Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba
Lucelma Vilela Pieri
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Determine if Gas Permeable Membrane Modules remove Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in a Closed-Circuit Breathing Apparatus (CCBA). These modules do not produce unwanted heat...
Natalia M. Fernández
Full Text Available This article is a case study of a collaboration between the Oregon Multicultural Archives of Oregon State University, Portland State University Library's Special Collections, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA, and the Northwest News Network to preserve and make accessible a recovered box of Oregon Chinese disinterment documents. By examining what influenced and engaged each partner, this case study offers an opportunity to better understand the motivations of diverse stakeholders in a "post-custodial era" project that challenges traditional practices of custody, control, and access.
Rodriguez, F.J.; Liendo, J.A.; Roeder, B.T.; Weintraub, W.; Kemper, K.W.; Keeley, N.; Marechal, F.
From an experiment conducted at the Florida State University Accelerator Laboratory with a 34 MeV polarized 7 Li beam bombarding a 12 C target, we have obtained angular distributions and analyzing powers for states of 15 N up to 20 MeV in excitation energy. This study not only offers the possibility to assign spin and parity to several states in 15 N, but also serves to obtain nuclear potential parameters used in Distorted Wave Born (DWBA) and Coupled Channel Born (CCBA) Approximations to generate theoretical angular distributions and vector analyzing powers that give the best description of the experimental data. Under the assumption that the reaction mechanism is a three nucleon transfer, the determination of shell model nucleonic configurations and spectroscopic factors is possible for the 15 N states studied
Fukui, Tokuro; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki
Background: Direct evidence of the α -cluster manifestation in bound states has not been obtained yet, although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of α -transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. Purpose: We aim to verify the manifestation of the α -cluster structure from observables. As the first application, we plan to extract the spatial information of the cluster structure of the 20Ne nucleus in its ground state through the cross section of the α -transfer reaction 16O(6Li,d )20Ne. Methods: For the analysis of the transfer reaction, we work with the coupled-channel Born approximation (CCBA) approach, in which the breakup effect of 6Li is explicitly taken into account by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channel method based on the three-body α +d +16O model. The two methods are adopted to calculate the overlap function between 20Ne and α +16O ; one is the microscopic cluster model (MCM) with the generator coordinate method, and the other is the phenomenological two-body potential model (PM). Results: We show that the CCBA calculation with the MCM wave function gives a significant improvement of the theoretical result on the angular distribution of the transfer cross section, which is consistent with the experimental data. Employing the PM, it is discussed which region of the cluster wave function is probed on the transfer cross section. Conclusions: It is found that the surface region of the cluster wave function is sensitive to the cross section. The present work is situated as the first step in obtaining important information to systematically investigate the cluster structure.
Paes, B.; Santagati, G.; Vsevolodovna, R. Magana; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cardozo, E. N.; Cavallaro, M.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Gargano, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Lenzi, S. M.; Linares, R.; Santopinto, E.; Vitturi, A.; Lubian, J.
Recently, various two-neutron transfer studies using the (18O,16O) reaction were performed with a large success. This was achieved because of a combined use of the microscopic quantum description of the reaction mechanism and of the nuclear structure. In the present work we use this methodology to study the two-neutron transfer reaction of the 18O+64Ni system at 84 MeV incident energy, to the ground and first 2+ excited state of the residual 66Ni nucleus. All the experimental data were measured by the large acceptance MAGNEX spectrometer at the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare -Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy). We have performed exact finite range cross section calculations using the coupled channel Born approximation (CCBA) and coupled reaction channel (CRC) method for the sequential and direct two-neutron transfers, respectively. Moreover, this is the first time that the formalism of the microscopic interaction boson model (IBM-2) was applied to a two-neutron transfer reaction. From our results we conclude that for two-neutron transfer to the ground state of 66Ni, the direct transfer is the dominant reaction mechanism, whereas for the transfer to the first excited state of 66Ni, the sequential process dominates. A competition between long-range and short-range correlations is discussed, in particular, how the use of two different models (Shell model and IBM's) help to disentangle long- and short-range correlations.
McDermott, Constance L.
Highlights: ► Assessing equity requires a comprehensive conceptual framework. ► The framing of equity varies across sectors and schemes. ► Schemes vary in prioritizing the environment, communities or equity in the supply chain. ► Addressing contextual equity is essential lest certification reinforce inequities of global trade. -- Abstract: This paper applies a comprehensive equity framework to compare the priorities and trade-offs of different environmental and social certification schemes. The schemes selected for comparison are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC), the Fairtrade Labelling Organization (FLO), and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The framework considers how the parameters of equity are set in certification scheme governance, including who are the primary decision-makers and intended beneficiaries, and how this is reflected in the content of scheme standards and certification outcomes. Each of these parameters is assessed across the dimensions of procedural, contextual and distributive equity. Results reveal significant variation in the prioritization of the environment, non-commercial stakeholders or equity across the supply chain. In forestry, the FSC has placed primary emphasis on the procedural rights of non-commercial interests in standard-setting processes, the contextual rights of indigenous peoples, and the conservation of natural ecosystems, while the PEFC places more emphasis on procedural equity for producers and the legitimacy of sovereign governments as rule-makers. Both FLO and CCBA prioritize distributive equity regarding the sharing of material benefits with small-scale and/or community producers or workers, while FLO also emphasizes the contextual issue of “empowerment” and capacity-building. In all schemes, contextual factors related to capacity and access have disproportionately advantaged Northern and large
Ohnuma, H.; Hoshino, N.; Mikoshiba, O.
