WorldWideScience

Sample records for cca-treated wood chips

  1. PRESERVATIVE LEACHING FROM WEATHERED CCA-TREATED WOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of discarded CCA-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), arsenic concentrations exceed the toxicity characteris...

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2005-01-01

    When CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) treated wood is removed from service and turns into waste, the contents of Cu, Cr and As is still high due to the strong fixation of CCA in the wood. This high content of toxic compounds presents a disposal challenge. Incineration of CCA treated waste wood...... study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi...

  3. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalat, S L; Solo-Gabriele, H M; Fleming, L E; Buckley, B T; Black, K; Jimenez, M; Shibata, T; Durbin, M; Graygo, J; Stephan, W; Van De Bogart, G

    2006-08-15

    Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used in playgrounds and other outdoor equipment, can persist as surface residues on wood. This raises concerns about possible health risks associated with children playing on CCA-treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11 children (13-71 months) in homes with and without CCA-treated playgrounds were evaluated with post-exposure hand rinses and urine for total arsenic. Samples of wood, soil, and mulch, as well as synthetic wipes, were sampled for total arsenic. In non-CCA-treated playgrounds vs. CCA-treated playgrounds, respectively, wood arsenic was soil arsenic was playground was 0.4 mg/kg vs. two CCA-treated playgrounds of 0.6 and 69 mg/kg. The arsenic removed using a synthetic wipe at non-CCA-treated playgrounds was playgrounds was playgrounds. Mean urinary total arsenic levels were 13.6 pg/ml (range 7.2-23.1 pg/ml) for all children evaluated, but there was no association between access to CCA-playgrounds and urinary arsenic levels. Arsenic speciation was not performed. This preliminary Pilot Study of CCA-treated wood playgrounds observed dislodgeable arsenic on 11 children's hands after brief periods of play exposure. Future efforts should increase the number of children and the play exposure periods, and incorporate speciation in order to discriminate between various sources of arsenic.

  4. Bioremediation of CCA-Treated Wood By Brown-Rot Fungi Fomitopsis Palustris, Coniophora Puteana, and Laetiporus Sulphureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, S Nami; Munir, Erman; Kamitani, Tomo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated oxalic acid accumulation and bioremediation of chromated copper arscnate (CCA)-treated wood by three brown-rot fungi Fomitopsis palustris Coniophora puteane, and Laetiporus sulphureas. The fungi were first cultivated in a fermentation broth to accumulate oxalic acid. Bioremediation of CCA-treated wood was then carried out by leaching of heavy metals with oxalic acid over a 10-day fermentation period. Higher amounts of oxalic acid were produced by F. polustris and L. sulp...

  5. Leaching from CCA-Treated Wood into Soils: Preliminary PIXE Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. F.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Kuharik, J. C.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Dunnam, F. E.; Huffman, J.

    2003-08-01

    Widespread use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) as a wood preservative has led to increasing public concern regarding possible toxic contamination of areas surrounding CCA-treated structures, e.g., decks, playground equipment, etc. Appreciable leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper into soils adjacent to such structures has been demonstrated via standard techniques of analytical chemistry. The advantages of PIXE [rapid analysis, quick sample turnover, possible lower cost] suggest its application to this area of interest. PIXE studies in our laboratory of CCA-contaminated soil samples show good agreement with previous analyses of As, Cu, Cr, and other heavy-elemental content, with some variability in diffusion rates.

  6. Removal of Copper, Chromium and Arsenic From CCA-Treated Wood by Biomediation With Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kartal, Nami; Munir, Erman; Imamura, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Considerable attentioan has been focused on remediation of treated wood in recent years due to public and scientific awareness concerns about such waste wood. As a result, substantial progress has been made in remediation of CCA-treated waste wood by chemical extraction with several mineral and organic acids and biodegradation using bacteria and fungi in recent years. 08E00046

