edges and variable position and width. Prior to the comprehensive analysis presented in this document, a trial-and-error approach to removing the gap had yielded an algorithm that was inconsistent, undocumented, and responsible for incorrectly eliminating too many image columns. Here we describe, in detail, the basis for a new, streamlined, and properly calibrated prescription for locating and removing the gap that is ...

  11. Three-dimensional shape measurement and calibration for fringe projection by considering unequal height of the projector and the camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fringe projection, the CCD camera and the projector are often placed at equal height. In this paper, we will study the calibration of an unequal arrangement of the CCD camera and the projector. The principle of fringe projection with two-dimensional digital image correlation to acquire the profile of object surface is described in detail. By formula derivation and experiment, the linear relationship between the out-of-plane calibration coefficient and the y coordinate is clearly found. To acquire the three-dimensional (3D) information of an object correctly, this paper presents an effective calibration method with linear least-squares fitting, which is very simple in principle and calibration. Experiments are implemented to validate the availability and reliability of the calibration method.

  12. LISS-4 camera for Resourcesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sandip; Dave, Himanshu; Dewan, Chirag; Kumar, Pradeep; Sansowa, Satwinder Singh; Dave, Amit; Sharma, B. N.; Verma, Anurag

    2006-12-01

    The Indian Remote Sensing Satellites use indigenously developed high resolution cameras for generating data related to vegetation, landform /geomorphic and geological boundaries. This data from this camera is used for working out maps at 1:12500 scale for national level policy development for town planning, vegetation etc. The LISS-4 Camera was launched onboard Resourcesat-1 satellite by ISRO in 2003. LISS-4 is a high-resolution multi-spectral camera with three spectral bands and having a resolution of 5.8m and swath of 23Km from 817 Km altitude. The panchromatic mode provides a swath of 70Km and 5-day revisit. This paper briefly discusses the configuration of LISS-4 Camera of Resourcesat-1, its onboard performance and also the changes in the Camera being developed for Resourcesat-2. LISS-4 camera images the earth in push-broom mode. It is designed around a three mirror un-obscured telescope, three linear 12-K CCDs and associated electronics for each band. Three spectral bands are realized by splitting the focal plane in along track direction using an isosceles prism. High-speed Camera Electronics is designed for each detector with 12- bit digitization and digital double sampling of video. Seven bit data selected from 10 MSBs data by Telecommand is transmitted. The total dynamic range of the sensor covers up to 100% albedo. The camera structure has heritage of IRS- 1C/D. The optical elements are precisely glued to specially designed flexure mounts. The camera is assembled onto a rotating deck on spacecraft to facilitate +/- 26° steering in Pitch-Yaw plane. The camera is held on spacecraft in a stowed condition before deployment. The excellent imageries from LISS-4 Camera onboard Resourcesat-1 are routinely used worldwide. Such second Camera is being developed for Resourcesat-2 launch in 2007 with similar performance. The Camera electronics is optimized and miniaturized. The size and weight are reduced to one third and the power to half of the values in Resourcesat

  13. Mars Exploration Rover Navigation Camera in-flight calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, J.M.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Wolff, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Navigation Camera (Navcam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) spacecraft provide support for both tactical operations as well as scientific observations where color information is not necessary: large-scale morphology, atmospheric monitoring including cloud observations and dust devil movies, and context imaging for both the thermal emission spectrometer and the in situ instruments on the Instrument Deployment Device. The Navcams are a panchromatic stereoscopic imaging system built using identical charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors and nearly identical electronics boards as the other cameras on the MER spacecraft. Previous calibration efforts were primarily focused on providing a detailed geometric calibration in line with the principal function of the Navcams, to provide data for the MER navigation team. This paper provides a detailed description of a new Navcam calibration pipeline developed to provide an absolute radiometric calibration that we estimate to have an absolute accuracy of 10% and a relative precision of 2.5%. Our calibration pipeline includes steps to model and remove the bias offset, the dark current charge that accumulates in both the active and readout regions of the CCD, and the shutter smear. It also corrects pixel-to-pixel responsivity variations using flat-field images, and converts from raw instrument-corrected digital number values per second to units of radiance (W m-2 nm-1 sr-1), or to radiance factor (I/F). We also describe here the initial results of two applications where radiance-calibrated Navcam data provide unique information for surface photometric and atmospheric aerosol studies. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Report on the eROSITA camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Bornemann, Walter; Coutinho, Diogo; Emberger, Valentin; Hälker, Olaf; Kink, Walter; Mican, Benjamin; Müller, Siegfried; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas

    2014-07-01

    The eROSITA space telescope is currently developed for the determination of cosmological parameters and the equation of state of dark energy via evolution of clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, the instrument development was strongly motivated by the intention of a first imaging X-ray all-sky survey enabling measurements above 2 keV. eROSITA is a scientific payload on the Russian research satellite SRG. Its destination after launch is the Lagrangian point L2. The observational program of the observatory divides into an all-sky survey and pointed observations and takes in total about 7.5 years. The instrument comprises an array of 7 identical and parallel aligned telescopes. Each of the seven focal plane cameras is equipped with a PNCCD detector, an enhanced type of the XMM-Newton focal plane detector. This instrumentation permits spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays in the energy band from 0.3 keV to 10 keV with a field of view of 1.0 degree. The camera development is done at the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics. Key component of each camera is the PNCCD chip. This silicon sensor is a back-illuminated, fully depleted and column-parallel type of charge coupled device. The image area of the 450 micron thick frame-transfer CCD comprises an array of 384 x 384 pixels, each with a size of 75 micron x 75 micron. Readout of the signal charge that is generated by an incident X-ray photon in the CCD is accomplished by an ASIC, the so-called eROSITA CAMEX. It provides 128 parallel analog signal processing channels but multiplexes the signals finally to one output which feeds the detector signals to a fast 14-bit ADC. The read noise of this system is equivalent to a noise charge of about 2.5 electrons rms. We achieve an energy resolution close to the theoretical limit given by Fano noise (except for very low energies). For example, the FWHM at an energy of 5.9 keV is approximately 140 eV. The complete camera assembly comprises the camera head with the detector as

  15. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  16. The influence of electron multiplication and internal X-ray fluorescence on the performance of a scintillator-based gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, David J., E-mail: d.j.hall@open.ac.uk [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Holland, Andrew; Soman, Matthew [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-21

    When considering the 'standard' gamma-camera, one might picture an array of photo-multiplier tubes or a similar array of small-area detectors. This array of imaging detectors would be attached to a corresponding array of scintillator modules (or a solid layer of scintillator) in order to give a high detection efficiency in the energy region of interest, usually 8-140 keV. Over recent years, developments of gamma-cameras capable of achieving much higher spatial resolutions have led to a new range of systems based on Charge-Coupled Devices with some form of signal multiplication between the scintillator and the CCD in order for one to distinguish the light output from the scintillator above the CCD noise. The use of an Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) incorporates the gain process within the CCD through a form of 'impact ionisation', however, the gain process introduces an 'excess noise factor' due to the probabilistic nature of impact ionisation and this additional noise consequently has an impact on the spatial and spectral resolution of the detector. Internal fluorescence in the scintillator, producing K-shell X-ray fluorescence photons that can be detected alongside the incident gamma-rays, also has a major impact on the imaging capabilities of gamma-cameras. This impact varies dramatically from the low spatial resolution to high spatial resolution camera system. Through a process of simulation and experimental testing focussed on the high spatial resolution (EM-CCD based) variant, the factors affecting the performance of gamma-camera systems are discussed and the results lead to important conclusions to be considered for the development of future systems. This paper presents a study into the influence of the EM-CCD gain process and the internal X-ray fluorescence in the scintillator on the performance of scintillator-based gamma cameras (CCD-based or otherwise), making use of Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate

  17. Photometric calibration of the HST wide-field/planetary camera. II - Ground-based observations of calibration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Baum, William A.; Jones, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-based CCD observations have been made simulating the photometric properties of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) of the Hubble Space Telescope. This paper gives results in 15 of the most important WF/PC passbands for two fields chosen to provide efficient in-flight calibration of the WF/PC. These calibration fields are located in the outskirts of the globular clusters Omega Cen and NGC 6752.

  18. Medium Format Camera Evaluation Based on the Latest Phase One Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölg, T.; Kemper, G.; Kalinski, D.