The 12 C(d, p) 13 C reaction has been studied at Esub(d) = 30 MeV. All the known positive-parity states of 13 C below 10 MeV in excitation energy, including the 7/2 + and 9/2 + states, are observed in this reaction. The angular distributions for these positive-parity bound and unbound states are analyzed in CCBA frame work. The 13 C wave functions, which reproduce the resonant and non-resonant scattering of neutrons from 12 C, also give good accounts of the experimentally observed angular distributions and energy spectra of outgoing protons in the 12 C(d, p) 13 C reaction. In most cases the cross section magnitude and the angular distribution shape are primarily determined by the 0 + x j component, even if it is only a small fraction of the total wave function. An exception is the 7/2 + state, where the main contribution comes from the 2 + x dsub(5/2) component. The inclusion of the 4 + state in 12 C and the gsub(9/2) and gsub(7/2) neutron components in the n + 12 C system has very small effects on the low-spin states, but is indispensable for a good fit to the 7/2 + and 9/2 + angular distributions. The transitions to the negative-parity states, 1/2 1 - , 3/2 1 - , 5/2 - , 7/2 - and 1/2 3 - , are also observed experimentally, and analyzed by DWBA. (author)
The elastic and inelastic scattering of an 8 He beam on a proton target have been measured at GANIL. The first 8 He beam produced by the SPIRAL facility at an energy of 15.6 A.MeV impinged on a proton target. The experimental setup was composed by the eight telescopes MUST array dedicated to the measure of the light charged particles, by a scintillator plastic wall for the detection of heavy projectile, and by two beam tracking detectors CATS for the measure event by event of the incident position and angle of the beam on the target. This setup allowed also to measure the one and two neutron transfer reactions 8 He(p,d) 7 He and 8 He(p,t) 6 He. The excitation energy spectrum for 6,7,8 He and the angular distributions associated to each reaction have been measured. The observed excited states are in agreement with the data of the literature. We indicate the presence of a first excited state for 7 He at 0.9 MeV and we give for the first time the position of a second excited state in 8 He at 5.4 MeV; the presence of such state was just suggested in a previous experiment. CCBA calculations allowed to extract a spectroscopic factor of 4.4 ± 1.4 for the pick-up of one neutron from 8 He to 7 He. This value is in agreement with a closed p3/2 sub-shell for 8 He. To analyse the angular distributions for elastic and inelastic scattering, it was necessary to take into account in the formalism used to describe the reactions, via coupled channels reactions calculations, the couplings to the one neutron transfer reaction. (author) [fr
Full Text Available Big size betta (Giant have a high economic value compared to normal size betta, and over expression of growth hormone gene can produce giant fish. As an initial step of giant transgenic betta productions, this study was conducted in order to obtain DNA plasmid concentration which provide higher hatching and survival rate of betta larvae. Construction of PhGH pCcBA gene contains growth hormone gene of Siamese catfish (PhGH and it is controlled by the CCBA promoter. Betta imbellis broodstocks were spawned naturally, and embryos were collected 1-2 minutes after spawning time. One hundred embryos were dipped in 2 mL of transfectan X-treme gene which containp CcBA-PhGH construction genes (50 µg/mL, on room temperature for about 30 minutes. Treatments on this study were different transfectant : DNA plasmid ratiosnamely:A (0,75 µL: 0,25 µL; B (0,75 µL : 0,50 µL; C (0,75 µL: 0,75 µL, D as Control 1(without transfectant, 0,25 µL DNA; E.as Control 2(0,75 µL transfectant, without DNA, and Fas control 3 (without transfectant and without DNA. Every treatments was repeated three times. Transfection embryos were hatched on a container (1L Volume. Study results showed that hatching rate and larvae survival rate (4 days after hatching on treatment A were the same with the control, but slightly higher than B and C treatments. PCR analysis with DNA template showing that PhGH gene were found on embryos and larvae (pooled sample of treatment A, B and C. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis showing the existence of mRNA PhGH expression on embryos and larvae (pooled sample. Therefore, embryo transfection with transfectant ratio 0,75 µL and DNA 0,25 µLshowing the best results.