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Sample records for cca-treated wood waste

  1. Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching procedures, including the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), extraction procedure toxicity method (EPTOX), waste extraction test (WET), multiple extraction procedure (MEP), and modifications of these procedures which utilized actual MSW landfill leachates, a construction and demolition (C and D) debris leachate, and a concrete enhanced leachate. Additional experiments were conducted to assess factors affecting leaching, such as particle size, pH, and leaching contact time. Results from the regulatory leaching tests provided similar results with the exception of the WET, which extracted greater quantities of metals. Experiments conducted using actual MSW leachate, C and D debris leachate, and concrete enhanced leachate provided results that were within the same order of magnitude as results obtained from TCLP, SPLP, and EPTOX. Eleven of 13 samples of CCA-treated dimensional lumber exceeded the US EPA's toxicity characteristic (TC) threshold for arsenic (5 mg/L). If un-weathered arsenic-treated wood were not otherwise excluded from the definition of hazardous waste, it frequently would require management as such. When extracted with simulated rainwater (SPLP), 9 of the 13 samples leached arsenic at concentrations above 5 mg/L. Metal leachability tended to increase with decreasing particle size and at pH extremes. All three metals leached above the drinking water standards thus possibly posing a potential risk to groundwater. Arsenic is a major concern from a disposal point of view with respect to ground water quality

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    princi-ples of electrodialysis. It has previously been shown that it is possible to remove Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated wood using electrodialytic remediation in laboratory scale (Ribeiro et al., 2000; Kristensen et al., 2003), but until now, the method had not been studied in larger scale. The pilot...... scale plant used in this study was designed to contain up to 2 m3 wood chips. Six remediation experiments were carried out. In these experiments, the process was up-scaled stepwise by increasing the distance between the electrodes from initially 60 cm to fi-nally 150 cm. The remediation time was varied...

  3. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. PMID:26856447

  4. Application of a CCA-treated wood waste decontamination process to other copper-based preservative-treated wood after disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janin, Amelie, E-mail: amelie.janin@ete.inrs.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Coudert, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.coudert@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Riche, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.riche@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Mercier, Guy, E-mail: guy_mercier@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Cooper, Paul, E-mail: p.cooper@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, 33, Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B3 (Canada); Blais, Jean-Francois, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement), Universite du Quebec, 490 rue de la Couronne, Quebec, QC, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} This paper describes a process for the metal removal from treated (CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-) wood wastes. {yields} This sulfuric acid leaching process is simple and economic. {yields} The remediated wood could be recycled in the industry. - Abstract: Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was widely used until 2004 for residential and industrial applications. Since 2004, CCA was replaced by alternative copper preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ), for residential applications due to health concerns. Treated wood waste disposal is becoming an issue. Previous studies identified a chemical process for decontaminating CCA-treated wood waste based on sulfuric acid leaching. The potential application of this process to wood treated with the copper-based preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper azole (CA) and micronized copper quaternary (MCQ)) is investigated here. Three consecutive leaching steps with 0.1 M sulfuric acid at 75 deg, C for 2 h were successful for all the types of treated wood and achieved more than 98% copper solubilisation. The different acidic leachates produced were successively treated by coagulation using ferric chloride and precipitation (pH = 7) using sodium hydroxide. Between 94 and 99% of copper in leachates could be recovered by electrodeposition after 90 min using 2 A electrical current. Thus, the process previously developed for CCA-treated wood waste decontamination could be efficiently applied for CA-, ACQ- or MCQ-treated wood.

  5. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces of...... incompletely combusted wood pieces and was also found in almost pure form in a surface layer of some matrix particles – indicating surface condensation of volatile Cu species. In treated ash, Ca and As were no longer found together, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been dissolved due to the electrodialytic...... incompletely combusted wood rich in Cr and Ca, and irregular particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was also found incorporated in silica-based matrix particles. As was associated with Ca in porous (char) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was associated with Cr in the...

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Sever...

  7. Exergy analysis of the Chartherm process for energy valorization and material recuperation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chartherm process (Thermya, Bordeaux, France) is a thermochemical conversion process to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. The process aims at maximum energy valorization and material recuperation by combining the principles of low-temperature slow pyrolysis and distillation in a smart way. The main objective of the exergy analysis presented in this paper is to find the critical points in the Chartherm process where it is necessary to apply some measures in order to reduce exergy consumption and to make energy use more economic and efficient. It is found that the process efficiency can be increased with 2.3-4.2% by using the heat lost by the reactor, implementing a combined heat and power (CHP) system, or recuperating the waste heat from the exhaust gases to preheat the product gas. Furthermore, a comparison between the exergetic performances of a 'chartherisation' reactor and an idealized gasification reactor shows that both reactors destroy about the same amount of exergy (i.e. 3500 kW kgwood-1) during thermochemical conversion of CCA-treated wood. However, the Chartherm process possesses additional capabilities with respect to arsenic and tar treatment, as well as the extra benefit of recuperating materials.

  8. CHROMATED COPPER ARSENATE (CCA TREATED WOOD: DESTINATION OPTIONS FOR WASTES GENERATED AND PERSPECTIVES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR TOXIC ELEMENTS REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIRES, Marçal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood has been used for various functions, one of them is the manufacture of poles for electrification and telephony. However, this material has a big propensity to deteriorate. To increase its durability, some alternatives are employed, one of them is the incorporation of toxic substances (preservatives to protect the wood from agents such as fungi, bacteria and xylophagous insects that cause its decay. Currently, the preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA is the most widely used for this purpose. However, when the CCA treated wood poles reach the end of their useful life, they become hazardous waste due to the presence of chromium and arsenic. In this work are presented the main methodologies for treatment, destination options and adequate disposal of these wastes, as well as different methods for toxic elements removal from the CCA-treated wood

  9. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.;

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude and...... direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid...... and formic acid also led to similar removal efficiencies. In these experiments, the target elements were accumulated in both the anode and cathode compartments of the electrodialytic cell due to the formation of negatively charged complexes with the organic acids used besides the free cationic forms...

  10. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a simulated monofill and its potential impacts to landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Townsend, Timothy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2006-07-31

    The proper end-of-life management of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, which contains arsenic, copper, and chromium, is a concern to the solid waste management community. Landfills are often the final repository of this waste stream, and the impacts of CCA preservative metals on leachate quality are not well understood. Monofills are a type of landfill designed and operated to dispose a single waste type, such as ash, tires, mining waste, or wood. The feasibility of managing CCA-treated wood in monofills was examined using a simulated landfill (a leaching lysimeter) that contained a mix of new and weathered CCA-treated wood. The liquid to solid ratio (LS) reached in the experiment was 0.63:1. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leached from the lysimeter at average concentrations of 42 mg/L for arsenic, 9.4 mg/L for chromium, and 2.4 mg/L for copper. Complementary batch leaching studies using deionized water were performed on similar CCA-treated wood samples at LS of 5:1 and 10:1. When results from the lysimeter were compared to the batch test results, copper and chromium leachability appeared to be reduced in the lysimeter disposal environment. Of the three metals, arsenic leached to the greatest extent and was found to have the best correlation between the batch and the lysimeter experiments. PMID:16406290

  11. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a simulated monofill and its potential impacts to landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper end-of-life management of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, which contains arsenic, copper, and chromium, is a concern to the solid waste management community. Landfills are often the final repository of this waste stream, and the impacts of CCA preservative metals on leachate quality are not well understood. Monofills are a type of landfill designed and operated to dispose a single waste type, such as ash, tires, mining waste, or wood. The feasibility of managing CCA-treated wood in monofills was examined using a simulated landfill (a leaching lysimeter) that contained a mix of new and weathered CCA-treated wood. The liquid to solid ratio (LS) reached in the experiment was 0.63:1. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leached from the lysimeter at average concentrations of 42 mg/L for arsenic, 9.4 mg/L for chromium, and 2.4 mg/L for copper. Complementary batch leaching studies using deionized water were performed on similar CCA-treated wood samples at LS of 5:1 and 10:1. When results from the lysimeter were compared to the batch test results, copper and chromium leachability appeared to be reduced in the lysimeter disposal environment. Of the three metals, arsenic leached to the greatest extent and was found to have the best correlation between the batch and the lysimeter experiments

  12. The Feasibilty of Recycling CCA Treated Wood From Spent Residential Decks

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The amount of CCA treated wood being removed from spent residential decks is increasing at a tremendous rate. While most spent CCA treated wood is being disposed in landfills, further useful and environmentally beneficial alternatives have to be met. This research estimated the percentage of recoverable lumber from spent CCA decks that can be recycled into other usable products. Six residential decks were removed from service, by either demolition or deconstruction procedures. It was found...

  13. EMISSIONS OF CHROMIUM, COPPER, ARSENIC AND PCDDS/FS FROM OPEN BURNING OF CCA TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged and weathered chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood was burned in an open burn research facility to characterize the air emissions and residual bottom ash. In addition to continuous measurements of gases and temperature, samples were collected to characterize the emis...

  14. Arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from CCA-treated wood and their potential impacts on landfill leachate in a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamchanawong, S; Veerakajohnsak, C

    2010-04-01

    This study looks into the potential risks of arsenic, chromium, and copper leaching from disposed hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in a tropical climate. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the Waste Extraction Test (WET) were employed to examine new CCA-treated Burseraceae and Keruing woods, weathered CCA-treated teak wood, and ash from new CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. In addition, a total of six lysimeters, measuring 2 m high and 203 mm in diameter were prepared to compare the leachate generated from the wood monofills, construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, containing CCA-treated Burseraceae wood. The TCLP and WET results showed that the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached higher metal concentrations (i.e. 9.19-17.70 mg/L, 1.14-5.89 mg/L and 4.83-23.89 mg/L for arsenic, chromium, and copper, respectively) than the CCA-treated Keruing wood (i.e. 1.74-11.34 mg/L, 0.26-3.57 mg/L and 0.82-13.64 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively). Ash from the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood leached significantly higher metal concentrations (i.e. 108.5-116.9 mg/L, 1522-3862 mg/L and 84.03-114.4 mg/L for arsenic, chromium and copper, respectively), making this type of ash of high concern. The lysimeter study results showed that the MSW lysimeter exhibited higher reducing conditions, more biological activities and more dissolved ions in their leachates than the wood monofill and C&D debris lysimeters. All leachates generated from the lysimeters containing the CCA-treated Burseraceae wood contained significantly higher concentrations of arsenic in comparison to those of the untreated wood: in the range of 0.53-15.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that the disposal of CCA-treated Burseraceae wood in an unlined C&D landfill or a MSW landfill has the potential to contaminate groundwater. PMID:20450112

  15. Regressional modeling of electrodialytic removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, E.E.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo; Mexia, J. T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    out-of-service CCA treated Pinus pinaster Ait. poles. The experiments differ because the sawdust was saturated with different assisting agents and different percentages of them. In order to select the best assisting agent in jointly removing the three metals and subsequently the best percentage of the...

  16. Modeling of electrodialytic and dialytic removal of Cr, Cu and As from CCA-treated wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Mateus, Eduardo;

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for simulating the electrodialytic and dialytic treatment of a saturated bed of wood chips containing chromium, copper and arsenic. The movement of Cr, Cu and As is mathematically modeled taking into account the diffusion transport resulting from the concentra...

  17. Determination of the distribution of copper and chromium in partly remediated CCA-treated pine wood using SEM and EDX analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Melcher, Eckhard;

    2005-01-01

    Soaking in different acids and electrodialytic remediation (EDR) were applied for removing copper and chromium from freshly Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) impregnated EN 113 pine wood samples. After remedial treatments, AAS analyses revealed that the concentration of copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr....... After soaking, a small amount of Cu and Cr was still present in the cell walls but larger particles were now found on wall surfaces. Most effective removal of Cu was obtained after soaking in phosphoric and oxalic acid followed by EDR; here numerous rice grain-shaped particles were observed containing...

  18. Determination of the distribution of copper and chromium in partly remediated CCA-treated pine wood using SEM and EDX analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Melcher, Eckhard; Schmitt, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    . After soaking, a small amount of Cu and Cr was still present in the cell walls but larger particles were now found on wall surfaces. Most effective removal of Cu was obtained after soaking in phosphoric and oxalic acid followed by EDR; here numerous rice grain-shaped particles were observed containing...... large amounts of Cu and no Cr. Cr was most effectively removed after soaking in oxalic acid and subsequent EDR treatment or dual soaking in phosphoric acid and oxalic acid with and without subsequent EDR.......Soaking in different acids and electrodialytic remediation (EDR) were applied for removing copper and chromium from freshly Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) impregnated EN 113 pine wood samples. After remedial treatments, AAS analyses revealed that the concentration of copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr...

  19. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    the performance of a pure dialytic experiment (without an external power supply) in order to reveal transport of charged particles induced solely by internal electrochemical potential differences in the system. Oxalic acid proved to be a more suitable pre-treatment solution than deionised water for...

  20. In vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of arsenic in soils collected near CCA-treated utility poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouschat, Priscilla; Zagury, Gerald J

    2006-07-01

    Because of the potentially high arsenic concentrations found in soils immediately adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood structures and utility poles, CCA-contaminated soil ingestion may be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children. Therefore, a strong need exists to provide accurate data on oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (in vivo or in vitro) in field-collected CCA-contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess arsenic bioaccessibility in contaminated soils collected near in-service CCA-treated utility poles, (2) to determine the influence of soil properties and arsenic fractionation on arsenic bioaccessibility, and (3) to estimate an average daily arsenic intake from incidental soil ingestion. Arsenic bioaccessibility (in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method) was determined on surface soil samples collected immediately adjacent to 12 CCA-treated utility poles after 18 months of service. Bioaccessible arsenic was also determined in 3 certified reference materials. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (RBA reported by Casteel et al. (2003) in soil near CCA-treated utility poles. Bioaccessible arsenic was positively correlated with total organic carbon content (r2 = 0.36, p < 0.05) and with water-soluble arsenic (2 = 0.51, p < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with clay content (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.05). Using conservative exposure parameters, the mean daily arsenic intake from incidental ingestion of contaminated soil near CCA-treated utility poles was 0.18 +/- 0.09 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). This arsenic intake appeared negligible compared to the daily intake of inorganic arsenic from water and food ingestion for children. PMID:16856753

  1. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, Lucie [INRS-ETE (Canada); Blais, Jean-François, E-mail: blaisjf@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE (Canada); Mercier, Guy [INRS-ETE (Canada); Cooper, Paul [University of Toronto (Canada); Gastonguay, Louis [IREQ (Canada); Morris, Paul [FPInnovations (Canada); Janin, Amélie; Reynier, Nicolas [INRS-ETE (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 < x < 12 mm). The present study explored the performance and the robustness of this technology in removing metals from copper-based treated wood wastes at a pilot plant scale (130-L reactor tank). After 3× 2 h leaching steps followed by 3× 7 min rinsing steps, up to 97.5% of As, 87.9% of Cr, and 96.1% of Cu were removed from CCA-treated wood wastes with different initial metal loading (>7.3 kg m{sup −3}) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t{sup −1} or a cost of 35.5 US$ t{sup −1} and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t{sup −1}.

  2. Pilot-scale investigation of the robustness and efficiency of a copper-based treated wood wastes recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A leaching process was studied for metals removal from CCA-treated wood wastes. • This decontamination process was studied at pilot scale (130-L reactor). • Removals up to 98% of As, 88% of Cr, and 96% of Cu were obtained from wood wastes. • The produced leachates can be treated by chemical precipitation. -- Abstract: The disposal of metal-bearing treated wood wastes is becoming an environmental challenge. An efficient recycling process based on sulfuric acid leaching has been developed to remove metals from copper-based treated wood chips (0 7.3 kg m−3) and more than 94.5% of Cu was removed from ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood. The treatment of effluents by precipitation–coagulation was highly efficient; allowing removals more than 93% for the As, Cr, and Cu contained in the effluent. The economic analysis included operating costs, indirect costs and revenues related to remediated wood sales. The economic analysis concluded that CCA-treated wood wastes remediation can lead to a benefit of 53.7 US$ t−1 or a cost of 35.5 US$ t−1 and that ACQ-, CA- and MCQ-treated wood wastes recycling led to benefits ranging from 9.3 to 21.2 US$ t−1

  3. Extraction of chromated copper arsenate from wood wastes using green solvent supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide a green method to remove chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in the wood before its dumping, incineration, reuse or disposal, extraction of CCA from wood wastes using supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) containing an organophosphorus reagent, Cyanex 302, was investigated. The majority of copper metal was removed using Cyanex 302 in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The order of extraction efficiency was found to be Cu >> As > Cr. Factors that affected SFE efficiencies, such as matrices, oxidation state of metal species [Cr(III), Cr(VI), As(III), and As(V)], and SFE pressure, were studied. Using this in situ chelation/SFE technique to remove leachable metals from the CCA-treated wood was found to significantly reduce the risk of leaching metals into the environment during storage, or waste disposal

  4. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  6. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells

  7. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  8. Waste-Wood-Derived Fillers for Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    English, Brent; Clemons, Craig M.; Stark, Nicole; Schneider, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper fiber, are also effective as fillers. The goal of this project was to generate commercial interest in using waste-wood–paper-...

  9. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  10. The use of wood waste for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some technical aspects and management issues of wood waste reuse end disposal. It refers to the Greek and European legislation which determines the framework for rational and environmental friendly practices for woos waste management. It refers also to the wood waste classification systems and the currently applied methods of wood waste disposal and reuse. Emphasis is given to the wood waste-to-energy conversion system, particularly to the pretreatment requirements, the combustion techniques, and the environmental constrains. Finally, the decision making process for the investments in the wood waste firing thermal units is discussed

  11. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  12. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  13. Pyrolysis of furniture wood waste: Decomposition and gases evolved

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Font Montesinos, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The pyrolysis of furniture wood waste was studied due to its importance as a thermochemical conversion process, and also because it is a step in the combustion process. Furniture wood contains organic additives and inorganic elements (being noteworthy the high content of Ti). These additives cause changes in the thermal processes. A thermogravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis of furniture wood waste was carried out in a TGA apparatus using dynamic and dynamic + isothermal runs. The pyrolysis ...

  14. Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e.g. Handeloe P11 (Norrkoeping) and ldbaecken P3 (Nykoeping), and yet other plants that are under construction (e.g. Nynaeshamn). The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems. To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion. Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. These recommendations actually summarises the most important possible solutions on how to achieve a disturbance-free operation and a lower maintenance cost for boilers combusting waste wood and can thereby be regarded as a short summery of the whole project: 1) Improving fuel quality by Improved sorting at the source and Sieving of the fuel -> Reducing the amount of metals and chlorine and Separation of fines and thereby reducing the amount of metals. 2) Combustion modifications by Avoiding reducing conditions at the heat exchanger surfaces -> Minimising slagging, fouling and corrosion. 3) Additives or co-combustion by Addition of sulphur with the fuel; Injection of

  15. Particleboards with waste wood from reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the potential of manufacturing bonded particleboards using timber industry waste of Pinus spp. Panels were evaluated with 0.6 and 0.8 g cm-3 of density and produced with urea-formaldehyde resin and bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor oil. Panels were made of particles with nominal dimensions 40 x40 cm and a thickness of1 cm. As process parameters was adopted 2 - 5% moisture content, temperature ranging from 90 to130°C, average pressure of 5.0 MPa and resin content from 10 to 15% of the weight particles. This study determined physical-mechanical properties of the panels, following the recommendations of ABNT (2006 NBR 14810. The results indicated statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in physical and mechanical properties of the panels studied. Panels were classified by ANSI (1993 A208.1 – Mat-formed wood particleboard: Specification, as of low and medium density. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM illustrated the agglomeration of particles for the different resins. The polyurethane resin based on castor oil stood out as a viable alternative in the production of particleboards with timber waste.

  16. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology. Part I: detection of preservative-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasem Hasan, A; Schindler, John; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-04-01

    Waste wood is frequently contaminated with wood treatment preservatives including chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ), both of which contain metals which contaminate recycled wood products. The objective of this research was to propose a design for online automated identification of As-based and Cu-based treated wood within the recovered wood waste stream utilizing an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system, and to evaluate the detection parameters of such system. A full-scale detection unit was used for experimentation. Two main parameters (operational threshold (OT) and measurement time) were evaluated to optimize detection efficiencies. OTs of targeted metals, As and Cu, in wood were reduced to 0.02 and 0.05, respectively. The optimum minimum measurement time of 500 ms resulted in 98%, 91%, and 97% diversion of the As, Cu and Cr mass originally contained in wood, respectively. Comparisons with other detection methods show that XRF technology can potentially fulfill the need for cost-effective processing at large facilities (>30 tons per day) which require the removal of As-based preservatives from their wood waste stream. PMID:21186117

  17. Roundwood and wood waste flow analysis for slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Krajnc, Nike; Piškur, Mitja

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to make a model that identifi es fl ows and use of roundwood and wood wastes in Slovenia in the basic year. A new conceptual model was created. On the basis of this model, two roundwood and one wood waste balance were prepared. A wide range of available data was takeninto consideration, the quality of data evaluated and a proposal for improving their quality prepared. The results of roundwood balance showed a defi cit of 536,000 m3, if offi cial data for an...

  18. State-of-the-art of the European regulation on wood wastes and wood ashes valorization. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has the objective of comparing the regulations of 10 European countries with that of France, in relation to the classification and recycling of wood waste, in particular lightly treated wood, as well as recycling of wood ash. The first part relating to wood waste presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary, on the one hand, of the various sectors for recycling waste wood and, on the other, the emission limits for their energy recovery. Generally, there is a distinction between waste covered by the incineration directive, and the others, without any particular category for lightly treated wood. However, recommendations emerge from this that are based essentially on the regulations or guidelines observed in Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom. The second part relating to wood ash also a presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary of the various sectors of recycling and limit values for spreading. Ash is generally considered as waste, and is recycled on a case-by case basis. Only Germany and Austria have clearly integrated wood ash in their regulatory framework. Overall this study shows the need for uniform regulation at European level, establishing environment requirements for recycling wood waste and wood ash, in order to encourage development of the use of biomass

  19. WOOD WASTE AS A POWER PLANT FUEL IN THE OZARKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the testing program conducted on a chain-grate stoker boiler with a blended coal and wood waste fuel. The boiler was designed to produce 18,000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 150 psig. The objective of the tests was to determine the difference, if any, in the pe...

  20. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized. PMID:17509861

  1. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermer, Joeran; Ekvall, Annika; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Waste wood is increasingly used as fuel in Sweden. It is of Swedish origin as well as imported, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. The waste wood is contaminated by e.g. paint and wood preservatives and objects of metal, glass, plastics etc. The contaminants may cause technical problems such as deposits and corrosion as well as plugging of air openings. The present study has focussed on potential contaminants in waste wood that could cause problems of technical as well as environmental nature. The major chemical contaminants are surface treatments (paints etc) and wood preservatives. The surface treatments contribute in particular to contaminants of zinc and lead. In some cases zinc has been found to cause severe deposits in the furnaces. Surface treatments also contribute to increased levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphur and nitrogen. Preservative-treated wood is the most important source of increased levels of copper, chromium and arsenic in the waste wood. Waste wood imported from Germany contains less arsenic but the same amount of copper and chromium as Swedish waste wood. The contents of mercury in German waste wood can be expected to be higher than in waste wood of Swedish origin. The fraction consisting of wood-based panels is comparably free from contaminants but as a result of the high contents of adhesives wood-based panels contribute to a higher proportion of nitrogen in waste wood than in forest residues. A great number of non-wood compounds (such as plastics and metals) do also contaminate waste wood. By careful and selective demolition and various sorting procedures most non-wood compounds will be separated from the waste wood. Waste sorting analyses carried out indicate that the waste wood contains approximately 1% non-wood compounds, mainly plastic and metal compounds, glass, dirt, concrete, bricks and gypsum. This may seem to be a small proportion, but if large amounts of waste wood are incinerated the non-wood compounds will inevitably cause

  2. Incorporation of industrial wastes in wood pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Eduardo Campos; Vilarinho, Cândida; De Castro, F.; Pinto, A.; Ferreira, Pedro Tiago; Teixeira, J. C. F.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present work evaluates the incorporation of industrial wastes (Refuse Derived Fuel-RDF) into biomass for pellet production. Its influence on parameters such as pellet production, combustion and gas emissions was studied for up to 10% of residues incorporation. This approach also deals with the diverting of industrial waste from landfills. The main objectives were: increasing the heat value of the final product, diverting industrial residues with energy potential from landfill an...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  4. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...... of waste wood combustion in a 13 MW grate-fired boiler in a WtE plant is presented. As a validation effort, the temperature profiles at a number of ports in the furnace are measured and the experimental results are compared with the CFD predictions. In the simulation, a 1D model is developed to simulate...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14815 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? 62.14815... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or... percent wood wastes, clean lumber and/or yard waste? (a) After the date the initial test for opacity...

  7. Cultivation of Pleurotus floridaon Forest and Agricultural Wastes By Leaves of Tree and Wood Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1999-01-01

    Some forest and agricultural wastes of Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey were subjected to mushroom ( Pleurotus florida) cultivation in this study. 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 (w:w) mixtures were prepared mainly by tree leaves wood wastes of timber work shops, cupola of nut trees (NC) and leaves (NL), corn stalks (CS), waste tea leaves (WTL) of tea factories, wheat straw (WS) and waste paper(WP). P.floridaof which the strain was numbered darmycel by Fungi Perfect co. (USA) was used in inoculations of p...

  8. Substitution potentials of recycled HDPE and wood particles from post-consumer packaging waste in Wood-Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhuber, Philipp F; Welling, Johannes; Krause, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The market share of Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC) is small but expected to grow sharply in Europe. This raises some concerns about suitable wood particles needed in the wood-based panels industry in Europe. Concerns are stimulated by the competition between the promotion of wooden products through the European Bioeconomy Strategy and wood as an energy carrier through the Renewable Energy Directive. Cascade use of resources and valorisation of waste are potential strategies to overcome resource scarcity. Under experimental design conditions, WPC made from post-consumer recycled wood and plastic (HDPE) were compared to WPC made from virgin resources. Wood content in the polymer matrix was raised in two steps from 0% to 30% and 60%. Mechanical and physical properties and colour differences were characterized. The feasibility of using cascaded resources for WPC is discussed. Results indicate the technical and economic feasibility of using recycled HDPE from packaging waste for WPC. Based on technical properties, 30% recycled wood content for WPC is feasible, but economic and political barriers of efficient cascading of biomass need to be overcome. PMID:26376122

  9. Problem of waste effluents in wood industry - the possibilities of biological treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Muck, Tadeja

    2015-01-01

    Wood industry does not pollute waters to a great extend, nevertheless we must be aware that the problem still exists. Waste effluents in wood industry contain very high portion of dangerous and toxic substance - formaldehyde. That is why it is inevitably vital to start with detailed analysis of waste effluents and with studies of possibilities of decontamination. Statistical analysis are showing that wood industry are not well aware of the fact how quickly the ecological balance can be destro...

  10. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood is a...... renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...... has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  11. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  12. COMPOSITES BASED ON SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AND WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia DUMITRESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research dedicated to synthesis and characterization of some new, ecological composite materials based on an acrylic copolymer, lignin derivative iron and chromium lignosulfonate and Salix wood sawdust. The FT-IR analysis put into evidence the complex interactions, by esterification and etherification reactions, between the organic functional hydroxyl groups of lignosulfonate and Salix sawdust (the fillers with the organic functional groups (carboxyl, ester from the structure of acrylic copolymer (the matrix and explain the improved properties of the new composites. The proposed new composites are in agreement with the research in the field of recycling lignocellulosic waste to obtain new ecological, environmental friendly materials.

  13. Electron microscopic study on pyrolysis of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T.; Bronsveld, P.M; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kakitani, T.; Otono, A.; Imamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of pyrolysis as a possible technique for disposing of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood was studied. A CCA-treated sample given an extra heat treatment at 450 degreesC for 10 min was thoroughly investigated in order to establish the details of the reaction in wh

  14. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    OpenAIRE

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.; M. HRIBERSEK; Kokalj, F.

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling of waste wood combustion in a 13 MW grate-fired boiler in a WtE plant is presented. As a validation effort, the temperature profiles at a number of ports in the furnace are measured and the experimental...