  7. Arsenic levels in wipe samples collected from play structures constructed with CCA-treated wood: Impact on exposure estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraj, Leila M. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)], E-mail: lbarraj@exponent.com; Scrafford, Carolyn G. [Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Exponent, Inc., Suite 1100, 1150 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Eaton, W. Cary [RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Rogers, Robert E.; Jeng, Chwen-Jyh [Toxcon Health Sciences Research Centre Inc., 9607 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6E 5X7 (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    Lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been used in residential outdoor wood structures and playgrounds. The U.S. EPA has conducted a probabilistic assessment of children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated structures using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for the wood preservative scenario (SHEDS-Wood). The EPA assessment relied on data from an experimental study using adult volunteers and designed to measure arsenic in maximum hand and wipe loadings. Analyses using arsenic handloading data from a study of children playing on CCA-treated play structures in Edmonton, Canada, indicate that the maximum handloading values significantly overestimate the exposure that occurs during actual play. The objective of our paper is to assess whether the dislodgeable arsenic residues from structures in the Edmonton study are comparable to those observed in other studies and whether they support the conclusion that the values derived by EPA using modeled maximum loading values overestimate hand exposures. We compared dislodgeable arsenic residue data from structures in the playgrounds in the Edmonton study to levels observed in studies used in EPA's assessment. Our analysis showed that the dislodgeable arsenic levels in the Edmonton playground structures are similar to those in the studies used by EPA. Hence, the exposure estimates derived using the handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures are more representative of children's actual exposures than the overestimates derived by EPA using modeled maximum values. Handloading data from children playing on CCA-treated structures should be used to reduce the uncertainty of modeled estimates derived using the SHEDS-Wood model.

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Several...... fractions. The best remediation efficiency was obtained in an experiment with an electrode distance of 60 cm, and 100 kg wood chips. In this experiment 87% copper, 81% chromium and > 95% arsenic were removed. One other experiment was also analysed for arsenic. In this experiment the distance between...... the working electrodes was 1.5 m and here 95% As was removed. The results showed that arsenic may be the easiest removable of the copper, chromium and arsenic investigated here. This is very encouraging since arsenic is the CCA components of most environmental concern....

  9. Electrolytic arsenic removal for recycling of washing solutions in a remediation process of CCA-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles-Péguy; Alonzo, Véronique; Bartak, Duane; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Darchen, André

    2007-10-01

    The remediation of chromated copper arsenate or CCA-treated wood is a challenging problem in many countries. In a wet remediation, the recycling of the washing solutions is the key step for a successful process. Within this goal, owing to its solubility and its toxicity, the removal of arsenic from washing solution is the most difficult process. The efficiency of arsenic removal from As(III) solutions by electrolysis was investigated in view of the recycling of acidic washing solutions usable in the remediation of CCA-treated wood. Electrochemical reduction of As(III) is irreversible and thus difficult to perform at carbon electrodes. However the electrolytic extraction of arsenic can be performed by the concomitant reduction of the cupric cation and arsenite anion. The cathodic deposits obtained by controlled potential electrolysis were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. XRD diffraction data indicated that these deposits were mixtures of copper and copper arsenides Cu(3)As and Cu(5)As(2). Electrolysis was carried out in an undivided cell with graphite cathode and copper anode, under a controlled nitrogen atmosphere. The evolution of arsine gas AsH(3) was not observed under these conditions.

  10. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces...... treatment. Instead particles rich in Ca and S were now found, indicating precipitation of Ca-sulphates due to addition of sulphuric acid in connection with the electrodialytic treatment. Cu and Cr were still found associated with incompletely combusted wood particles and incorporated in matrix particles....... Chemical analyses of untreated and treated ash confirmed that most As, but only smaller amounts of Cu and Cr was removed due to the electrodialytic extraction. Overall metal contents in the original ash residue were: 1.4 g As, 2.76 g Cu and 2.48 g Cr, after electrodialytic extraction these amounts were...

  11. Exergy analysis of the Chartherm process for energy valorization and material recuperation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, A; Auweele, M Vanden; Govaerts, J; Helsen, L

    2011-04-01

    The Chartherm process (Thermya, Bordeaux, France) is a thermochemical conversion process to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. The process aims at maximum energy valorization and material recuperation by combining the principles of low-temperature slow pyrolysis and distillation in a smart way. The main objective of the exergy analysis presented in this paper is to find the critical points in the Chartherm process where it is necessary to apply some measures in order to reduce exergy consumption and to make energy use more economic and efficient. It is found that the process efficiency can be increased with 2.3-4.2% by using the heat lost by the reactor, implementing a combined heat and power (CHP) system, or recuperating the waste heat from the exhaust gases to preheat the product gas. Furthermore, a comparison between the exergetic performances of a 'chartherisation' reactor and an idealized gasification reactor shows that both reactors destroy about the same amount of exergy (i.e. 3500kWkg(wood)(-1)) during thermochemical conversion of CCA-treated wood. However, the Chartherm process possesses additional capabilities with respect to arsenic and tar treatment, as well as the extra benefit of recuperating materials.