    2016-06-01

    In early 2016, Phase One Industrial launched a new high resolution camera with a 100 MP CMOS sensor. CCD sensors excel at ISOs up to 200, but in lower light conditions, exposure time must be increased and Forward Motion Compensation (FMC) has to be employed to avoid smearing the images. The CMOS sensor has an ISO range of up to 6400, which enables short exposures instead of using FMC. This paper aims to evaluate the strengths of each of the sensor types based on real missions over a test field in Speyer, Germany, used for airborne camera calibration. The test field area has about 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs), which enable a perfect scenario for a proper geometric evaluation of the cameras. The test field includes both a Siemen star and scale bars to show any blurring caused by forward motion. The result of the comparison showed that both cameras offer high accuracy photogrammetric results with post processing, including triangulation, calibration, orthophoto and DEM generation. The forward motion effect can be compensated by a fast shutter speed and a higher ISO range of the CMOS-based camera. The results showed no significant differences between cameras.

  19. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  20. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (50, 200, and 600 field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented

  1. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  2. The ground calibration of X-ray CCD cameras (XIS) with front-illuminated chips onboard Astro-E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the results of the ground calibration of Astro-E2 XIS with front-illuminated (FI) chips. The sensors have basically the same performance as that of Astro-E XIS. However, there are some improved points: (1) A 55Fe radio isotope is equipped on the door and (2) the capability for charge injection (CI) has been added. We measured the gain, energy resolution, and quantum efficiency (QE) of the FI sensors as a function of energy by using characteristic X-rays for each sensor. An energy resolution of 130 eV at 5.9 keV in FWHM and a QE of 52% at 8.6 keV are achieved. After XIS is launched, the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) will increase due to radiation damage by cosmic rays. Then XIS is equipped with the CI capability to calibrate and compensate for the increase in CTI. We estimate the time variability in the amount of the injected charge

  3. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wanchun; Broussard, L. J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Makela, M.; Morris, C. L.; Tang, Z.; Adamek, E. R.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Ding, X.; Geltenbort, P.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Ito, T. M.; Leung, K. K.; Liu, C.-Y.; Morley, D. J.; Ortiz, Jose D.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J. C.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S. J.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Zeck, B. A.; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-09-01

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15 μm has been achieved, which is equivalent to a UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron-volts through the relation δE =m0 gδx. Here, the symbols δE, δx, m0 and g are the energy resolution, the spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and the gravitational acceleration, respectively. A multilayer surface convertor described previously is used to capture UCNs and then emits visible light for CCD imaging. Particle identification and noise rejection are discussed through the use of light intensity profile analysis. This method allows different types of UCN spectroscopy and other applications.

  4. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Wanchun; Hoffbauer, M A; Makela, M; Morris, C L; Tang, Z; Adamek, E R; Callahan, N B; Clayton, S M; Cude-Woods, C; Currie, S; Dees, E B; Ding, X; Geltenbort, P; Hickerson, K P; Holley, A T; Ito, T M; Leung, K K; Liu, C -Y; Morley, D J; Ramsey, J C; Pattie,, R W; Salvat, D J; Saunders, A; Seestrom, S J; Sharapov, E I; Sjue, S K; Wexler, J; Womack, T L; Young, A R; Zeck, B A; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-01-01

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15 $\\mu$m has been achieved, which through the relation $\\delta E = m_0g \\delta x$, converts to UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron volts. The symbols $\\delta E$, $\\delta x$, $m_0$ and $g$ are for energy resolution, spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and gravitational acceleration respectively. A multilayer surface convertor described previously is used to capture UCNs and emits visible light for CCD imaging. Particle identification and noise rejection are discussed through light intensity profile analysis. This method allows new types of UCN spectroscopy and various applications.

  5. Development of underwater camera using high-definition camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the time for core verification or visual inspection of BWR fuels, the underwater camera using a High-Definition camera has been developed. As a result of this development, the underwater camera has 2 lights and 370 x 400 x 328mm dimensions and 20.5kg weight. Using the camera, 6 or so spent-fuel IDs are identified at 1 or 1.5m distance at a time, and 0.3mmφ pin-hole is recognized at 1.5m distance and 20 times zoom-up. Noises caused by radiation less than 15 Gy/h are not affected the images. (author)

  6. Small field CCD astrometry with a long focus reflector telescope

    OpenAIRE

    I. H. Bustos Fierro; J. H. Calderón

    2002-01-01

    Se muestra la utilización del método de ajuste en bloque para la medición de posiciones astromètricas a partir de un mosaico de imágenes CCD directas tomadas con un telescopio reflector de distancia focal larga. Las observaciones cubren una región de aproximadamente 25 x 25 en torno al cúmulo abierto Rup21. Como catálogo de referencia se empleó el Catálogo Tycho-2. Se analiza el error interno de las posiciones medidas, y se estima el error externo a partir de la comparación ...

  7. Use of RTS2 for LSST multiple channel CCD characterisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Kotov, I.; O´Connor, P.; Doherty, P.; Frank, J.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2012 - (Radziwill, N.; Chiozzi, G.), 84512T/1-84512T/12. (Proceedings of the SPIE. 8451). ISBN 9780819491527. ISSN 0277-786X. [ Software and Cyberinfrastructure for Astronomy II. Amsterdam (NL), 01.07.2012-04.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09052; GA MŠk 7E12064 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : observatory software * CCD testing * LSST Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  8. Radiation Hardness of CCD Vertex Detectors for the ILC

    OpenAIRE

    Sopczak, Andre; Bekhouche, Khaled; Bowdery, Chris; Damerell, Chris; Davies, Gavin; Dehimi, Lakhdar; Greenshaw, Tim; Koziel, Michal; Stefanov, Konstantin; Woolliscroft, Tim; Worm, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Results of detailed simulations of the charge transfer inefficiency of a prototype CCD chip are reported. The effect of radiation damage in a particle detector operating at a future accelerator is studied by examining two electron trap levels, 0.17 eV and 0.44 eV below the bottom of the conduction band. Good agreement is found between simulations using the ISE-TCAD DESSIS program and an analytical model for the 0.17 eV level. Optimum operation is predicted to be at about 250 K where the effec...

  9. A 3-channel CCD photometer at the Xinglong Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the design and construction of a new rapid 3-channel CCD photometer, dedicated to simultaneous multicolor photometric observations of rapidly variable objects. This photometer is equipped on the 1-meter telescope at the Xinglong Observatory. It allows simultaneous imaging within fields of view of 18.8' × 18.8', 18.2' × 17.6' and 9.2' × 9.2' in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's g', r' and i' bands, respectively. The results of its calibration and performance are reported.

  10. CCD - observations of optical jets and extensions in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of galaxies with jet-like features has been undertaken in order to allow a statistical approach to the optical jet phenomenon. Sixty peculiar galaxies have been observed in different colours, using the standard B and V filters and the g, r, i, and z filters, a set of broad-band filters which cover the wavelength range of the CCD response (4000A-1μ). Preliminary results of five jet galaxies (M87, 3C273, 3C120, IC1182, PKS0521-36) are reported. New information on the morphology of the optical jets in these objects has been obtained. (G.J.P.)

  11. Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software

    CERN Document Server

    Seabroke, G M; Hopkinson, G; Burt, D; Robbins, M; Holland, A

    2010-01-01

    Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.

  12. Modelling Gaia CCD pixels with Silvaco 3D engineering software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabroke, G. M.; Prod'Homme, T.; Hopkinson, G.; Burt, D.; Robbins, M.; Holland, A.

    2011-02-01

    Gaia will only achieve its unprecedented measurement accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. We present our Silvaco 3D engineering software model of the Gaia CCD pixel and two of its applications for Gaia: (1) physically interpreting supplementary buried channel (SBC) capacity measurements (pocket-pumping and first pixel response) in terms of e2v manufacturing doping alignment tolerances; and (2) deriving electron densities within a charge packet as a function of the number of constituent electrons and 3D position within the charge packet as input to microscopic models being developed to simulate radiation damage.

  13. CCD-Delta a and BVR photometry of NGC 7296

    CERN Document Server

    Netopil, M; Maitzen, H M; Claret, A; Pavlovski, K; Tamajo, E

    2005-01-01

    The first CCD photometric investigation of the open cluster NGC 7296 up to now was performed within the narrow band Delta a photometric system, which enables us to detect peculiar objects. A deeper investigation of that cluster followed, using the standard BVR-Bessel filter set. The age and E(B-V) was determined independently to log t= 8.0 and 0.15 respectively by using Delta a and broadband photometry. In total five Be/Ae objects and two metal-weak stars showing significant negative Delta a-values as well as one classical chemically peculiar star could be identified within that intermediate age open cluster.