  15. A Study on the Effect of Plasma Treatment for Waste Wood Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiMi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of wood powder by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was investigated. The composites were manufactured using wood powder and polypropylene (wood powder: polypropylene = 55 wt% : 45 wt%. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was applied under the condition of 3 KV, 17±1 KHz, 2 g/min. Helium was used as the carrier gas and hexamethyl-disiloxane (HMDSO as the monomer to modify the surface property of the waste wood biocomposites by plasma polymerization. The tensile strengths of untreated waste wood powder (W3 and single species wood powder (S3 were about 18.5 MPa and 21.5 MPa while those of plasma treated waste wood powder (PW3 and plasma treated single species wood powder (PS3 were about 21.2 MPa and 23.4 MPa, respectively. Tensile strengths of W3 and S3 were improved by 14.6% and 8.8%, respectively. From the analyses of mechanical properties and morphology, we conclude that the interfacial bonding of polypropylene and wood powder can be improved by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment.

  16. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  17. Utilization of Soft Wood Wastes as a Feed Stock to Produce Fuel Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan M. Khalil; Ali F. Al-Shawabkeh; Ayman S. Mazahreh; Mohmmad S. Al-Damanhoory; Jihad M. Quasem

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The current research investigated the utilization of soft wood waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product-fuel ethanol. Approach: The main issue in converting soft wood waste to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for breaking down into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam as the pretreatment method. The governing factors for the effectiveness of steam pretreatment are steam temperature and retention times. Following steam ...

  18. A Study on the Effect of Plasma Treatment for Waste Wood Biocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Heung Soo Kim; MiMi Kim; Joong Yeon Lim

    2013-01-01

    The surface modification of wood powder by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was investigated. The composites were manufactured using wood powder and polypropylene (wood powder: polypropylene = 55 wt% : 45 wt%). Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was applied under the condition of 3 KV, 17±1 KHz, 2 g/min. Helium was used as the carrier gas and hexamethyl-disiloxane (HMDSO) as the monomer to modify the surface property of the waste wood biocomposites by plasma polymerization. The tensil...

  19. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  20. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  1. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  2. Thermal removal of nitrogen species from wood waste containing urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of nitrogen from wood board waste through a low temperature pyrolysis (523-573 K) is investigated with two analytical methods. The kinetic study of the thermal behaviour of wood board and of its components (wood, UF and MF resins) shows the feasibility of removing thermally nitrogen from wood board waste. Indeed, the range of temperatures associated with the degradation of wood is different from the one obtained for the degradation of UF and MF resin. Isothermal conditions enable the determination of a kinetic model for degradation of wood board and of its components and demonstrate that the thermal behaviour of wood board is not the reflection of the sum of its components' behaviour. FTIR analysis of gas products confirms the feasibility removing nitrogen thermally and enables the evaluation of the optimum treatment conditions (temperature/duration). Elementary analysis of the treated samples and study of their low heating value (LHV) enable to quantify the efficiency of the thermal treatment in terms of nitrogen removal and of energy recovery. Results show that around 70% of the initial nitrogen can be removed from the waste, and that the temperature of treatment (between 523 K and 573 K) does not influence the efficiency in terms of nitrogen removal. Nevertheless, the ratio Residual energy/Initial energy (between 76% and 90%) is improved with the lowest temperature of treatment

  3. CULTIVATION OF P. FLORIDA SUPLEMENTED OF RICE BRAIN ON BEECH WOOD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin SİVRİKAYA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. reached to the second largest in amount after Agaricus bisporus (Lange sing. in the world. There recently has also been growing interest to cultivate them on wastes of forest and agricultural plants in Turkey. In the scope of study Pleurotus florida was produced on beech wood sawmill waste and rice brain. Beech wood sawmill waste (Fagus orientalis Lipsky were used as main substrate and supplemented with rice brain as co-substrate by 10 % W/W, 0 % W/W, 40 % W/W mixing ratios based on dry weights. To produce P. florida substrates were ground, air dried, moistured up to 70-80 % by tap water, supplemented, pasteurized with live steam and spawned. Highest yields (440 gr/kg of P. florida were obtained by supplementing wood waste and rice brain (% 80 + % 20. Furthermore, the best mycelia development were obtained by % 90 + % 10.

  4. Utilization of Soft Wood Wastes as a Feed Stock to Produce Fuel Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current research investigated the utilization of soft wood waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product-fuel ethanol. Approach: The main issue in converting soft wood waste to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for breaking down into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam as the pretreatment method. The governing factors for the effectiveness of steam pretreatment are steam temperature and retention times. Following steam pretreatment, soft wood waste was subjected to acid hydrolysis. The sugars released by acid hydrolysis were fermented in series chemical reactions that convert sugars to ethanol. The fermentation reaction was caused by yeast, which feed on the sugars. Results: Steam pretreatment was able to improve both glucose yields from acid hydrolysis and ethanol yields from fermentation. The results obtained from this study showed that steam pretreated soft wood waste are a heterogeneous material. So biomass goes through a size-reduction step to make it easier to handle and to make the ethanol production process more efficient. Steam treatment on soft wood waste increased the hydrolysis of cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Following 24 h of diluted or concentrated acid hydrolysis, a maximum cellulose conversion of 20.5% was obtained. Similarly, sugars to ethanol conversions were improved by steam treatment. Maximum sugar to ethanol conversion of 40.7% was observed. Conclusion: It was recommended that the hydrolysis process be done for 40 min to obtain the maximum sugars yield in a reasonable period of time.

  5. LEATHER WASTE VALORISATION THROUGH MATERIAL INNOVATION: SOME PROPERTIES OF LEATHER WOOD FIBREBOARD

    OpenAIRE

    Axel M. RINDLER; Pia SOLT; Marius C. BARBU; Schnabel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing scarcity of resources and raw materials in the wood panels industry, it is imperative to look for suitable alternatives to the established resources. Therefore a combination of the traditionally used and newly explored sources may reveal highly innovative ways. The objective of this study is to provide an insight into the behavior of the material and possible new applications of those fiber/particle wood and waste leather composites. For this reason e...

  6. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge band...

  7. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  8. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications

  9. Energetic valorization of wood waste: estimation of the reduction in CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, J; Van Gerven, T; Vander Putten, E; Van der Bruggen, B; Helsen, L

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential CO(2) emission reductions related to a partial switch from fossil fuel-based heat and electricity generation to renewable wood waste-based systems in Flanders. The results show that valorization in large-scale CHP (combined heat and power) systems and co-firing in coal plants have the largest CO(2) reduction per TJ wood waste. However, at current co-firing rates of 10%, the CO(2) reduction per GWh of electricity that can be achieved by co-firing in coal plants is five times lower than the CO(2) reduction per GWh of large-scale CHP. Moreover, analysis of the effect of government support for co-firing of wood waste in coal-fired power plants on the marginal costs of electricity generation plants reveals that the effect of the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is effectively counterbalanced. This is due to the fact that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles (BIGCC) are not yet commercially available. An increase of the fraction of coal-based electricity in the total electricity generation from 8 to 10% at the expense of the fraction of gas-based electricity due to the government support for co-firing wood waste, would compensate entirely for the CO(2) reduction by substitution of coal by wood waste. This clearly illustrates the possibility of a 'rebound' effect on the CO(2) reduction due to government support for co-combustion of wood waste in an electricity generation system with large installed capacity of coal- and gas-based power plants, such as the Belgian one. PMID:21719072

  10. 吉林省实木产品生产中的木材损失研究%STUDY ON THE WOOD WASTE IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成元

    2000-01-01

    The average wood utilization percent from log to solid Pr oducts in Jilin Province was 10.5%~23.4%. In the view of internal connection an d influence among log making, lumber manufacturing, drying and further processin g, the causes of the wood waste were analysed; the accomplishment of the resea rch concered wood waste and the succeeded experience of some plants were introduced; the measures for reducting the wood waste was advanced.

  11. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes; Krapte op de markt voor afvalhout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, A. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells. [Dutch] Er dreigt in Nederland een krapte te ontstaan op de markt voor afvalhout, want de vraag vanuit de buitenlandse vezelplaatindustrie blijft constant, terwijl er vanuit de energiesector een groeiende vraag is. Om de beleidsdoelstellingen voor biomassa te kunnen halen zal er biomassa geimporteerd moeten worden. Daarbij kan het gaan om resthout of afvalhout, maar ook om andere biomassastromen zoals olijfpitten en cacaodoppen.

  12. Problematika formaldehida v odpadnih vodah lesne industrije: Problem of waste effluents in wood industry - the possibilities of biological treatment:

    OpenAIRE

    Muck, Tadeja

    1999-01-01

    Wood industry does not pollute waters to a great extend, nevertheless we must be aware that the problem still exists. Waste effluents in wood industry contain very high portion of dangerous and toxic substance - formaldehyde. That is why it is inevitably vital to start with detailed analysis of waste effluents and with studies of possibilities of decontamination. Statistical analysis are showing that wood industry are not well aware of the fact how quickly the ecological balance can be destro...

  13. Field-scale leaching of arsenic, chromium and copper from weathered treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, A. Rasem, E-mail: hasan@arij.or [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, 1251 Memorial Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Hu Ligang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Solo-Gabriele, Helena M., E-mail: hmsolo@miami.ed [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, 1251 Memorial Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Fieber, Lynne [Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149-1098 (United States); Cai Yong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Townsend, Timothy G. [Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, 217 A.P. Black Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Earlier studies documented the loss of wood preservatives from new wood. The objective of this study was to evaluate losses from weathered treated wood under field conditions by collecting rainfall leachate from 5 different wood types, all with a surface area of 0.21 m{sup 2}. Wood samples included weathered chromate copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood at low (2.7 kg/m{sup 3}), medium (4.8 kg/m{sup 3}) and high (35.4 kg/m{sup 3}) retention levels, new alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood (1.1 kg/m{sup 3} as CuO) and new untreated wood. Arsenic was found to leach at a higher rate (100 mg in 1 year for low retention) than chromium and copper (<40 mg) in all CCA-treated wood samples. Copper leached at the highest rate from the ACQ sample (670 mg). Overall results suggest that metals' leaching is a continuous process driven by rainfall, and that the mechanism of release from the wood matrix changes as wood weathers. - Metals leaching rates on a percent basis increase as treated wood weathers, although the mass released decreases.

  14. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  15. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  16. Characterization of composites based on expanded polystyrene wastes and wood flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Matheus; Dettenborn, Juliane; Zeni, Mara; Zattera, Ademir J

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential for the use of recycled expanded polystyrene and wood flour as materials for the development of wood plastic composites. The effects of wood flour loading and coupling agent addition on the mechanical properties and morphology of wood thermoplastic composites were examined. In addition, a methodology for the thermo-mechanical recycling of expanded polystyrene waste was developed. The results show that the mechanical properties decreased as the wood flour loading increased. On the other hand, the use of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), SMA, as a coupling agent improved the compatibility between the wood flour and polystyrene matrix and the mechanical properties subsequently improved. A morphological study revealed the positive effect of the coupling agent on the interfacial bonding. The density values obtained for the composites were compared with the theoretical values and showed agreement with the rule of mixtures. Based on the findings of this work, it appears that both recycled materials can be used to manufacture composites with high mechanical properties and low density. PMID:21172732

  17. Green route to modification of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose using reactive extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Gaugler, Marc; Smith, Dawn A

    2016-01-20

    A large volume of wood waste is produced in timber processing industry which traditionally used in low value applications. Here, value addition to the wood waste (Sander dust) and cellulose, hemicellulose isolated thereof by functionalisation using cyclic anhydrides in a solvent-free and green reactive extrusion process is reported. The effect of extrusion temperature, catalyst and different weight ratios of Sander dust (SD):succinic anhydride (SA) on the esterification reaction is evaluated. The esterified products were characterised by the acid value, degree of substitution (DS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), solid state (13)C NMR and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Under optimum extrusion conditions, mixed esters are formed, with highest acid value obtained for succinylation of cellulose (0.122 g/g at DS of 0.350) which is two times higher compared to succinylated SD (0.059 g/g at a weight gain of 0.452) and hemicellulose (0.043 g/g at DS of 0.290). The reactivity trend for individual anhydride was: (1) SA-Cellulose>SD>hemicellulose; (2) maleic anhydride (MA)-SD>hemicellulose>cellulose and (3) dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)-SD ≈ cellulose ≫ hemicellulose. The pendant free carboxyl groups generated through functionalisation of wood waste, cellulose and hemicellulose without the presence of polymeric carriers will allow more tailored or targeted modification of wood-plastic composites. PMID:26572467

  18. Mathematical modelling of slow pyrolysis of a particle of treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, J; Marias, F; Vaxelaire, J; Bernada, P

    2009-10-30

    Low-temperature pyrolysis is a possible method for the disposal of wood waste treated with chromated copper arsenic (CCA). A mathematical model (heat and mass transfer) including chemical reactions of the thermal degradation of a particle of wood is presented. A spherical particle is heated by a convective nitrogen flow. The progress of the pyrolysis process is characterized by three main steps: (1) drying of the wet sample; (2) heating of the sample until ignition of pyrolysis reactions; (3) pyrolysis and subsequent production of char and volatiles. The mathematical model is based on the volume averaging concept and it uses Shafizadeh and Chin [F. Shafizadeh, P.S. Chin, Thermal deterioration of wood, wood technology: chemical aspects, ACS Symposium Series 43 (1977) 57-81] pyrolysis model to describe the reaction pathway. It is solved by the line method, taking time as the preferred variable. Our model predicts intra-particle profiles for several variables (temperature, moisture content, concentration of wood). Simulations are presented with a spherical particle of 1cm radius. PMID:19535204

  19. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  20. An emissions audit of a biomass combustor burning treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a Biomass Combustor burning treated wood waste at the premises of a furniture manufacturer. The Biomass Combustor was tested in two firing modes; continuous fire and modulating fire. Combustion chamber temperatures and gas residence times were not measured. Boiler efficiencies were very good at greater than 75% in both tests. However, analysis of the flue gases indicated that improved efficiencies are possible. The average concentrations of CO (512mgm-3) and THC (34mgm-3) for Test 1 were high, indicating that combustion was poor. The combustor clearly does not meet the requirements of the Guidance Note for the Combustion of Wood Waste. CO2 and O2 concentrations were quite variable showing that combustion conditions were fairly unstable. Improved control of combustion should lead to acceptable emission concentrations. (Author)

  1. Metal loss from treated wood products in contact with municipal solid waste landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research presented in this paper evaluates the potential impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate quality on the loss of metals from discarded treated wood during disposal. The loss of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and boron (B) from several types of pressure-treated wood (CCA: chromated copper arsenate, ACQ: alkaline copper quaternary, CBA: copper boron azole, and DOT: disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) using leachate collected from 26 MSW landfills in Florida was examined. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and California's waste extraction test (WET) were also performed. The results suggested that loss of preservative components was influenced by leachate chemistry. Copper loss from CCA-, ACQ- and CBA-treated wood was similar in magnitude when in contact with landfill leachates compared to synthetic TCLP and SPLP solutions. Ammonia was found as one of the major parameters influencing the leaching of Cu from treated wood when leached with MSW landfill leachates. The results suggest that disposal of ACQ- and CBA-treated wood in substantial quantity in MSW landfills may elevate the Cu concentration in the leachate; this could be of potential concern, especially for a bioreactor MSW landfill in which relatively higher ammonia concentrations in leachate have been reported in recent literature. For the As, Cr and B the concentrations observed with the landfill leachate as the leaching solutions were over a range from some sample showing the concentrations below and some showing above the observed value from corresponding SPLP and TCLP tests. In general the WET test showed the highest concentrations.

  2. Determination of total arsenic in coal and wood using oxygen flask combustion method followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive procedure for the determination of total arsenic in coal and wood was conducted by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The effect of various items (composition of absorbent, standing time between the combustion and filtration, particle size and mass of sample) was investigated. Under the optimized conditions of the OFC method, nine certified reference materials were analyzed, and the values of arsenic concentration obtained by this method were in good accordance with the certified values. The limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method were 0.29 μg g-1 and less than 8%, respectively. In addition, eight kinds of coals and four chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood wastes were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from the microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method. The determination of arsenic in solid samples was discussed in terms of applicable scope and concentration range of arsenic.

  3. The analysis of furnace wall deposits in a low-NO{sub x} waste wood-fired bubbling fluidised bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, Yousef [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Surface and Corrosion Science; Viklund, Peter [Swerea - KIMAB, Kista (Sweden); Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall Research and Development, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Increasing use is being made of biomass as fuel for electricity production as the price of natural wood continues to rise. Therefore, more use is being made of waste wood (recycled wood). However, waste wood contains more chlorine, zinc and lead, which are believed to increase corrosion rates. Corrosion problems have occurred on the furnace walls of a fluidised bed boiler firing 100 % waste wood under low-NO{sub x} conditions. The deposits have been collected and analysed in order to understand the impact of the fuel. (orig.)

  4. Sources of heavy metal contamination in Swedish wood waste used for combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, wood waste (RWW) recovered for heat production in Sweden was studied. Previous research has concluded that RWW contains elevated amounts of heavy metals, causing environmental problems during waste management. This study extends previous work on RWW by analysing which pollution sources cause this contamination. Using existing data on the metal contents in various materials, and the amounts of these materials in RWW, the share of the elevated amounts of metals in RWW that these materials explain was quantified. Six different materials occurring in RWW were studied and the results show that they explain from 70% to 100% of the amounts of arsenic, chromium, lead, copper and zinc in RWW. The most important materials contributing to contamination of RWW are surface-treated wood, industrial preservative-treated wood, plastic and galvanised fastening systems. These findings enable the development and evaluation of strategies aiming to decrease pollution and resource loss from handling RWW. It is argued that source separation and measures taken further downstream from the generation site, such as treatment, need to be combined to substantially decrease the amount of heavy metals in RWW

  5. Life-cycle assessment for power generation from wood fuels and wood wastes; Oekobilanz fuer die Stromerzeugung aus Holzbrennstoffen und Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Frischknecht, R.; Faist, M.

    2002-07-01

    This reworked final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of life-cycle assessments made of four wood-fired systems with the goal of analysing the possibilities of labelling such plants with the Swiss eco-label 'Naturemade Star'. In addition to these case studies, three standard technologies were modelled, whereby in two of the models different waste gas filtering methods were considered. In the third model, electricity is produced from waste wood and features an advanced waste gas treatment system. The report describes the various plants and draws up eco-balances for them. Pollution emissions, such as dust, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide, are discussed and plant operation and assessment are looked at. Certification to 'Naturemade Star' standards is checked out for the case-study plant examples and for the standard plant proposed. A further eco-balance is drawn up for wood-fired power generation with impact allocated to heat and power generation based on exergy content. An appendix provides details on the physical parameters of wood and on the methods used for impact assessment.

  6. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  7. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts. The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum as the longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for their valorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  8. Biotechnology for in vitro growing of edible and medicinal mushrooms on wood wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petre

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was focused on finding out the best way to convert the wood wastes into useful food supplements, such as mushroom fruit bodies, by using them as growing sources for the edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, three fungal species from Basidiomycetes, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr. P. Karst, Lentinus edodes (Berkeley Pegler and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries Kummer were tested to determine their biological potential to grow on substrates made of wood wastes (sawdusts as well as shavings which could be used in this way as main ingredients for preparation of natural culture composts.The experiments were achieved by in vitro growing of all these fungal species in special rooms, where the main culture parameters were kept at optimal levels in order to get the highest production of mushroom fruit bodies. The effects of culture compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources as well as other physical and chemical factors (such as: temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time, etc. on mycelial net formation and especially on fruit body induction, were investigated. From all these fungal species tested in our experiments, P. ostreatus was registered as the fastest mushroom culture, then L. edodes and finally, G. lucidum asthe longest mushroom culture. During the experiments, different logs of the same species were used as control samples for each culture compost variants. Applying such biotechnology, the environmental problems generated by the plant wastes accumulation in wood industry could be solved only by using biological means for theirvalorising, simultaneously with food supplements producing having high nutritive values as well as healing effects by increasing the consumers` health.

  9. Effect of Carbon Ash Content on the Thermal and Combustion Properties of Waste Wood Particle / Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study effect of carbon ash content on the thermal stability and combustion behavior of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites was investigated using TGA, DTG, LOI and cone calorimeter. The TGA shows that, as carbon ash content increases, the thermal stability of composites increases, while the residual weight significantly increases, with the residual weight rate of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites increases from 13.97% to 41.02% at 800 ℃ According to cone calorimeter results, in the 50 kW/M2 thermal flow, when carbon ash adding to 70%, peak heat release rate and total heat release quantity, decreases by 68% and 52%, respectively. The LOI of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites improves by about 34%, Conforming UL-94 flammability standard, V-0 rating. The residual weight rate increases by 202.8%, which the significant role of carbon ash in flame retardant.

  10. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  11. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  12. Energy characterization of fresh and torrified pellets produced from Pinus waste wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this research was to evaluate torrified and fresh pellets produced from Pinus waste wood, used for direct generation of thermal energy. The compaction of Pinus sp. waste wood from lumbermill was performed in a pelletizer with a planar array of 8 mm. Roastings were performed in an electric furnace, type muffle, stabilized at final temperatures of 220 °C and 250 °C for 30 min. The following pellets properties were determined: apparent and unit energy density, bulk density, energy bulk density, immediate chemical composition (volatile materials, ash and fixed carbon, high heating value and moisture. It was observed an increase in high heating value and reduction of moisture content of torrified pellets. However, the gain in calorific value was less than the mass loss of the pellets after roasting, reducing the energy densities of the pellets. The pellets raw have marketing potential in European countries such as Germany, Austria and Sweden. The methodology used for roasting is not suitable for pellets heat treatment. However, further research on pellet roasting in a wider temperature and residence time range is recommended, in order to define parameters that optimize their energetic properties.

  13. The economics of particulate pollution abatement technologies for wood-waste-fired combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of new and improved particulate abatement equipment (PAE) on the economics of new and existing wood waste combustion systems. The operating characteristics of current PAE technology are summarized and the basis for cost estimates is established. The technologies include multicyclone collectors, wet scrubbers, fabric filter baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, and new versus retrofit installations. Capital costs were determined for 4 generic types of PAE and 4 cases for each PAE type according to GJ/h in steam enthalpy. Cost information was developed for wood waste energy systems with and without PAE. In the cost analysis, a hypothetical steam selling price is determined which will give a 25% return on pretax cash flow over a 20-year period. Additional costs of the PAE are applied to the energy system cash flows and the impact on average annual return is calculated. Results indicate reductions in internal rate of return of 3-6% for most PAE systems. 54 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Climate protection potential in the waste management sector. Examples: municipal waste and waste wood; Klimaschutzpotenziale der Abfallwirtschaft. Am Beispiel von Siedlungsabfaellen und Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris [Oeko-Institut e.V. Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany); Vogt, Regine; Giegrich, Juergen [IFEU Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In the National Inventory Reports only the direct greenhouse gas emissions of the waste management sector are taken into account. The overall efforts of the waste management sector in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol are not, therefore, represented. In particular the efforts related to the separate collection of recyclables from waste and the re-use or energetic use of such recyclables or residue are shown as the savings of other sectors of the production industry and energy industry. This research project has used the methodology of eco-balancing to examine the efforts of the municipal waste management sector - including the use of waste wood - in Germany, the 27 Member States as well as in Turkey, Tunisia and Mexico. The balances referred to the actual balance in 2006 and different optimisation scenarios for 2020. The expenditure resulting from collection, transport, treatment and recycling of waste after it has become available was compared to the savings arising from the secondary products and energy realised from waste. Since the landfilling of untreated municipal waste has been discontinued in Germany, the key potentials of the country have already been fully tapped. Indeed, the contribution of municipal waste management to the reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions amounted to approx. 18 million t CO{sub 2}-eq per annum in 2006 in Germany. In particular, these emission reductions have been brought about by improving treatment techniques (emission reductions in the biological processes and greater energy efficiency in the thermal processes) and by increases in the separate collection and use of recyclable materials stemming from municipal waste and waste wood. If both strategies are combined, there is still an optimisation potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of 10 million t CO{sub 2}-eq per annum. Compared to 1990 data taken from previous assessments, the overall reduction amounts to approx. 56

  15. Increasing Effort in Using the Waste of Mangrove Wood for Natural Dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general function of mangrove forest is mainly for protecting thesustain ability of sea shore against the wave toss, however, the fishermenhas often used the mangrove wood to produce their ships, building and otherthings. Among others, this wood also contains of chromophore, tannine,furfurol and phtalic that has the possibility to serve as textile dyes,however its fixation ability to silk fiber in this dyes does not have strongfixation ability to silk fiber. In other to improve its color fastness it wasnecessary to do after treatment with mordant. In this study the waste fromthe mangrove in the form of shredded wood, wood bark or twig and small branchwere used as the raw material of the natural dyes. This materials werechopped as small as possible (into saw form) and being extracted in order toobtain the dyes as much as possible. As the result of this study wasaddressed to the small and medium scale industries, the extraction processwas carried out in a simple way using water as medium with various ratios inthe respected order 1:10; 1:20; 1:30; 1:40; and 1 :50. To obtain theextracted yields, the mangrove waste was extracted until it reached the ratioof 1/5 to the medium, the extracted sample was taken out to be extractedagain in fresh water as medium in the same ratio variation. This process wasrepeated until no more wood color to be extracted (± 9 repeats). Theextracted liquid was then put into evaporation, drying and grinded into dyespowder. The highest extracted yields was obtained by the ratio to medium(1:40 to 1:50) with 9.40% -9.48% extracted yields. The following experimentwas dyeing process to silk fabrics by using dyes powder or dyes liquidextracted from medium with ratio 1:40 mixture from first extraction up toforth extraction. The dyeing process was carried out without mordanting,pre-mordanting and post-mordanting, by means of Tawas (Al2K2(SO4)3) orTunjung (FeSO4 . 7 H2O) as mordanting material. The dyed silk fabrics werethen tested for its color

  16. Controlled composting of waste wood contaminated with PAH; Untersuchungen zur gesteuerten Rotte von mit polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) kontaminiertem Altholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, H.

    2002-07-01

    The author investigated the potential and limits of microbial pollutant degradation in PAH-polluted waste wood by composting. The conditions in which autochthonic micro-organisms are able to decomposite the PAH contained in wood by solid phase fermentation were investigated. The focus was on phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene, all of which are used as protective materials (disinfestants) for wood. The results were verified on contaminated waste wood, including an analytical investigations of decomposition of PAH of the EPA catalogue. Boundary conditions for achieving high rates of PAH decomposition were investigated. [German] Generelles Ziel der Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen des mikrobiellen Schadstoffabbaus in PAK-belastetem Altholz durch Kompostierung und die Pruefung auf Anwendbarkeit der Erkenntnisse in technischen Verfahren. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde untersucht, unter welchen Bedingungen die autochthonen Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, an das Holz gebundene PAK durch Feststofffermentation abzubauen. Als Schwerpunkt wurde zunaechst der Abbau der im zum Holzschutz verwendetem Teeroel vorkommenden PAK Phenanthren, Anthracen und Pyren untersucht. Eine Verifizierung der Ergebnisse erfolgte mit real kontaminiertem Altholz, dabei wurde der Abbau der PAK der EPA-Liste analytisch verfolgt. Es sollten geeignete Randbedingungen gefunden werden, um im Festphasensystem hohe Abbauraten der PAK zu erreichen. (orig.)