  12. A comparative study on Cu, Cr and As removal from CCA-treated wood waste by dialytic and electrodialytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, Emiliya; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2002-01-01

    with the performance of a pure dialytic experiment (without an external power supply) in order to reveal transport of charged particles induced solely by internal electrochemical potential differences in the system. Oxalic acid proved to be a more suitable pre-treatment solution than deionised water for wood chips...

  13. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude...... and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid....... The latter were not present if EDTA was the extracting solution resulting in directing the Cu and Cr fluxes to the anode compartment. Contrary, these fluxes were exclusively to the cathode compartment if deionised water or an aqueous solution of NaCl were used. These extracting solutions proved suitable...

  14. Determination of the distribution of copper and chromium in partly remediated CCA-treated pine wood using SEM and EDX analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Melcher, Eckhard;

    2005-01-01

    Soaking in different acids and electrodialytic remediation (EDR) were applied for removing copper and chromium from freshly Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) impregnated EN 113 pine wood samples. After remedial treatments, AAS analyses revealed that the concentration of copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr...... large amounts of Cu and no Cr. Cr was most effectively removed after soaking in oxalic acid and subsequent EDR treatment or dual soaking in phosphoric acid and oxalic acid with and without subsequent EDR....

  15. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemond, Harold F; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2004-02-01

    CCA-treated wood is widely used in the fabrication of outdoor decks and playground equipment. Because arsenic can be removed from the surface of CCA-treated wood both by physical contact and by leaching, it is important to determine whether children who play on such structures may ingest arsenic in quantities sufficient to be of public health concern. Based on a review of existing studies, it is estimated that arsenic doses in amounts of tens of micrograms per day may be incurred by children having realistic levels of exposure to CCA-treated decks and playground structures. The most important exposure pathway appears to be oral ingestion of arsenic that is first dislodged from the wood by direct hand contact, then transferred to the mouth by children's hand-to-mouth activity. The next most important pathway appears to be dermal absorption of arsenic, while ingestion of soil that has become contaminated by leaching from CCA-treated structures appears to be of lesser importance, except possibly in the case of children with pica. Considerable uncertainty, however, is associated with quantitative estimates of children's arsenic exposure from CCA-treated wood. Priorities for refining estimates of arsenic dose include detailed studies of the hand-to-mouth transfer of arsenic, studies of the dermal and gastrointestinal absorption of dislodgeable arsenic, and studies in which doses of arsenic to children playing in contact with CCA-treated wood are directly determined by measurement of arsenic in their urine, hair, and nails.

  16. Modeling of electrodialytic and dialytic removal of Cr, Cu and As from CCA-treated wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Mateus, Eduardo;

    2007-01-01

    neutralized by addition of nitric acid in the cathode compartment. The anion and cation-exchange membranes are simply represented as ionic filters that preclude the transport of co-ions (the cations and anions respectively) with the exception of H+, which is retarded but considered to pass through the anion...... the concentration gradients of their compounds and the electromigration of their ionic, simple and complex species during the operation. The model also includes the electromigration of the non-contaminant principal ionic species in the system, H+ and OH, proceeding from the electrolysis at the electrodes, Na......-exchange membrane....

  17. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  18. Regressional modeling of electrodialytic removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, E.E.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo;

    2005-01-01

    Waste of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is expected to increase in volume over the next decades. Alternative disposal options to landfilling are becoming more attractive to study, especially those that promote re-use. The authors have studied and modeled the electrodialytic (ED......) removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA treated timber waste. The method uses a low-level direct current as the cleaning agent, combining the electrokinetic movement of ions in the matrix with the principle of electrodialysis. The technique was tested in eight experiments using a laboratory cell on sawdust...

