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Sample records for ccba

  1. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. As medidas lineares (Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba foram feitas manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. O teste t-pareado e ANOVA foram aplicados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na na Classe II, sendo a sua correção desfavorável no gênero feminino; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento dentro do esperado na Classe I. O neutrovertido cresceu significantemente mais em CC-Na nas Classes I e II, sendo desfavorável na Classe II; com crescimento eqüitativo de CC-Na e CC-Ba na Classe III e levemente acima do esperado na Classe I. O provertido teve crescimento eqüitativo em todas as Classes, sendo significantemente favorável na Classe II mandibular; com tendência favorável na Classe III e crescimento médio acima do esperado na Classe I.AIM: This retrospective study evaluated the cranial base mean growth in different facial types and orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients (131 males, 169 females, initial and final mean age (10 years 2 months-mixed dentition; 14 years 8 months

  2. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: Parte 2 (Crescimento médio de Ba-Na, CC-Na e CC-Ba) Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: Part 2 (Mean growth of Ba-Na, CC-Na and CC-Ba)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri; Kurt Faltin Junior; Cristina Lúcia Feijó Ortolani; Rolf Marçon Faltin; Márcia Aparecida Alves de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais e de relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos.METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino), com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista) e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão) e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica partic...

  3. A proposal for calculating the importance of exchange effects in rearrangement collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formalism based on the generator co-ordinate method (GCM) for reactions is derived to test approximations in the most commonly used methods for calculating the rearrangement amplitudes: namely the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA), the coupled channel Born approximation (CCBA) and the coupled reaction channel (CRC). (author)

  4. Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)

  5. The Legitimacy of Certification Standards in Climate Change Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaza Esteban, de la C.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Jong, de W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the role of two private steering mechanisms, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), in REDD+, the climate change mitigation policy that aims to avoid deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. It does

  6. Growth of Chlorella in vanillin enriched medium

    OpenAIRE

    Miazek, Krystian; Goffin, Dorothée; Richel, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    In this work the effect of different concentration of vanillin on the growth of Chlorella culture was evaluated. Two concentrations of vanillin: 60 mg/L and 300 mg/L in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) were tested and an inoculum from a two month Chlorella sp. (CCBA) culture was used. Vanillin at concentration of 60 mg/L showed to possess stimulating effect on Chlorella growth during 11 days of cultivation. Stimulation of Chlorella started on 3rd day of growth and was accompanied by 87% decrease of va...

  7. Beyond a Box of Documents: The Collaborative Partnership Behind the Oregon Chinese Disinterment Documents Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Fernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a case study of a collaboration between the Oregon Multicultural Archives of Oregon State University, Portland State University Library's Special Collections, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA, and the Northwest News Network to preserve and make accessible a recovered box of Oregon Chinese disinterment documents. By examining what influenced and engaged each partner, this case study offers an opportunity to better understand the motivations of diverse stakeholders in a "post-custodial era" project that challenges traditional practices of custody, control, and access.

  8. Spin and parity determinations of excited 15N based on polarized and unpolarized 12C(7Li, α)15N reaction data at E lab = 34 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an experiment conducted at the Florida State University Accelerator Laboratory with a 34 MeV polarized 7Li beam bombarding a 12C target, we have obtained angular distributions and analyzing powers for states of 15N up to 20 MeV in excitation energy. This study not only offers the possibility to assign spin and parity to several states in 15N, but also serves to obtain nuclear potential parameters used in Distorted Wave Born (DWBA) and Coupled Channel Born (CCBA) Approximations to generate theoretical angular distributions and vector analyzing powers that give the best description of the experimental data. Under the assumption that the reaction mechanism is a three nucleon transfer, the determination of shell model nucleonic configurations and spectroscopic factors is possible for the 15N states studied

  9. Probing transitional regions with nuclear transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental probes which may provide ways to assess differences between presently competing theories for transitional nuclei are of great current interest. In this paper one-neutron transfer data for 52Te nuclei and one-proton transfer data for a long chain of 61Pm nuclei are discussed, with special emphasis on what may be learned from cross sections for weakly excited high- spin states with the parity of the intruding h(sub 11/2) orbitals in these regions. The data for the Pm nuclei covers the full range from the closed N=82 shell to the good rotors (N=92) and exhibits how the proton spectrum responds to increasing the neutron number of the system. The population of the states is discussed within the framework of the coupled-channels-Born-approximation (CCBA), including a critical evaluation of current recipes for calculation of transfer and scattering form factors. (Auth.)