  14. The Mars NetLander panoramic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Hauber, Ernst; Oberst, Jürgen; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hoffmann, Harald; Soufflot, Alain; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Dimarellis, Emmanuel; Mottola, Stefano; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Neukum, Gerhard; Albertz, Jörg; Masson, Philippe; Pinet, Patrick; Lamy, Philippe; Formisano, Vittorio

    2000-10-01

    simultaneous and long-term observations at four different surface locations which becomes especially important for studies of variable surface features as well as properties and phenomena of the atmosphere. Major changes on the surface that can be detected by PanCam are caused by eolian activities and condensation processes, which directly reflect variations in the prevailing near-surface wind regime and the diurnal and seasonal volatile and dust cycles. Atmospheric studies will concentrate on the detection of clouds, measurements of the aerosol contents and the water vapor absorption at 936 nm. In order to meet these objectives, the proposed PanCam instrument is a highly miniaturized, dedicated stereo and multispectral imaging device. The camera consists of two identical camera cubes, which are arranged in a common housing at a fixed stereo base length of 11 cm. Each camera cube is equipped with a CCD frame transfer detector with 1024×1024 active pixels and optics with a focal length of 13 mm yielding a field-of-view of 53°×53° and an instantaneous filed of view of 1.1 mrad. A filter swivel with six positions provides different color band passes in the wavelength range of 400-950 nm. The camera head is mounted on top of a deployable scissors boom and can be rotated by 360° to obtain a full panorama, which is already covered by eight images. The boom raises the camera head to a final altitude of 90 cm above the surface. Most camera activities will take place within the first week and the first month of the mission. During the remainder of the mission, the camera will operate with a reduced data rate to monitor time-dependent variations on a daily basis. PanCam is a joint German/French project with contributions from DLR, Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Berlin, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Orsay, and Service d'Aéronomie, CNRS, Verrières-le-Buisson.

  15. A liquid xenon radioisotope camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaklad, H.; Derenzo, S. E.; Muller, R. A.; Smadja, G.; Smits, R. G.; Alvarez, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of gamma-ray camera is discussed that makes use of electron avalanches in liquid xenon and is currently under development. It is shown that such a radioisotope camera promises many advantages over any other existing gamma-ray cameras. Spatial resolution better than 1 mm and counting rates higher than one million C/sec are possible. An energy resolution of 11% FWHM has recently been achieved with a collimated Hg-203 source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing a Frisch grid.

  16. Exposure interlock for oscilloscope cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, C. R.; Stainback, J. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An exposure interlock has been developed for oscilloscope cameras which cuts off ambient light from the oscilloscope screen before the shutter of the camera is tripped. A flap is provided which may be selectively positioned to an open position which enables viewing of the oscilloscope screen and a closed position which cuts off the oscilloscope screen from view and simultaneously cuts off ambient light from the oscilloscope screen. A mechanical interlock is provided between the flap to be activated to its closed position before the camera shutter is tripped, thereby preventing overexposure of the film.

  17. Performance of a direct detection camera for off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shery L Y; Dwyer, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Boothroyd, Chris B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2016-02-01

    The performance of a direct detection camera (DDC) is evaluated in the context of off-axis electron holographic experiments in a transmission electron microscope. Its performance is also compared directly with that of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The DDC evaluated here can be operated either by the detection of individual electron events (counting mode) or by the effective integration of many such events during a given exposure time (linear mode). It is demonstrated that the improved modulation transfer functions and detective quantum efficiencies of both modes of the DDC give rise to significant benefits over the conventional CCD cameras, specifically, a significant improvement in the visibility of the holographic fringes and a reduction of the statistical error in the phase of the reconstructed electron wave function. The DDC's linear mode, which can handle higher dose rates, allows optimisation of the dose rate to achieve the best phase resolution for a wide variety of experimental conditions. For suitable conditions, the counting mode can potentially utilise a significantly lower dose to achieve a phase resolution that is comparable to that achieved using the linear mode. The use of multiple holograms and correlation techniques to increase the total dose in counting mode is also demonstrated. PMID:26630072

  18. The NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.; Schwochert, M.; Morris, R. V.; Athena Team

    2002-12-01

    The Panoramic Camera System (Pancam) is part of the Athena science payload to be launched to Mars in 2003 on NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rover missions. The Pancam imaging system on each rover consists of two major components: a pair of digital CCD cameras, and the Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), which provides the azimuth and elevation actuation for the cameras as well as a 1.5 meter high vantage point from which to image. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system, with a field of regard provided by the PMA that extends across 360o of azimuth and from zenith to nadir, providing a complete view of the scene around the rover. Pancam utilizes two 1024x2048 Mitel frame transfer CCD detector arrays, each having a 1024x1024 active imaging area and 32 optional additional reference pixels per row for offset monitoring. Each array is combined with optics and a small filter wheel to become one "eye" of a multispectral, stereoscopic imaging system. The optics for both cameras consist of identical 3-element symmetrical lenses with an effective focal length of 42 mm and a focal ratio of f/20, yielding an IFOV of 0.28 mrad/pixel or a rectangular FOV of 16o\\x9D 16o per eye. The two eyes are separated by 30 cm horizontally and have a 1o toe-in to provide adequate parallax for stereo imaging. The cameras are boresighted with adjacent wide-field stereo Navigation Cameras, as well as with the Mini-TES instrument. The Pancam optical design is optimized for best focus at 3 meters range, and allows Pancam to maintain acceptable focus from infinity to within 1.5 meters of the rover, with a graceful degradation (defocus) at closer ranges. Each eye also contains a small 8-position filter wheel to allow multispectral sky imaging, direct Sun imaging, and surface mineralogic studies in the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. Pancam has been designed and calibrated to operate within specifications from -55oC to +5oC. An onboard calibration target and fiducial marks provide

  19. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  20. Wide field CCD photometry of the globular cluster M92

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K H; Fahlman, G G; Lee, M G; Lee, Kang Hwan; Lee, Hyung Mok; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2003-01-01

    We present wide field CCD photometry of a galactic globular cluster M92 obtained in the V and I bands with the CFH12K mosaic CCD at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. A well-defined color-magnitude diagram is derived down to 5 magnitudes fainter than the cluster main sequence turn-off. After removing the background contribution, we obtain luminosity and mass functions, surface density profiles, and the surface number density maps of the stars belonging to the cluster. The surface density profile of all stars shows that the cluster's halo extends at least out to ~30' from the cluster center in agreement with previous study, but the profile of faint stars at the very outer region of the cluster shows a different gradient compared with that of bright stars. For a mass function of the cluster, we find that the inner region of the cluster has x = 1.2+-0.2, whereas the outer region has x = 1.8 +-0.3, clearly indicating a mass segregation of the cluster. An estimate of the photometric mass of the cluster implies th...

  1. The Fourth US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC4)

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Norbert; Girard, Terry; Henden, Arne; Bartlett, Jennifer; Monet, Dave; Zacharias, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The fourth United States Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog, UCAC4 was released in August 2012 (double-sided DVD and CDS data center Vizier catalog I/322). It is the final release in this series and contains over 113 million objects; over 105 million of them with proper motions. UCAC4 is an updated version of UCAC3 with about the same number of stars also covering all-sky. Bugs were fixed, Schmidt plate survey data were avoided, and precise 5-band photometry were added. Astrograph observations have been supplemented for bright stars by FK6, Hipparcos and Tycho-2 data to compile a UCAC4 star catalog complete to about magnitude R = 16. Epoch 1998 to 2004 positions are obtained from observations with the 20 cm aperture USNO Astrograph's red lens, equipped with a 4k by 4k CCD. Mean positions and proper motions are derived by combining these observations with over 140 ground- and space-based catalogs, including Hipparcos/Tycho and the AC2000.2, as well as unpublished measures of over 5000 plates from ...

  2. Point spread function and centroiding accuracy measurements with the JET-X mirror and MOS CCD detector of the Swift gamma ray burst explorer's X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, R M; Hutchinson, I B; Willingale, R; Wells, A; Short, A D T; Campana, S; Citterio, O; Tagliaferri, G; Burkert, W; Bräuninger, H

    2002-01-01

    The optical components of the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) are already developed items. They are the flight spare X-ray mirror from the JET-X/Spectrum-X program and an MOS CCD (CCD22) of the type currently operating in orbit as part of the EPIC focal plane camera on XMM-Newton (SPIE 4140 (2000) 64). The JET-X mirrors were first calibrated at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' (MPE) Panter facility, Garching, Germany in 1996 (SPIE 2805 (1996) 56; SPIE 3114 (1997) 392). Half-energy widths of 16 arcsec at 1.5 keV were confirmed for the two flight mirrors and the flight spare. The calibration of the flight spare was repeated at Panter in July 2000 in order to establish whether any changes had occurred during the 4 yr that the mirror had been in storage at the OAB, Milan, Italy. The results reported in this paper confirm that the resolution of the JET-X mirrors has remained stable over this storage period. In an extension of this test program, the flight spare EPIC camera was installed at the fo...