  17. Complete knock down (CKD) house made of wood from waste biomass and plastic for disaster struck areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite global efforts and all good intentions to save our forests and eco systems, Mother Earth has witnessed the destruction of some 160,000 square kilometers of forest cover every year from the 1960s right up to the 1990s. The insatiable appetite and unrelenting demand for this fast diminishing commodity by both Mankind and Industry have created vast demand and supply imbalances and with pressures mounting even in the new millennium with global wood consumption reaching 3.8 billion cubic metres by 2010. Thus the quest for alternate materials continues. However, to be successful as a viable alternate to the traditional wood industry, the intending material must be able to build and expand on the current properties and advantages of wood. It should ideally be designed and engineered to yield performance properties superior to that of traditional wood. Fibersit is a high performance fiber composite derived from a revolutionary green technology. The proprietary Fibersit technology involves a method of refining, blending and compounding natural fibers from cellulose waste streams to form a high strength fibre composite material in a polymer matrix. The designated waste or base raw materials used in this instance are those of waste thermoplastics and various categories of cellulose waste including wood. Fibersit has all the structural qualities of wood, handles like wood but is yet stronger and more durable than wood. It can be nailed, screwed, drilled, sawn, milled, processed and finished just like wood. This extended product performance offers unbeatable value for money and broad, flexible on site options. In modern times, many natural disasters have occurred near or in urban areas destroying vast areas of houses and buildings. The need to rebuild society is essential and needs to be carried out in a sustainable manner. This cost often goes into billions and is needed very quickly in order to provide the bare minimum to the victims. In many instances, we have seen

  18. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water. PMID:27293776

  19. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  20. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  1. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg-1) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg-1), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg-1 in carrot and 32 mg kg-1 in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils

  2. Health hazards of natural and introduced chemical components of boatbuilding woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagels, R

    1985-01-01

    The major components of untreated wood--cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin--have not been implicated as toxicants, but extractive substances, especially in heartwood, can be toxic. Decay-resistant woods are more likely to contain irritants or sensitizers than nondurable woods. Short-term exposures to certain wood dusts may result in asthma, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, or allergic dermatitis, but long-term effects may include nasal cancer and Hodgkin's disease. Some thermophilic microorganisms found in wood are human pathogens, and septic splinters (chromomycosis) and inhalation of ascomycete spores from stored wood chips have been implicated in human illnesses. Reconstituted wood can contain formaldehyde resins, which pose health risks in enclosed humid areas. Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood is particularly toxic--short-term exposures to PCP-treating solutions can lead to aplastic anemia and mortality, while diseases such as Hodgkin's disease are associated with long-term exposures. Since much commercial lumber is dipped in PCP, the separation of the chronic effects of wood dust from PCP exposure is difficult. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- and ammoniacal copper arsenite (ACA)-treated wood may leach arsenic. CCA-treated wood is potentially safer, since it contains the pentavalent arsenic, which is a common constituent in the environment. ACA contains the trivalent arsenic, which is more toxic. PMID:3901739

  3. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of the Products Derived from the Thermolysis of Waste Abies alba Mill. Wood

    OpenAIRE

    López, Félix A.; Rodríguez, Olga; Urien, Andrea; Lobato Ortega, Belén; Álvarez Centeno, Teresa; Alguacil, Francisco José

    2013-01-01

    [EN] This paper reports the physico-chemical characteristics of the products derived from the thermolysis (thermolytic distillation) of waste silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood at different temperatures (400℃- 600℃) in a pilot scale plant. Depending on the thermolysis temperature, the procedure yielded 45 - 53 wt% pyroligneous acid with a high water content (80 - 86 wt%) and pH ≈ 3.6. The process also produced a carbonaceous solid or biochar (23 - 26 wt%), its properties strongly dependent on...

  4. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  5. Design of a storage silo and a conveying mechanism for wood waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gienger, M.; Horttanainen, M.; Onikki, P.; Sarkomaa, P.; Partamies, R.

    1997-12-31

    The research is about the design of a storage silo for saw dust and other kinds of wood particles and the attached conveying system to transport them into the wood burner. As the mechanism is used for a timber drying kiln, function and structure of these kilns has been studied. Further, the basics of the pyrolysis and combustion process of wood have been collected. In addition, the way of determining the required hopper angle and the opening size of silos to obtain gravity discharge has been analyzed. Different models of storage systems with discharge aids, which are required for the discharge of difficult materials, have been developed, evaluated and combined to complete systems. One of these has been chosen and elaborated by calculating critical components and creating drawings with the CAD-system AutoCAD. (orig.) 13 refs.

  6. Market opportunities for the utilization of wood waste generated by small sawmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the amounts and types of wood residue from the British Columbia sawmill and logging industry shows that only ca 50% of the residue is being utilized. On a large scale, increased utilization will mainly be achieved through use for the generation of energy. For small sawmills, a more innovative approach to the problem is needed. To assist in developing the innovative markets and uses for wood residues from the small mills, a series of in-depth interviews was conducted with sawmill operators, resource agencies, and users of wood residue throughout British Columbia. The user markets include other sawmills; pulp, paper, and particleboard plants; energy applications; and agriculture. The results of the interviews are tabulated and analyzed to demonstrate the broad spectrum of wood residue uses currently available as well as those that are emerging. For many small sawmill operations in remote areas, utilization of residues is not economical. As environmental regulations become more stringent, the cost and difficulty of handling or disposing residue will increase, and utilization (even if not economical) will become a valid option compared to disposal. A number of emerging markets for wood residue are noted, many of which are in the agricultural field. Other products which can be made out of wood residues are hog fuel and fuel pellets or briquettes. Small sawmills will not have the residue volumes or funds to establish a briquette plant, but they have expressed interest in supplying residue to any such plant that can be established in their area. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Recognized and new problems of power generation from waste wood according to the new EEG of 2004; Alte und neue Probleme der Altholzverstromung nach der EEG-Novelle 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, C. [Avocado Rechtsanwaelte, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Power generation from waste wood according to the EEG (Renewables Act), even in the modified version of 2004, raises complex legal problems under EU law. The contribution discusses these problems and presents important information on the legal boundary conditions of power generation from waste wood. (orig.)

  8. Waste Utilization as Fine Coconut Fiber for Core and Wood Waste Bayur to The Face Layer of The Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particle Board Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of wood particle bayur comparison to the outer layer of coconut husk particle board smooth the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting particle board . The design used was completely randomized design ( CRD with 5 treatments with 3 replications for each treatment used is the use of wood particles bayur as the outer layer of particle board and refined coconut fiber as a core that is 80 % : 20 % , 70 % : 30 % , 60 % : 40 % , 50 % : 50 % , 40 % : 60 % observational data physical and mechanical properties were analyzed using analysis of variance if significantly different then performed with a further test of Duncan's New Multiple Range Test ( DMNRT at the 5% significance level . Observations made on the physical properties of particle board include : water content , water absorption and thickness expansion. The mechanical properties of particle board : strength broken , the pressure parallel and bonding strength. Based on the research that has been carried out showed that the utilization of wood waste bayur as the outer layer of particle board on a percentage varying significantly different effect on strength broken , water content , water absorption , expansion of thick , strength pressure bonding parallel to the internal surface . The results show the percentage of particle board with wood bayur with delicate coconut husk ( 40:60 is the best board with a water content of 6.11% , water absorption 20.56 % 10.93 % thicker expansion, density of 0.84 % , bonding strength of 56.90 kg / cm 2 pressure and parallel fiber determination 146.65 kg /cm 2.

  9. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. PMID:25263218

  10. Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Creosote Treated Wood Waste by a Composting Microbial Culture Augmented with the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Creosote is used as a wood preservative and water proof agent in railway sleepers, utility poles, buildings foundations and fences and garden furniture. It is a mixture of over 300 hydrocarbons which include 75% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-17% phenolic compounds and 10-18% heterocyclic organic compounds. Exposure to creosote may result in several health problems including damage to kidney, liver, eyes and skin. Potential contamination of soil and water exist from creosote treated wood from construction and demolition sites. Approach: The possibility of using an invessel composting process augmented with the ascomycetous fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus as a mesophilic/thermophilic bioremediation option for the degradation of phenolic compounds in creosote treated wood waste was evaluated. Results: The temperatures of bioremediation process reached thermophilic phase and the mesophilic and thermophilic lag phases were clearly identified. The moisture content decreased significantly indicating that the water produced by microbial respiration did not compensate for the water lost as vapor with the exhaust gases. Initial increases in pH due to the breakdown of organic nitrogen to ammonium and final drop in pH due to the formation of organic acids and the loss of ammonium with the exhaust gases in the latter stage were observed. Different degradation rates were observed in the mesophilic and thermophilic stages of composting. The control experiment achieved higher reductions of volatile solids, total carbon and TKN and higher degradation of phenolic compounds, cellulose and lignin, indicating a higher level of activity of microorganisms during the composting process compared with the inoculated experimental trial. The stability and maturity of the product of the control experiment were also better than those of the product from the inoculated experimental trial. Conclusion: The inoculation of the cellulolyticthermophilic

  11. Merging two waste streams, wood ash and biowaste, results in improved composting process and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado Juárez, M; Gómez-Brandón, M; Insam, H

    2015-04-01

    A trial was carried out to evaluate the influence of wood ash admixture on biowaste composting. The aim was to find the optimal dosage of ash addition to enhance the composting process without endangering the final compost characteristics and use. Six treatments including an unamended control (K0) and composts with additions of 3% (K3), 6% (K6), 9% (K9), 12% (K12) and 15% (K15) of wood ash (w/w) were studied. The composting process was monitored in situ for 49days, by measuring temperature, CO2, O2, and CH4 in the piles and pH, electric conductivity (EC), and inorganic N in the laboratory. At the end of the process, the products were tested for Reifegrad (maturity), toxicity and quality. The addition of up to 15% of wood ash to biowaste did not negatively affect the composting process, and the initial differences found between both the low and high ash-treated composts were attenuated with the ongoing process development. Nevertheless, and mainly due to Cd level, composts with higher ash amendment did not comply with the highest quality standards established by the Austrian Compost Ordinance. The failure of obtaining class A+ quality after ash amendment emphasizes the need for a rigid quality selection of (bottom) ashes and thus reducing environmental risks related to high pollutant loads originating from the ashes. PMID:25536175

  12. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  13. Cladosporium sp. , a potential fungus for bioremediation of wood-treating wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borazjani, H.; Ferguson, B.; Hendrix, F.; McFarland, L.; McGinnis, G.; Pope, D.; Strobel, D.; Wagner, J. (Mississippi Forest Products Utilization Lab., Mississippi State (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A fungus, Cladosporium sp., was isolated from a very old wood-treating plant sludge pond in Weed, California. A preliminary study showed no inhibition of mycelial growth at 5,500 {mu}g polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) per ml of potato dextrose agar (PDA). Pentachlorophenol (PCP) inhibited mycelial growth at 10 {mu}g/ml of PDA. Rates of breakdown of both PAHs and PCP in the soil and water system were studied using this fungus. The results of this study and the application of this fungus for cleaning up contaminated sites will be discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of Apu Wood Plant (Pistia stratiotes L to Reduce the Bacterial in Leachate on Integrated Waste Treatment Plant of Toisapu, Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairudin Rasako

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high population growth figures in the city of Ambon, contributed significantly impact on increasing production of waste and waste generated, both in large scale for industrial / factory, as well as domestic scale at the household level. Of the total waste and waste generated, estimated at nearly largely banished to the Final Disposal (TPA in the Integrated Waste Treatment Plant (IWTP Toisapu. One byproduct of the process is the accumulation of garbage leachate. Leachate contained in IWTP Toisapu already accommodated within a particular basin but there has been no effort or specific treatment for the reduction of pollutants contained therein. The use of water plants Wood Apu (Pistia stratiotes L can be applied as a natural control, because these plants have the ability to reduce the amount of chemical contaminants. This study was done to see how effective the water plant lettuce wood as a natural control in reducing the number of bacterial contaminants in the leachate IPST Toisapu. The research design is quasi-experimental research (quasi experiment. Samples tested were leachate originating from IPST Toisapu. The parameters measured were the levels of the numbers of E. coli, and coliform before and after the Apu wood plants.

  15. Physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wastes arising in the wood industry; Stoffliche und energetische Abfallverwertung in der Holz- und Papierindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik; Marutzky, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Holzforschung, Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut (WKI), Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The present paper describes material streams in the paper and wood industry. It also points out possibilities for the physical utilisation and conversion to energy of wood waste and discusses the problems they involve. The authors give a brief overview of the of the plants used for this purpose along with illustrating examples. [Deutsch] Es werden Stoffstroeme in der Papier- und Holzindustrie aufgezeigt. Ferner werden stoffliche und energetische Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Holzabfaellen und Probleme dieser Verwertung beschrieben. Auch die Anlagen zu dieser Verwertung und einige Beispiele werden kurz zusammengefasst vorgestellt. (orig.)

  16. Encapsulation and re-use of wood industry waste: varnish powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta, A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the findings of the first stageof the analysis of xiloarcilla, a material made of clayand a wood industry by-product, namely the wood andpolyurethane varnish powder pump-suctioned off woodcomponents during sanding and polishing. This powderwas added to the clay in proportions of from 1% to 5%by weight. The prime materials as well as the xiloarcillacompound were characterized, in the latter case primarilyto determine its physical-mechanical properties andchemical and environmental feasibility as a constructionmaterial.En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos,en una primera etapa, del estudio del material que denominaremoscomo xiloarcilla, compuesto por arcilla y porun subproducto de las industrias de la madera, que eneste caso son los polvos del lijado y del barnizado y excedentesde estos productos utilizados en el acabado demuchos componentes de madera (PLB, estos polvos seadicionaron a la arcilla en cantidades entre el 1% y el5% del peso total del compuesto. Se realizo un estudiode caracterizacion de los materiales aislados y posteriormentedel compuesto xiloarcilla, con enfasis en el comportamientofisico-mecanico y su respuesta quimica ymedioambiental, como material de construccion.

  17. Effects of oil sands waste water on the wood frog (rana sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sustainability of various reclamation strategies can be determined by the growth and health of indigenous amphibians (Wood Frogs). This paper referred to the large quantities of tailings water that are generated by oil sand extraction activities. It presented the results of a study that was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 on reclaimed formation wetlands comprising tailings water. The objective was to understand the impact of these wetlands on native amphibians. Frogs were exposed to wetlands containing oil sands process affected water (OSPW) and reference water (no OSPW). Six experimental trenches were made at one site in the first year. Each trench had 3 enclosures with 50 tadpoles. In the second year, there were 13 sites, including 6 reference and 7 OSPW affected sites, which were classified as old (more than 8 yrs) or young (less than 7 yrs). Four enclosures, with 50 tadpoles each, were placed in each wetland. The study involved the evaluation of growth rate, survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid hormone concentrations, liver EROD activity, and tissue retinol concentrations. In addition, stable isotopes were used to track carbon flow from primary production plants, through the food chain, to tadpoles and frogs which represent intermediate and higher trophic levels in reclaimed wetlands

  18. District heating using wood briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new district heating plant in Drammen, Norway, uses wood briquettes as the energy source. This reduces the emission of carbon dioxide in Drammen by 16 000 tonnes per year. The briquettes are made of compressed wood from waste chips from forestry and bark and other waste from sawmills and wood processing. The plant is expected to use 10 000 tonnes of briquettes per year, which corresponds to 4 780 cubic metres of oil. Burning the briquettes produces less than one percent ash

  19. 三种废弃木质材料能源化利用技术的分析%Analysis of Three Energy Conversion Technologies for Wood Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪景; 司慧; 常建民; 郭晓慧; 任学勇

    2011-01-01

    介绍废弃木质材料的分类与资源现状,从工艺及产物特性、技术经济性等方面,对快速热裂解液化、气化、压缩成型等能源化利用技术进行分析,探讨各种技术的优势、不足及发展前景,其中快速热裂解液化技术发展前景明朗,值得推广.建议根据废弃木质材料的种类和实际生产情况,合理选择技术种类.%This paper describes the classification and resources of wood wastes. To convert the wood waste to energy, the authors described the major advantages and disadvantages of three commonly-used bio-conversion techniques; fast pyrolysis, gasification, and pelletization. It is noted that a conversion technique should be adopted based on the characteristics and supply of wood wastes. The authors believed that the fast pyrolysis technology would have more potential in China.

  20. Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.; Shewchuk, D. [Cariboo Pulp and Paper, Quesnel, BC (Canada); Van Heek, R. [Aker Kvaerner, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of tests conducted to determine if the addition of waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing might decrease tall oil soap solubility in pine-beetle impacted wood from British Columbia (BC). The soap recovery and tall oil production at BC mills has fallen by 30 to 40 percent in recent years due to the pulping of high proportions of grey-stage beetle-impacted wood. Full-scale mill tests were conducted over a 4-day period. The study showed that the addition of tall oil fatty acids or waste fatty acids from vegetable oil processing could decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase the soup skimming efficiency in mills pulping a large percentage of grey stage beetle-infested wood. The addition of fatty acids increased tall oil soap skimming efficiency from 50.2 percent in the baseline tests to 71.8 percent based on the total soap available, and from 76.7 percent in the baseline tests to 87.5 percent based on insoluble soap only. The economic analyses indicated that waste fatty acid addition could be economical when natural gas and oil prices are high. 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Adsorption and transport of methane in biochars derived from waste wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-09-01

    Mitigation of landfill gas (LFG) is among the critical aspects considered in the design of a landfill cover in order to prevent atmospheric pollution and control global warming. In general, landfill cover soils can partially remove methane (CH4) through microbial oxidation carried out by methanotrophic bacteria present within them. The oxidizing capacity of these landfill cover soils may be improved by adding organic materials, such as biochar, which increase adsorption and promote subsequent or simultaneous oxidation of CH4. In this study, seven wood-derived biochars and granular activated carbon (GAC) were characterized for their CH4 adsorption capacity by conducting batch and small-scale column studies. The effects of influential factors, such as exposed CH4 concentration, moisture content and temperature on CH4 adsorption onto biochars, were determined. The CH4 transport was modeled using a 1-D advection-dispersion equation that accounted for sorption. The effects of LFG inflow rates and moisture content on the combined adsorption and transport properties of biochars were determined. The maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of GAC (3.21mol/kg) was significantly higher than that of the biochars (0.05-0.9mol/kg). The CH4 gas dispersion coefficients for all of the biochars ranged from 1×10(-3) to 3×10(-3)m(2)s(-1). The presence of moisture significantly suppressed the extent of methane adsorption onto the biochars and caused the methane to break through within shorter periods of time. Overall, certain biochar types have a high potential to enhance CH4 adsorption and transport properties when used as a cover material in landfills. However, field-scale studies need to be conducted in order to evaluate the performance of biochar-based cover system under a more dynamic field condition that captures the effect of seasonal and temporal changes. PMID:26005190

  2. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Sutijan, Rochmadi, Budiman, Arief

    2016-06-01

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 - 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 - 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporated at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H2 productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.

  3. Nanoparticle fillers obtained from wood processing wastes for reinforcing of paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laka, Marianna; Vikele, Laura; Rozenberga, Linda; Janceva, Sarmite

    2016-05-01

    Paper sheets were produced from bleached kraft pulp, and office and newsprint waste paper. Nanoparticles from black alder bark, grey alder bark and pine bark as well as birch sawdust were obtained for using them as reinforcing fillers in paper. Non-extracted bark and that extracted in biorefinery were used. For producing nanoparticles, the materials were destructed using the thermocatalytic destruction method and then dispersed in water medium in a ball mill. At a sufficient concentration, gel-like dispersions were obtained, which contained nanoparticles with the size ~300 nm. The dispersions were introduced in paper furnish in different amounts. It has been established that all the nanoparticle fillers increase the tensile index and burst index in dry and wet states. The nanoparticle fillers from extracted bark increase the mechanical indices to a higher extent. At 20% filler content, tensile index in a dry state increases in the case of non-extracted grey alder bark, black alder bark and pine bark by 28, 30 and 15%, and in the case of extracted ones - by 44, 40 and 30%, respectively; the burst index increases by 78, 19 and 4%, and 91, 25 and 14%, respectively. The nanoparticle filler from birch sawdust increases the tensile strength in a dry state by 9% and burst index by 20%. The obtained nanoparticle fillers slightly improve also the water resistance of paper.

  4. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  5. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  6. Characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis and steam gasification of wood waste, RDF, and RPF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    Pyrolysis and steam gasification of woody biomass chip (WBC) obtained from construction and demolition wastes, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and refuse paper and plastic fuel (RPF) were performed at various temperatures using a lab-scale instrument. The gas, liquid, and solid products were examined to determine their generation amounts, properties, and the carbon balance between raw material and products. The amount of product gas and its hydrogen concentration showed a considerable difference depending on pyrolysis and steam gasification at higher temperature. The reaction of steam and solid product, char, contributed to an increase in gas amount and hydrogen concentration. The amount of liquid products generated greatly depended on temperature rather than pyrolysis or steam gasification. The compositions of liquid product varied relying on raw materials used at 500°C but the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons became the major compounds at 900°C irrespective of the raw materials used. Almost fixed carbon (FC) of raw materials remained as solid products under pyrolysis condition whereas FC started to decompose at 700°C under steam gasification condition. For WBC, both char utilization by pyrolysis at low temperature (500°C) and syngas recovery by steam gasification at higher temperature (900°C) might be practical options. From the results of carbon balance of RDF and RPF, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion to liquid products conspicuously increased as the amount of plastic increased in the raw material. To recover feedstock from RPF, pyrolysis for oil recovery at low temperature (500°C) might be one of viable options. Steam gasification at 900°C could be an option but the method of tar reforming (e.g. catalyst utilization) should be considered. PMID:24246576

  7. Wood pellet research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohkansanj, S.; Bi, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Wood pellet research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets are composed of waste wood materials such as sawmill residue, municipal landfill waste and grain crops. Due to the high temperature combustion used to form the waste materials into the pellet, no additives or glues are necessary to bind them. The pellets are typically used for home heating; heat and power production; poultry bedding; and in biorefineries. This presentation provided an outline of the University of British Columbia wood pellet research and development program. Research at the university is being conducted to develop new types of pellets. Researchers at the program also analyze the physical and chemical properties of pellets in order to optimize pellet density and heating values. Wood pellet modelling and simulation studies are carried out, and various training and education programs are also offered. Research is currently being conducted to develop a reactor for off-gassing experiments. This presentation also provided details of a study investigating the economics of wood pellet production and transport. Pellet production costs and feedstock costs were compared. A summary of the costs and energy inputs of pellet production included details of product storage; transportation and transfer; handling; and transportation to energy plants. It was concluded that more than 35 per cent of the energy content of biomass is used up in the processing and transport of Canadian wood pellets to Europe. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers. PMID:25935750

  10. High temperature corrosion in a biomass-fired power boiler : Reducing furnace wall corrosion in a waste wood-fired power plant with advanced steam data

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    The use of waste (or recycled) wood as a fuel in heat and power stations is becoming more widespread in Sweden (and Europe), because it is CO2 neutral with a lower cost than forest fuel. However, it is a heterogeneous fuel with a high amount of chlorine, alkali and heavy metals which causes more corrosion than fossil fuels or forest fuel. A part of the boiler which is subjected to a high corrosion risk is the furnace wall (or waterwall) which is formed of tubes welded together. Waterwalls are...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  12. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  13. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  14. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  15. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Aurel LUNGULEASA

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs) were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression stre...

  16. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression strength and calorific value. The results were compared to those of beech and pine briquettes obtained under similar conditions. Based on the experimental results, mathematical correlations between density and compression strength and density and calorific value were investigated.

  17. FY 1990 report on the development of wood-waste/agri-waste pyrolytic gasification technology and utilization technology of gas product; 1990 nendo mokushitsukei haikibutsu no netsubunkai gas ka gijutsu to seisei gas no riyo gijutsu kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    It is urgently necessary for the Philippines, which has no promising energy source to replace imported oil and lacks hard currencies, to reduce dependence on oil. The country, consisting of a number of islands, has faced many difficulties in construction of large-scale power transmission grids covering wide areas, which greatly retard development of local industries and dissemination of electricity. Therefore, great expectations have been placed on the techniques this project plans to develop for utilization of wastes as the energy source. This 5-year project (FY 1990 to 1994) is aimed at joint research and development of (thermal decomposition/gasification and power generation system) for transforming large quantities of wood-wastes/agri-wastes left unutilized into electric power, in which thermal decomposition/gasification of the wastes is combined with gas engine/power generator systems, and thereby to establish the systems suitable for the developing country. The major R and D results obtained in FY 1990 as the initial year include negotiations with the Philippines, on-the-spot surveys for the demonstration plant sites and conditions, and conceptual designs of the demonstration plant. (NEDO)

  18. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    Background. On the basis of an increased focus on emissions of greenhouse gases in general, Waste Norway wanted to prepare a climate accounting for waste management in Norway. Oestfoldforskning was engaged to undertake the project. The aim of the project has been to develop a model for the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions from different waste types of waste glass containers, metal containers, paper, cardboard, plastic, wet organic waste, wood waste and residual waste. The model is based on life cycle methodology and is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions per kg of waste for the various waste management options and waste types, as well as to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management for including waste types and quantities of 2006. There is an emphasis on developing a model so that municipalities / waste companies or regions can develop their own climate accounting for waste management in their region, based on site-specific conditions associated with types and amounts of waste, transport distances, type of treatment, exploitation and use of waste generated energy etc. The model can also be used as the basis for the preparation of useful documentation as the basis for information about waste systems utility in general, and as a basis for strategic reviews for Waste Norway and the waste sector in particular. Conclusions: The main conclusions from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study clearly shows that to consider only one environmental indicator is too narrow approach to form the basis for decision making for selection of waste management solutions. 2. Net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management varies greatly, both between the different types of waste and treatment methods which are reviewed. The main results of the ranking of management methods in relation to the net greenhouse effect associated with the waste types and treatment methods are as follows: Recycling of materials

  19. Control of a wood biquetting machine

    OpenAIRE

    Plestenjak, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the renewal and modernization of an old wood briquetting machine. Wood briquetting machine is a machine that is used in the timber industry to compress fine wood waste material. The machine outputs woden briquettes, which are biomass, suitable for heating in the kiln. Machinery itself consists of a hardware and software part. The hardware part consists of hydraulic and electrical components. The key hydraulic components are the pump,the electric cylinders and the valv...

  20. Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate and boron/fluorine preservatives; Classificacao de residuos de madeira tratada com preservativos a base de arseniato de cobre cromatado e de boro/fluor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; Santos, Heldiane Souza dos; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla M.N.; Pires, Marcal J.R., E-mail: suzana.ferrarini@gmail.com [Faculdade de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Maia, Sandra Maria [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Classification of waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and boron/fluorine preservatives, according to NBR 10004, was investigated. The leaching test (ABNT NBR 10005) for As and Cr, and solubilization test (ABNT NBR 10006) for F, were applied to out-of-service wooden poles. Concentrations of As and Cr in leachates were determined by ICP-MS and of F by ESI. Values for As were higher than 1 mg L{sup -1} classifying the waste as hazardous material (Class I) whereas values for F (> 1.5 mg L{sup -1}) were non-hazardous but indicated non-inert material (Class IIA). (author)

  1. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth Jozef; Wachter Igor; Balog Karol

    2015-01-01

    With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous si...

  2. About the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood in fluidized bed reactor for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants; Zur Vergasung von Rest- und Abfallholz in Wirbelschichtreaktoren fuer dezentrale Energieversorgungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, H.

    2005-10-20

    This dissertation examines the thermochemical conversion (gasification) of untreated scrap and waste wood in combustible gases for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants of low output (1 to 10 MW fuel power). A general section goes into the basics of the energetic utilization of solid biomass, the subprocesses of thermochemical conversion being described in more detail. Special attention is given to the processes and state of the art of biomass gasification in decentralized plants. A theoretical section analyzes the gasification models for solid biomass presented in the literature. Based on this analysis, a simplified kinetic model is derived for the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood with air in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. It includes a fluid mechanic analysis of the fluidized bed based on HILLIGARDT, an empirical pyrolysis model and a global kinetic approach to the main chemical reaction taken from the literature. An experimental section describes the tests of the gasification of forest scrap wood in a semi-industrial fluidized bed gasification test plant with 150 kW fuel power and presents the significant test results. The gasification model derived is applied to check the test plant's standard settings and compare them with measured values. Furthermore, the model is employed to explain basic reaction paths and zones and to perform concluding parameter simulations. (orig.)

  3. Furnace Wall Corrosion in a Wood-fired Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    The use of renewable wood-based fuel has been increasing in the last few decades because it is said to be carbon neutral. However, wood-based fuel, and especially used wood (also known as recycled wood or waste wood), is more corrosive than virgin wood (forest fuel), because of higher amounts of chlorine and heavy metals. These elements increase the corrosion problems at the furnace walls where the oxygen level is low. Corrosion mechanisms are usually investigated at the superheaters where th...

  4. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  5. Assessment of Ecotoxicity of Topsoils from a Wood Treatment Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.MENCH; C.BES

    2009-01-01

    A series of 9 soil samples were taken at a timber treatment site in SW Prance where Cu sulphate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have been used as wood preservatives (Sites P1 to P9) and one soil sample was collected at an adjacent site on the same soil type (Site P10).Copper was a major contaminant in all topsoils,varying from 65 (Soil P5)to 2600 mg Cu kg-1 (Soil P7),exceeding background values for French sandy soils.As and Cr did not accumulate in soil,except at Site P8 (52 mg As kg-1 and 87 mg Cr kg-1) where CCA-treated posts were stacked.Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with bioassays using radish,lettuce,slug Arion rufus L.,and earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny).There werc significantly differences in lettuce germination rate,lettuce leaf yield,radish root and leaf yields,slug herbivory,and earthworm avoidance.An additional bioassay showed higher negative impacts on bean shoot and root yields,Rhizobium nodule counts on Bean roots,and guaiacol peroxidase activity in primary Bean leaves for soil from Site P7,with and without fertilisation,than for soil from Site P10,despite both soils having a similar value for computed free ion Cu2+ activity in the soil solution (pCu2+).Beans grown in soil from Site P7 that had been fertilised showed elevated foliar Cu content and phytotoxic symptoms.Soils from Sites P7 (treatment plant) and P6 (storage of treated utility poles) had the highest ecotoxicity,whereas soil from Site P10 (high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity) had the lowest.Except at Site P10,the soil factor pCu2+ computed with soil pH and total soil Cu could be used to predict soil ecotoxicity.