  19. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  20. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  1. Pulmonary responses after wood chip mulch exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermeyer, S F; Kuschner, W G; Wong, H; D'Alessandro, A; Blanc, P D

    1997-04-01

    Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS) is a flu-like syndrome that can occur after inhalation of cotton, grain, wood chip dusts, or other organic dusts or aerosols. We investigated whether inflammatory pulmonary responses occur, even after relatively brief, low-level wood chip mulch exposure. Six volunteers were exposed to wood chip mulch dust. Total dust and/or endotoxin levels were measured in five subjects. Pulmonary function and peripheral blood counts were measured before and after exposure in each subject. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in each subject after exposure, and cell, cytokine, and protein concentrations were measured. Control BAL without previous exposure was also performed on three of the subjects. Three of six subjects had symptoms consistent with ODTS. No clinically relevant or statistically significant changes in pulmonary function tests after exposure were found. Three subjects manifested a marked elevation in neutrophil percentage in their BAL (range, 10 to 57%). When these three subjects underwent control BAL, the postexposure comparison demonstrated an increase in neutrophil levels of 154 +/- 89 x 10(3)/mL (mean +/- standard error; P = 0.22). The mean increase in BAL interleukin-8 levels after exposure, compared with paired control values, was 11.2 +/- SE 2.5 pg/mL (P = 0.047). There was also an increase in BAL interleukin-6 levels that reached borderline significance (6.4 +/- SE 2.0 pg/mL; P = 0.08). Tumor necrosis factor levels were increased in all three subjects' BAL as well (0.4 +/- SE 0.2 pg/mL), but this change was not statistically significant (P = 0.2). Our findings of increased BAL proinflammatory cytokine and neutrophil levels are consistent with the theory that cytokine networking in the lung may mediate ODTS.

  2. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  3. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  4. STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE WOOD PRESERVATIVE SCENARIO (SHEDS-WOOD), VERSION 2 MODEL SAS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of young children contacting arsenic and chromium residues while playing on and around Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated wood playground structures and decks. Although CCA registrants voluntarily canceled treated wood for resi...

  5. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  6. Chipped wood as a source of mould exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Blomquist, G.; Loefgren, F.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the rising oil price in Sweden, wood chips are increasingly being used for heating. Because there is no information about a connection between the development of allergic alveolitis and this environment, a prospective study has been started in collaboration with the lung clinic in Umeaa and the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health. Wood-trimmer's disease was first described by Wimander and Belin in those who handed drying wood in sawmills. The clinical symptoms were mostly caused by the moulds Asperiqillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Rhizopus.

  7. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  8. Effect of autohydrolysis on the wettability, absorbility and further alkali impregnation of poplar wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ningpan; Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Wang, Peiyun; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-09-01

    Autohydrolysis with different severity factors was performed on poplar wood chips prior to pulping, and the wettability, absorbility and the following impregnation of NaOH solution for the poplar wood chips were then investigated. The results showed that after autohydrolysis pretreatment the porosity, shrinkage and fiber saturation point (FSP) of the poplar wood chips were increased, while the surface contact angle decreased as the severity factor was increased. The autohydrolyzed chips absorbed more NaOH in impregnation that resulted in a low NaOH concentration in the bulk impregnation liquor (i.e., the impregnation liquor outside wood chips), while the concentration in the entrapped liquor (i.e., the impregnation liquor inside wood chips) was increased. Autohydrolysis substantially improved the effectiveness of alkali impregnation.

  9. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew T.; Hemingway, Michael A.; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips. PMID:27030057

  10. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  11. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  13. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...... content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...

  14. Wood chip drying with an absorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Lostec, Brice; Galanis, Nicolas [Genie Mecanique, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. de l' Universite, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Baribeault, Jean; Millette, Jocelyn [LTE, 600 Avenue de la Montagne, Shawinigan, QC (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents the thermal and economic analysis of a mobile wood chip drying process. The dryer was subjected to different operating conditions, which were studied in order to determine the optimal characteristics of the dryer in terms of energy consumption. In addition, the impact of the exterior climatic conditions on the dryer's performance was also evaluated. The performance of the dryer coupled with an absorption heat pump was modeled in steady-state conditions under different operating parameters. Finally the system's energy performance was compared to the performance of two other systems (a wood burning furnace and a waste-heat recovery system). The results demonstrate that single-stage absorption heat pumps are only interesting when the set point temperature of the drying air is below 60 C. Otherwise, a two-stage absorption heat pump must be used. In terms of energy and financially, this type of drying is very costly. Of the three processes that were studied, heat recovery systems proved to be the most energy efficient and economic solution. (author)

  15. Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chip thickness, rake angle, and edge radius on cutting forces and chip morphology in wood plastic composites (WPCs orthogonal cutting was investigated. Three types of WPCs, Wood flour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC, wood flour/polypropylene composite (WFPPC, and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC, that were tested exhibited different behavior with respect to the machinability aspects. The cutting forces of WFPVCC were the highest, followed by WFPPC and WFPEC. The most significant factor on the parallel cutting force of these three types of WPCs was the chip thickness, which explained more than 90%, contribution of total variation, while rake angle, edge radius, and the interactions between these factors had small contributions. The most significant factor on the normal cutting force of WPCs was also the chip thickness, which accounted for more than 60% of the total variation. The chips produced included long continuous chips, short continuous chips, flake chips, and granule chips when cutting these three types of WPCs.