  3. JPCam: Status of the 1.2Gpixel camera for the J-PAS survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Keith; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Santoro, Fernando; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Dupke, Renato

    2015-08-01

    JPCam is a 14-CCD mosaic camera, using the new e2v 9k-by-9k, 10 micron pixel detectors, to be deployed on the JST/T250, a dedicated 2.55m wide-field telescope at the OAJ (Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre) in Teruel, Spain. The camera is designed to perform the J-PAS, a BAO survey of the northern sky. The J-PAS survey strategy will use 59 filters, 56 relatively narrow-band (14.5nm) filters equi-spaced between 350 and 1000nm plus 3 broad-band filters to achieve unprecedented photometric red-shift accuracies for faint galaxies over 8000 square degrees of sky. The cryostat, detector mosaic and read electronics is being supplied by e2v. Each science detector is read from 16 ports simultaneously, allowing read times of 14s with a typical read noise of 5e- (rms). The JPCam focal plane will be complemented with 4 autoguiding and 8 wavefront sensing CCDs. Image quality over the whole CCD mosaic will be maintained by applying the required, close loop, focus, tilt and rotation adjustments to the focal plane through the JPCam hexapod actuator system, manufactured by NTE-Sener. The filter unit has been designed to admit 5 filter trays, each mounting 14 filters corresponding to the 14 CCDs of the mosaic. Each CCD will view only its corresponding filter avoiding optical cross-talk from their neighbors. With this configuration, JPCam will cover 4.7 square degrees with a plate scale of 0.2267 arcsec/pix and will allow all the J-PAS filters to be permanently installed on the camera. The massive 525mm aperture shutter is supplied by Bonn-Shutter UG.

  4. Jpcam: a 1.2 Gpixel Camera for the J-Pas Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.; Marín-Franch, A.; Laporte, R.; Santoro, F. G.; Marrara, L.; Cepa, J.; Cenarro, A. J.; Chueca, S.; Cristobal-Hornillos, D.; Ederoclite, A.; Gruel, N.; Moles, M.; Rueda, F.; Rueda, S.; Varela, J.; Yanes, A.; Benitez, N.; Dupke, R.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Jorden, P.; Lousberg, G.; Molino Benito, A.; Palmer, I.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodré, L.

    JPCam is a 14-CCD mosaic camera, using the new e2v 9k-by-9k 10 μm-pixel 16-channel detectors, to be deployed on a dedicated 2.55 m wide-field telescope at the OAJ (Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre) in Aragon, Spain. The camera is designed to perform a Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) survey of the northern sky. The J-PAS survey strategy will use 54 relatively narrow-band ( 13.8 nm) filters equi-spaced between 370 and 920 nm plus 3 broad-band filters to achieve unprecedented photometric red-shift accuracies for faint galaxies over 8000 square degrees of sky. The cryostat, detector mosaic and read electronics, is being supplied by e2v under contract to J-PAS while the mechanical structure, housing the shutter and filter assembly, is being designed and constructed by a Brazilian consortium led by INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais). The cryostat is bridged to the telescope via a hexapod actuator system to maintain image quality across the field. Four sets of 14 filters are placed in the ambient environment, just above the dewar window but directly in line with the detectors, leading to a mosaic having 10 mm gaps between each CCD. The massive 500 mm aperture shutter is expected to be supplied by the Bonn-Shutter UG. We will present an overview of JPCam, from the filter configuration through to the CCD mosaic camera. A brief outline of the main J-PAS science projects will be included.

  5. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Illing, Sebastian; Kern, Christoph; Alvarez Nieves, Jose Manuel; Vogel, Leif; Zielcke, Johannes; Delgados Granados, Hugo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission rate measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 300 and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. One important step for correct SO2 emission rate measurements that can be compared with other measurement techniques is a correct calibration. This requires conversion from the measured optical density to the desired SO2 column density (CD). The conversion factor is most commonly determined by inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) with known amounts of SO2 into the light path. Another calibration method uses an additional narrow field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system (NFOVDOAS), which measures the column density simultaneously in a small area of the camera’s field-of-view. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements.

  6. Design of camera and spectrometer dual-use system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong-hong; Xue, Bin; Zhao, Yi-yi; Tao, Jin-you

    2013-08-01

    Imaging spectrometers based on prism-grating-prism (PGP) have advantage of direct vision, as a basis for the design of an optical system for a spectrometer and camera dual-use, the system can plug the light splitting element to switch between the spectrometer and camera. This paper has discussed the working principles and structure of the PGP and spectrometer, collimating and focusing lens design principles, then the design result has been presented. The spectral range of the system is 400-800nm, the pixel size of CCD used is 10um × 10um, 1010 × 1018 pixels, the object space numerical aperture is 0.1. In order to reduce the cost and eliminate aberration, collimating lens and focusing lens have symmetric structure, in order to improve the diffraction efficiency, PGP uses the volume phase holographic transmission grating. After optimization the design by ZEMAX software, the whole spectral range resolution is better than 1nm in average, the MTF at Nyquist frequency is greater than 0.7, the length of the whole system is 87mm.

  7. Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons with an imaging camera and its implications to spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Wanchun; Broussard, L. J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Makela, M.; Morris, C. L.; Tang, Z.(University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China); Adamek, E. R.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S; Dees, E. B.; Ding, X; Geltenbort, P.(Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38042, France); Hickerson, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    Position-sensitive detection of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is demonstrated using an imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A spatial resolution less than 15 $\\mu$m has been achieved, which is equivalent to an UCN energy resolution below 2 pico-electron-volts through the relation $\\delta E = m_0g \\delta x$. Here, the symbols $\\delta E$, $\\delta x$, $m_0$ and $g$ are the energy resolution, the spatial resolution, the neutron rest mass and the gravitational acceleration, respectively. A mult...

  8. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  9. Three-dimensional location and attitude evaluation for rendezvous and docking operation using a single camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiling; Losito, S.; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pasquariello, Guido

    1993-01-01

    In the automatic rendezvous and docking manoeuvre (RVD) of space activity, determining the 3-D location and attitude between two vehicles is most important. A vision system to perform the docking manipulation in RVD is described in this paper. An improved algorithm is used for calibrating the geometric parameters of a camera fixed on the tracking vehicle off-line. Because the line-off-sight angles of four markers on the target vehicle to the lens center of the camera can be computed according to the optical principle and vector theory, the locations of the vehicle are obtained from the solution for a set of nonlinear equations from the triangular theory. The attitude angles for the vehicles are solved by a translational matrix of target frame to vehicle frame. As the vehicle closes in to the target, sets of markers having different distance intervals or a list of calibration parameters for cameras with different fields of view are selected at the proper moment to improve the situation when at least one of the markers exceeds the field of camera view. The series of experiments is given. The vision system is run on a SUN-4/330 Sparc station system equipped with one image board IT-151 and a CCD TV camera. All software is written in C language.

  10. New Sensors for Cultural Heritage Metric Survey: The ToF Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Chiabrando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ToF cameras are new instruments based on CCD/CMOS sensors which measure distances instead of radiometry. The resulting point clouds show the same properties (both in terms of accuracy and resolution of the point clouds acquired by means of traditional LiDAR devices. ToF cameras are cheap instruments (less than 10.000 € based on video real time distance measurements and can represent an interesting alternative to the more expensive LiDAR instruments. In addition, the limited weight and dimensions of ToF cameras allow a reduction of some practical problems such as transportation and on-site management. Most of the commercial ToF cameras use the phase-shift method to measure distances. Due to the use of only one wavelength, most of them have limited range of application (usually about 5 or 10 m. After a brief description of the main characteristics of these instruments, this paper explains and comments the results of the first experimental applications of ToF cameras in Cultural Heritage 3D metric survey.  The possibility to acquire more than 30 frames/s and future developments of these devices in terms of use of more than one wavelength to overcome the ambiguity problem allow to foresee new interesting applications.

  11. Real-time registration compensator for 1-inch Harpicon Hi-Vision camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Itaru; Tomura, Naoto; Murata, Nobuo; Ohoka, Masaharu

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a real-time registration compensator for 1" Harpicon the Hi-Vision camera. Harpicon has the advantages of higher sensitivity and higher resolution than Saticon or Hi-Vision CCD imagers. However a camera with image pick-up tubes such as Harpicon produces registration errors which causes lower resolution and false color on objective edges. To solve this problem we developed a new method of detecting registration errors which is suitable for digital Hi-Vision cameras. The detector finds registration errors in the picture during the camera operation. This frees the operator from initial registration tuning and enables real-time compensation. Recently we developed a detection large scale integrated (LSI) circuit with a 1. 3tm complemental metal-oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) gate array and implemented the system in hardware. The detection hardware consists of two gate arrays twenty-four 256k x 4-bit FIFO memories and a small amount of control logic. The experimental hardware detects registration errors at 30 points (5 points vertically and 6 horizontally) in both R-G and B-G channels within 700 msec. The camera has a high resolution (40

  12. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.