  6. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    of virgin wood does not change the results radically (—665 to —125 kg CO2-equivalents tonne— 1 wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes...

  7. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  8. Desilication of spent liquors derived from alkaline pulping of non-wood plant fibres. Compendium on low- and non-waste technology. Addendum. Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-02-22

    Removal of silica from spent liquors of alkaline non-wood plant fiber pulping. When using non-wood annual plant as raw material for pulping a considerable amount of silica (SiO2) is carried into the process, which prohibits recycling of the quick lime to the causticizing process. The desilication of the black liquor requires steam boiler flue gas as the only reagent. Precipitated matter is separated from the liquor by means of conventional mechanical systems.

  9. Wood-energy in Europe: resources, technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voluntaristic policy for the development of wood fuel would contribute to save energy and to protect the environment. Different strategies of development exist at the European scale as demonstrated by a recent report ordered by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME). This paper gives a synthesis of this report. It deals successively with: the European wood resources (the northern and continental forests, the mountain and bocage regions, the Mediterranean forests); the 3 main resources: forest exploitation, wood transformation, recycling of waste wood; the different economical status of wood resources; the place of wood-fuel in the economy: estimation, complementarity of industrial and energy uses; technological files and perspectives of development: collection, transport, conditioning, fuel production and supply, technologies of energy production from wood (domestic heating, collective heating, cogeneration and mixed wood-coal combustion); future markets; strategy of development: forestry and agriculture, management, producers, environmental aspects, afforestation of abandoned lands, employment...; policies of European, national and regional authorities: political and financial help, regulations and standardizations, financial helps and fiscal policy, inter-region cooperation and R and D, advice and communication; contribution of wood-fuel to the energy supply of Europe. (J.S.)

  10. Waste to Energy : The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duman, Murat; Boels, Luciaan

    2007-01-01

    Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the connec

  11. Experiences of co-combustion and quality control of industrial waste in Sweden and Europe; Erfarenheter av samfoerbraenning och kvalitetssaekring av verksamhetsavfall i Sverige och Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Ekvall, Annika; Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Sundqvist, Jan-Olov [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst. (SP), Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    the fuel has a stable quality over time, and that fuel particle size is even and suitable. In several cases, problems with slagging and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces and also corrosion has been experienced. The content of zinc and chlorine e.g. in surface coatings as well as PVC plastics plays a significant role. Sorting out such material as well as pre-treatment improve the situation considerably. In other cases, co-combustion can lead to positive synergistic effects, e,g, concerning emissions. In most cases, complete QA systems for the fuel are not employed. However, some kind of specification of heating value, PVC content, content of CCA treated wood etc are often used, which are mainly controlled by the eye. QA systems which correspond to those used in Finland and Germany has not yet been established in Sweden. The report is concluded by an assessment of the need for further R and D within the field.

  12. Equipment for biomass. Wood burners; Materiels pour la biomasse, les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R., 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    A review of the French classification of biomass wastes (and more especially wood and wood wastes) concerning classified burning equipment, is presented: special authorization is thus needed for burning residues from wood second transformation processes. Limits for combustion product emission levels are detailed and their impact on wood burning and process equipment is examined: feeder, combustion chamber, exchanger, fume treatment device, residue disposal. Means for reducing pollutant emissions are reviewed

  13. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  14. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  15. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  16. Influence of temperature, mixing and time of residue on the degradation of organic trace materials during thermal treatment of waste wood; Einfluss von Temperatur, Durchmischung und Verweilzeit auf den Abbau organischer Spurenstoffe bei der thermischen Behandlung von Abfallholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Griebel, H. [Fels-Werke GmbH, Goslar (Germany); Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1998-09-01

    Waste wood, e.g. window frames or sleepers treated with coal tar pitch, are usually incinerated after crushing and removal of foreign materials (glass, metal etc.). Organic trace elements, e.g. PAH, PCB, chlorobenzenes, PCDD and PCDF must be removed after combustion. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Abfallhoelzer, wie z.B. Fensterrahmen oder mit Steinkohlenteerpech behandelte Eisenbahnschwellen, werden nach Zerkleinerung und Abtrennung von Wert- und Stoerstoffen (Glas, Metalle usw.) haeufig in Rostsystemen thermisch behandelt. Bei der Diskussion der Prozessbedingungen liegt ein besonderer Schwerpunkt in der Fragestellung nach geeigneten Abbaubedingungen fuer organische Spurenstoffe wie polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK), polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB), Chlorbenzole, polychlorierte Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und polychlorierte Dibenzofurane (PCDF) im Nachverbrennungsprozess. (orig./SR)

  17. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  18. Ethanolamine iin impregnated wood

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, Miha; Petrič, Marko

    2000-01-01

    Wood preservation is necessary and is economically important. Copper compoundsare used for wood preservation because of their good fungicidal properties. Since copper compounds do not fix into wood, they can leach out ofit. A presence of chromium prevents leaching of copper from wood. Recently, many countries intend to bound or limit the use of chromium salts. Therefore, experts looking for other suitable compounds to fix copper and amines seem to be suitable substitutes for chromium. We repo...

  19. Wettability of modified wood

    OpenAIRE

    Sedighi Moghaddam, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Despite many excellent properties of wood which make it suitable for many applications, it suffers from a number of disadvantages limiting its use. For instance, modification is needed to reduce water sorption and to improve decay resistance, dimensional stability and weathering performance. In addition, wood/liquid interaction such as water wettability on wood plays an important role in design and characteristics of many processes and phenomena such as adhesion, coating, waterproofing, wood ...

  20. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  1. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood...

  2. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  3. On-line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferge, T; Maguhn, J; Hafner, K; Mühlberger, F; Davidovic, M; Warnecke, R; Zimmermann, R

    2005-03-15

    The emission of particulate matter and gaseous compounds during combustion of wood and refuse-derived fuel in a small batch reactor is investigated by laser mass-spectrometric on-line measurement techniques for gas-phase analysis and simultaneous registration of physical aerosol properties (number size distribution). The gas-phase composition is addressed by a laser-based mass spectrometric method, namely, vacuum-UV single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). Particle-size distributions are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. Furthermore, a photoelectric aerosol sensor is applied for detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The different phases of wood combustion are distinguishable by both the chemical profiles of gas-phase components (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) and the particle-size distribution. Furthermore, short disturbances of the combustion process due to air supply shortages are investigated regarding their effect on particle-size distribution and gas-phase composition, respectively. It is shown that the combustion conditions strongly influence the particle-size distribution as well as on the emission of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:15819190

  4. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  5. Sustainable energy supply in rural areas. Availability and competitivity in the Danish wood pellet branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of wood fuels availability on the Danish market is proposed. In this case wood fuels are limited to wood pellets as those are the most important industrial waste wood resource. Demand, supply, attitudes and barriers with regard to renewable energy sources are analyzed. Wood pellets are the most suitable fuel form for use, storage, maintenance of boilers, stokers systems etc. The Danish wood pellet branch has been interviewed in May 1996. This report is based on the responses concerning competitivity, demand and price situation for wholesale as well as for retailers. (EG)

  6. Wood decay at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Dioxines, furans and other pollutants emissions bond to the combustion of natural and additive woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals especially on the dioxines and furans bond to the combustion of wood in industrial furnaces and domestic furnaces. It aims to define the environmental strategy which would allow the combustion of wood residues to produce energy. The first part recalls general aspects concerning the wood. The six other parts presents the wood resources and wastes, the additive used, the combustion and the different factors of combustion and finally the pollutants emissions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Other bioenergy associations in Finland - Wood Energy Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wood Energy Association (WEA) was founded in August 1994 by seven Finnish organizations to promote wood-based energy production. To achieve the objectives, the association maintains contacts to authorities and organizations in items related to the use of wood fuels, assists members and companies in matter concerning business economics and commercialization. When possible, the WEA participates in research projects as well. WEA acts as an umbrella for wood energy producers, energy consumers and other users of wood energy. The association has also participated in a research project which examined the preconditions to establish a field biomass centre in Finland. Taxation policy is one of the association's key-note issues when promoting wood energy. At present, wood fuels, such as bark, sawmill dust, waste wood and black liquor are used. The largest so far unutilized source of wood energy are chips produced of forest residues from timber felling and chips from thinnings of whole trees. As the most important renewable energy resource commercially viable for large-scale production, wood energy can be made commercially more attractive when district heating and electricity production are combined. There is also a large potential in local heating. The initial position of environmental taxes is to reduce emissions when generating heat and power

  9. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  10. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 oC and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by increasing

  11. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  12. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  13. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  14. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  15. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  16. Brazilian Market Structure of Wood Briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, L.V. (Univ. of Brasilia, Forest Dept, Brasilia (Brazil)). E-mail: gentil22@unb.br; Vieira, A.M.C. (Univ. of Brasilia, Dept. of Statistics, Brasilia (Brazil))

    2008-10-15

    The bioenergy market and wood briquette market grew starting from the oil crisis in 1973, when it began the fossil fuels replacement. Lignocellulosic wastes have larger specific calorific power and quality than agricultural, peat and sugar cane bagasse. Knowledge of the briquette market with larger efficient scientific tools and smaller costs, is as important in this work as using improved SWOT Analysis of research market with a Multiple Mode and a Correspondence Analysis Mode. The results of this research show that the supply strengths are the quality and amount of energy from wood briquette. The supply weaknesses are expensive freight and briquette vulnerability to the moisture. The demand opportunities are the many uses of wood briquette in several market segments. The demand threats are the absence of a good distribution and expensive freight for the delivery

  17. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  18. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  19. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  20. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  1. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror;

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and...

  2. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, H. [Wood Resources International, Seattle, WA (United States); Hall, M.M. [Murray Hall Consulting, Duncan, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  3. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  4. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    of carbon. The same is likely to be true for managed forests in other temperate regions. If wood from additional felling is used, it would be most effective to use it in products that stay in circulation for a long time, only to be used for energy at the end of its service life. An increase in wood demand may lead to an intensification of forest management, which may temporarily increase carbon sequestration rates and biomass yields. This would eventually reduce the payback times. However, it must be noted that it would still take a substantial amount of time for the intensification of forest management to become effective, especially when it includes drastic measures, such as converting natural forests into plantations. Short rotation plantations with fast growing trees on agricultural land may be another option, but in these cases there are similarities with the direct and indirect land-use change effects related to energy crops. Further analysis is required to enable a clear judgment on the impact of these options. Products are not the only place of storing carbon with a beneficial effect on climate change. The combination of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (CCS) on large industrial sites where biomass is converted into energy carriers, such as transport fuel and electricity, is projected to be beneficial, as well. Even landfill sites may serve as storage of carbon in wood waste, as pieces of wood hardly degrade.

  5. Wood - a carbon depot

    OpenAIRE

    Lipušček, Igor; Tišler, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the global movement of carbon dioxide, the most important greenhouse gas due to its large quantities. We studied the carbon cycle with possibilities of its extension, and analysed the mechanisms that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bind it into solid substances for a longer period of time. The focus was on carbon dioxide sink into biomass and carbon deposit in wood. On the basis of wood component data and chemical analysis of the components, we calculated th...

  6. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  7. Carbon emission reduction potentials through thinned wood in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninomiya H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fossil fuel with woody biomass for bioelectricity production has great potentials for carbon emission reductions while increasing forest productivity to increase carbon sequestration and improve ecological functionalities. Until recently, study on such potentials was very limited. Beginning in 2007, Japan’s special budgets were allocated for a 6-year intensive thinning on about 3.3 million ha of young stands for increasing carbon sinks in Japanese forests to meet the capped amount of 47.7 Tg CO2 year-1 allowed under the Marrakesh Accord. Because of only 30% of the thinned wood were used for sawntimber, CO2 and CH4 must have been emitted from the disposed thinned wood and wood waste. Such emissions and reduction potentials need to be assessed to provide future alternatives for climate change mitigation. We assessed carbon emission reduction potentials when woody biomass from thinned wood is fully utilized for bioelectricity production as compared with the generation of the same amount of energy produced under coal, oil, and natural gas scenarios. Our analytical results show that if all disposed thinned wood and wood waste are utilized to generate energy, about 62.6, 58.3, and 37.8 Tg CO2 year-1 could be prevented from emitting depending on emission scenarios or about 33.2, 30.9, and 20.0% of Japan’s reduction commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, if thinned wood and wood waste are not utilized, about 13.4 Tg CO2 year-1 would be released due to thinning. Our results suggest that incentives to reducing emission reductions in forest sector in the future climate change mitigation agreements will likely lead to large emission reductions, otherwise leakages due to thinning are unavoidable.

  8. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP(TM))is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTPTM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTPTM. The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  9. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  10. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to...... 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  11. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  12. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  13. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation is...

  14. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov A. P.; Shain V. A.; Syunev V. S.; Lappalainen J.

    2014-01-01

    The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  16. Co-burning of assorted industrial waste consisting of paper, plastic and wood in a bio plant not classified for waste burning; Sameldning av returbraenslen i form av papper, plast och trae i fastbraenslepanna som idag ej aer klassad foer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, M. [Gaevle Kraftvaerme AB, Gaevle (Sweden); Erdegren, P. [JD-Gruppen AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose to investigate the possibilities to burn mixed-in assorted industrial waste in existing bio-fuelled solid fuel boilers, a test combustion was performed during one week in a 70 MW bubbling bed bio plant. The test was performed at Gaevle Kraftvaerme's bio plant 'Johannes' during the winter 2001. The purpose with the test combustion was to evaluate the environmental, technical and economical consequences of combustion with 20% (by volume) addition of assorted industrial waste. Remaining fuel was bark and RT-chips. The assorted industrial waste was taken out by manual screening of arriving waste and consisted of paper, plastic and wood from industries and bulky waste. Regarding flue gas emissions during the test combustion all anticipated new emission stipulations according the EU Directive were met with exception of TOC. For CO, the anticipated stipulation was met during the test, however due to CO-variations independent of type of solid fuel, measures must be taken to meet the anticipated more severe CO-demand. By rearranging the air supply system to the boiler, the new TOC and CO-stipulations are expected to be met. As the flue gas emissions were recorded both ahead and after the flue gas condensation, the separation herein could be calculated. For dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxin the separation rates were around 50-60% and for HCI and NH{sub 3} around 90-95%. The EU Directive stipulation for emissions to water was met for all components. During the test, the coating formation on super heater tubes was measured. The result indicates that the growth rate and chloride content of the coating increased when industrial waste was added. However it is difficult to establish what impact it will have on the life of the tubes. The analyses of the various ashes from the plant indicated an increase of primarily Cr Cu, Pb and Sb. During the test, the temperature was measured at a cross section of the furnace. The result from these measurements indicates

  17. Thermal Proprieties of Concrete Lightened by Wood Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Taoukil

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is about an experimental study of the thermal proprieties of a concrete lightened by wood aggregates stemming from waste products of the carpentry work. We were especially interested in the comparison between the proprieties of concretes lightened by sawdust and those lightened by wood shavings. The determination of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of various samples allowed us to demonstrate that the incorporation of wood aggregates in the concrete increases considerably its thermal insulation capacity. Also, we found that, at equal mass percentage of wood aggregates, the concretes elaborated from shavings present thermal insulation capacities better than those obtained from sawdust. On other hand, we have examined the influence of the water content on the thermophysical properties of the studied concretes. So, we have demonstrated and confirmed that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the studied materials are strongly dependent on the water content.

  18. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    Thermal treatment of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated waste wood is a way to utilize the energy resource of the wood and at the same time to reduce the volume of the waste. An issue of concern in relation to the thermal treatment is As emission to the air. Meanwhile, there is still...... a matter to cope with when methods to avoid As emission are implemented: the residues with increased concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In the present paper two different residues after thermal treatment are characterized: a mixed bottom and fly ash from combustion of CCA impregnated wood, and a charcoal...... from pyrolysis of treated waste wood. By SEM/EDX it was seen that the charcoal still showed wood structure with both tracheids and rays and that Cu, Cr and As were found inside this wood structure. Cu was found alone while Cr and As were often found together. By chemical analysis it was found, too...

  19. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta;

    2015-01-01

    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood-pasture...

  20. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  1. Plasma treatment of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  2. Wood residues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest products industry is the third largest economic sector in Alberta, producing pulp and paper, dimensional lumber, paneling, and value added products, providing some 40,000 jobs . 'Value added' is a key component of expanding economic activity within the forest products sector. Wood residues can play a key role in obtaining more value from forest resources by providing new products, serving as feedstock to energy and chemical production, and playing a role in agriculture and land reclamation. One of the principal roles of the Forest Products Development Branch of the Alberta Economics Department is to encourage the development of the industry by creating new uses for these materials and developing awareness of the scope of the resource. Distances to markets, economic competition from conventional energy sources and coordination of research efforts are substantial barriers to further development that the Forest Products Development Branch has to face daily. Some notable successes in recent years are described. These include the Wood Residue Inventory and the Wood Residue Database that provide data on availability and principal location of wood residues, also a listing of contacts at the mills who produce the materials

  3. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  4. Exposure assessment of residents living near a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of environmental sampling and modeling in a neighborhood adjacent to a wood processing plant. This plant used creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to treat wood for over 70 years. Between 1999 and 2001, environmental samples were obtained to quantify the level of environmental contamination from the wood processing plant. Blood from 10 residents was measured for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Soil sediment samples from drainage ditches and attic/dust samples from nearby residents' homes were tested for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The dioxin congeners analysis of the 10 residents revealed elevated valued for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin compatible with PCP as the source. The levels of carcinogenic PAHs were higher than background levels and were similar to soil contamination on wood preserving sites. Wipe sampling in the kitchens of 11 homes revealed that 20 of the 33 samples were positive for octachlorinated dioxins with a mean value of 10.27 ng/m2. The soil, ditch samples, and positive wipe samples from the homes indicate a possible ongoing route of exposure to the contaminants in the homes of these residents. Modeled air exposure estimated for the wood processing waste chemicals indicate some air exposure to combustion products. The estimated air levels for benzo(a)pyrene and tetrachlorodibenzodiozin in this neighborhood exceeded the recommended levels for these compounds in some states. The quantitative data presented suggest a significant contamination of a neighborhood by wood processing waste chemicals. These findings suggest the need for more stringent regulations on waste discharges from wood treatment plants

  5. Study of wood polymer combinations from woods of Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite samples have been studied for their use in flooring, wall panelling, roofing shingles, wood carving and in other decorative items. It has been shown that 10% ethyl silicate, when present along with methyl methacrylate or styrene, considerably improves the impact strength and such wood polymer composite samples do not crack even on nailing. Wood polymer composites have been tested for carving and it has been shown that with 50% polymer content, carving quality is preserved. It has also been shown that surface coated wood is more advantageous for use in roofing shingles. (author)

  6. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshun Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characteristics of solid and liquid products. Results from TG and DTG analyses indicated that UF resin used in wood-based panels accelerated the degradation rate of wood-based panels at lower temperature; however the resin inhibited the degradation of wood-based panels over the later stage at higher temperatures. Compared with solid wood, the higher intensity and earlier releasing time of HNCO and NH3 in wood board revealed that the release of nitric gases is mainly due to the presence of UF resin, especially between 180 °C and 320 °C. Mass loss of hydrogen is significantly inhibited by UF resin, and nitrogen is quite stable in the char. The influence of UF resin on pyrolysis liquids of wood-based panels is mainly on nitrogen compounds and ketones rather than aldehydes and esters, which is probably due to the chemical reactions of UF resin with lignin constituent in wood.

  7. On the patterns and processes of wood in northern California streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Bigelow, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Forest management and stream habitat can be improved by clarifying the primary riparian and geomorphic controls on streams. To this end, we evaluated the recruitment, storage, transport, and the function of wood in 95 km of streams (most drainage areas erosion, forest mortality, and mass wasting. These processes are controlled by changes in watershed structure, including the location of canyons, floodplains and tributary confluences; types of geology and topography; and forest types and management history. Average wood storage volumes in coastal streams are 5 to 20 times greater than inland sites primarily from higher riparian forest biomass and growth rates (productivity), with some influence by longer residence time of wood in streams and more wood from landsliding and logging sources. Wood recruitment by mortality (windthrow, disease, senescence) was substantial across all sites (mean 50%) followed by bank erosion (43%) and more locally by mass wasting (7%). The distances to sources of stream wood are controlled by recruitment process and tree height. Ninety percent of wood recruitment occurs within 10 to 35 m of channels in managed and less-managed forests and upward of 50 m in unmanaged Sequoia and coast redwood forests. Local landsliding extends the source distance. The recruitment of large wood pieces that create jams (mean diameter 0.7 m) is primarily by bank erosion in managed forests and by mortality in unmanaged forests. Formation of pools by wood is more frequent in streams with low stream power, indicating the further relevance of environmental context and watershed structure. Forest management influences stream wood dynamics, where smaller trees in managed forests often generate shorter distances to sources of stream wood, lower stream wood storage, and smaller diameter stream wood. These findings can be used to improve riparian protection and inform spatially explicit riparian management.

  8. Waste wood processing and combustion for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fifth Annual National Biofuels Conference and Exhibition held October 19--22, 1992 in Newton, Massachusetts. Individual papers have been abstracted and indexed for the database.

  9. The influence of urea formaldehyde resins on pyrolysis characteristics and products of wood-based panels

    OpenAIRE

    Yongshun Feng; Jun Mu; Shihua Chen; Zhiyi Huang; Zhiming Yu

    2012-01-01

    In China each year, large amounts of wood-based panels are consumed and abandoned. These are huge resources for energy recovery and materials reuse. In order to study the influence of urea formaldehyde resin (UF) resin on waste wood-based panels during pyrolysis, thermobalance experiments together with the evolution of main gaseous products of wood, wood-based panels, and UF resins were carried out and analyzed by TG-FTIR. Elementary and GC-MS analyses were also done to study the characterist...

  10. Opportunities for utilizing waste biomass for energy in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bingh, Lars Petter

    2004-01-01

    The energy system in Uganda is largely based on biomass and especially wood. The high demand for wood results in fast reductions of the available wood stocks. This thesis is focusing on biomass waste as a supplement to the existing energy carriers. This thesis includes agricultural residues from the main cash and food crops in Uganda, as well as municipal solid waste (MSW) in Kampala. The available biomass waste resources are mapped, the energy content is examined and possible ways of utiliza...

  11. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  12. Evaluation of energy efficient techniques in the wood working and wood processing industry. Final report THERMIE - Action no. DIS-0059-95-DE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Digutsch, O.; Frey, G. v. [and others

    1997-05-01

    With the entrance of Austria, Finland and Sweden in the European Union beginning of 1995 the pattern of industrial energy consumption has changed considerably in some branches which are large energy consumers in the Northern countries. The wood working and wood processing industry is one of those branches. It comprises the preparation of wood from primary processing in sawmills up to the production of finished products, and is highly energy-intensive although to a somewhat smaller extent than the large energy consumers such as the iron and steel production or glass manufacturing. It can further be assumed that official statistics underestimate the real importance of the energy consumption in the wood sector because most official statistics do not indicate waste wood as a fuel. Waste wood is a renewable fuel and has as such not the same impact in terms of CO{sub 2}-emissions as fossil fuels. Nevertheless, renewable energy sources should be also used efficiently because they can replace fossil fuels for other purposes. The objective of this study on the wood sector were to analyse and summarise the present status of energy consumption in the fifteen countries of the EU and the two EFTA countries Norway and Switzerland, to evaluate present day energy technology in the wood industry, and to investigate existing application barriers to these techniques in order to inform, support and to motivate small and medium-sized companies in particular, thus simulating the wide spread use of such techniques. (orig./SR)

  13. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

  14. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation is...... observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level is...

  15. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  16. A guide on resources of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a guide on resources of waste, which includes general remarks, analysis of investigation on city resources of waste, disposal and recycling technology of resources of waste, mechanical distinguish, incineration system, pyrolysis refuse derived fuel, composting, the recycling case of resources of waste, such as waste oil, waste plastic, waste tire, waste wood, waste ceramics and waste con crete, integrated recycling system and the cases like landfill gas, composting plant U.S. Bureau of Mines recycling system and law related resources of waste.

  17. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  18. Antioxidant properties of wood extracts and colour stability of woods

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, Papaniokhor; Merlin, André; Perrin, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Industrial wood extracts were selected and other extracts were prepared in the laboratory from some chosen wood species. Antioxidant capacities of extracts were measured by three methods: the oxygen uptake method, the kinetic DPPH method, and the equilibrium DPPH method. There is a fair correlation between the three methods. Total phenol contents of the extracts and colour stability of woods were measured. For the same phenol content, extracts containing condensed tannins are more antioxidant...

  19. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  1. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN WOOD CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, Raymond A.

    2009-01-01

    Wood are one of the most important raw material source for forest products industry. Due to technological developments, researchers in the area of wood chemistry have been showing increased interest in the benefits of utilization wood based materials alone or together as an alternative lignocellulosic fiber sources for forest products industry. However, utilization of woody matrials more efficiently and conservation natural resources have been paid special attention. For that reason...

  3. Wood products and green chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Key message Green chemistry for and from wood has developed numerous industrial products, namely biosourced, green wood adhesives and preservatives, foams, composite matrices, laminates, hard and flexible plastics, flexible films, and abrasive grinding discs, and their number is still growing.IntroductionThis review addresses (1) the elimination of toxic aldehydes from the most common wood panel adhesive, the one based on urea, itself a natural product, (2) biosourced adhesives derived from w...

  4. Horizontal Stiffness of Wood Diaphragms

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, James Wescott

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the stiffness of wood diaphragms. Currently there is no method to calculate wood diaphragm stiffness that can reliably account for all of the various framing configurations. Diaphragm stiffness is important in the design of wood framed structures to calculate the predicted deflection and thereby determine if a diaphragm may be classified as rigid or flexible. This classification controls the method by which load is transferred from the d...

  5. Wood hydrolysis and hydrolysate detoxification for subsequent xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Zilli, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; Dominguez, J.M. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Politecnico; Silverio da Silva, S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL) (Brazil). Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2000-11-01

    A great deal of work has been done during the last decade to develop alternative processes for the integral utilization and revaluation of vegetable biomass. Hardwoods (in particular Eucalyptus globulus) were demonstrated to be of particular interest, because of their rapid growth as well as of the excellent quality of the wood pulp that can be obtained. Today only the cellulose fraction is used for paper production from wood pulp, whereas the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are burnt to produce heat or wasted. This process could be performed in a more profitable way by fractionating the woody material into these fractions and separately using them in different processes. (orig.)

  6. Sustainable wood use, decarbonisation of energetic metabolism and forest development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Air pollution from wood stoves with PAH, primary particles and chlorinated dioxins (reported according to national estimates of  Danish NERI) is presented as an insoluble problem because of dioxin de-novo-synthesis in chimneys, as it is known from municipal waste incinerators. A trade-off of this...... local pollution against alleged positive impacts of wood (as all biomass) combustion on global climate change because of 'zero carbon dioxide emissions' is rejected, although this resetting to zero is part of the Danish Law on CO2-quota of 2004. These emissions are, on the contrary, aggravated pr. unit...

  7. Wood-Based Bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Michael; Sletten, Thea Marcelia

    2014-01-01

    During recent years increased attention has been given to second-generation wood-based bioenergy. The carbon stored in the forest is highest when there is little or no harvest from the forest. Increasing the harvest from a forest, in order to produce more bioenergy, may thus conflict with the direct benefit of the forest as a carbon sink. We analyze this conflict using a simple model where bioenergy and fossil energy are perfect substitutes. Our analysis shows how the social optimum will depe...