  16. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  17. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, Douglas A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip

  18. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  19. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region; Puuhakkeen hankinta- ja tutkimusprojekti Mikkelin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, T. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Auvinen, P. [Mikkeli city (Finland). Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry

    1996-12-31

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m{sup 3} (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m{sup 3} (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m{sup 3} (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m{sup 3}/ha

  20. Steam pretreatment conditions for effective enzymatic hydrolysis and recovery yields of Eucalyptus viminalis wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, L.P. (Forest Products Biotechnology, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Breuil, C. (Forest Products Biotechnology, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Kushner, D.J. (Dept. of Microbiology, Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)); Saddler, J.N. (Forest Products Biotechnology, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    Wood chips from Eucalyptus viminalis were steam treated over a range of temperatures and residence times in the absence or presence of SO[sub 2]. When the substrate was steam treated without explosion, the initial moisture content of the chips had a significant influence on the recovery yield and the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment by steam explosion showed no variation resulting from differences in the initial moisture content of the chips. SO[sub 2] catalysis was shown to be particulary beneficial for the steam treatment of green chips. More than 95% of the original cellulose could be hydrolysed to glucose with more than 80% of the original pentosan recovered as xylose in the water soluble fraction. This indicated a need for chips with a high enough moisture content necessary to generate enough sulphurous acid from SO[sub 2] to act as an effective catalyst. (orig.)

  1. Studies on the utilization from (i. e. of) forest wood residues. Report I. Study on the chipping from forest wood residues. [Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lee, Y.; Cheon, J.

    1972-01-01

    This study tabulates and discusses data from a trial of chip production with a portable chipper from wood residues and small logs of Quercus aliena, Q. serrata, and Pinus densiflora left in an exploited logging area at Kangneung. The results showed that barked chips for paper-pulp and unbarked chips for fiberboard manufacture could be economically produced and supplied at distances of up to 500 and 240 km respectively.

  2. Torrefaction of eucalyptus wood chips for energy purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Perdigão de Castro Freitas Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction also known as pre-carbonization is heat treatment at low temperatures (200 ºC to 300 °C, applied to lignocellulosic materials with the aim of improving their energetic properties. We developed this study to evaluate the effect of torrefaction temperature on properties of eucalyptus chips. Using a furnace, the eucalyptus chips underwent four heat treatments at temperatures of 150 ºC, 200 ºC, 250 ºC and 300 °C, for ten min. Physical and chemical analyzes of torrefied and in natura chips were carried out. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and when established significant differences, applied Tukey test at 95% significance. Increasing roasting temperature showed higher lignin content and fixed carbon, less equilibrium moisture content, higher calorific upper, lower content of volatiles and lower mass yield. It is recommended roasting at 250 °C temperature, since chips torrefied under this condition presented better results, with energy density of 4,004 MJ m-3.

  3. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... the temperature along the reactor and the biomass feeding rate in combination with the kinetic parameters obtained from the tests in the TGA. Together with results from a laboratory scale, batch torrefaction reactor that was used to determine the higher heating value (HHV) and mass loss (y) of the same material...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  4. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  5. Postmortem endogenous ethanol production and diffusion from the lung due to aspiration of wood chip dust in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumiya, Junichi; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-07-01

    We report an autopsy case of postmortem ethanol diffusion into the cardiac blood after aspiration of wood chips, although antemortem ethanol consumption was not evident. A man in his twenties, who was loading a truck with small wood chips in a hot, humid storehouse, was accidentally buried in a heap of chips. At the time the body was discovered, 20 h after the accident, rectal temperature was 36°C. Autopsy showed the cause of death to be asphyxia due to obstruction of the airway by aspiration of wood chips. The ethanol and n-propanol levels were significantly higher in the lungs (left, 0.603 and 0.009 mg/g; right, 0.571 and 0.006 mg/g) than in other tissues. A significant difference in ethanol concentration was observed between the left cardiac blood (0.243 mg/g) and the right femoral blood (0.042 mg/g). Low levels of ethanol and n-propanol were detected in the stomach contents (0.105 and 0.001 mg/g, respectively). In order to determine whether aspiration of wood chips affects postmortem ethanol production in the lung, we measured the ethanol and n-propanol levels of homogenized rabbit lung tissue incubated with autoclaved or non-autoclaved wood chips. Levels of ethanol and n-propanol were significantly higher in the homogenates incubated with non-autoclaved chips for 24h. The results of this animal experiment suggested that the ethanol detected in the lung was produced by putrefactive bacteria within the wood chips. After death, the ethanol produced endogenously in the lung appears to have diffused and affected the ethanol concentration of the left cardiac blood.