    2016-03-01

    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  13. CCD photometry of the distant young open cluster NGC 7510

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCD observations in B, V and I passbands have been used to generate deep V, (B-V) and V,(V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams for the open cluster NGC 7510. The sample consists of 592 stars reaching down to V=21 mag. There appears to be non-uniform extinction over the face of the cluster with the value of colour excess, E(B-V), ranging from 1.0 to 1.3 mag. The law of interstellar extinction in the direction of the cluster is found to be normal. A broad main sequence is clearly visible in both colour-magnitude diagrams. From the bluest part of the colour-magnitude diagrams, the true distance modulus to the cluster has been estimated as 12.5±0.3 mag and an upper limit of 10 Myr has been assigned for the cluster age. (author)

  14. A progressive scan CCD image sensor for high speed photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunk, S.J.; Winzenread, R.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have developed a second generation CCD image sensor for high speed motion analysis. The 2/3 inch format device is constructed on a 16 {micro}m square pixel pitch with 512(H) x 512(V) active elements. Design is based on a progressive scan interline transfer architecture with a vertical overflow drain for blooming and exposure control. Full resolution is achieved at 1,000 frames per second by use of eight parallel outputs operating at a data rate of 40 MHz per tap. Other performance parameters include dynamic range of 62 dB, less than 1% image lag, and very low smear. This work details the essential design features and reports results of the preliminary evaluation.

  15. Rotational properties of asteroids: CCD observations of nine small asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlan, M.; Barucci, M. A.; Angeli, C. A.; Doressoundiram, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.

    1996-06-01

    The observational programme on small asteroids (diameter less than about 50 km) is continued to enlarge the available dataset of small asteroids. The results are presented of CCD observations of nine small asteroids ( D≤23 km), performed in France with the 1.2 m telescope at Haute Provence Observatory and with the 2 m telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. A total of 27 single night lightcurves for nine asteroids were obtained. All the objects were observed for the first time and rotational periods have been determined for all of the observed asteroids: 1992 Galvarino ( Psyn = 7 h.004), 2419 Moldavia ( Psyn = 2 h.412), 2921 Sophocles ( Psyn = 4 h.778), 3247 Di Martino ( Psyn = 5 h.445), 3623 Chaplin ( Psyn = 8 h.361), 3986 Rozhkovskij ( Psyn = 4 h.26), 4436 1983 EX ( Psyn = 6 h.656), 5046 1981 DQ ( Psyn = 6 h.050) and 1992 YG3 ( Psyn = 8 h.91).

  16. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandri, Cristobal; Guzman, Dani; Passalacqua, Ignacio; Alvarez-Fontecilla, Enrique; Guarini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-dom...

  17. CCD identification and classification of 5 GHz radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep CCD exposures of the optical fields of 19 previously unidentified 5 GHz sources have revealed 10 new optical counterparts, 2 marginal identifications, and 4 ''empty fields''; 3 sources are probably radio galaxies where no exact coincidence of the optical and radio positions is expected and only a tentative identification is given. The new optical counterparts are classified as stellar or extended (i.e. as galaxy) according to their optical appaearance. Two flatspectrum radio sources previously identified as galaxies are re-classified as stellar objects with neighbouring galaxies. The results support the view that, down to a limiting red magnitude of 23m, practically all strong 5 GHz sources can be identified and that, even among the optically faintest objects, flat-spectrum radio sources usually have a stellar intensity profile while many steep-spectrum sources are extended

  18. CCD polarimetry and photometry of 5 GHz radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugmann, W.; Meisenheimer, K.

    1988-11-01

    We present CCD polarimetry of the optical counterparts of 48 radio sources selected from 5 GHz surveys. 37 sources were observed polarimetrically for the first time, 22 of which were fainter than R = 19/sup m/. One object, the blazar PKS 0219-164, was monitored continuously for almost a month. Based on polarization, we discovered 9 new blazars and a further 6 new probable blazars. Among the 38 sources with distinct polarimetric properties, the blazar detection rate is almost 50%. Much lower blazar detection rates reported in previous surveys of radio-loud quasars are mainly due to the contribution of quasars with steep radio spectra. Photometric and polarimetric observations of optically quiet compact radio sources (OQCRSs) indicate that many of these objects are blazars. Frequently, we found evidence of a galaxy contributing to the optical spectrum of an OQCRS. 0500+01 is the quasar with the steepest optical spectrum ever observed.

  19. CCD polarimetry and photometry of 5 GHz radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present CCD polarimetry of the optical counterparts of 48 radio sources selected from 5 GHz surveys. 37 sources were observed polarimetrically for the first time, 22 of which were fainter than R = 19m. One object, the blazar PKS 0219-164, was monitored continuously for almost a month. Based on polarization, we discovered 9 new blazars and a further 6 new probable blazars. Among the 38 sources with distinct polarimetric properties, the blazar detection rate is almost 50%. Much lower blazar detection rates reported in previous surveys of radio-loud quasars are mainly due to the contribution of quasars with steep radio spectra. Photometric and polarimetric observations of optically quiet compact radio sources (OQCRSs) indicate that many of these objects are blazars. Frequently, we found evidence of a galaxy contributing to the optical spectrum of an OQCRS. 0500+01 is the quasar with the steepest optical spectrum ever observed

  20. CCD identification and classification of 5 GHz radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugmann, W. Meisenheimer, K.; Roeser, H.J.

    1988-10-01

    Deep CCD exposures of the optical fields of 19 previously unidentified 5 GHz sources have revealed 10 new optical counterparts, 2 marginal identifications, and 4 ''empty fields''; 3 sources are probably radio galaxies where no exact coincidence of the optical and radio positions is expected and only a tentative identification is given. The new optical counterparts are classified as stellar or extended (i.e. as galaxy) according to their optical appaearance. Two flatspectrum radio sources previously identified as galaxies are re-classified as stellar objects with neighbouring galaxies. The results support the view that, down to a limiting red magnitude of 23/sup m/, practically all strong 5 GHz sources can be identified and that, even among the optically faintest objects, flat-spectrum radio sources usually have a stellar intensity profile while many steep-spectrum sources are extended.

  1. CCD development for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe research and development efforts directed towards the production of 4 k × 4 k, 15 μm-pixel, fully depleted CCDs for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI). The requirements for DESI include the spectroscopic characterization of large numbers of faint galaxies at high redshift. The identification of the type and the determination of the redshift of the targeted galaxies require the use of thick, fully depleted CCDs with high quantum efficiency at near-infrared wavelengths. We describe our work to improve the CCD performance in terms of quantum efficiency and read noise. We also discuss efforts to reduce the level of image-distortion effects that have been observed on previous CCDs that are due to resistivity striations in the starting silicon and periodic errors in the photomasks used to produce the CCDs

  2. Large area CCD image sensors for scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouke, M. M.; Heidtmann, D. L.; Corrie, B.; Lust, M. L.; Janesick, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The designs of the 512 x 512 pixel and 2048 x 2048 pixel CCD sensors developed for scientific imaging are described. Both sensors are manufactured using the three phase, three level polysilicon gate technology, and the architecture of the chips is series-parallel-series. The components of the two different on-chip amplifiers are examined. The sensors are thinned and operated in the back side illumination mode to ensure the highest quantum efficiency. The performances of a number of front side illuminated devices and two thinned rear illuminated chips are evaluated. It is observed that the sensors equal or exceed their proposed charge transfer efficiency of 0.99999, the noise level of 2 e- and 20 e- at 50 kp/s, the quantum efficiency of 40 percent at 400 microns and 70 percent at 700 microns, and of the well capacity of greater than 500 ke-/pixel.

  3. CCD observations of the polarization of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCD observations are used to map the intensity distribution and polarization of the optical synchrotron radiation of the Crab Nebula. The data indicate that the Crab Nebula has a large-scale magnetic field in which major variations generally occur over regions with sizes larger than 10 arcsec (0.1 pc). However, in the vicinity of the Crab pulsar, the polarization shows structure on a scale of a few arcsec. Evidence is found for a narrow depolarized channel extending from the pulsar to the region of the optical wisps in the synchrotron nebula. The results also confirm previous studies which show that the magnetic vectors of polarization are predominantly oriented parallel to the edges of the dark bays in the outer regions of the visible synchrotron nebulosity. This supports the suggestion that these regions of the Nebula are wrapped in magnetic field lines, and are therefore deficient in electrons capable of emitting synchrotron radiation. 33 refs

  4. CCD-based optical CT scanning of highly attenuating phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nowais, Shamsa [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Doran, Simon J [CRUK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Simon.Doran@icr.ac.uk

    2009-05-01

    The introduction of optical computed tomography (optical-CT) offers economic and easy to use 3-D optical readout for gel dosimeters. However, previous authors have noted some challenges regarding the accuracy of such imaging techniques at high values of optical density. In this paper, we take a closer look at the 'cupping' artefact evident in both light-scattering polymer systems and highly light absorbing phantoms using our CCD-based optical scanner. In addition, a technique is implemented whereby the maximum measurable optical absorbance is extended to correct for any errors that may have occurred in the estimated value of the dark current or ambient light reaching the detector. The results indicate that for absorbance values up to 2.0, the optical scanner results have good accuracy, whereas this is not the case at high absorbance values for reasons yet to be explained.