  8. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  9. Improvment of wood-residues conversion technology

    OpenAIRE

    Posharnikov, Feliks; Bazarskaya, Nina; Bulanov, Aleksandr

    2011-01-01

    The problem of wood residues conversion is considered. The sizes-based types of wood residues and results of wood residues conversion are presented. Sawdust-based-cement a new original product is offered

  10. Wood Resources of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to 'The Book of Siamese Plant Names' issued by the Royal Forest Department in 1948, exactly one thousand species of trees in Thailand had been identified before that date. Many more species, including such remarkable ones as Prunus .javanica (T & B) Mig. and Betula anoides Ham., which are typical of the temperate zone, were later added to the list. Of the total number mentioned, 280 species have been registered under the Thai Forest Act as reserved species which cannot be cut without permission from the authority. Timbers of real commercial value, however, are comparatively few in number and those with high production figures for the fiscal year 1966 are listed in Table I where the wood density of each species is also given. Only twenty years ago, very few species superior in natural durability, strength, dimensional stability and working quality were offered in local timber markets, including Bangkok. Recently, as the demand for timbers increased enormously and with the development of wood-consuming industry, nearly all tree species have become valuable. Some soft species, such as Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl., which were previously considered to be unusable, have also become important raw materials for pulp and paper, plywood and particle-board manufacturing. Trees of smaller size are also continuously needed for the fabrication of construction materials

  11. Plywood Industry by Using Eco-efficiency Approach and LIA- Wood Balance Sheet Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nurendah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general purposes of this study were to improve the efficiency of wood utilization and to create wood’s value added for plywood industry. To achieve the above purposes a strategy for Agro forestry Industry should be develop based on eco-efficiencyprinciples. The details of targets were: (1. to analyze critical factors in plywood industry management regarding to eco-efficiency implementation, (2 to analyze production technology that is used in plywood industry, and (3. to design a developing strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency principles. The result of this study show that the key factors for plywood management’s policy was environmental awareness; material utilization; and international issues. The production technology of all plywood industry in Indonesia is relatively similar. They are using the machineries of the 80’s and have the similar working procedures. The kinds of wood wastes generated from plywood industry were classified into log end, reject log end, green veneer waste, and others. The wood waste was calculated 49.52% released from 100% input log in plywood industry. There are three strategy of integrated plywood industry based on eco-efficiency, namely (1 selecting and managing of environmental impact, showing three kinds of waste which affect the environment (2 Improvement the plywood manufacturing technology, showing the newinnovation technology or process control management and (3 Development of new product from wood waste. Wood waste can be used to produce block board, laminated board, handicraft, and others.

  12. The wood of teak (Tectona grandis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Budija, Franc; Čufar, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.) belongs to most precious and desired wood species. Because of reduced supply of teak wood from natural forests in Southeast Asia,mainly the plantation wood from different tropical regions is available on the market. We present the properties of nature grown teak wood compared tothose of wood from the plantations. Teak wood from natural forests generallycontains a greater portion of coloured heartwood containing hydrophobic caoutchouc and high content of biologically ...

  13. Wood-energy; Bois-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douard, F.; Brassoud, J.; Segovia, P. [Institut Technique Europeen du Bois Energie (ITEBE), 39 - Lons le Saunier (France); Ferry, J.M. [Quercy Energies, 46 - Cahors (France); Boussard, Y. [Centre Energies Habitat, 18 - Massay (France); Pouet, J.Ch. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    The wood energy presents many social and environmental interests: local employment, climatic change fight and forests maintenance. To inform the public and develop the wood-energy channel, the ITEBE organizes meetings and published documentation on the wood energy possibilities. This papers is especially devoted to the solar-wood complementarity, the Felletin cogeneration realization, the wood district heating, the wood pellets market and the quality Charter. (A.L.B.)

  14. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  15. Recycling of wood chips and wheat dregs for sludge processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y F; Jing, S R; Lee, D Y

    2001-01-01

    A Buchner filtration study was conducted to investigate the effect on sludge dewatering of adding organic waste solids (wood chips or wheat dregs) to sludge after chemical preconditioning (with ferric chloride or alum). Increasing the dose of wood chips or wheat dregs enhanced sludge filtration performance and increased the energy content of the filter cake, but did not consistently increase the total filtrate removed. The additional filtrate removal was found to balance the inert solids load only when the chemical preconditioner used did not result in sufficient coagulation of the sludge and the skeleton builder dose was low (< or = 90%). Accordingly, various dose ranges of wood chips and wheat dregs are suggested for different sludge management schemes. PMID:11131800

  16. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

  17. Wood bending using microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new technique of wood bending where microwave irradiation is used to heat and soften wet wood specimens. Compared to the traditional steaming procedure, this procedure offers many advantages : (i) as the heating occurs inside the specimen, complete softening is obtained very quickly; (ii) temperature can be easily controlled in order to obtain the best processing conditions; (iii) the benefit will be especially big in the case of large specimens whose pretreatment may take hours with steaming; (iv) in general, the applicability of wood bending is enlarged, i.e. new wood species and specimens with lower quality can endure larger deformations with a reduced loss. In the case where drastic strain levels are required, the forming and setting operations should be done inside the microwave oven, in order to take advantage of the additional ''mechano-sorptive'' flexibility appearing when wood dries under load

  18. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  19. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes

  20. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  1. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... institutional waste do not include yard waste and refuse-derived fuel; used oil; wood pallets; clean wood... Register on January 27, 2009 (74 FR 4714) (2009 Rules). Based on the comments received and further..., 2011). The revised interim rules were published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2011 (76 FR...

  2. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  3. The status of wood pallet disposal and recovery at united states landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Corr, Daryl Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The Status of Wood Pallet Recovery at United States Landfills Daryl T. Corr Abstract Each year a large number of wooden pallets are disposed of in US landfills, representing a significant portion of total wood usage. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the numbers of pallets reaching landfills, specifically Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Construction & Demolition (C&D) landfills. Also, the research was conducted to determine what, if anything, was done w...

  4. STATUS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION ON SECONDARY WOOD INDUSTRIES INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL, CABINET, MILLWORK, AND PANEL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni; Herman van Dyk

    2009-01-01

    Lean Manufacturing has helped several industries to achieve operational and manufacturing excellence by increasing productivity and enhancing quality, while reducing waste and costs. However, the wood industry has been historically slow in adopting this philosophy and its many tools. In times when overseas competition has taken big portions of the traditional market share for U.S based wood industries, it has become important that companies start to take actions in order to regain competitive...

  5. Chemical and biological evaluation of rejects from the wood industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Granato; Domingos Sávio Nunes; Patrícia Póvoa de Mattos; Ester de Moura Rios; Adeline Glinski; Luciana Collares Rodrigues; Gerson Zanusso Júnior

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed chemical characterization and microbiological evaluation of extracts obtained from the waste of woods marketed in Paraná State: Peroba-Rosa (Aspidosperma sp.), Roxinho (Peltogyne sp.), Jatobá(Hymenaea sp.), Curupixá (Micropholis sp.), Itaúba (Mezilaurus sp.), Cedrilho (Erisma sp.) and Imbúia (Licaria sp.), whose botanical identifications were based on anatomical studies. The extracts were prepared with different solvents, analyzed by TLC and UV/VIS techniques, and tested agai...

  6. Cogeneration and the wood quality; Cogeracao de energia e qualidade de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos R. de [Paraiba Univ., Patos, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Rocco Lahr, Francisco A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a reliable technical a alternative for a enhance of wood quality to utilize on civil engineering. It suggests a change on lay-out production and on a productive process in order to obtain the best quality of the wood, from the real means of production now, on Amazonic region, as well as based on the modern concentration of generation, co-generation, efficiency and economy on energy utilization, besides it reveals too, some aspects of substitution of the petroleum derivates for biomass (waste) and the introduction of the wood drying process on own local of production. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Marketing for Wood Products Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert L; Hansen, Eric; Ola, David

    2009-01-01

    Explains the principles of marketing for wood products organizations and their managers, and includes a list of information resources and agencies that can assist in development of a good marketing program.

  8. Specific Heat Capacity of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Radmanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specifi c heat capacity is defi ned as the amount of heat that a kilogram of a given substance is required to absorb in order to increase its temperature by one degree. The temperature of a given substance can change either at constant pressure or at constant volume, so we differentiate between specifi c heat capacity at constant pressure (cp and specifi c heat capacity at constant volume (cv. When doing research into the heat propertiesof wood, the quantity that most frequently remains constant is pressure, thus restricting our study on specifi c heat capacity to cp. This paper provides an overview of the research that has so far been carried out into the specifi c heat capacity of wood depending on the temperature and moisture content. An analytical and graphical comparison has been performed of the results published in the Wood Industry Manual (1967 (DIP, Wood Handbook (1999 (WH and work published by Deliiski (2012 (DEL.

  9. Wood chip delivery and research project at Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, a large-scale energywood production chain was started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. Over 60 000 m3 (about 46 000 MWh of energy) of forest processed chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 60 % of these chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 51 FIM/m3 (68 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 40 FIM/m3 (53 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of wood chips could compete with those of fuel peat only in the most favourable cases. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of forestry plans. According to the study, there is enough raw material for permanent, large-scale delivery of forest processed chips (up to 250 000 m3/a) in the forests located at a distance of under 40 road kilometers from the Pursiala heat and power plant. The following project stages will involve further development of the wood chip delivery chain logistics, as well as improvement of logging and chipping equipment and methods in energywood and logging waste production. Also the effects of wood energy production on the economy and environment of the whole Mikkeli region will be studied. (author)

  10. Physical and chemical evaluation of furniture waste briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Isabel; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-03-01

    Furniture waste is mainly composed of wood and upholstery foam (mostly polyurethane foam). Both of these have a high calorific value, therefore, energy recovery would be an appropriate process to manage these wastes. Nevertheless, the drawback is that the energy content of these wastes is limited due to their low density mainly that of upholstery foam. Densification of separate foam presents difficulties due to its elastic character. The significance of this work lies in obtaining densified material by co-densification of furniture wood waste and polyurethane foam waste. Densification of furniture wood and the co-densification of furniture wood waste with polyurethane foam have been studied. On the one hand, the parameters that have an effect on the quality of the furniture waste briquettes have been analysed, i.e., moisture content, compaction pressure, presence of lignin, etc. The maximum weight percentage of polyurethane foam that can be added with furniture wood waste to obtain durable briquettes and the optimal moisture were determined. On the other hand, some parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the possible effect on the combustion. The chemical composition of waste wood was compared with untreated wood biomass; the higher nitrogen content and the concentration of some metals were the most important differences, with a significant difference of Ti content. PMID:26856442

  11. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. ► The model is applied on a packed bed. ► When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  12. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limit...

  13. Dioxines, furans and other pollutants emissions bond to the combustion of natural and additive woods; Facteurs d'emission. Emissions de dioxines, de furanes et d'autres polluants liees a la combustion de bois naturels et adjuvantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, S

    2000-02-15

    This report deals especially on the dioxines and furans bond to the combustion of wood in industrial furnaces and domestic furnaces. It aims to define the environmental strategy which would allow the combustion of wood residues to produce energy. The first part recalls general aspects concerning the wood. The six other parts presents the wood resources and wastes, the additive used, the combustion and the different factors of combustion and finally the pollutants emissions. (A.L.B.)

  14. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  15. Wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier; Holz als Rohstoff und Energietraeger. Dynamisches Holzmarktmodell und Zukunftsszenarien - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, B.; Buergi, P.; Bruehlhard, S. [Schweizerische Hochschule fuer Landwirtschaft, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Thees, O.; Lemm, R.; Rosset, Ch. [Eidg. Forschungsanstalt fuer Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a dynamic wood-market model and the future prospects for the use of wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier. As an introduction, an overview of Swiss and international wood markets is provided. Various sorts of timber - from whole tree-trunks to waste wood for use as an energy source - are discussed. The international wood market is looked at and future developments are discussed. The report goes on to deal with four project stages which help provide an information basis in order to be able to review the current situation and the future developments in the Swiss wood industry. The first stage of the project involved the elaboration of a material-flow matrix for the year 2005. The sources of the data are discussed. Inconsistencies in the data are looked at and the Swiss wood market is analysed. This material-flow matrix provided the basis for a second step, the development of a product-oriented, dynamic wood market model. Here, all sources of wood from forests to waste wood are looked at and their use for building and as an energy resource is considered. Model development, variants and modelling factors are discussed. An expert-aided model is looked at. The market models developed were used for the third step, the development of scenarios for future development. Five scenarios were developed, including higher energy costs, a large, heavy storm event, increased per capita wood use, increasing global timber prices as well as the installation of a new, large-scale sawmill. In a final step, based on knowledge gained from the previous steps, suggestions for further action to be taken by politics were elaborated. Here, measures that would have an effect on supply and demand are suggested that could help decrease the costs for the harvesting of wood resources and support changes in the market behaviour of forest owners.

  16. Hazardous air emissions potential from a wood-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first week of April, 1991 the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) conducted a series of air emissions tests of a small industrial wood-fired boiler in northern Wisconsin. The boiler was firing a virgin hogged wood/wood waste fuel with a moisture content of about 35 percent. The pollutants measured were particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (GO), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde (CHOH), polycyclic organic matter (POM, e.g. Benzo (a) pyrene), aldehydes, and trace metals (As, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, K, Se, Na, and Zn). For two and a half days continuous emissions data were recorded by laboratory-certified continuous emissions monitors for CO, NOx, 0-2, THC, and COq2 while the EPA reference method stack tests were being conducted for the other pollutants. In addition, a WDNR test team measured CO, 0-2, and flue gas temperature with a Rosemount portable combustion analyzer for several hours over the course of those two and a half days. The principal purpose behind the study was to evaluate the hazardous air emissions potential of a small industrial furnace firing a virgin wood fuel. To that end, it was hoped that a surrogate pollutant could be identified which would represent the levels of hazardous air emissions (e.g., benzene) present in the wood-fired furnace flue gases. If a readily monitorable pollutant could be identified, then a regulatory strategy of measuring one representative pollutant could be put in place to continually assess the hazardous emissions potential of virgin wood combustion. (UK)

  17. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  18. Wood energy - recommendations on production and harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. [Forestry Development Centre Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)], email: matti.kymalainen@tapio.fi

    2012-11-01

    Forestry Development Centre Tapio has been publishing sustainable forestry recommendations in Finland for several years. One of these recommendations concentrates on sustainable harvesting models of wood energy as well as instructions to grow wood energy as a part of normal stem wood production cycle. In this recommendation, called 'Wood Energy - Production and harvest', one can find detailed instructions to harvest energy wood in thinning stands and in clear cutting stands. This recommendation also includes guidelines to nature treatment in wood energy harvesting stands and road-side storing. Finland used forest based energy, wood chips, in 2010 over 6 million cubic meters (over 13 TWh). Wood Energy - Production and Harvest is a brilliant summary of methods and practises used in Finland in the field of wood energy.

  19. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  20. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  1. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  2. Environmental and social effects of production and utilization of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target of the research is (1) to study the emissions and the environmental effects of the energy wood production and utilization chains, and to value them on monetary base, (2) to proportion the emissions and the environmental effects to the corresponding values of the comparative fuels (peat, heavy fuel-oil, coal), and (3) to estimate the socio-economical profitability of the energy wood in power and heat generation in comparison with the energy peat and imported fuels. About 3 - 4 million m3 of wood fuels are consumed annually in Finland. The amount of harvestable wood for energy production would be 10 million m3/a, which equals to about 1.8 million toe/a (20 TWh/a). The amount of the residues of forest industry (bark, saw-dust, other waste-wood and waste liquors of pulping industry) corresponds to about 21 million m3 of wood. Many factors, e.g. the underutilization of the forests, the silvicultural factors, utilization of renewable energy for reduction of the greenhouse effect, and the need to find new sources of income for people living at countryside, favour the increasing of the utilization of energy-wood. The problem in increasing of the utilization of energy-wood has been the low competitivity of wood caused by the high harvesting costs. The income taxes and the reduced unemployment costs are taken into account in the socio- economical level. The external effects, such as environmental effects, will also be taken into account in the socio-economical level. (9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Biomass equipments. The wood-fueled heating plants; Materiels pour la biomasse. Les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R, 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the consequences of the classification of biomass fuels in the French 2910 by-law on the classification of biomass-fueled combustion installations. Biomass fuels used in such installations must be only wood wastes without any treatment or coating. The design of biomass combustion systems must follow several specifications relative to the fueling system, the combustion chamber, the heat exchanger and the treatment of exhaust gases. Other technical solutions must be studied for other type of wood wastes in order to respect the environmental pollution laws. (J.S.)

  4. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  5. Biological Denitrification Treatment of Wastewater Using Wood Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Tadaaki; Koremura, Nao; Sato, Aya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    A novel method for removing nitrate in waste water which uses wood chips as a reduction agent and growth support mechanism for denitrification bacteria is studied in this report. A higher denitrification rate was obtained when a portion of the wood chips packed in a column were exposed to air than when all of the wood chips were entirely immersed in solution. Cherry tree chips were more effective than cedar chips, as almost a 100% denitirification rate was maintained for at least 69 days at an inlet concentration of 20mg-N/L and HRT of 20 hr. The denitrification rate decreased significantly when the initial nitrate concentration was increased from 21mg-N/L to 46 mg-N/L. It was possible to use wood chips exclusively as a supply source of organic compounds. An excess amount of organic compounds which is discharged from the reactor can be reduced by passing the solution through a column packed with activated carbon. Cedar chips prepared from a fresh log shortly after cutting were used as a supporting material for denitirification bacteria. A satisfactorily high degree of denitirifation was obtained at HRT of 0.76 hr by adding ethanol as a reduction agent for nitrate.

  6. Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bondarev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pilot samples are established from the results, as well as maximum permissible lengths of cracks for static and cyclic load. Effect of natural and technological defects of laminated wood is taken into account. Recommendation on application of laminated wood in products and designs which experience force cyclic loading under operation are given.

  8. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  9. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  10. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  11. Electron microscopic study on catalytic carbonization of biomass carbon : I. Carbonization of wood charcoal at high temperature by Al-triisopropoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, Toshimitsu; Imamura, Yuji; Nishimiya, Koei; Bronsveld, Paul; Vystavel, Tomas; Hosson, Jeff De; Kikuchi, Hikari

    2002-01-01

    Currently, carbonized materials from wood or waste have been focused upon as raw materials for carbons. These carbons are important for the production of artificial graphite. First hand observation was done on the growth of long parallel graphite structures in wood charcoal. A comparison is made bet

  12. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  13. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  14. Review on Wood Discoloration and its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zehui; LV Wenhua; FEI Benhua; REN Haiqing; WU Yuzhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms,types, compositions, affecting factors,prevention and remediable treatments of wood discoloration, and especially puts forward the biological control against wood stain and wood induced coloration.The authors think the followings are important:1)Developing the low poisonous or non-toxic, high-efficient and multi-functional anti-stain chemicals is still an important research direction to control wood discoloration.2)It is still very necessary to remove wood stain and restore wood original color and commercial value.3)The biological control has little environmental pollution and its cost is low.Researches on its theories and application should be strengthened.4)Wood color can be induced and turned to be the needed through heat treatment or ultraviolet irradiation without coloring materials,i.e.induced coloration,is a good idea to modulate wood,bamboo or rattan cane color.Itis becoming a new study field.

  15. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  16. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  17. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  18. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Jozef; Wachter, Igor; Balog, Karol

    2015-06-01

    With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m-2 and 50 kW.m-2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  19. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  20. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-01-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde-...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Inactivated Wood Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sernek, Milan

    2002-01-01

    A wood surface, which is exposed to a high temperature condition, can experience inactivation. Surface inactivation results in reduced ability of an adhesive to properly wet, flow, penetrate, and cure. Thus, an inactivated wood surface does not bond well with adhesives. The changes in surface chemistry, wettability, and adhesion of inactivated wood surfaces, including heartwood of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and southern pine (Pinus taeda), were studied. Wood samples were dri...

  2. Comparative analysis of inactivated wood surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Šernek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    A wood surface, which is exposed to a high temperature condition, can experience inactivation. Surface inactivation results in reduced ability of an adhesive to properly wet, flow, penetrate, and cure. Thus, an inactivated wood surface does not bond well with adhesives. The changes in surface chemistry, wettability, and adhesion of inactivated wood surfaces, including heartwood of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and southern pine (Pinus taeda), were studied. Wood samples were dried fr...

  3. Yearbook 1998. TULISIJA Research Programme for Wood Firing Technology; Vuosikirja - Aarsbok 1997. TULISIJA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljung, M.; Kilpinen, P. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    TULISIJA is the 3-year national research programme for small scale wood firing technology with the aim to assist manufacturers in their efforts to develop the most emission-free, yet efficient, wood firing equipment in the world. The following ten projects have been in progress during the year 1998: The behaviour of fuel; Computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens; computational fluid dynamics simulation of combustion in small scale wood ovens and modelling of emission chemistry; Modelling of heat transfer in fireplace walls and constructions; Detailed emission and temperature measurements in the TULISIJA test oven; Measurement environment for fireplace testing; Reduction of emissions from soapstone fireplaces; Development of a new modular method for fireplace manufacture; Replacement of energy intensive raw material with recycled industrial waste and further development of combustion processes in fireplaces and Instructions for dimensioning and design of fireplaces for optimum living atmosphere in residences

  4. Study on the Old Ship-Wood Furniture Based on the Green Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of the green environmental protection, it analyzed the characteristics of the old ship-wood furniture including the green environmental protection, changing waste into treasure, unique styling and strong human flavor, to emphasize its properties of excellent environmental protection, unique original ecology and elegant artistry. Then it summarized the basic design principles of the environmental protection, the emotional design and the localization design. And then it discussed the low-carbon craftsmanship of the old ship-wood furniture from the three aspects of materials selection, processing tools and production process. Furthermore, it summed up out of the practical and commercial value, the aesthetic and artistic value and the environmental value of the old ship wood furniture. Finally, it presented that the development and promotion of the old ship-wood furniture which is the typical of the green design and manufacture of furniture can bring immense economic, social and ecological efficiency.

  5. The characterization of wood and wood fibre ultrastructure using specific enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Hildén, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Wood and wood fibre ultrastructure is of key importance for the pulp and paper making industry. In this thesis there has been a focus on development of methods for studying wood degrading enzymes. The methods have been used in different ways to render new information on wood and wood fibres. Wood degrading enzymes are chosen since they are tailor made to specifically degrade certain sub-structures in the wood bio-polymer, e.g. cellulose. In the first part an a-amino group of a carbohydrate bi...

  6. FUEL FLEXIBLE LOW EMISSIONS BURNER FOR WASTE-TO-ENERGY SYSTEMS - PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies are being developed that combine waste management and energy generation. These wastes include a wide range of bio-based fuel stocks (biomass from wood and/or grasslands) or organic waste streams (manure and farm waste, municipal solid wa...

  7. Wood science professor honored by international academy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Audrey Zink-Sharp, a wood science and forest products professor in Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources, has been elected a Fellow of the International Academy of Wood Science (IAWS), a non-profit assembly of scientists representing all facets of wood science.

  8. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Miklečić,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  9. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  10. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  11. Meeting China’s Demands for Imported Wood and Wood Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Midgley, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    China has developed a large, flourishing and rapidly modernising wood and wood fibre industry. China consumes an estimated 365 million m3 (roundwood equivalent) of wood and wood fibre annually and relies heavily upon imports. These imports increased nearly 10-fold between 1996 and 2004 to 106 million m3, making China the world’s largest importer of forest and wood products. As China enjoys substantial economic growth, buoyant housing construction and improving living standards, it is likely t...

  12. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Xianjun Li; Yongfeng Luo; Hongbin Chen; Xia He; Jianxiong Lv; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased al...

  13. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  14. Availability of own electricity generation in processing units of small wood

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, R. M.; B. J. F. Dacroce; J. F. Carmo; E. M. Pires

    2014-01-01

    The self power generation can be an alternative, to the industries, in view of the low quality of energy supply by conventional network, especially in industries that generate waste with energy potential. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, economically, self power generating using wood waste as fuel, with the receipt of electricity by conventional network in a small timber industry. It was determined the values of energy consumption by each equipment that is a part of industry ...

  15. Wood ash as a magnesium source for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, S Ramesh; Tilley, Elizabeth; Udert, Kai M

    2012-03-01

    Struvite precipitation is a simple technology for phosphorus recovery from source-separated urine. However, production costs can be high if expensive magnesium salts are used as precipitants. Therefore, waste products can be interesting alternatives to industrially-produced magnesium salts. We investigated the technical and financial feasibility of wood ash as a magnesium source in India. In batch experiments with source-separated urine, we could precipitate 99% of the phosphate with a magnesium dosage of 2.7 mol Mg mol P(-1). The availability of the magnesium from the wood ash used in our experiment was only about 50% but this could be increased by burning the wood at temperatures well above 600 °C. Depending on the wood ash used, the precipitate can contain high concentrations of heavy metals. This could be problematic if the precipitate were used as fertilizer depending on the applicable fertilizer regulations. The financial study revealed that wood ash is considerably cheaper than industrially-produced magnesium sources and even cheaper than bittern. However, the solid precipitated with wood ash is not pure struvite. Due to the high calcite and the low phosphorus content (3%), the precipitate would be better used as a phosphorus-enhanced conditioner for acidic soils. The estimated fertilizer value of the precipitate was actually slightly lower than wood ash, because 60% of the potassium dissolved into solution during precipitation and was not present in the final product. From a financial point of view and due to the high heavy metal content, wood ash is not a very suitable precipitant for struvite production. Phosphate precipitation from urine with wood ash can be useful if (1) a strong need for a soil conditioner that also contains phosphate exists, (2) potassium is abundant in the soil and (3) no other cheap precipitant, such as bittern or magnesium oxide, is available. PMID:22297249

  16. Fuel and emissions properties of Stirling engine operated with wood powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Nishiyama; Hidetoshi Shimojima; Akira Ishikawa; Yoshinori Itaya; Shinji Kambara; Hiroshi Moritomi; Shigekatsu Mori [C-Tech Corporation Ltd., Nagoya (Japan). Engineering Development Group

    2007-10-15

    From viewpoints of the environment and fuel cost reduction, small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants are in demand, especially wood-waste fueled system, which are simple to operate and maintenance-free with high thermal efficiency similar to oil fired units. These are requested by wood and other industries located in mountainous region. To meet these requirements, a Stirling engine CHP system combined with simplified biomass combustion process with pulverized wood powder was developed. In an R&D project started in 2004 considering wood powder properties as a fuel, combustion performance and emissions in combustion flue gas were tested using combustion test apparatus with commercial size units. The wood powder combustion system was modified and optimized during the combustion test results, and the design of the demonstration plant combined with 55 kW{sub e} Stirling engine power unit was considered. The demonstration plant was finally completed in March of 2006, and test operation has been progressed for the future commercial CHP system. In the wood powder combustion test, wood powder of less than 500 {mu}m is mainly used, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m is applied. In these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emission of less than 10 ppm and combustion efficiency of 99.9%. In the same conditions, NOx emission is estimated to be less than 120 ppm (6% O{sub 2} basis). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engine CHP system. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test, and presents the evaluation of the burner design parameters for the biomass Stirling engine system. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Proceedings of the 6. biennial residue-to-revenue residual wood conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focused on the future of biomass energy development and the role of renewable energy resources in energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO {sub 2}) levels. The impact of high energy prices and the development of strategies for the wood products industry were reviewed. Global market trends for wood products were discussed, and the status of biomass energy products in relation to climatic change was examined. Issues concerning forest residues, sawmill wastes, agricultural residues and urban organic materials were discussed along with trends in Canadian surplus mill waste production. Residual wood energy projects and developments in Canada, North America and Europe were outlined. Biomass development in relation to forest fires and insect disturbances was discussed. Cogeneration technologies using wood wastes for thermal heat, steam and electricity were presented, as well as transportation fuel technologies for the production of ethanol. Issues concerning biomass energy development and environmental waste disposal were examined. Government policies in relation to renewable energy source development were also discussed. Thirteen presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  18. Development of Wood-Plastic Composite at Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madaraka F. Mwema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of plastics and other solid wastes has been a major problem in Kenya. Most of these wastes can be recycled through various ways and methods to produce new products. Plastics can be combined with sawdust to develop composite materials for applications such as in building. In this project, a wood-plastic composite (WPC was developed from sawdust and plastic solid wastes. The composite bore the advantages of both wood and plastics which can be applied in various sectors including interior design work and in automotive among others, thereby curbing the problem of garbage accumulation in the environment. The project provides eco-friendly solutions by making best use of the available resources (wood and plastic resins thus, finding sustainable solutions to the problem of limited waste dumping sites and deforestation in the country. The composites were made from PP and HDPE thermoplastics and mahogany sawdust obtained from our wood workshop in Dedan Kimathi University. From the tests carried out and results obtained, it was found that, the composite has more advantages than the individual constituent materials. Water absorption test revealed that all the samples took up water though not as much pronounced as for plain sawdust. Additionally, the rate of water reduction was found to be excellent. They took less time to release the absorbed water to the environment meaning that they can be applied in humid or wet environ. The composite samples were easy to machine since they were easily shaped using a handsaw.

  19. Assessing Risk Posed By Land Application Of Ash From The Combustion Of Wood And Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total and leachable metal concentrations in ash from the combustion of waste wood and vehicle tires (WT ash) were characterized. These data were then used to examine a variety of issues associated with determining whether the WT ash could be beneficially used outside of a la...

  20. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  1. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal. PMID:2686171

  2. Influence of wood structure on wood properties of tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Baar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The presented thesis is focused on aesthetical and acoustic properties of tropical wood. The discussed tropical species are utilized in Europe mainly for their unusual appearance and colour in joinery and furniture production. The irreplacable acoustic properties like low internal friction predestine specific species for production of musical instruments. The colour of six selected tropical species - jatoba (Hymenea courbaril L.), massaranduba (Manilkara bidentata A. Chev.), muiracatiara (Ast...