  6. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  7. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters.

  8. Development of stoker-burner wood chip combustion systems for the UK market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The document makes a case for the development of a design of wood chip stoker-burner more suited to the UK than those currently imported from Sweden and Finland. The differences would centre on market conditions, performance and cost-effectiveness and the devices would be manufactured or part-manufactured in the UK. Econergy Limited was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to design and construct an operational prototype stoker-burner rated at 120 kWth. A test rig was built to: (i) study modified burner heads and (ii) develop control hardware and a control strategy. Both (i) and (ii) are described. Tests brought about an increase in performance of the burner head and its wet wood performance. It was considered that further improvements are achievable and six areas for future study were suggested.

  9. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  10. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.

    1996-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  11. Mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as filter media in a biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, D B; Vigueras-Cortés, J M; Garzón-Zúñiga, M A

    2016-01-01

    The biofiltration system over organic bed (BFOB) uses organic filter material (OFM) to treat municipal wastewater (MWW). This study evaluated the performance of a BFOB system employing mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as OFM. It also evaluated the effect of hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) in order to achieve the operational parameters required to remove organic matter, suspended material, and pathogens, thus meeting Mexican and US regulations for reuse in irrigation. Two biofilters (BFs) connected in series were installed; the first one aerated (0.62 m(3)air m(-2)h(-1)) and the second one unaerated. The source of MWW was a treatment plant located in Durango, Mexico. For 200 days, three HLRs (0.54, 1.07, and 1.34 m(3)m(-2)d(-1)) were tested. The maximum HLR at which the system showed a high removal efficiency of pollutants and met regulatory standards for reuse in irrigation was 1.07 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), achieving removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 92%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 78%, total suspended solids (TSS) 95%, and four log units of fecal coliforms. Electrical conductivity in the effluent ensures that it would not cause soil salinity. Therefore, mesquite wood chips can be considered an innovative material suitable as OFM for BFs treating wastewaters.

  12. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  13. Electron microscopic study on pyrolysis of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hata, T.; Bronsveld, P.M; Vystavel, T.; Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kakitani, T.; Otono, A.; Imamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of pyrolysis as a possible technique for disposing of CCA (chromium, copper and arsenic oxide)-treated wood was studied. A CCA-treated sample given an extra heat treatment at 450 degreesC for 10 min was thoroughly investigated in order to establish the details of the reaction in wh

  14. Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Vincent; Crosaz, Yves; Rey, Freddy

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of plant species can limit soil erosion dynamics in degraded lands. In marly areas in the Southern French Alps, both harsh water erosion and drought conditions in summer due to the Mediterranean mountainous climate prevent the natural implementation and regeneration of vegetation. Soil fertility improvement is sometimes necessary. With the purpose of revegetating such areas, we aimed to evaluate the effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of different native or sub-spontaneous plant species. We conducted two experiments on steep slopes over three growing seasons (2012-2014). The first consisted of planting seedlings (10 species), and the second consisted of seeding (nine species including six used in the first experiment). First we noted that wood chips were able to remain in place even in steep slope conditions. The planting of seedlings showed both an impact of wood chip amendment and differences between species. A positive effect of wood chips was shown with overall improvement of plant survival (increasing by 11 % on average, by up to 50 % for some species). In the seeding experiment, no plants survived after three growing seasons. However, intermediate results for the first and second years showed a positive effect of wood chips on seedling emergence: seeds of four species only sprouted on wood chips, and for the five other species the average emergence rate increased by 50 %.

  15. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  16. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    has shrinked by 30% since the preindustrial times and in countries like China (with a historic tradition for wooden architecture) we could observe enormous desertification. What does this mean for the use of wood in modern architecture ? A critical reflection is needed. In too many cases...

  17. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of

  18. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added.