  5. A tasseled cap transformation for CBERS-02B CCD data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li SHENG; Jing-feng HUANG; Xiao-lu TANG

    2011-01-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.In this paper,tasseled cap transformation coefficients appropriate for data from a new sensor (China & Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS-02B)) are presented.The first three components after transformation captured 98% of the four-band variance,and represent the physical characteristics of brightness (coefficients:0.509,0.431,0.330,and 0.668),greenness (coefficients:-0.494,-0.318,-0.324,and 0.741),and blueness (coefficients:0.581,-0.070,-0.811,and 0.003),respectively.We hope these results will enhance the application of CBERS-02B charge-coupled device (CCD) data in the areas of agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.

  6. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  7. Clinical ultraviolet dosimetry with a CCD monochromator array spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrew; Sarkany, Robert; Walker, Susan

    2008-09-01

    Single monochromator charge-coupled device (CCD) array spectroradiometers have the advantage of ease of use and speed compared with double grating instruments. Their inherently inferior stray-light rejection, however, can critically affect their accuracy in phototherapy and research-related dosimetry applications. This paper shows that without adequate correction the HR4000 (Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, USA) array device can overestimate the CIE erythema-weighted irradiance of common phototherapy sources and solar simulator beams by over 100%. A software stray-light correction (Ylianttila et al 2005 Photochem. Photobiol. 81 333-41), using the measured slit function of the HR4000, has been applied to spectra acquired from sources used in phototherapy and photobiology (PUVA, UV21, TL01 and solar simulator). The resulting corrected erythema-weighted irradiance measurements from the HR4000 are within 10% of those from a DM150 double grating spectroradiometer (Bentham Instruments Ltd, Reading, UK). A simple model is considered for combining estimates of measurement uncertainties. The importance of exposure bracketing to improve the dynamic range of the HR4000 is illustrated, along with the difficulty in making direct comparison of spectral values between two instruments due to wavelength scale uncertainties. Comparison with a double grating instrument in a solar simulator beam is examined here as a basis for validating CCD array device measurements. The study demonstrates that the HR4000 array spectroradiometer can provide an adequate level of accuracy for common phototherapy and photobiology applications only where a suitable stray-light correction is carefully applied and where the instrument's effective dynamic range is improved.

  8. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  9. First Light with a 67-Million-Pixel WFI Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    optical astronomical instruments - the "Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD's)" - are currently restricted to about 4000 x 4000 pixels. For the time being, the only possible way towards even larger detector areas is by assembling mosaics of CCD's. ESO , MPI-A and OAC have therefore undertaken a joint project to build a new and large astronomical camera with a mosaic of CCD's. This new Wide Field Imager (WFI) comprises eight CCD's with high sensitivity from the ultraviolet to the infrared spectral domain, each with 2046 x 4098 pixels. Mounted behind an advanced optical system at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.2-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, the combined 8184 x 8196 = 67,076,064 pixels cover a square field-of-view with an edge of more than half a degree (over 30 arcmin) [1]. Compared to the viewing field of the human eye, this may still appear small, but in the domain of astronomical instrumentation, it is indeed a large step forward. For comparison, the largest field-of-view with the FORS1 instrument at the VLT is about 7 arcmin. Moreover, the level of detail detectable with the WFI (theoretical image sharpness) exceeds what is possible with the naked eye by a factor of about 10,000. The WFI project was completed in only two years in response to a recommendation to ESO by the "La Silla 2000" Working Group and the Scientific-Technical Committee (STC) to offer this type of instrument to the community. The MPI-A proposed to build such an instrument for the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope and a joint project was soon established. A team of astronomers from the three institutions is responsible for the initial work with the WFI at La Silla. A few other Cameras of this size are available, e.g. at Hawaii, Kitt Peak (USA) and Cerro Tololo (Chile), but this is the first time that a telescope this large has been fully dedicated to wide-field imaging with an 8kx8k CCD. The first WFI images Various exposures were obtained during the early

  10. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Sharp, Elemer H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  11. Cameras for semiconductor process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. A.; Parker, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The application of X-ray topography to semiconductor process control is described, considering the novel features of the high speed camera and the difficulties associated with this technique. The most significant results on the effects of material defects on device performance are presented, including results obtained using wafers processed entirely within this institute. Defects were identified using the X-ray camera and correlations made with probe data. Also included are temperature dependent effects of material defects. Recent applications and improvements of X-ray topographs of silicon-on-sapphire and gallium arsenide are presented with a description of a real time TV system prototype and of the most recent vacuum chuck design. Discussion is included of our promotion of the use of the camera by various semiconductor manufacturers.

  12. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  13. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  14. EDICAM (Event Detection Intelligent Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present EDICAM's hardware modules. ► We present EDICAM's main design concepts. ► This paper will describe EDICAM firmware architecture. ► Operation principles description. ► Further developments. -- Abstract: A new type of fast framing camera has been developed for fusion applications by the Wigner Research Centre for Physics during the last few years. A new concept was designed for intelligent event driven imaging which is capable of focusing image readout to Regions of Interests (ROIs) where and when predefined events occur. At present these events mean intensity changes and external triggers but in the future more sophisticated methods might also be defined. The camera provides 444 Hz frame rate at full resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels, but monitoring of smaller ROIs can be done in the 1–116 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. Keeping space limitations and the harsh environment in mind the camera is divided into a small Sensor Module and a processing card interconnected by a fast 10 Gbit optical link. This camera hardware has been used for passive monitoring of the plasma in different devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS with the first version of its firmware. The new firmware and software package is now available and ready for testing the new event processing features. This paper will present the operation principle and features of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM). The device is intended to be the central element in the 10-camera monitoring system of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

  15. Study of Distortions in Statistics of Counts in CCD Observations using the Fano Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasieva, I V

    2016-01-01

    Factors distorting the statistics of photocounts when acquiring objects with low fluxes were considered here. Measurements of the Fano factor for existing CCD systems were conducted. The study allows one to conclude on the quality of the CCD video signal processing channel. The optimal strategy for faint object observations was suggested.

  16. Charge diffusion measurement in fully depleted CCD using X-rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I.; Kubánek, Petr; O´Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 695, Dec (2012), s. 296-297. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CCD * charge diffusion * CCD X-ray detectors Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  17. All Sky Cameras for the characterization of the Cherenkov Telescope Array candidate sites

    CERN Document Server

    Mandát, Dušan; Ebr, Jan; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Bulik, Tomasz; Allekotte, Ingomar

    2013-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as a universal device for the monitoring of the night sky quality. Eight ASCs are already installed and measure night sky parameters at eight of the candidate sites of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) gamma-ray observatory. The ACS system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical night. The images are automatically taken every 5 minutes and automatically processed using the control computer of the device. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds) and night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec$^{2}$)

  18. Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects. PMID:23549361

  19. Camera Sensor Arrangement for Crop/Weed Detection Accuracy in Agronomic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Romeo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a extrinsic, related to the sensor’s positioning in the tractor; (b intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

  20. Fast auto-acquisition tomography tilt series by using HD video camera in ultra-high voltage electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryuji; Cao, Meng; Kanaji, Atsuko; Nishida, Tomoki; Yoshida, Kiyokazu; Isakozawa, Shigeto