  3. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  4. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  5. Avaliação das propriedades de painéis aglomerados produzidos com resíduos de serrarias de nove espécies de madeiras tropicais da Amazônia Evaluation of the properties of particleboard made from sawmill waste of nine tropical wood species of Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de painéis aglomerados produzidos com resíduos de processamento em serraria de nove espécies de madeiras tropicais da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Scleronema micranthum Ducke (Cardeiro, Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho, Scleronema sp. (Castanha-de-paca, Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Copaíba, Ocotea sp. (Louro, Ocotea guianensis Aubl (Louro-espinho, Caryocar villosum Pers. (Piquiarana, Couratari oblongifolia Ducke & R. Knuth (Tauari e Virola surinamensis Rol. Warb (Virola. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,75 g.cm-3, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído na proporção de 8% de sólidos - base peso seco das partículas. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 4,0 MPa, temperatura de 160 ºC e tempo de prensagem de oito minutos. As avaliações dos resultados de ensaios obtidos nesta pesquisa indicam a viabilidade técnica de utilização das nove espécies provenientes de florestas tropicais da Amazônia na produção de painéis de madeira aglomerada, com destaque para Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho que, de uma forma geral, apresentou melhores resultados de propriedades físico-mecânicas.This research was developed to evaluate the quality of particleboards manufactured from sawmill waste of nine tropical wood species of Amazônia. The following species were studied: Scleronema micranthum Ducke (Cardeiro, Ecclinusa guianensis Eyma (Caucho, Scleronema sp. (Castanha-de-paca, Copaifera multijuga Hayne (Copaíba, Ocotea sp. (Louro, Ocotea guianensis Aubl (Louro-espinho, Caryocar villosum Pers. (Piquiarana, Couratari oblongifolia (Tauari e Virola surinamensis Rol. Warb (Virola. The experimental boards were manufactured with the nominal density of 0.75 g.cm-3, using the urea-formaldehyde resin in the proportion of 8% of solid content based on oven dried wood particles. The boards were pressed at the specific pressure of 40 kgf

  6. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  7. Systems genetics of wood formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A

    2016-04-01

    In woody plants, xylogenesis is an exceptionally strong carbon sink requiring robust transcriptional control and dynamic coordination of cellular and metabolic processes directing carbon allocation and partitioning into secondary cell wall biosynthesis. As a biological process, wood formation is an excellent candidate for systems modeling due to the strong correlation patterns and interconnectedness observed for transcriptional and metabolic component traits contributing to complex phenotypes such as cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure. Genetic variation in undomesticated tree populations provides abundant perturbation of systems components, adding another dimension to plant systems biology (besides spatial and temporal variation). High-throughput analysis of molecular component traits in adult trees has provided the first insights into the systems genetics of wood, an important renewable feedstock for biomaterials and bioenergy. PMID:26943939

  8. FLEXURAL FATIGUE OF LAMINATED WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Bondarev; S. V. Povetkin

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement. Local damage accumulation in goods and construction elements ultimately leading to a failure occurs due to fluctuating load effect. Results and conclusions. The results of the analysis of the experimentally obtained analytical dependences of strength characteristics and resistance to cracks of profiled laminated wood during bending in products and designs are presented. This products and designs operate under static and cyclic loading. Stresses under which cracks form in pi...

  9. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux...

  10. Hypermedia in the Ambient Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Weal, Mark J; Michaelides, Danius T.; Thompson, Mark K.; De Roure, David C

    2003-01-01

    The Ambient Wood project, carried out as part of the Equator IRC, set out to provide an augmented learning experience for children in an outdoor environment. Using a variety of devices, the children gathered information about the woodland habitats performing basic scientific enquiry and hypothesis testing. In this paper we describe the supporting information infrastructure used in the project, focusing on how hypermedia tools and techniques were used to structure and deliver the information t...

  11. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  12. Perception of Wood in River Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A.

    2003-12-01

    In managing river channels, wood is often perceived as hazardous and has traditionally been removed. On the other hand, wood provides many benefits including food and habitat for fish and mechanisms for energy dissipation. Increasing recognition of the positive role of wood has encouraged the reintroduction of wood to restore rivers. However, it is not clear how widely this practice is accepted, and whether traditional views of wood hazards may influence the success of such restoration projects. This paper describes a large-scale effort to increase understanding of how wood is perceived in stream channels. This project, led by H. Piegay and K.J. Gregory, involves an international group of workers from 9 countries in contrasting parts of the world. A total of 1886 surveys were given to students 20-25 years of age to test the hypothesis that the perception of wood is related to one's socio-cultural environment. Students were asked to view a set of 20 standard photographs, 10 with wood and 10 without, and to answer a set of questions related to how hazardous the scenes are perceived. Results show clear differences in perception, with students from Texas, USA, viewing streams with wood to be more dangerous, less aesthetic, and to need more improvement than those without. These perceptions contrast with those from the Pacific northwest and some areas around the world, providing clues to the potential success and acceptance of reintroducing wood in stream restoration.

  13. Recycling waste-paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps 80 percent of papermaking energy is expended in chemical pulping of vegetable cellulose, a natural polymer. Commercial supplies of wood, bagasse, cotton and flax are valued as renewable resources and bio-mass assets; however, few enterprises will salvage waste-paper and cardboard from their trash. A basic experiment in the Materials Lab uses simple equipment to make crude handsheets. Students learn to classify secondary fibers, identify contraries, and estimate earnings.

  14. Investigation of diverse leaf-wood and coniferous wood regardin their usability for the production of wood-plastic-combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By impregnation with an acrylic monomer mixture and by polymerization with gamma radiation wood-plastic combinations with high dimensional stability have been made from 34 wood species. Data for monomer uptake, density, hardness, impact bending, swelling by volume and weight, and weatherability are presented. Furthermore the attempt of an aesthetic evaluation of the wood-plastic combinations has been made. The optical impression has been compared with the technological behaviour. As a result several wood species turned out to be especially suitable for the production of wood-plastic combinations of high quality. These woods are ramin, lime, abachi, walnut, bubinga, niangon and mutenye, with some restrictions also spruce, okoume, corola pine and dibetou. (author)

  15. Obtaining fuel briquets from the solid municipal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling systems for solid waste materials are designed to reduce the amount of solid waste materials going to land fields. Through the Trash Separation Systems, clean municipal waste are reused in production of fuel pellets. Other waste streams such as coal fines, sawdust, wood chips, coke breeze and agricultural waste can be blended with these pellets along with a high thermal value binder and/or used motor oil to form a quality clean burning alternative fuel. (Author)

  16. Study on pyrolysis and gasification of wood in MSW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop municipal solid waste(MSW) pyrolysis/gasification and melting technology with low emission and high efficiency, it was planed that all the main components in MSW and some typical kinds of MSW were pyrolyzed/gasified to propose an expert system for raw MSW. In this paper, wood, which was a prevalent component in MSW, was pyrolyzed and gasified in fluidized-bed reactors at different apparent excess air ratios (EARs), temperatures and fluidizing velocities. For pyrolysis, with temperature increasing from 400℃ to 700℃, the yield of pyrolysis char decreased while that of pyrolysis gas increased (in this paper respectively from 28% to 20% and from 10% to 35%), and when temperature was 500℃, the yield of pyrolysis tar reached the highest,up to 38% in this paper. It was the optimum for gasification when temperature was 600℃ and apparent EAR was 0.4. Under the experimental conditions of this paper, gasification efficiency achieved 73%, lower heat value(LHV) reached 5800 kJ/(Nm3) and yield of syngas was 2.01 Nm3/kg. Lower fluidizing velocity was useful to upgrade gasification efficiency and LHV of syngas for wood gasification. Based on the results, the reactive courses and mechanism were analyzed respectively for wood pyrolysis and gasification.

  17. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  18. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  19. The effect of wood filler behaviour on structure and fracture of polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dziadur

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of wood filler additions on the microstructure, fractographic features and cracking mechanism of low density polyethylene (LPDE.Design/methodology/approach: For the tests, waste polyethylene from industrial and common films and Lignocel CB 120 wood fibers have been used. Three types of compositions (composites with 10, 20 and 30% of wood flour have been prepared for the tests. To evaluate the role of used filler conducted it’s quantitative analysis by linear method. Parameters like volume fraction of the filler, the number particles of wood flour per surface area and mean wood fiber diameter, were determinated.Findings: The results of microscopic observations of the etched sections and fractures obtained at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature indicate good matching between the filler particles and the structure of basic polymer, due mainly to bonding of the individual lamellae in spherulites. The reinforced polymer reveals a cracking micromechanism which is called crazing.Research limitations/implications: The further research are required to solve the problem of the filler contrast.Practical implications: From practical point of view, this research can be used to project composites (wood flour – polyethylene.Originality/value: Originality of this work is the fact that stereological measurements shown usefulness this method to estimate filler’s influence of forming microstructure and properties of the investigated composite.

  20. Alkaline disinfection of urban wastewater and landfill leachate by wood fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna; Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Kovačević, Davor; Milenković, Jelena

    2014-12-01

    Wood fly ash is an industrial by-product of the combustion of different wood materials and is mostly disposed of as waste on landfills. In our preliminary experiments, wood ash exhibited antibacterial activity against urban wastewater bacteria and we focused on wood fly ash as a potential substrate for wastewater disinfection. The addition of ash at a concentration of 10 g L⁻¹ (1%) caused an instant increase of pH in urban wastewater and landfill leachate. High pH (10.1-12.7) inactivated bacterial populations in the wastewater and the removal of faecal coliforms and intestinal enterococci after 6 h of contact was 100% (below the detection limit; ash sample (ash from combustion of beech) both in urban wastewater and landfill leachate. Properly chosen wood fly ash, i.e. one that tends to increase the pH to the greatest extent, proved to be a very effective disinfection substrate. Considering that water treated with wood ash has a high pH and needs to be neutralised before discharge, ash would be suitable for disinfection of leachates when smaller volumes are treated. PMID:25720024

  1. Geração de resíduos de madeira e derivados da indústria moveleira em função das variáveis de produção Generation of wood waste and derivatives on furniture industry related to production's variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os processos produtivos da cadeia madeira-móveis geram quantidades significativas de resíduos de madeira, os quais nem sempre têm uma destinação correta. O potencial de aproveitamento destes resíduos é significativo, quer seja como matéria-prima secundária, quer seja pelo seu potencial energético. O gerenciamento dos resíduos é um dos desafios à gestão e ao desempenho ambiental das empresas. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se a análise multivariada, com extração de componentes principais, para analisar os carregamentos de cada variável original e identificar as principais variáveis que apresentam similaridades em relação à geração de resíduos. As variáveis de produção consideradas foram: quantidade de matéria-prima consumida, número de colaboradores, número de máquinas, consumo de energia e consumo de água. Por meio de regressão linear, utilizando o método stepwise, foram obtidas as equações de estimativa dos resíduos em função das variáveis de produção originais, resultando na quantidade de resíduo gerado por classe de matéria-prima, para determinada empresa ou determinado município pesquisado. A estimativa de geração foi aplicada ao Pólo Moveleiro da Serra Gaúcha/RS.The production processes of furniture industry generate significant amounts of wood waste, which has not always a correct destination. The potential for exploitation of these residues is significant, whether as secondary raw material, whether by its energy potential. The management of this waste is one of the challenges for the management and environmental performance of companies. This work used multivariate analysis with the extraction of key components, to analyze the load of each original variable and identify key variables that have similarities in relation to the waste generation. The variables of production considered was: quantity of raw materials consumed, number of employees, number of machines, energy consumption and water

  2. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  3. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  4. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  5. Integration of heat treatment of wood with cogeneration production and district heating; Vaermebehandling av trae integrerad med kraftvaermeproduktion och fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delin, Lennart; Essen, Henrik (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    Heat treatment of wood changes the properties of wood so that the moisture uptake is reduced and the wood movements are reduced at variations in the ambient air humidity. The wood gets an increased resistance to rot and can therefore replace impregnated wood in certain applications. Heat treated wood is however not suitable for direct contact with soil. The strength is also reduced by heat treatment, so it is not recommended for supporting constructions. No additives whatsoever are used in the treatment, so the heat treated wood is very advantageous from an environmental point of view. The wood is dried completely at the heat treatment and heated to about 200 deg C. The question has hence been put, if it is advantageous to collocate a heat treatment plant with district heating or a power cogeneration plant. The aim of the study is to assess the value of such a collocation. Existing heat treatment plants are both few and small and the calculations have hence been made for how a large plant could be designed. A market study is included to assess the market for this type of plants. This shows that the present market for heat treated wood is very small. A full scale treatment plant of the type discussed in this study could probably not be built, since even single plants of this size would require a too large part of the market. The potential to replace impregnated wood is on the other hand very large. The cost for large scale heat treatment should be significantly lower than for impregnated wood and the cost for handling hazardous waste (which impregnated wood is classified as) is also removed. There should therefore be a potential for a future much larger volume of heat treated wood. The study shows that the energetic profit of collocation of a heat treatment plant for wood with district heating or power cogeneration plants is of lower importance. Maximally about 0.5 MSEK/year can be saved for a 25 000 m3/year plant. The initial drying of all sawn lumber has much more

  6. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl2 (CC) and/or Na2B4O7.10H2O (B). With the addition of NH4OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  7. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  8. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang [Department of Forest Resources, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-gyu [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyu-seong [Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-seob [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-woo [National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-ho [KCI Co. Ltd., Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do 356-874 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, In, E-mail: dahadad2000@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl{sub 2} (CC) and/or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.10H{sub 2}O (B). With the addition of NH{sub 4}OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  9. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from

  10. Molecular dynamic study of different regions of Angelin Pedra (Himenolobium paetrum) wood by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelin Pedra is a specie found in the north of Mato Grosso State in Brazil, where an expressive volume of waste of this wood is produced. An alternative to recycle this waste is to produce wood plastic composites. However, structural and chemical investigations are fundamental to generate information for this use. In the present work, low field NMR was used to determine the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times with objective to investigate the molecular dynamic behavior of the alburnu and cerne regions of Angelin Pedra aiming at a potential use of this waste wood in polymeric composites. The results of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1H) and the proton spin-spin relaxation time (T2H) showed at least three different mobility domains for both regions. Among the values, one was very flexible and other was rigid. Knowing that wood is a polymer composite basically constituted by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can attribute the smaller T1 value and the higher T2 value to lignin, the higher T1 value and the smaller T2 value to cellulose and the intermediary T1 and T2 values to hemicellulose. (author)

  11. Devolatilization and Combustion of Tire Rubber and Pine Wood in a Pilot Scale Rotary Kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R.; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    tire rubber and pine wood were found to be bulk oxygen concentration, mass transfer rate of oxygen, raw material fill degree, raw material characteristics, and temperature. Kiln rotational speed only had a minor effect on the char oxidation when the raw material bed was in a rolling motion. Initial...... industrial waste. In this study, devolatilization and combustion of large particles of tire rubber and pine wood with equivalent diameters of 10 mm to 26 mm are investigated in a pilot scale rotary kiln able to simulate the process conditions present in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns...

  12. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  13. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost

  14. Reliable and non-destructive positioning of larvae of wood-destroying beetles in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living larvae of wood-destroying insects (house longhorn beetle, deathwatch) can be determined in wood by both X-ray technique and vibration measurements. For such examinations convenient commercial devices were used and tested under laboratory conditions. The methods complement each other and lead to a rationalization of the tests of wood preservatives against wood-destroying insects. It seems to be promising to apply the test methods also to timber already used for building

  15. Novel perspectives in wood certification and forensics: dry wood as a source of DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Rémy J Petit

    2002-01-01

    The importance of wood for human societies can hardly be understated. If dry wood were amenable to molecular genetic investigations, this could lead to major applications in wood forensics, certification, archaeology and palaeobotany. To evaluate the potential of wood for molecular genetic investigations, we have attempted to isolate and amplify, by PCR, DNA fragments of increasing size corresponding to all three plant genomes from different regions of 10 oak logs. Stringent procedures to avo...

  16. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulation in...

  17. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  18. George Woods and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE. George David Woods became the fourth president of the World Bank on January 1, 1963. John F. Kennedy, personally, urged Woods to accept. In August, 1962, Eugene Black invited Woods to the White House where Kennedy told Woods, in effect: Everything we in the United States have done since the end of the war, including the Marshall Plan, to try to build a peaceful and stable world is threatened by the growing gap between the poor and the rich countries. If that is not sol...

  19. Characteristics of Wood ASH/OPC Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, M

    2006-01-01

    The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC concrete. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, consistency, setting time and slump test of the fresh paste were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for concrete making. Mix ratio of 1:2:4 and percentage replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 150mm´150mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 28 and 60 days to...

  20. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of...

  1. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  2. Safranine fluorescent staining of wood cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J; Donaldson, L; Hill, S; Hitchcock, K

    2008-06-01

    Safranine is an azo dye commonly used for plant microscopy, especially as a stain for lignified tissues such as xylem. Safranine fluorescently labels the wood cell wall, producing green/yellow fluorescence in the secondary cell wall and red/orange fluorescence in the middle lamella (ML) region. We examined the fluorescence behavior of safranine under blue light excitation using a variety of wood- and fiber-based samples of known composition to interpret the observed color differentiation of different cell wall types. We also examined the basis for the differences in fluorescence emission using spectral confocal microscopy to examine lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls including reaction wood and decayed wood compared to normal wood. Our results indicate that lignin-rich cell walls, such as the ML of tracheids, the secondary wall of compression wood tracheids, and wood decayed by brown rot, tend to fluoresce red or orange, while cellulose-rich cell walls such as resin canals, wood decayed by white rot, cotton fibers and the G-layer of tension wood fibers, tend to fluoresce green/yellow. This variation in fluorescence emission seems to be due to factors including an emission shift toward red wavelengths combined with dye quenching at shorter wavelengths in regions with high lignin content. Safranine fluorescence provides a useful way to differentiate lignin-rich and cellulose-rich cell walls without counterstaining as required for bright field microscopy. PMID:18802812

  3. AFBnet - Wood and field energy information from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of EU's ALTENER program is to promote the use of renewable energy sources. The European bioenergy network AFBnet produces and delivers information on bioenergy research and utilization of them in different countries. Import and export of biofuels, as well as the prices of biofuels in twenty European countries have been studied during past two years. The potential of combined heat and power generation with biofuels has also been estimated. The network has evaluated these projects and the factors, which have affected the successfulness and unsuccessfulness of the projects in different countries. In Finland the promotion of the utilization of wood fuels in municipal projects was evaluated in a 'Heat Entrepreneur competition' carried out first time in 2000. AFBnet analyzed the operation of 21 plants using mixed fuels as energy sources. One of the objectives was to collect information on experiences of production and processing phase of fuels at district heating and power plants in Finland, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Sweden, Germany and Denmark. The plants consumed different kinds of biofuels (industrial wood residues, straw and other agricultural wastes) and the mixture of them. Plants using different combustion technologies (grate, fluidized bed and pulverized fuel combustion, and biomass gasifiers). The consumption rate of wood and agricultural biofuels in plants was about 30% of the total fuel consumption. The main mixed fuel was coal, the share of which was 28% of the total. A detailed report has been published on all the plants. The reports analyze the fuel production and processing chains of the plants up to the boiler. Data was gathered also from the investments and maintenance costs of the plants. In EU countries there is no comprehensive survey on the prices of biofuels. Only Sweden publishes the prices of biofuels regularly. AFBnet collected in 1999 data on fuel prices, import and export of the fuels, and present utilization and potential of

  4. Exhumation test with aged radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents observations during the excavation of low-level waste buried for 14 years in the humid environment of the Savannah River Plant. The waste was buried in sandy clay soil trenches more than 20 feet above the water table and covered with soil soon after burial. The waste uncovered included wood, steel, plastics, cotton cloth, rubber, and paper. Cardboard boxes not enclosed in plastic were the only materials that deteriorated visibly

  5. The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebani, A.N.; Reenen, A.J. van [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Meincken, M. [Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)], E-mail: mmein@sun.ac.za

    2008-05-30

    This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood-polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species -Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops - has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal stability of wood. Subsequently, the hot-water (HW) extractives, ethanol/cyclohexane (E/C) extractives and both extractives were eliminated from the wood via Soxhlet extraction and the thermal stability of the wood determined with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under identical conditions. The results suggest that a higher cellulose and lignin content leads to better thermal stability of wood in different temperature regimes. In all cases, the removal of extractives improved the thermal stability of the wood. The effect of combined extractions was more pronounced than of an individual extraction and E/C-extraction caused less improvement in the thermal stability of wood than HW extraction. The degradation of the investigated wood extractives occurred at low rates over a broad temperature range. Pure cellulose exhibited superior thermal stability compared to wood, but differences were observed between the investigated wood species.

  6. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  7. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary

  8. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  9. Energy Efficient Wood Fuel Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renstroem, Roger

    2004-04-01

    With reference to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, biofuel is pointed out as an important substitute for fossil fuels. The Swedish Government favours the use of biofuel by imposing taxes on fossil fuels. However, biofuel is a limited resource and it is therefore important that we develop efficient systems for the production and utilization of this limited resource. This thesis is based on six papers out of which five are experimental and treats the drying of wood in spouted bed co-generation dryers. The sixth paper deals with the integration of a co-generation dryer into the energy system of a sawmill.

  10. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests. PMID:26922861

  11. Green waste from spirit; Gruener Abfall zu Sprit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heida, Lydia

    2013-05-15

    Bio MCN (Almere, The Netherlands) has built the largest factory of the world for the production of bio-methanol. This factory produces 250 million liter methanol annually from natural gas, green gas (from the fermentation of sugar beet residues) and crude glycerol. Crude glycerol arises from the biodiesel production. As part of the Wood Spirit Project, Bio MCN constructs an additional plant that converts 750,000 tons of wood waste to 250 million liters of methanol. The waste wood is chipped and converted to biochar by means of torrefaction. Biochar is pulverized and converted to synthesis gas. This synthesis gas is converted to methanol by means of a chemical catalyst.

  12. An assessment of inter-firm networks in a wood biomass industrial cluster: lessons for integrated policymaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumozhi, V.; Gunjima, T. [Kansai Research Centre, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Prem Ananth, A.; Visvanathan, C. [Asian Institute of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Management, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Effective use of biomass is emerging in various agro-industries, offering new avenues for sustainable regional development. A case analysis is done on a wood industrial cluster in Maniwa, Japan to analyze the drivers and barriers for community-based actions in improving environmental performance of small businesses operating in the cluster. Wood processing businesses in Maniwa generate wastes such as wood trimmings and shavings. Community-based actions of various businesses in the supply chain realized the commercial value in such waste products and explored options of wood such as biomass fuel, extraction of ethanol, wood-based concrete and organic strawberry farming. Various technologies enabled the process to be carried out, and knowledge/information was brought in by local research institutes. Taking leadership and participation by business in community-based social networks increased the availability of market information and lowered its cost. It also led them to reach collective decisions and implement actions together. Evidences from a strength, weakness, opportunities and potential analysis of the Maniwa wood cluster revealed that stimulating community-based actions, providing enabling technologies, creation of social capital and policy integration are the pillars for transforming local industrial clusters into eco-friendly industrial clusters. Technical facts, policy experiences and findings suggest that grouping of biomass-based industries and developing joint actions for sound material flow represent a promising strategy to promote sustainable production and consumption while providing a new model for environment friendly regional development. (orig.)

  13. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  14. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with...

  15. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  16. A complete wood-fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, F. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    In Corsica, eight heating plants are supplied by a Mixed Economy Company (SEM). A complete wood fuel channel has been developed, but for wood fuel to be competitive, the Corsican experimentation proves that some conditions have to be obtained. (TEC). 1 fig.

  17. NeighbourWoods for Better Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan

    This publication aims to contribute to the development af NeighbourWoods through socially-inclusive planning, design and management. It presents experiences from an international project supported by the European Commission which evaluated and developed approaches and tools to assist NeighbourWood...

  18. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive as a...

  19. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 93 (2013), s. 52-52. ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  20. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  1. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  2. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  3. Natural polymer biocomposites produced from processing raw wood flour by severe shear deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiaolin; Haryono, Hengky; Xia, Kenong

    2014-11-26

    Wood flour (WF) based natural polymer biocomposites were produced using the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique. The wood particle structures were disrupted and the cellulose crystallinity was decreased while bulk materials were formed with continuous phase structures by the severe shear-deformation during ECAP. The mechanical properties of the processed WF materials were enhanced when the processing temperature was increased due to enhanced intermolecular interactions and thermal crosslinking reactions among WF components. The processing capability was improved by using wheat gluten (WG) as additives, leading to significantly reduced processing temperature. Effective chain penetration and strong intermolecular interactions in conjunction with chemical crosslinking occurred between WG and the amorphous components in WF. However, the thermal decomposition of the WG component also occurred at increased temperatures, resulting in a decrease in the mechanical strength of the WF/WG composites. The result has demonstrated that ECAP is a promising methodology to produce renewable and degradable biocomposites from wood waste. PMID:25256457

  4. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture and...... temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning or...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  5. Wood use by the Amboseli Maasai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    A study which quantifies wood use for settlement building and fuelwood by the pastoral Maasai of the Amboseli lake basin ecosystem in southern Kenya derives estimates of annual per capita wood use. The values derived from the study are significantly below those of other reports, which suggests a difference between monitored and unmonitored forest and bushland removals. If the other studies overestimate wood use, it is important to investigate wood production on pastoral lands to evaluate whether woodstock can sustain current and future demand. If not, then changes in the source of cooking fuel will be more effective than in building patterns since over four times as much wood is used for cooking than for building. 10 references, 7 tables.

  6. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  7. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  8. Leachates from wood ash - effects of storage on soil; Lakvatten fraan skogsbraensleaska - markpaaverkan av lagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeur, Inger; Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans FenixAB, Lund (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    In this study we monitored leachate from wood ash stored in a pile in an outdoor environment during six months. Our aim was to contribute with knowledge about leaching behavior and risks connected to storages of wood ash, and more generally leaching from piles affected by various weather conditions. Impacts on soil from storage of wood ash was also included in the study as well as different transport scenarios for recycling wood ash to the forest. Bioenergy output from Swedish forests has more than doubled the last 10 years and as nutrient rich parts as needles and branches (grot) is also taken out, the nutrient export from the forest site has increased by a factor of three to five. To counteract depletion of nutrients in forest soils, wood ash is returned to the forest. Apart from nitrogen, wood ash contains all the nutrients and trace elements that were in the wood before combustion. The wood ash must be hardened before spreading to make it less reactive. The ash self hardens when stored in an outdoor environment for 3 to 6 months and according to the waste act this should be done on a paved area. However, wood ash which is meant to be recycled to the forest has naturally very low amounts of polluting elements and shall also fulfill limit values, set up by the Swedish Forest Agency. As it is so that the storage is during a limited period of time and the ash shall be transported, not only to one place but too several smaller areas, this has given rise to the thought of storing the ash closer to the spreading area. However, the ash would then probably be stored in a non paved area, as the number of paved areas in forests is scarce. If storage close to the spreading area could be done, the distance for transports connected to recycling the ash would presumably be decrease by a factor of two or three. To get permission to store ash on a non paved area, there must be enough data available which can ensure that there are no environmental risks associated to the storage

  9. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  10. Use of wood as an energy source in the state of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Foerster, T.

    1978-09-01

    A detailed study is presented of the availability and use of wood as an energy resource for the State of Maine. Although there are no good data on the total resources of Maine's forests, the best estimates indicate that one could obtain about 1/2 quad (10/sup 15/ Btu) per year from thinning overstocked stands and harvesting dead trees; current logging operations could produce about the same amount of energy in the form of logging residues and thinnings, an amount that could be increased manyfold by intensive forest management. The costs of wood for fuel can be estimated on the basis of current logging and transportation costs. The corresponding energy prices, while high, are competitive with current fossil fuel prices. Using any energy source requires not only the fuel but also a furnace. The total energy costs are thus not only the cost of current fuel use but also those of the capital investment in the furnace. We have estimated these for systems of two sizes, one for a small house, the other for an apartment building or small commercial establishment. In both cases, our estimated indicate, that woodfueled systems can be economically competitive. Wood is currently used as a fuel on a large scale in the pulp and paper industry. With some increase in wood harvesting efforts and some alterations of furnaces that industry could achieve energy self sufficiency. Other large-scale uses are still speculative but deserve further investigation. A state-owned energy corporation could serve to provide a market for currently wasted wood and to investigate the conversion of wood to other forms of energy. The combustion of wood is not associated with environmental effects that are different kind in magnitude from those associated with the combustion of fossil fuel.