  10. The nuclear structure of 229Pa from the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level structure of the 229Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and γ-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)- and (17/2)+, respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0+ excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D0vertical stroke =(0.09 ±0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  11. Probing surface distributions of α clusters in 20Ne via α -transfer reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tokuro; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Background: Direct evidence of the α -cluster manifestation in bound states has not been obtained yet, although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of α -transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. Purpose: We aim to verify the manifestation of the α -cluster structure from observables. As the first application, we plan to extract the spatial information of the cluster structure of the 20Ne nucleus in its ground state through the cross section of the α -transfer reaction 16O(6Li,d )20Ne. Methods: For the analysis of the transfer reaction, we work with the coupled-channel Born approximation (CCBA) approach, in which the breakup effect of 6Li is explicitly taken into account by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channel method based on the three-body α +d +16O model. The two methods are adopted to calculate the overlap function between 20Ne and α +16O ; one is the microscopic cluster model (MCM) with the generator coordinate method, and the other is the phenomenological two-body potential model (PM). Results: We show that the CCBA calculation with the MCM wave function gives a significant improvement of the theoretical result on the angular distribution of the transfer cross section, which is consistent with the experimental data. Employing the PM, it is discussed which region of the cluster wave function is probed on the transfer cross section. Conclusions: It is found that the surface region of the cluster wave function is sensitive to the cross section. The present work is situated as the first step in obtaining important information to systematically investigate the cluster structure.

  12. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dutschke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB, CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E, CarbonFix Standard (CFS, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, Global Conservation Standard (GCS, ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS. We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1 poverty alleviation, (2 sustainable management of forests (SMF, (3 biodiversity protection, (4 quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5 monitoring and reporting, and (6 certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime.

  13. Probing surface distribution of $\\alpha$-cluster in $^{20}$Ne via $\\alpha$-transfer reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Tokuro; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Direct evidence of the $\\alpha$-cluster development in bound states has not been obtained yet although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of $\\alpha$-transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. We aim to verify the development of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure from observables. As the first application, it is argued to extract the spatial information of the cluster structure of the $^{20}$Ne nucleus in its ground state through the cross section of the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^{16}$O($^6$Li,~$d$)$^{20}$Ne. For the analysis of the transfer reaction, we work with the coupled-channels Born approximation (CCBA) approach, in which the breakup effect of $^6$Li is explicitly taken into account by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) based on the three-body $\\alpha + d + {}^{16}$O mo...

  14. Certification and equity: Applying an “equity framework” to compare certification schemes across product sectors and scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Assessing equity requires a comprehensive conceptual framework. ► The framing of equity varies across sectors and schemes. ► Schemes vary in prioritizing the environment, communities or equity in the supply chain. ► Addressing contextual equity is essential lest certification reinforce inequities of global trade. -- Abstract: This paper applies a comprehensive equity framework to compare the priorities and trade-offs of different environmental and social certification schemes. The schemes selected for comparison are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC), the Fairtrade Labelling Organization (FLO), and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA). The framework considers how the parameters of equity are set in certification scheme governance, including who are the primary decision-makers and intended beneficiaries, and how this is reflected in the content of scheme standards and certification outcomes. Each of these parameters is assessed across the dimensions of procedural, contextual and distributive equity. Results reveal significant variation in the prioritization of the environment, non-commercial stakeholders or equity across the supply chain. In forestry, the FSC has placed primary emphasis on the procedural rights of non-commercial interests in standard-setting processes, the contextual rights of indigenous peoples, and the conservation of natural ecosystems, while the PEFC places more emphasis on procedural equity for producers and the legitimacy of sovereign governments as rule-makers. Both FLO and CCBA prioritize distributive equity regarding the sharing of material benefits with small-scale and/or community producers or workers, while FLO also emphasizes the contextual issue of “empowerment” and capacity-building. In all schemes, contextual factors related to capacity and access have disproportionately advantaged Northern and large