    2014-11-01

    The ultra-high voltage electron microscope (UHVEM) H-3000 with the world highest acceleration voltage of 3 MV can observe remarkable three dimensional microstructures of microns-thick samples[1]. Acquiring a tilt series of electron tomography is laborious work and thus an automatic technique is highly desired. We proposed the Auto-Focus system using image Sharpness (AFS)[2,3] for UHVEM tomography tilt series acquisition. In the method, five images with different defocus values are firstly acquired and the image sharpness are calculated. The sharpness are then fitted to a quasi-Gaussian function to decide the best focus value[3]. Defocused images acquired by the slow scan CCD (SS-CCD) camera (Hitachi F486BK) are of high quality but one minute is taken for acquisition of five defocused images.In this study, we introduce a high-definition video camera (HD video camera; Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. C9721S) for fast acquisition of images[4]. It is an analog camera but the camera image is captured by a PC and the effective image resolution is 1280×1023 pixels. This resolution is lower than that of the SS-CCD camera of 4096×4096 pixels. However, the HD video camera captures one image for only 1/30 second. In exchange for the faster acquisition the S/N of images are low. To improve the S/N, 22 captured frames are integrated so that each image sharpness is enough to become lower fitting error. As countermeasure against low resolution, we selected a large defocus step, which is typically five times of the manual defocus step, to discriminate different defocused images.By using HD video camera for autofocus process, the time consumption for each autofocus procedure was reduced to about six seconds. It took one second for correction of an image position and the total correction time was seven seconds, which was shorter by one order than that using SS-CCD camera. When we used SS-CCD camera for final image capture, it took 30 seconds to record one tilt image. We can obtain a tilt

  1. High-Voltage Clock Driver for Photon-Counting CCD Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the CCD97 from e2v technologies as it is being evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center's Detector Characterization Laboratory (DCL) for possible use in ultra-low background noise space astronomy applications, such as Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C). The CCD97 includes a photoncounting mode where the equivalent output noise is less than one electron. Use of this mode requires a clock signal at a voltage level greater than the level achievable by the existing CCD (charge-coupled-device) electronics. A high-voltage waveform generator has been developed in code 660/601 to support the CCD97 evaluation. The unit generates required clock waveforms at voltage levels from -20 to +50 V. It deals with standard and arbitrary waveforms and supports pixel rates from 50 to 500 kHz. The system is designed to interface with existing Leach CCD electronics.

  2. The iQID camera: An ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gregory, Stephanie J.; Fuller, Erin S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Barrett, Harrison H.; Bradford Barber, H.; Furenlid, Lars R. [Center for Gamma-Ray Imaging, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-12-11

    We have developed and tested a novel, ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector (iQID). This scintillation-based detector was originally developed as a high-resolution gamma-ray imager, called BazookaSPECT, for use in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Recently, we have investigated the detector's response and imaging potential with other forms of ionizing radiation including alpha, neutron, beta, and fission fragment particles. The confirmed response to this broad range of ionizing radiation has prompted its new title. The principle operation of the iQID camera involves coupling a scintillator to an image intensifier. The scintillation light generated by particle interactions is optically amplified by the intensifier and then re-imaged onto a CCD/CMOS camera sensor. The intensifier provides sufficient optical gain that practically any CCD/CMOS camera can be used to image ionizing radiation. The spatial location and energy of individual particles are estimated on an event-by-event basis in real time using image analysis algorithms on high-performance graphics processing hardware. Distinguishing features of the iQID camera include portability, large active areas, excellent detection efficiency for charged particles, and high spatial resolution (tens of microns). Although modest, iQID has energy resolution that is sufficient to discriminate between particles. Additionally, spatial features of individual events can be used for particle discrimination. An important iQID imaging application that has recently been developed is real-time, single-particle digital autoradiography. We present the latest results and discuss potential applications.

  3. Full Stokes polarization imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, M.; Breugnot, S.; Lechocinski, N.

    2011-10-01

    Objective and background: We present a new version of Bossa Nova Technologies' passive polarization imaging camera. The previous version was performing live measurement of the Linear Stokes parameters (S0, S1, S2), and its derivatives. This new version presented in this paper performs live measurement of Full Stokes parameters, i.e. including the fourth parameter S3 related to the amount of circular polarization. Dedicated software was developed to provide live images of any Stokes related parameters such as the Degree Of Linear Polarization (DOLP), the Degree Of Circular Polarization (DOCP), the Angle Of Polarization (AOP). Results: We first we give a brief description of the camera and its technology. It is a Division Of Time Polarimeter using a custom ferroelectric liquid crystal cell. A description of the method used to calculate Data Reduction Matrix (DRM)5,9 linking intensity measurements and the Stokes parameters is given. The calibration was developed in order to maximize the condition number of the DRM. It also allows very efficient post processing of the images acquired. Complete evaluation of the precision of standard polarization parameters is described. We further present the standard features of the dedicated software that was developed to operate the camera. It provides live images of the Stokes vector components and the usual associated parameters. Finally some tests already conducted are presented. It includes indoor laboratory and outdoor measurements. This new camera will be a useful tool for many applications such as biomedical, remote sensing, metrology, material studies, and others.

  4. Camera assisted multimodal user interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Ronkainen, Sami; Alenius, Sakari; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Since more processing power, new sensing and display technologies are already available in mobile devices, there has been increased interest in building systems to communicate via different modalities such as speech, gesture, expression, and touch. In context identification based user interfaces, these independent modalities are combined to create new ways how the users interact with hand-helds. While these are unlikely to completely replace traditional interfaces, they will considerably enrich and improve the user experience and task performance. We demonstrate a set of novel user interface concepts that rely on built-in multiple sensors of modern mobile devices for recognizing the context and sequences of actions. In particular, we use the camera to detect whether the user is watching the device, for instance, to make the decision to turn on the display backlight. In our approach the motion sensors are first employed for detecting the handling of the device. Then, based on ambient illumination information provided by a light sensor, the cameras are turned on. The frontal camera is used for face detection, while the back camera provides for supplemental contextual information. The subsequent applications triggered by the context can be, for example, image capturing, or bar code reading.

  5. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma camera is described with a plurality of photodetectors arranged for locating flashes of light produced by a scintillator in response to incident radiation. Masking material is arranged in a radially symmetric pattern on the front face of the scintillator about the axis of each photodetector to reduce the amount of internal reflection of optical photons induced by gamma ray photons

  6. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  7. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  8. Replacing 16-mm film cameras with high-definition digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Kris S.

    1995-09-01

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  9. When is pile-up important in the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, P.; Saxton, R.; Guainazzi, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Stuhlinger, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Pile-up in X-ray charged couple device (CCD) detectors is defined as the reconstruction of independent events in the same detection cell as a single event during a read-out cycle. Pile-up can seriously compromise the spectral performance, modifying both the flux and the spectral shape of celestial sources. Aims: In this paper we define rigorous metrics to characterise the effect of pile-up in terms of flux loss and spectral distortion. Methods: We extend analytical formulae derived for pile-up on CCD detectors with the inclusion of the calibrated energy-dependence of the point spread function. We validated our analytical results through both Monte-Carlo simulations of the EPIC cameras on-board XMM-Newton and comparison with pile-up diagnostics in observed data. Results: We estimate new count rate levels corresponding to a given degree of flux loss and spectral distortion for each EPIC imaging acquisition mode and provide guidance to observers wishing to estimate these values in their own observations. Conclusions: We strongly recommend using these thresholds in planning future observations with the EPIC cameras.

  10. CCD UBV photometry of the open cluster NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Ak, T; Yontan, T; Bilir, S; Guver, T; Ak, S; Urgup, H; Paunzen, E

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of CCD UBV observations of the open cluster NGC 6819. We calculated the stellar density profile in the cluster's field to determine the structural parameters of NGC 6819. Using the existing astrometric data, we calculated the probabilities of the stars being physical members of the cluster, and used these objects in the determination of the astrophysical parameters of NGC 6819. We inferred the reddening and metallicity of the cluster as $E(B-V)=0.130\\pm0.035$ mag and $[Fe/H]=+0.051\\pm 0.020$ dex, respectively, using the U-B vs B-V two-colour diagram and UV excesses of the F-G type main-sequence stars. We fit the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC6819 with the PARSEC isochrones and derived the distance modula, distance and age of the cluster as $\\mu_{V}=12.22\\pm 0.10$ mag, $d=2309\\pm106$ pc and $t=2.4\\pm0.2$ Gyr, respectively. The parameters of the galactic orbit estimated for NGC 6819 indicate that the cluster is orbiting in a slightly eccentric orbit of $e=0.06$ with a period of $P_{orb}...

  11. The Spectrum of Quantum Dots Film for UV CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of UV-responsive film with quantum dots (QDs fabricated by a spin-coating method is proposed in this paper. In a previous study, the monolayer QDs film is deposited onto fused silica slides by the spin-coating way, which has some luminous problem. The introduction of composite QDs coating which adds PEDOT:PSS and poly-TPD films to the monolayer QDs film is found to have excellent performance. The reason can be that PEDOT:PSS and poly-TPD weaken the scattering and enhance the emitting of quantum dot fluorescence. The intensity of photoluminescence (PL for composite QDs coating is dozens of times stronger than that for monolayer QDs film. Experiment results show that this composite coating has excellent fluorescent properties and emits a blue purple glow together a wide excitation spectrum field from 190 nm to 300 nm. The spectrum of the composite coating matches accurately with the detected zone of CCD, which achieves an outstanding UV-responsive coating for conventional silicon-based image sensors.