  11. Guide for construction of wood power systems. Construction - economic efficiency - technology; Leitfaden fuer die Errichtung von Holzenergie-Anlagen. Umsetzung - Wirtschaftlichkeit - Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchser, M. [Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Guidebook serves as a handbook for the entire operational sequence, which is necessary for the establishment of a wood combustion plant in Germany with an installed capacity larger than 100 kW{sub th}, for the use of fuel woods such as forest chips, wood and forest residues, pellets, wood waste, etc. within the limits of the laws and regulations prescribed for the respective performance classes. The Guidebook's purpose is to give potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants as well as the appropriate authorities a quick and global overview of the energetic use of wood in order to contribute to an increased application of this technology. The Guidebook introduces a Quality Model in Chapters 2 and 3, which describes the establishment of a wood combustion system in six phases. Eleven Management Aspects are differentiated, which can be helpful during the conversion of a project. Thus, potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants become acquainted with the most important aspects of this kind of project conversion. In addition, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the operating costs of wood combustion plants. The relevant licensing and planning procedures depending on the installed capacity and fuelwood use are comprehensively described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 supplies a concrete overview of the environmental aspects and emissions of wood combustion. Since wood combustion plants must be - as all other investments - financially secured Chapter 7 provides a description of the relevant information on public means and subsidies. Besides all important promotion programmes, the new German Renewable Energy Law (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz - EEG) of April 2000 is described in detail. Many examples of already realised wood combustion plant projects are described in Chapter 8. As an additional service, all significant addresses from ministries to energy agencies and associations are listed in Chapter 9. (orig.)

  12. Effects of biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gasco Guerrero, Gabriel; Cely Parra, Paola Andrea; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge; Saa Requejo, Antonio; Méndez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid obtained by the thermal decomposition of organic matter under a limited supply of oxygen and at relatively low temperatures. Biochar can be prepared from the pyrolysis of different organic feed- stocks, such as wood and biomass crops, agricultural by-products, different types of waste or paper industry waste materials . The pyrolysis procedure of waste, i.e. sewage sludge, has mainly two advantages, firstly, it removes pathogens from waste and, secondly, biochar...

  13. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Wood-starved and footsore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly half the people on earth soon may find themselves a little colder and a little hungrier as sources of cheap fuel for cooking and heating begin to disappear. Traditional wood-base fuels such as firewood and charcoal are becoming scarce as populations increase and forest land is converted to other uses. For more than 100 million people, this shortage has reached crisis proportions. In just seven years the world population, now estimated at 5.5 billion, is expected to exceed 6.25 billion. Almost half-including nearly 600 million urban dwellers-may not have enough fuel to heat their homes and feed their families. By 2025, when the world population could reach 10 billion, finding fuel supplies that are reliable and inexpensive will be both a rural and an urban problem. Solutions are being explored in several areas, based on more efficient and more effective tree planting and more energy efficient technologies

  15. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R and D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R and D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Graphene Sheet Content in Wood Char Powders during Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jia Liou; Wu-Jang Huang

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of the graphene sheet content in carbon-containing materials is arguable and has not yet been developed.The authors report on a feasible method to characterize graphene sheet content quantitatively in pyrolized carbon materials using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer.A direct carbonation at 300 ℃ followed by catalytic pyrolysis (heat-treatment temperature was set at 700-1400 ℃)under a vacuum condition was used for turning wood waste into pyrolized wood char powders.The graphene content in the samples was calculated through an analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the carbon (100) crystal plane at around 42°-43° in XRD.Results showed that the FWHM and the calculated graphene sheet content of pyrolized wood char powders depended on the heat-treatment temperature,and the FWHM of wood char powder with well-developed graphene sheets (100%) was determined to be 5.0.In addition,the trend to 100% graphene sheet-contained pyrolized carbon powder was obtained at a heattreatment temperature of 2700 ℃.The resistivity of the wood char powder with 100% graphene sheets was predicted to be 0.01 Ω cm,close to our experimental data of 0.012 and 0.006 Ω cm for commercial graphite and graphene products,respectively.

  17. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  18. Wood surface roughness: an impact of wood species, grain direction and grit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Vitosytė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the research the samples of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., birch (Betula L., black alder (Alnus glutinosa L., Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood were used with dimensions of 270×215×15 mm. All wood samples were tangentially planed, defect free and kiln dried. Before the research, the average moisture content, wood density, number of annual rings per 1 cm, average width of annual ring and wood surface grain direction were evaluated. Different wood surface roughness of the samples was obtained sanding wood samples in the eccentric sanding stand, using standard open-type sandpaper with different grit size. The arithmetic mean value of the single roughness depths of consecutive sampling lengths parameter Rz of the sanded wood samples were measured in five sectors along the wood grain, across and in the angle of 45°, using a contact stylus profilometer. In total 1800 measurements were done during testing series. Obtained measurement results were processed by digital Gaussian filter according to DIN EN ISO 11562. In the research the dependence of wood surface on wood species, grain direction and grit size of abrasive material was evaluated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5882

  19. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVA ÇAUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious investment in technology. Big enterprises such as Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production. So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products.

  20. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  1. Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu

    2014-01-01

    We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.

  2. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  3. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jerome; Coomes, David; Jansen, Steven; Lewis, Simon L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zanne, Amy E

    2009-04-01

    Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits. PMID:19243406

  4. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  5. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  6. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs

  7. Technical development of a retrofit wood burner for coal under-fed stokers in County Durham, and set up of demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N.

    2002-07-01

    Durham County Council wishes to convert its coal-burning solid fuel boilers to make use of readily-available waste wood dust. It is intended that the wood dust be converted to pelleted fuel. The emphasis was on cost-cutting rather than boiler efficiency. The experimental studies were carried out at two schools where the boilers were welded steel and cast iron sectional boilers. Factors studied were air supply to the boilers, fuel feed systems, fuel storage, fuel delivery and pelletization. The results have shown that operating costs of wood burning boilers are a little greater than coal-burning but this is slightly offset by savings elsewhere. The environmental benefits were significant in terms of lower emissions from the boilers, reduced road transport, and the wood waste is no longer sent to landfill. Further areas of study are recommended. The contractor for this study was North Energy Associates Ltd, and the study was part of the DTI Sustainable Energy Programme.

  8. Adsorption of phenol on wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of phenol on aspen and pine wood is investigated. It is shown that adsorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. The woods' specific surface areas and adsorption interaction constants are determined. It is found that the sorption of phenol on surfaces of aspen and pine is due to Van der Waals interactions ( S sp = 45 m2/godw for aspen and 85 m2/godw for pine). The difference between the adsorption characteristics is explained by properties of the wood samples' microstructures.

  9. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  10. Mathematical modelling of wood and briquettes torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos; Soler, Pedro Beaton [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    A mathematical model valid for the torrefaction of wood logs and biomass briquettes is presented. The model described both chemical and physical processes, which take place in a moist piece of wood heated at temperatures between 503 and 573 K. Calibration measurements of the temperature profile and mass loss, were performed on dry cylinders of wood samples during torrefaction in an inert atmosphere at 503, 533, and 553 K. The calculated data shows a good agreement with experiments. The model can be a useful tool to estimate projecting and operating parameters for torrefaction furnaces such as minimum time of torrefaction, energy consumption and the mass yield. (author)

  11. An Overview of the Biology of Reaction Wood Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Du; Fukuju Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    Reaction wood possesses altered properties and performs the function of regulating a tree's form, but it is a serious defect in wood utility. Trees usually develop reaction wood in response to a gravistimulus. Reaction wood in gymnosperms is referred to as compression wood and develops on the lower side of leaning stems or branches.In arboreal, dicotyledonous angiosperms, however, it is called tension wood and is formed on the upper side of the leaning. Exploring the biology of reaction wood formation is of great value for the understanding of the wood differentiation mechanisms, cambial activity, gravitropism, and the systematics and evolution of plants. After giving an outline of the variety of wood and properties of reaction wood, this review lays emphasis on various stimuli for reaction wood induction and the extensive studies carried out so far on the roles of plant hormones in reaction wood formation. Inconsistent results have been reported for the effects of plant hormones. Both auxin and ethylene regulate the formation of compression wood in gymnosperms. However, the role of ethylene may be indirect as exogenous ethylene cannot induce compression wood formation. Tension wood formation is mainly regulated by auxin and gibberellin. Interactions among hormones and other substances may play important parts in the regulation of reaction wood formation.

  12. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of...

  13. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl; Damkilde, Lars

    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally th...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled... wood, and commonly known prior to the passage of the act as wood turpentine, steam distilled...

  15. Straw and wood processing, including suitable drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehler, A.; Perwanger, A.; Mitterleitner, H.; Hofstetter, E.M.

    1979-04-01

    A variety of plants designed for disintegrating and comminuting loose and compressed straw has been examined. The results obtained show that for most of the functions there are suitable plants available on the market, designed for disintegrating and comminuting individual trusses of straw. Specific energy requirements vary in function of the type of the plant. The farmhand large-truss chopper requires 1.8 kWh/dt, whereas a simple metering hopper combined with a harvester-thresher mounted chopper requires only 0.2 kWh/dt. Only by chopping it in special machines can waste wood (twigs, boughs, tree tops, barks) be brought into the shape required for utilizing cycle-saving machines and devices designed for the handling, processing, intermediate storing, sorting and dosing of fine particles into the press. A variety of choppers (brushwood choppers, culture choppers and trailed choppers) have been utilized with the aim to determine processing capacity, rate requirements and specific energy requirements, taking the degree of comminution into account. Specific energy requirements range between 0.15 kWh/dt (desintegration and little heaviness) and 2 kWh/dt (grinding, much heaviness). Technical straw drying is of little importance, since straw is generally dried in the field down to the required ultimate humidity of 14-16%. Should technical drying be necessary, conventional hay-drying plants may be used. The drying speed of chopped thinning wood (pulp chips) is relatively high as long as the particles are small as they were in the trial runs. Since wood - unlike food and feedstuff - cannot be expected to fall off in quality due to long drying cycles, the cheap process of ventilation without or with only little air heating may be used.

  16. Effect Of Wood-Based Biochar And Sewage Sludge Amendments For Soil Phosphorus Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Frišták Vladimír; Soja Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two biochars (pyrolysed wood chips and garden clippings) on phosphorus (P) availability in a heavy-metal contaminated soil poor in phosphorus. Short-term 14-days incubation experiments were conducted to study how applications of biochars at different rates (1 and 5 %) in combination with (1:1) and without dried sewage sludge from a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) affected the content of soil extractable P. For P-availability analyses deioniz...

  17. Agricultural-wood biomass: Needs and expectations of large and small firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy commercialization feasibility is assessed for the Italian Alpine region of Piemonte. Attention is focussed on the socio-economic viability of the use of wood wastes deriving from local lumber mills and from logging activities, as well as, on the use of rice husks and hay grown in the Padana Plain area at the foot of the Alps. The biomass is proposed as a fuel for combined cycle power plants producing electric power and hot water for district heating

  18. Reduction in Difficulties of Phytomass Combustion by Co-Combustion of Wood Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Holubcik; Jozef Jandacka; Jozef Micieta

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the most used biofuel in Slovak republic is log wood. Alternatively, there are also biofuels based on vegetal biomass (phytomass) like wheat straw or grass. The advantage of these biofuels is lower cost price because they are usually considered as waste product. The major disadvantage of these vegetal biofuels is their problematic combustion. It is mainly due to the low ash melting temperature because of chemical composition of ash from phytomass. The low ash melting temperature cau...

  19. Utilization of wood waste in condition of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is a plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can be used as a solid fuel, or converted into liquid or gaseous forms, for the production of electric power, heat, chemicals, or fuels. The use of biomass energy has a potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. When burning the biomass, almost the same amount of carbon dioxides released as with fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago an essentially 'new' greenhouse gas. The biomass, on the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth (depending on how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel). Biopower, or biomass power, is the use of biomass to generate electricity. Biopower system technologies include direct-firing, cofiring, gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion. Most biopower plants use direct-fired systems. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. The steam drives turbines, which turn generators, converting the power into electricity. In some biomass industries, the steam spent in the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. Such combined heat and power systems greatly increase the overall energy efficiency. Paper mills the largest current producers of biomass power generate the electricity or process the heat as a part of the process for recovering pulping chemicals. (authors)

  20. ADHESIVE-FREE WOOD JOINTS – PART I: SESSILE OAK WOOD (Quercus petraea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-01-01

    act: Wood as a raw material is indispensable in various human activities. Its investigation is inexhaustible and its responsible valorization, in accordance with current requirements for re-use and subsequent re-integration, is a priority at national level. Rotational friction as an alternative method of joining wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now, even if it has been under investigation during the past 15 years in the wood field. T...

  1. Comparison of several wood smoke markers and source apportionment methods for wood burning particulate mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sandradewi, J.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; M. R. Alfarra; Szidat, S.; Wehrli, M. N.; Ruff, M.; S. Weimer; Lanz, V A; Weingartner, E.; Perron, N.; Caseiro, A.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; H. Puxbaum; Wacker, L.; Baltensperger, U.

    2008-01-01

    Residential wood combustion has only recently been recognized as a major contributor to air pollution in Switzerland and in other European countries. A source apportionment method using the aethalometer light absorption parameters was applied to five winter campaigns at three sites in Switzerland: a village with high wood combustion activity in winter, an urban background site and a highway site. The particulate mass from traffic (PMtraffic) and wood burning (PM

  2. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Budiaman; Putri Komalasari

    2012-01-01

    Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not bee...

  3. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  4. Effects of Mixing Temperature and Wood Powder Size on Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Recycled Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojiro, Keisuke; Kanayama, Kozo; Yamamoto, Ken

    In this study, wood (cedar) powder ranging from 53 µm to 1 mm sizes, recycled polypropylene (PP) / polyethylene (PE) and acid-modified PP as a compatibilization agent were used to produce a wood-plastic recycled composite (WPRC). For discussing the effects of the wood powder sizes on the mechanical properties of the WPRC, a mixing process of the wood powder and the plastics in a constant wood content of 50% weight was firstly performed by a mixing machine controlled temperature and rotation of mixing blade. And then, to obtain WPRC panels the wood and plastics mixtures were compressed in a mould under a constant pressure and a temperature for a certain holding time. WPRC specimens for mechanical tests were cut from the WPRC panels, and a tensile strength and a size-stability were acquired. The results show that the successful mixing process runs above 180°C, where the mixing torque required compounding keeps constant or slightly increases. The tensile strength of the WPRC increases when the smaller size of wood powder is used for wood/plastic compound under successful mixing conditions. It is shown from thickness change rate of specimens that mixing temperature of wood/plastic compound affects a size stability of the WPRC.

  5. On the formaldehyde release of wood particles

    OpenAIRE

    Roffael, E.; Behn, C.; Dix, B.

    2012-01-01

    The emission of formaldehyde from softwood particles, as measured by the flask method (EN 717-3), depends highly on the particle size. Therefore, no definite value for the formaldehyde release from wood can be given.

  6. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104 – 105 K/s) was as low as 1 to 6 % on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17 % for slow pyrolysis (10 - 20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents....... Fast pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars (for the same activation energy, the pre-exponential factor was up to 2 orders of magnitude greater for chars increased. The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels is believed to play an......This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile in the...

  8. Manufacture, delivery and marketing of wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellet is a cheap fuel, the use of which can easily bee automated. Pellet heating can be carried out with a stoker or a pellet burner, which can be mounted to oil and solid fuels boiler or to solid fuel boilers. Vapo Oy delivers wood pellet to farms and detached houses via Agrimarket stores. Vapo Oy delivers pellets to large real estates, municipalities, industry, greenhouses and power plants directly as bulk. The pellets are delivered either by trailers or lorries equipped with fan-operated unloaders. The use of wood pellets is a suitable fuel especially for real estates, the boiler output of which is 20 - 1000 kW. Vapo Oy manufactures wood pellets of cutter chips, grinding dust and sawdust. The raw material for Ilomantsi pellet plant is purchased from the province of North Karelia. The capacity of pelletizing plant is 45 000 t of pellets per year, half of which is exported mainly to Sweden and Denmark

  9. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  11. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Noraida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there was only harvested area having an impact with 1% significant level. This result indicates that, the harvested area become the most impact towards supply of rubber wood log either in short run or in the long run. While wages as input cost gave less impact in another word it become unburden to the producers.

  12. Co-combustion of Wood-Shavings and Horse Manure in a Small Scale Heating Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, E. [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden); Lundgren, J.; Hermansson, R. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Due to the prohibition of disposal of organic material at landfills, there is a great interest amongst stable owners in finding practical, environmental and economic alternatives for handling of the horse manure. One option is to use the waste as fuel for local heat generation. A riding school, near the town of Timraa in the middle part of Sweden, has installed a boiler fired with a mixture of wood-shavings and horse manure. The main objectives with this study were to evaluate the environmental performance of the furnace and the total economy of the plant. The measurements showed that the emissions of CO were relatively low, typically below 200 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The NO{sub x} emissions were in the range of 360 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 450 mg/Nm{sup 3}, which is significantly higher than when firing conventional wood fuels. The reason is that this fuel contains up to nine times more nitrogen than for example wood-chips due to absorbed urine from the horses. The particle emissions were in the range of 390 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 470 mg/Nm{sup 3}. (All emission values are dry gas based and normalised to 10 volume % O{sub 2}). An economic evaluation comparing combustion, composting at a waste station and direct spread on arable land showed the lowest annual cost for combustion. This is an example of turning a cumbersome waste product into a profitable fuel.

  13. Basalt FRP Spike Repairing of Wood Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Righetti; Marco Corradi; Antonio Borri

    2015-01-01

    This article describes aspects within an experimental program aimed at improving the structural performance of cracked solid fir-wood beams repaired with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) spikes. Fir wood is characterized by its low density, low compression strength, and high level of defects, and it is likely to distort when dried and tends to fail under tension due to the presence of cracks, knots, or grain deviation. The proposed repair technique consists of the insertion of BFRP spik...

  14. Welfare Gains from Wood Preservatives Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barry J. Seldon; Hyde, William F.

    1991-01-01

    The economic productivity of publicly funded wood preservatives research from 1950 to 1980 exemplifies public research in the forest product industries. We find a high internal rate of return for wood preservatives, nearly 300 percent. The research investments would not have been made by private industrial investors, however, since the welfare gains are not captured by producers. This provides justification for government involvement in research. The marginal internal rate of return is negati...

  15. China s Wood Industry after Joining WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing the present status and prospects of wood industry in the world, the author suggests that in response to the new situation of economic globalization and China's entry into the WTO, the Chinese wood industry should further develop IT application, optimize and upgrade industrial structure and raise quality of labor force, blazing a new trail to industrialization featuring high scientific and technological content, good economic return, low resources consumption, little environmental polluti...

  16. Adsorption of coper-ethanolamine preservatives in wood

    OpenAIRE

    Humar, Miha

    2008-01-01

    Copper-ethanolamine based preservatives are one of the most important wood preservatives for protection of wood in third and fourth use class. Despite the fact that they are commercially used for several years, complete mechanismof fixation in wood has been not resolved to date. It is clear that copper-ethanolamine system reacts with wood faster than copper-chromium based wood preservatives. It is not known, however, which parameters control this process of fixation and when it is finished. I...

  17. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Wood Powder /Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of wood powder/polypropylene composites with different wood content treated and untreated with the compatibilizer have been studied. It has been found that addition of wood powders and the compatibilizer can both improve the viscoelasticity of composites. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of appropriate wood powder-filled composites decreased. The value for the storage modulus (G') increased gradually with increasing wood powder content. The addition of the compatibiliz...

  18. Effect of Wood Particle Size on the Properties of Wood/Polypropylene Composites Ⅰ:Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of wood powder/polypropy!ene composites with different wood particle sizes and wood species have been studied. All of the wood particie sizes increased the E-modulus of the composites. Tensile tests showed that wood partide sizes had a negative effect on the elongation at break and the tensile strength of the composites has been improved when wood particle sizes were be(ow 150 μm (below 100 mesh). For the impact tests, the wood partide sizes had a negative effect, but the MDF f...

  19. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  20. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  1. WOOD BIOMASS RESOURCE ASSESSMENT ACCORDING TO DATA SOURCES FOR CENTRAL CHERNOZYOM ZONE Мониторинг неликвидных запасов древесного сырья Центрально-Чернозёмной области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko N. N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The questions of energy and fuel saving as well as the problem of their substitute with renewable sources are in the focus of the scientists all over the world. At present, the most actual task is the efficient use of fuel wood, especially low-grade invaluable wood and wood wastes. The article considers the regional characteristics and opportunities for wood biomass harvesting in the Voronezh region

  2. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  4. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m3/ha

  5. Chemical methods in the development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Matti; Kuokkanen, Toivo; Stoor, Tuomas; Niinimäki, Jouko; Pohjonen, Veli

    2009-09-01

    Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year is left unused in Finland, mainly in the forests during forestry operations, because supply and demand does not meet. As a consequence of high heat energy prices, the looming threat of climate change, the greenhouse effect, and due to global as well as national demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase pellet production. As part of this European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bio-energy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is - by means of multidisciplinary research, especially through chemical methods - to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production in both the qualitative and the quantitative sense. Wood-based pellets are classified as an emission-neutral fuel, which means that they are free from emission trading in the European Union. The main fields of pellet research and the chemical toolbox that has been developed for these studies, which includes a new specific staining and optical microscope method designed to determine the cross-linking of pellets in the presence of various binding compounds, are described in this paper. As model examples illustrating the benefits of this toolbox, experimental data is presented concerning Finnish wood pellets and corresponding wood-based pellets that include the use of starch-containing waste potato peel residue and commercial lignosulfonate as binding materials. The initial results concerning the use of the developed and optimized specific staining and microscopic method using starch-containing potato peel residue as binding material are presented. PMID:19470536

  6. Technology and distribution of pellets. Experience about the European network on wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood pellets might become the most important alternative to fossil fuels in the near future. As a bio-fuel it has the following characteristics: heat value, min 4.7 kWh/kg; ash fraction less than 1.0 vol. %; humidity less than 10 vol. %; diameter (rod shaped) min 6 mm and volumetric weight about 650 kg/m3. About 2.1 t pellets substitute 1000 l fuel oil. Sweden and Austria have more than 15 year experience in using wood pellets, followed by Germany. They are an environmentally friendly alternative for private houses, for district heating plants and especially suitable for densely built-up and inhabited areas. Having high energy density they can be transported to the areas with high energy requirements. Among their advantages are: low humidity, easy transport and storage, can be produced by renewable raw materials and provide new local jobs, fit for renewable energy systems with closed cycle. Disadvantages include: relatively more expensive for private houses compared to oil and gas and necessity of two times larger storage space than oil. Wood pellets are produced by all kind of paper waste and wood wastes from industry. They are especially suitable for small boiler plants and the oil burner can be replaced by a pellet burner in the same boiler. The leading producer of wood pellets is Sweden, of pellet stoves - USA. Pellet stoves, pellet burners and pellet boilers both for private houses and for heating plants are manufactured also in Sweden, Denmark,Finland, Germany, Austria and Ireland

  7. National and global greenhouse gas dynamics of different forest management and wood use scenarios: a model-based assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    structural components; (4) waste wood that is not suitable for further use should be used to generate energy. Political strategies to solely increase the use of wood as a biofuel cannot be considered efficient from a climate perspective; (5) forest management strategies to enhance carbon sinks in forests via reduced harvesting are not only ineffective because of a compensatory increase in fossil fuel consumption for the production of non-wooden products and thermal energy but also because of the Kyoto-'cap' that limits the accountability of GHG removals by sinks under Article 3.3 and 3.4, at least for the first commitment period; (6) the effect of substitution through the material and energy use of wood is more significant and sustained as compared with the stock effects in wood products, which tend towards new steady-state flow equilibria with no further increase of C stocks; (7) from a global perspective, the effect of material substitution exceeds that of energy recovery from wood. In the Swiss context, however, the energy recovery from wood generates a greater substitution effect than material substitution.

  8. Plasma-chemical surface engineering of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sokołowska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Wood infiltrated with nano-silica hydrosol forms a “weak”, irregular composite of components bound with hydrogen bonds only. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of low-energy ions bombardment on the structure and properties of the surface of this composite. The aim of these investigations was to produce a shallow “buried” layer of a dense wood-ceramic composite on a wood surface .Design/methodology/approach: D.c. glow-discharge in N2/H2 (9:11 atmosphere under a pressure of 4hPa was the source of ions. A beech plate was placed on the cathode. The temperature of wood was 200°C. The material collected from the wood-silica composite surface was investigated with FTIR spectroscopy and SEM observations. The surface energy was determined with the use of contact angle measurements.Findings: The ions influenced silica only. The nano-particles underwent sintering changing its medium size twice and a small I.R. peak of N2 trapped in SiO2 suggest the possibility of silica nitriding. A buried, continual surface layer of sintered silica did not form. The surface energy of the “wood-silica” plate was slightly decreased after plasma treatment.Research limitations/implications: The results proved the possibility of plasma treatment of wood even in a d.c. glow-discharge under low pressure. Silica sintering, a difficult process which in a thermal way has to be carried out at a temperature of 1000°C, taking place in a plasma at a temperature of 200°C showed the very special nature of an influence of ions.Originality/value: The plasma surface treatment of wood in the d.c. glow-discharge (GD under reduced pressure has not been investigated. There are only publications about glow-dielectric-barrier-discharge (GDBD at atmospheric pressure applications for wood surface modification. The energy of ions in GDBD is much smaller than that of ions in GD and therefore the application of glow discharge under reduced pressure to

  9. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  10. Waste-to-energy's popularity is growing among power plant developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the growing popularity of refuse fuel power plants for use in the management of municipal solid wastes in the light of EPA and Clean Air Act regulations. The topics discussed include, municipal solid wastes to energy background and outlook, wood and agricultural waste background and outlook, and sanitary landfill gas background and outlook

  11. Wood to Bio-Methane demonstration project in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Rietveld, G. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands); Koenemann, J.W. [Dahlman Renewable Technology, P.O. Box 438, 3140 AK Maassluis (Netherlands); Sierhuis, W. [HVCgroup, P.O. Box 9199, 1800 GD, Alkmaar (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has developed a biomass gasification technology, called the MILENA technology. The Milena gasification technology has a high cold gas efficiency and high methane yield, making it very suitable for gas engine and turbine applications as well as upgrading of the gas into Bio-Methane. An overall efficiency from biomass to power of over 30% is possible, whereas 70% efficiency is achievable from biomass to gas grid quality methane. HVC Group (situated in Alkmaar, North Holland) is a modern public service waste company. HVC converts waste streams which cannot be recycled into usable forms of energy. HVC has a 75 MWth waste wood boiler in operation which produces heat and electricity, and an anaerobic digester which converts domestic fruit, vegetable and garden waste into Bio-Methane. HVC expects an important role for Bio-Methane in the future and HVC has decided to join ECN with the development, demonstration and implementation of the MILENA Bio-Methane technology. Linked to the Bio-Methane demonstration project is the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Biomass Gasification. The MILENA demonstration project and the Gasification Expert Centre are supported by the following companies and organizations: HVC, TAQA, Gasunie, Dahlman, province of North Holland, the Alkmaar municipality and ECN. In 2010 and 2012 extensive lab-scale and pilot scale tests have been executed by ECN and HVC to proof that the gasification and gas cleaning technology is ready for commercial application. The final step in this test program was a duration test in the 800 kWth MILENA pilot plant coupled to the OLGA tar removal unit. The goal was to show high availability. The result of the test was an availability of the gasifier of 96% and an overall availability (including gas cooling and gas cleaning) of 85%. The results of the duration tests convinced HVC and the other partners that the technology is ready for scale-up. The results produced in the

  12. Electron beam (EB) curing of wood surface finishing - lamination of PVC film on wood substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the films formulated by using various acrylated polyesters and urethane oligomers, mono-, di- and trifunctional monomers cured by using EB machine were investigated. The processability of these formulations on wood substrates were examined and later to apply those few selected formulations as adhesives in the EB curing of lamination of PVC films on wood substrates. (author)

  13. Wood for the Trees”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the t rees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resou rce rather than the collective wood[s] , implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of fore st and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high - value timber. By the late twentieth c entury, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movement s against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region . Wood for the t rees , curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington , plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawi lil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial p ole , Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into c olonisation , Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory s tick , and Añ A Wojak’s (2008 Unread b ook (in a forgotten language . Our art writing on the works, a practi ce informed by Bal (2002, Mueck e (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to t hat which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  14. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  15. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  16. Determination of Cu, Cr, and As in preserved wood (Eucalyptus sp.) using x-ray fluorescent spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy dispersive (EDXRF) and Portable (PXRF) X-ray fluorescence techniques are proposed for wood treatment control process and wood waste assortment. In this study, different retentions of chromated copper arsenate preservative were applied to Eucalyptus sp. sapwood samples. Cu, Cr and As were determined by XRF techniques in treated sapwood massive blocks and treated sapwood sawdust samples were analyzed by FAAS spectrometry (Flame Atomic Absorption) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). Cu, Cr and As mean values, obtained by FAASS and INAA, showed to be statically equal; however, XRF analysis showed considerable deviations, presenting the absorption and the enhancement effects in analytical lines. (author)

  17. UTILIZATION OF SCRAP PREPREG WASTES AS A REINFORCEMENT IN A WHOLLY RECYCLED PLASTIC - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Miller is proposing to combine Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) commingled plastics with a high performance reinforcement (scrap prepreg) to form a durable and cost competitive wood substitute with superior moisture, rodent and insect resistance. This proposed technology ...