  12. CCD imaging technology and the war on crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Glenn E.

    1992-08-01

    Linear array based CCD technology has been successfully used in the development of an Automatic Currency Reader/Comparator (ACR/C) system. The ACR/C system is designed to provide a method for tracking US currency in the organized crime and drug trafficking environments where large amounts of cash are involved in illegal transactions and money laundering activities. United States currency notes can be uniquely identified by the combination of the denomination serial number and series year. The ACR/C system processes notes at five notes per second using a custom transport a stationary linear array and optical character recognition (OCR) techniques to make such identifications. In this way large sums of money can be " marked" (using the system to read and store their identifiers) and then circulated within various crime networks. The system can later be used to read and compare confiscated notes to the known sets of identifiers from the " marked" set to document a trail of criminal activities. With the ACR/C law enforcement agencies can efficiently identify currency without actually marking it. This provides an undetectable means for making each note individually traceable and facilitates record keeping for providing evidence in a court of law. In addition when multiple systems are used in conjunction with a central data base the system can be used to track currency geographically. 1.

  13. Background Studies for the pn-CCD Detector of CAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searches for axions from the Sun converted into photons with energies up to around 10 keV via the inverse Primakoff effect in the high magnetic field of a superconducting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype magnet. A backside illuminated pn-CCD detector in conjunction with an X-ray mirror optics is one of the three detectors used in CAST to register the expected photon signal. Since this signal is very rare a detailed study of the detector background has been undertaken with the aim to understand and further reduce the background level of the detector. The analysis is based on measured data taken during the data taking period of 2003 and 2004 of CAST and on Monte Carlo simulations of background with different origin. The background study performed for this detector show that the level of background (8.00±0.07)x10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 7 keV is dominated by the external gamma background due to natural activities at the experimental site, while radioactive impurities in the detector itself and cosmic neutrons contribute with a smaller fraction

  14. 32-megapixel dual-color CCD imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Christopher W.; Marshall, Stuart; Cook, Kenneth H.; Hills, Robert F.; Noonan, Joseph; Akerlof, Carl W.; Alcock, Charles R.; Axelrod, Timothy S.; Bennett, D.; Dagley, K.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, Kim; Park, Hye-Sook; Perlmutter, Saul; Peterson, Bruce A.; Quinn, Peter J.; Rodgers, A. W.; Sosin, C.; Sutherland, W. J.

    1993-07-01

    We have developed an astronomical imaging system that incorporates a total of eight 2048 X 2048 pixel CCDs into two focal planes, to allow simultaneous imaging in two colors. Each focal plane comprises four 'edge-buttable' detector arrays, on custom Kovar mounts. The clocking and bias voltage levels for each CCD are independently adjustable, but all the CCDs are operated synchronously. The sixteen analog outputs (two per chip) are measured at 16 bits with commercially available correlated double sampling A/D converters. The resulting 74 MBytes of data per frame are transferred over fiber optic links into dual-ported VME memory. The total readout time is just over one minute. We obtain read noise ranging from 6.5 e- to 10 e- for the various channels when digitizing at 34 Kpixels/sec, with full well depths (MPP mode) of approximately 100,000 e- per 15 micrometers X 15 micrometers pixel. This instrument is currently being used in a search of gravitational microlensing from compact objects in our Galactic halo, using the newly refurbished 1.3 m telescope at the Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Australia.

  15. Development of the x-ray CCD for SXI on board ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shutaro; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Kawai, Kohei; Ikeda, Shoma; Kaneko, Kenta; Sakata, Kazuya; Todoroki, Shotaro; Mizuno, Hideki; Yagihashi, Nobuyoshi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Muramatsu, Masaharu; Suzuki, Hisanori; Takagi, Shin'ichiro

    2011-09-01

    We report on the development of the X-ray CCD for the soft X-ray imager (SXI) onboard ASTRO-H. SXI CCDs are P-channel, back-illuminated type manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. Experiments with prototype CCD for the SXI shows the device has a depletion layer as thick as 200μm, high efficiency for hard X-rays. By irradiating soft X-rays to the prototype CCD for the SXI. At the same time, we found a significant low energy tail in the soft X-ray response of the SXI prototype CCD. We thus made several small size CCD chips with different treatment in processing the surface layers. CCDs with one of the surface layers treatment show a low energy tail of which intensity is one order of magnitude smaller than that of the original SXI prototype CCD for 0.5keV X-ray incidence. The same treatment will be applied to the flight model CCDs of the SXI. We also performed experiments to inject charge with the SXI prototype CCD, which is needed to mitigate the radiation damage in the orbit. We investigated the operation conditions of the charge injection. Using the potential equilibration method, charges are injected in each column homogeneously, though the amount of the charge must be larger than 20ke-.

  16. Development of a soft x-ray plasma camera with a Fresnel zone plate to image laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft x-ray plasma camera operated at 3.35nm in the water window x-ray region is developed and demonstrated imaging gas jet plasmas of several spices produced with a 10TW Ti: sapphire laser. The plasma camera consists of a 300nm thick Ag/Ti/Si3N4 x-ray band pass filter with bandwidth of 1.43nm to cut visible light and also to reduce colour aberration of the Fresnel zone plate, a Fresnel zone plate with diameter of 1mm and outermost zone width of 300nm, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The magnification of the plasma camera is 10. The soft x-ray plasma camera powered by a Fresnel zone plate is a very powerful tool to observe laser produced plasmas since it is 1000 times brighter and has 5 times higher spatial resolution comparing ordinary x-ray pinhole camera. The soft x-ray images of helium, nitrogen, argon, krypton, and xenon gas jet plasmas are obtained changing gas pressure from 0.01MPa to 1MPa.

  17. The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Berman, Judit; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The apocarotenoid crocetin and its glycosylated derivatives, crocins, confer the red colour to saffron. Crocetin biosynthesis in saffron is catalysed by the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 (AIG94929). No homologues have been identified in other plant species due to the very limited presence of crocetin and its derivatives in the plant kingdom. Spring Crocus species with yellow flowers accumulate crocins in the stigma and tepals. Four carotenoid CCDs, namely CaCCD1, CaCCD2 and CaCCD4a/b and CaCCD4c were first cloned and characterized. CaCCD2 was localized in plastids, and a longer CCD2 version, CsCCD2L, was also localized in this compartment. The activity of CaCCD2 was assessed in Escherichia coli and in a stable rice gene function characterization system, demonstrating the production of crocetin in both systems. The expression of all isolated CCDs was evaluated in stigma and tepals at three key developmental stages in relation with apocarotenoid accumulation. CaCCD2 expression parallels crocin accumulation, but C14 apocarotenoids most likely are associated to the CaCCD1 activity in Crocus ancyrensis flowers. The specific CCD2 localization and its membrane interaction will contribute to the development of a better understanding of the mechanism of crocetin biosynthesis and regulation in the chromoplast. PMID:26377696

  18. Development of single frame X-ray framing camera for pulsed plasma experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Upadhyay; J A Chakera; C P Navathe; P A Naik; A S Joshi; P D Gupta

    2006-10-01

    A single-frame X-ray framing camera has been set up for fast imaging of X-ray emissions from pulsed plasma sources. It consists of two parts, viz. an X-ray pin-hole camera using an open-ended microchannel plate (MCP) detector coupled to a CCD camera, and a high voltage short duration gate pulse for the MCP. The camera uses a 10-m pin-hole aperture for imaging on the MCP detector with a magnification of 6X. The high voltage pulser circuit generates a pulse of variable duration from 5 to 30 ns (at 70% of peak amplitude) with variable amplitude from 800 V to 1·25 kV, and is triggered through a laser pulse synchronized with the event to be recorded. The performance of the system has been checked by recording X-ray emission from a laser-produced copper plasma. A reduction factor of ∼6·5 is seen in the dark current contribution as the MCP gate pulse is decreased from 250s to 5 ns duration.

  19. Architectural Design Document for Camera Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study.......Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study....

  20. Lytro camera technology: theory, algorithms, performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Todor; Yu, Zhan; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Goma, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    The Lytro camera is the first implementation of a plenoptic camera for the consumer market. We consider it a successful example of the miniaturization aided by the increase in computational power characterizing mobile computational photography. The plenoptic camera approach to radiance capture uses a microlens array as an imaging system focused on the focal plane of the main camera lens. This paper analyzes the performance of Lytro camera from a system level perspective, considering the Lytro camera as a black box, and uses our interpretation of Lytro image data saved by the camera. We present our findings based on our interpretation of Lytro camera file structure, image calibration and image rendering; in this context, artifacts and final image resolution are discussed.