  18. Air pollution from small scale wood firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are approximately 400000 boilers in Sweden that may be used for wood firing. In the year 1992 around 11 TWh of wood was consumed. Most of the boilers are used with direct firing which gives higher emissions than firing at full load. The emission of volatile organic compounds, from wood firing corresponds to 25% of the total emissions of VOC in Sweden. The national goal for emission from the combustion of wood should be. * Emission of carcinogens should be halved to the year 2005. In a longer perspective the release should be decreased with at least 90%. * The release of VOC ought to be halved to the year 2000. To accomplish these goals the following action should be considered. * Individual firing should be restricted, and joint heating systems suggested. Firing with solid fuels should not be allowed in densely populated areas. * Wood firing should, not later than the year 2000, be done in equipments that at least comply to the present demands for environmental approval

  19. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  20. Occurrence and speciation of polymeric chromium(III), monomeric chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ligang; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory experiments suggest that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in aqueous solution for a relative long period of time. However, the occurrence of polymeric Cr(III) has not been reported in environmental media due partially to the lack of method for speciating polymeric Cr. We observed an unknown Cr species during the course of study on speciation of Cr in the leachates of chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Efforts were made to identify structure of the unknown Cr species. Considering the forms of Cr existed in the CCA-treated woods, we mainly focused our efforts to determine if the unknown species were polymeric Cr(III), complex of Cr/As or complex of Cr with dissolved organic matter (DOM). In order to evaluate whether polymeric Cr(III) largely exist in wood leachates, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS was used) for simultaneous speciation of monomeric Cr(III), polymeric Cr(III), and Cr(VI). In addition to wood leachates where polymeric Cr (III) ranged from 39.1 to 67.4%, occurrence of the unknown Cr species in other environmental matrices, including surface waters, tap and waste waters, was also investigated. It was found that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in environmental samples containing μg/L level of Cr, at a level up to 60% of total Cr, suggesting that polymeric Cr(III) could significantly exist in natural environments. Failure in quantifying polymeric Cr(III) would lead to the underestimation of total Cr and bias in Cr speciation. The environmental implication of the presence of polymeric Cr(III) species in the environment deserves further study. PMID:27156211

  1. Specifications in the application form for environmental assessment of wood preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, U.J. [ed.

    2000-09-01

    In 1990 the former Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) jointly elaborated a catalogue of test requirements necessary for assessing the impact of wood preservatives on man and environment. Based on several years of experience, a revision was deemed necessary. Complying with the provisions of the Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market, which have to be transposed into national laws, the regulatory bodies BAM, BgVV and UBA, in cooperation with industry and academia (IUCT), developed an amended application form for wood preservatives. The provisions laid down there include different sets of data for wood preservatives, depending on the intended uses/hazard classes, e.g. physico-chemical and ecotoxicological properties, data on exposure, fate and behaviour in the environment and on waste management. The tests should be conducted according to standardized test protocols. Next to the list of data requirements explanations and justifications are given on why the data are needed and how they contribute to the risk assessment. Furthermore, recommendations are given on which test guidelines should preferably be followed to generate the data. In addition, annex I includes a proposal for a test guideline on how to screen leachates from preservative-treated wood surfaces for their ecotoxic potential to aquatic organisms. (orig.)

  2. Reduction in Difficulties of Phytomass Combustion by Co-Combustion of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Holubcik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the most used biofuel in Slovak republic is log wood. Alternatively, there are also biofuels based on vegetal biomass (phytomass like wheat straw or grass. The advantage of these biofuels is lower cost price because they are usually considered as waste product. The major disadvantage of these vegetal biofuels is their problematic combustion. It is mainly due to the low ash melting temperature because of chemical composition of ash from phytomass. The low ash melting temperature causes slagging and sintering, which reduce the efficiency of the combustion process. This disadvantage causes very difficult and problematic combustion of phytomass. The article deals the way of trouble reduction during combustion of pellets made from phytomass (specific hay through the wood pellet co-combustion in a standard automatic boiler for combustion of wood pellets. During the experiments, the mixing ratio of hay pellets and wood pellets is varied and subsequently, there is determined its impact on the combustion process, namely on heat output of the boiler, and there is also evaluated the effect of the mixing ratio on the production of carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, organic hydrocarbons (OGC and particulate matters (PM10, PM2.5.

  3. STATUS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION ON SECONDARY WOOD INDUSTRIES INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL, CABINET, MILLWORK, AND PANEL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pirraglia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing has helped several industries to achieve operational and manufacturing excellence by increasing productivity and enhancing quality, while reducing waste and costs. However, the wood industry has been historically slow in adopting this philosophy and its many tools. In times when overseas competition has taken big portions of the traditional market share for U.S based wood industries, it has become important that companies start to take actions in order to regain competitiveness. In this sense, Lean Manufacturing could provide a competitive advantage. Main findings of this project includes high percentages of Lean Manufacturing implementation among companies from the Wood Component Manufacturing Association, substantial differences in the tools implemented by companies on an early vs. extensive Lean Manufacturing implementation stage, as well as identification of main reasons and advantages derived from its implementation, and how Lean Manufacturing is rated among these companies. Findings lead to the conclusions that many companies are pursuing cost savings strategies without implementing Lean Manufacturing. Training and education on Lean Manufacturing, and well implemented Lean Manufacturing programs would help members of the Wood Component Manufacturing Association to regain competitiveness and achieve substantial cost reductions.

  4. Sensitivity study of fluid dynamic effects on nitric oxide formation in CFB combustion of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, S.; Kilpinen, P.; Konttinen, J. [Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland); Leckner, B.; Armand, L.E. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    The type of fuel and operating conditions in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) can vary widely. Potential fuels include coals, biofuels and wastes. The use of biofuels as an energy source has stimulated much interest around the world, but the nitric oxide (NO) emissions from CFB combustion of wood is of the same order of magnitude as from combustion of coal with high N content. This paper presents a newly developed 1.5D numerical model that examines the formation of NO and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions in a CFBC under varying operating conditions and different fuel types. A comprehensive kinetic scheme was used for the homogeneous chemistry and a single particle model for char combustion. Gas mixing and release of volatiles were the fluid dynamic factors that were examined for wood combustion under normal air staging conditions. The formation of high NO emissions from wood burning was found to depend greatly on the pattern of volatile releases as well as the mixing of secondary air and gas. Nitric oxide was found to form higher in the riser during wood combustion compared to coal combustion. The large amount of char at the bottom of the bed is an important source of nitric oxide. 14 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Solid Waste Bin Monitoring Using Zig –Bee

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Kanchan Mahajan; Prof. J. S. Chitode

    2014-01-01

    Through the history, the significant amount of solid waste generated by humans was due to low population density and low levels of the exploitation of natural resources. Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste, which were released into the ground locally, with minimal environment impact. Tools made out of metal or woods were generally reused or passed down the generations and generations . However, in mid-19th century, du...

  6. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  7. Properties of Wood/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Wenhua; ZHAO Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic-MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and MMT, i.e. WMNC, were prepared via nano intercalation compounding, some properties of WMNC were analyzed. Results show that, compared with Chinese fir wood and its PF-impreg, WMNC has lower humidity and water absorption, better dimension stability, higher longitudinal compressive strength, abrasive resistance, fire-resistance, and water-leaching resistance with a very low mass ratio about 3% of MMT. The nano intercalation compounding of wood and exfoliated MMT nanolamellae is very promising. More studies should be carried out to fully reveal the nanosize effects and the special properties of WMNC.

  8. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  9. Research advance in wood composites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Wood composites can generally be classified in three parts: laminated composites, mixed composites and penetrated composites. Every part has its own characteristic and can be further divided. This paper introduces the history and the state of development of wood composites in China. The research about glue-laminated timber is rare and the industry hardly comes to being. A great of achievements have been obtained in mixed composites and it is well industrialized. Many studies on scrimber have been done and the Chinese researchers are looking for a feasible way to develop the scrimber industry in China. Chinese researchers also spent so much energy in studying wood plastic composites (WPC), but it has not been industrialized due to the high cost.

  10. Thermal Diffusion in Masson Pine Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xian-jun; Zhang Bi-guang; Li Wen-jun

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of the temperature gradient on moisture movement during the highly intensive microwave-vacuum drying, thermal diffusion of Masson pine wood was studied. Internal distribution of temperature and moisture in Masson pine samples sealed by epoxy resin and aluminum foil was measured, the magnitude of thermal diffusion was calculated and the influencing factors of thermal diffusion were discussed. Results showed that with the transfer of moisture toward the low temperature in wood, opposite temperature and moisture gradient occurred. The initial moisture content (MC), temperature and time are important factors affecting this process; the thermal diffusion is in proportion to wood temperature, its initial moisture and time. The temperature and distance from hot surface is strongly linearly correlated, and the relationship between MCs at different locations and distance from the hot end surface changes from logarithmically form to exponentially form with the increase in experimental time.

  11. Genetic improvement of trees for wood production, with particular refeference to wood traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocetti M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected propagation material from tree improvement programs is expected to lead to a more homogenous product, generally appreciated by industry. So far, breeding strategy have been mainly targeted to maximize acclimation/adaptation to specific environment conditions, tree growth and disease resistance, but it is not obvious that such strategy might lead to improvement of wood characteristics at the same time. Therefore, it seems important to introduce wood traits improvement as specific target of the selection process in tree breeding programs, and/or to assess heritability of wood technological properties of trees previously selected based on different criteria. Investigations reported so far have revealed that several wood traits are under a medium to high genetic control. The main goal of this work is to discuss the suitability of wood traits improvement as main target of specific breeding programs, with particular attention to wood technological characteristics to be considered in the tree selection process. Finally, we focused on noble hardwoods, that have been the target species for many improvement programs developed in Italy, and particularly on wild cherry, where studies on the genetic control of wood traits are rare.

  12. Temperature Evolution in Poplar (Populus nigra Tension Wood and Normal Wood during a Conventional Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar TARMIAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, temperature evolution through tension wood and normal wood in poplar (Populus nigra under a convective drying condition was investigated. Flat-sawn boards with green dimensions 80�40�25 mm were dried at constant dry-bulb temperature of 60�C and relative humidity (RH of 50% to a final moisture content of about 8%. They were coated on four surfaces using aluminum foil bonded with polyurethane (PU glue to confine moisture movement along the board thickness. The measurement of board temperature was carried out at 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mm along the board thickness every 20 minutes by means of 1 mm-thermocouples. The pattern of temperature profile was observed to be almost similar for both tension wood and normal wood. However, a slightly steeper temperature gradient occurred in the normal wood compared to the tension wood. In both types of woods, the surface temperature rose progressively from the initial value to the dry-bulb temperature but the core temperature remained at an almost constant value as the wet-bulb temperature even at the end of drying.

  13. ADHESIVE-FREE WOOD JOINTS – PART I: SESSILE OAK WOOD (Quercus petraea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available act: Wood as a raw material is indispensable in various human activities. Its investigation is inexhaustible and its responsible valorization, in accordance with current requirements for re-use and subsequent re-integration, is a priority at national level. Rotational friction as an alternative method of joining wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now, even if it has been under investigation during the past 15 years in the wood field. The paper presents an experimental investigation carried out in order to analyze the process parameters in case of sessile oak wood (Quercus petraea L. at the activation of lignin through rotational friction, with a view to using this method in furniture design as an alternative for classical (glued joints. The results showed that at 1600rpm, sessile oak wood (Quercus petraea L. registered a more compact and uniform area of contact than at 1120rpm, on both wood sections. There is a significant difference between dowels with oblique and linear ribbed joints: the dowels with linear ribs lead to a more uniform density. The quality of the connection mainly depends on the rotation speed and the insertion speed. The overall conclusion of this experimental research is that sessile oak wood (Quercus petraea L. can be used for adhesive-free joints for furniture.

  14. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  15. Application of Nanoindentation Technique in Wood Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; ZHOU Dingguo; WANG Siqun; ZHANG Yang

    2006-01-01

    Nanoindentation technique is a technique that determines the mechanical properties of a material in sub-micron scale. The technique involves penetrating a sample material using an indenter, while the penetration depth and load are recorded so that stiffness and hardness of the indented location can be subsequently calculated. The micron spatial resolution in nanoindentaion tests renders the technique very useful in the investigation of the wood cell-wall level and polymer interphase. This review mainly discussed the principle of nanoindentation and its current applications in wood science field.

  16. Strength of glue line for reforestation wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the shear strength of glued laminated timber (glulam made of three wood species: Tectona grandis, Pinus oocarpa and Eucalyptus sp.. The bonds were made with lamellae with no chemical treatment, using two-component adhesive based on melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF. Glue line shear tests were made for wood in local moisture content and high humidity, as well as delamination tests. The results presented in the glue line shear strength tests in dry condition and delamination for the three species indicate better performance of Pinus oocarpa. It was concluded that this species there is potential to produce MLC utilizing the MUF adhesive.

  17. Wood-Plastic Composites in the Wood-Carving Industry in the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the Philippines have shown interest in the use of WPC for wood-carving purposes. Japan and Korea, however, are interested in the possibilities of WPC for the manufacture of such specialized items as shuttles (used in weaving), musical instruments, furniture and sporting goods (such as tennis rackets, baseball bats, skis, etc.). Viet Nam, Korea and Thailand have at present little or no experience with WPC, but they intend to start work in this area. Generally speaking, these countries possess abundant hard and soft woods and are interested in using soft woods for WPC. The main problem concerns the high cost and the availability of monomers

  18. Fouling and slagging problems at recovered wood fuel combustion; Orsaker till askrelaterade driftproblem vid eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Hoegberg, Jan [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    CHP-plants that use a large portion of sorted wood waste fuel can face ash-related problems. By analysing the circumstances about these problems, the goal is to find causes for the problems and measures that can be taken. This knowledge can then be utilised in plants where it is desired to increase the portion of sorted wood waste fuel. For the measurements, a deposit probe is a good tool to use since the result is independent of many boiler-specific factors. Compared with forest residues, sorted wood waste causes a more problematic ash. The risk of troublesome fouling and corrosion seems to increase with increased admixture of sorted wood waste fuel. Plugging of the grate is associated with melts that are formed from metallic contamination in the fuel. These melts obstruct the air holes. The melts that have been seen during the project have had a content of aluminium, brass and zinc. In order to solve these problems, the construction and cooling of the grate and quality assurance of the fuel are important aspects. One problem that was found in all of the studied boilers (grates as well as fluidized beds) is growth of fouling on surfaces for heat transfer. Measurements with deposit probe show that the initial growth rate on superheaters are approximately 3 - 5 times higher when sorted wood waste is used than if forest residues is used. Even if this growth rate can not be extrapolated to a complete operating season, the relative difference between the fuels remains. The extent of the problem depends on the dimensioning of the boiler. The fouling tends to have a light outer layer that can be disadvantageous for the absorption of heat radiation. Haendeloe P11 needs for example to be stopped for cleaning with an interval of 2 - 3 months because of lost heat absorption in the furnace and the convection path. The most obvious ash related problem that was found in Haendeloe P11 when 100 % sorted wood waste fuel was used was corrosion on the walls of the lower parts of the

  19. Wood anatomy of Argyroxiphium (Asteraceae): adaptive radiation and ecological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood anatomy shows close correlation with ecology: A. kauense, A. sandwicense (stem), and A. virescens, which occur in dry localities, show xeromorphic wood patterns. The most mesomorphic woods are those of the bog species A. grayanum and root wood of A. sandwicense. The wood of A. caliginis is xeromorphic, despite the bog habitat of the species, a fact explainable if A. caliginis is a recent entrant into the bog habitat Libriform wall thickness appears correlated with habit. Quantitative features of stem woods of Argyroxiphium are comparable to woods ranging from desert to moist montane forest areas in California. The similarities to woods from each Californian habitat are correlative to the relative moisture availability of the respective Hawaiian habitats of the Argyroxiphium species. (author)

  20. Biodeterioration of wood in estuarine ecosystem of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yennawar, P.L.; Thakur, N; Venkat, K.; Anil, A; Wagh, A

    at an interval of 1 and 4 month. The macrofouling community mainly comprised sessile barnacles, bryzoans, mussels. oysters and tunicates and the wood boring community comprised of Martesia striata, Nausitora hedleyi and Lyrodus pedicellatus. The wood boring...

  1. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An incineration system, originally demonstrated as a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process, is described. The production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system has been modified further for use in evaluating the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood. Results of a PCP-treated wood incineration test show a PCP destruction efficiency of greater than 99.99% in the primary chamber for the operating conditions investigated. Conditions and results for this test are described

  2. Wood into the natural gas distribution system. Sweden and Finland as a pioneer for the gasification of biomass; Holz ins Gasnetz. Schweden und Finnland als Vorreiter fuer Grossanlagen zur Biomasse-Vergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Right now, the thermochemical gasification of biomass and waste is developed on many fronts due to the manifold and attractive options. In Lahti (Finland) a large plant for waste incineration already has gone into operation. A plant for energy production from biomethane from wood is currently being built in Gothenburg (Sweden).

  3. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  4. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile in the boiler and thereby the overall operation and efficiency of the plant. Chapter 1 consists of an introduction to thermal conversion of biomass fuels as well as a description of a Danish power plant where a measuring campaign was carried out as part of this project. Chapter 2 is a brief literature review of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation on the relation between pyrolysis of wood in boiler-like conditions and wood char properties is presented. Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyser. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature varied in the range 673-1673 K for slow pyrolysis and 1073-1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidised in a thermogravimetric analyser and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104-105 K/s) was as low as 1-6% on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17% for slow pyrolysis (10-20 K/min); char yield decreased as

  5. SOURCES OF INNOVATION IN THE ESTONIAN FOREST AND WOOD CLUSTER

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Ukrainski; Urmas Varblane

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to identify the role of different sources of innovation for the Estonian wood sector. Comparing data from survey of Innovation in Estonian Enterprises 1998 2000 with similar Finnish data reveals that linkages in Estonian forest and wood cluster are relatively weaker regarding innovation sources. Universities and research institutes are the weakest part identified in the knowledge flows of the emerging Estonian wood cluster. Technological capabilities of Estonian wood and forest...

  6. Fire Reterdant Chemicals Affecting Combustion Resistance of Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçın ÖRS; Sönmez, Abdullah

    1998-01-01

    Wood is an important material used in construction elements. However since it can be affected by biotic and abiotic deteriorating agents, it should be treated with chemical impregnating materials prior to use. In this study, the effects of water-soluble impregnating chemicals on the combustion resistance of wood was investigated. For this purpose, panels were prepared with oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis L.) and pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.), which are widely used in industry. These ...

  7. Economics of marketing wood fuel in south western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OLUGBIRE O.O.; OPUTE O.H.; AREMU F.J.; OJEDOKUN C.A.; ADISA A.

    2016-01-01

    Marketing of fuel wood is an important source of livelihood for most parts of Nigeria. The study examined the economics of marketing of wood fuel in south western Nigeria with a view to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers, the profitability of marketing wood fuel, the market structure and constraints to profitability. Data for the study were obtained from a total sample of 100 randomly selected wood fuel marketers through interviews schedules and application of struc...

  8. Analysis of China's primary wood products market - sawnwood and plywood

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Minli

    2009-01-01

    Department of Forest Economics, Forest products marketing China's primary wood processing industry and wood consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Industries like sawnwood and plywood have developed very quickly. The purpose of this study is to: 1) provide an overview of the demand, supply, imports and exports of raw wood and primary wood products in the China market between 1993 and 2007, 2) present quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors inf...

  9. Comparative Advantage of Malaysian Wood Products in the European Market

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Aini Zackaria; Jean-Marc Roda; Ahmad Fauzi Puasa

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia is currently one of the world's top tropical timber producers. The Malaysian wood industry has grown tremendously since past decades. Besides producing wood products for the domestic markets, most of the wood products have been exported to other countries including Europe. We used the framework developed by Balassa (1965) to examine the comparative advantage of Malaysian timber products in the European market. The results implied that for the overall performance, Malaysian wood produ...

  10. Firing with wood chips in heating and cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document was produced for use as detailed teaching material aimed at spreading information on the use of wood chips as fuel for heating and cogeneration plants. It includes information and articles on wood fuels generally, combustion values, chopping machines, suppliers, occupational health hazards connected with the handling of wood chips, measuring amounts, the selection of types, prices, ash, environmental aspects and information on the establishment of a wood-chip fired district heating plant. (AB)

  11. Wood/Polymeric Isocyanate Resin Interactions: Species dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudipto

    2005-01-01

    The performance of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) resin is known to be highly dependent on the wood species. This species dependence may be due to differences in: cure chemistry, interphase morphology, or both of these factors. This study addresses aspects of the cure chemistry and interphase morphology of wood/PMDI bondlines; specifically these effects are compared using two woods: yellow-poplar and southern pine. In this study, the cure chemistry of wood-PMDI system was a...

  12. Investigation of the Wood/Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive Interphase Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Laborie, Marie-Pierre Genevieve

    2002-01-01

    This work addresses the morphology of the wood/ Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) adhesive interphase using yellow-poplar. In this case, morphology refers to the scale or dimension of adhesive penetration into wood. The objective is to develop methods for revealing ever smaller levels of wood/resin morphology. Dynamic techniques that are commonly utilized in polymer blend studies are investigated as potential methods for probing the wood/ adhesive interphase morphology. These are Dynamic Mechanica...

  13. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  14. Removal of organics from radioactive waste. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the available literature concerning the removal of organic substances from radioactive waste streams. A substantial portion of low level wastes generated in the various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear laboratories and other places where radionuclides are used for research, industrial medical and defense related activities is organic (paper, wood, plastics, rubber etc.) and combustible. These combustible wastes can be processed by incineration. Incineration converts combustible wastes into radioactive ashes and residues that are non-flammable, chemically inert and more homogenous than the initial waste. (author)

  15. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section 2902.42... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused...

  16. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wood's fluorescent lamp. 866.2600 Section 866.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to...

  17. Kinetic study of wood biomass co-firing with gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this study is to develop and optimise the wood biomass (wood granules) and gas (propane) co-firing technology, by replacing fossil fuel with a renewable energy source, enhancing and stabilising the wood biomass burnout, reducing at the same time carbon emissions from the combined combustion process. (authors)

  18. Advances and expectations of study on wood rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马远荣; 罗迎社; 李贤军

    2008-01-01

    By studying and summarizing the characteristics of wood rheology,the mathematic models of creep and mechano-sorptive creep of wood were analyzed.Rheology behaviors in process,especially drying stress and deformation set were discussed.Application of wood rheology in woodcraft process was elaborated and the research prospects and orientation were forecasted.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  20. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  1. A Study of the Ultrastructure and Chemistry of Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) Normal Wood Rays and Tension Wood Rays

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tension wood and normal wood rays of American Beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. were examined by microscopy and chemical means and no significant differences were...

  2. Effect of technological parameters and wood properties on cutting power in plane milling of juvenile poplar wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcík Štefan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental measurements aimed at observing the effect of technological parameters (cutting speed vc and feed speed vf , type of wood (juvenile wood and mature wood andwood species (aspen Populus tremula, L. and hybrid poplar Populus x Euramericana „Serotina“ on cutting power during plane milling of poplar wood. The results showed the reduction of cutting power with the decrease of cutting speed and feed speed. Lower cutting power was also measured in milling hybrid poplar than in milling aspen. The test also confirmed the effect of different anatomical and chemical structure of juvenile wood in relation to mature wood on different physical and mechanical properties of such wood and hence also on the cutting power in processing juvenile wood.

  3. Wastes options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a description of the EEC environmental policy, some wastes families are described: bio-contaminant wastes (municipal and industrial), hospitals wastes, toxic wastes in dispersed quantities, nuclear wastes (radioactive and thermal), plastics compounds wastes, volatiles organic compounds, hydrocarbons and used solvents. Sources, quantities and treatments are given. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  4. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The...... collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by...... magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and...

  5. TERMITICIDAL PROPERTIES OF SOME WOOD AND BARK EXTRACTS USED AS WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Tascioglu,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using naturally extracted solutions as wood preservative chemical was tested. Extracts extracted from mimosa (Acacia mollissima Willd., quebracho (Shinopsis lorentzii Griseb., and Pinus brutia Ten. bark were used to treat sapwood of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L., beech (Fagus orientalis L., and poplar (Populus tremula L. at two different retention levels (6% and 12% weight/weight against the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clement (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae. The lowest mass loss and highest termite mortality rates were recorded for mimosa and quebracho extract treated woods at the 12% concentration level. Pine bark extract seemed to be ineffective as a wood preservative chemical even at the highest retention level. The results suggest that mimosa and quebracho extracts can be utilized as an environmentally-sound alternative wood preservative chemicals for indoor applications against Reticulitermes grassei.

  6. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  7. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned. PMID:17046244

  8. BIOREMEDIATION AT WOOD-PRESERVING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The removal of organic compounds from ground water during bioremediation at wood-preserving sites is a function of the stoichiometric demand for electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate) to metabolize the organic contaminants and the supply of the electron acceptors in th...

  9. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how to...

  10. Merkwaardige verschijnselen bij Dictyosphaerium pulchellum Wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, P.J.; Roest, A.C.F.

    1967-01-01

    In a shallow pond, dug in an oligotrophic area, but enriched by recreation, a waterbloom of a micro-organism which at first could not be identified was investigated. Cultivation showed a transformation into distinct colonies of Dictyosphaerium pulchellum Wood, which species was repeatedly recorded f

  11. Myxomycetes of the rotting cherry wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the years 1974-1975 on rotting cherry wood development of some Myxomycetes was observed. In that time 6 species of slime molds were noted: Arcyria denudata, Comatricha typhoides, Dyctidium cancellatum, Lycogala epidendrum, Physarum cinereum, Stemonitis ferruginea. In the decomposition of organic compounds apart from Myxomycetes other organism (Coprinus dessiminafus also take part.

  12. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  13. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  14. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  15. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  16. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

    2003-01-01

    The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

  17. Wood pellets. The cost-effective fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    The article is based on an interview with Juhani Hakkarainen of Vapo Oy. Wood pellets are used in Finland primarily to heat buildings such as schools and offices and in the home. They are equally suitable for use in larger installations such as district heating plants and power stations. According to him wood pellets are suitable for use in coal-fired units generating heat, power, and steam. Price-wise, wood pellets are a particularly competitive alternative for small coal-fired plants away from the coast. Price is not the only factor on their side, however. Wood pellets also offer a good environmental profile, as they burn cleanly and generate virtually no dust, an important plus in urban locations. The fact that pellets are a domestically produced fuel is an added benefit, as their price does not fluctuate in the same way that the prices of electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas do. The price of pellets is largely based on direct raw material and labour costs, which are much less subject to ups and downs.

  18. Hantavirus in African Wood Mouse, Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Klempa, Boris; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Lecompte, Emilie; Auste, Brita; Aniskin, Vladimir; Meisel, Helga; Denys, Christiane; Koivogui, Lamine; ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2006-01-01

    Hantaviruses are rodentborne, emerging viruses that cause life-threatening human diseases in Eurasia and the Americas. We detected hantavirus genome sequences in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) captured in Sangassou, Guinea. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the genetic material demonstrate a novel hantavirus species, which we propose to name "Sangassou virus."

  19. Wood pellets. The cost-effective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is based on an interview with Juhani Hakkarainen of Vapo Oy. Wood pellets are used in Finland primarily to heat buildings such as schools and offices and in the home. They are equally suitable for use in larger installations such as district heating plants and power stations. According to him wood pellets are suitable for use in coal-fired units generating heat, power, and steam. Price-wise, wood pellets are a particularly competitive alternative for small coal-fired plants away from the coast. Price is not the only factor on their side, however. Wood pellets also offer a good environmental profile, as they burn cleanly and generate virtually no dust, an important plus in urban locations. The fact that pellets are a domestically produced fuel is an added benefit, as their price does not fluctuate in the same way that the prices of electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas do. The price of pellets is largely based on direct raw material and labour costs, which are much less subject to ups and downs

  20. Adhesives; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. The guide is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with…