  19. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  20. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The national Wood Energy Technology Programme was carried out by Tekes during the period 1999- 2003 to develop efficient technology for large- scale production of forest chips from small- sized trees and logging residues. This is the final report of the programme, and it outlines the general development of forest chip procurement and use during the programme period. In 2002, a sub-programme was established to address small-scale production and use of wood fuels. This sub-programme will continue to the end of 2004, and it is not reported here. The programme was coordinated by VTT Processes. As of January 2004, the programme consisted of 44 public research projects, 46 industrial or product development projects, and 29 demonstration projects. Altogether, 27 research organizations and 53 enterprises participated. The total cost of the programme was 42 M euro of which 13 M euro was provided by Tekes. The Ministry of Trade and Industry provided investment aid for the new technology employed in the demonstration projects. When the programme was launched at the end of the 1990s, the major barriers to the use of forest chips were high cost of production, shortage of reliable chip procurement organizations, and the unsatisfactory quality of fuel. Accordingly, the programme focused largely on these problems. In addition, upgrading of the fuel properties of bark was also studied. The production of forest chips must be adapted to the existing operating environment and infrastructure. In Finland, these are charaterized by rich bio-mass potential, a sophisticated and efficient organization for the procurement of industrial timber, a large capacity of heating and CHP plants to use wood fuels, the possibility to co-fire wood and peat, and the unreserved acceptance of society at large. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 million m3 (0.9 Mtoe) chips annually by 2010. The Wood Energy Technology Programme was an important link in the long chain of activities

  1. An innovative wood-chip-framework substrate used as slow-release carbon source to treat high-strength nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai; Chi, Zifang; Yan, Baixing; Cheng, Long; Li, Jianzheng

    2017-01-01

    Removal of nitrogen in wastewater before discharge into receiving water courses is an important consideration in treatment systems. However, nitrogen removal efficiency is usually limited due to the low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. A common solution is to add external carbon sources, but amount of liquid is difficult to determine. Therefore, a combined wood-chip-framework substrate (with wood, slag and gravel) as a slow-release carbon source was constructed in baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to overcome the problem. Results show that the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 37.5%-85%, 57.4%-86%, 32.4%-78%, respectively, indicating the combined substrate could diffuse sufficient oxygen for the nitrification process (slag and gravel zone) and provide carbon source for denitrification process (wood-chip zone). The nitrification and denitrification were determined according to the location of slag/gravel and wood-chip, respectively. Nitrogen removal was efficient at the steady phase before a shock loading using slag-wood-gravel combined substrate because of nitrification-denitrification process, while nitrogen removal was efficient under a shock loading with wood-slag-gravel combined substrate because of ANAMMOX process. This study provides a new idea for wetland treatment of high-strength nitrogen wastewater.

  2. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  3. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might

  4. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas produ

  5. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  6. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  7. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  8. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency.

  9. A two-stage pretreatment approach to maximise sugar yield and enhance reactive lignin recovery from poplar wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Chandra, R P; Saddler, J N

    2013-02-01

    A two-stage pretreatment approach, employing steam followed by organosolv treatment, was assessed for its ability to fractionate and recover most of the hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose components of poplar wood chips. A mild steaming stage was initially used to maximise hemicellulose sugar recovery, with 63% of the original xylan solubilised and recovered after this stage and close to 90% recovered in total. Rather than hindering subsequent organosolv delignification, the prior steam treatment enhanced lignin solubilisation with more than 66% of the original lignin removed after the two-stage pretreatment. The extracted lignin contained at least equal or greater amounts of functional groups as compared to the lignin solubilised after a single-stage organosolv pretreatment. More than 98% of the original cellulose was recovered after the two-stage pretreatment and 88% of the cellulose could be hydrolysed to glucose at enzyme loading of 5FPU/g cellulose after 72h.

  10. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Samuli; Holmberg, Henrik; Myllymaa, Tiina; Kontu, Kaisa; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    20% of the Finnish district heating (DH) power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP) system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2-3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  11. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  12. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn.

  13. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or better than papers made from soda-AQ delignified pulps conducted in a single step. Also, a liquid fraction with a substantial content in hemicellulosic extracts was recovered in the simplified process. Autohydrolysis of the raw material facilitates carrying out soda-AQ pulping under milder conditions. In addition, autohydrolysis improves other properties relative to paper from raw cellulose pulp. Yield, kappa number, and brightness for pulp from solid residues of autohydrolysed eucalyptus wood were similar to those for pulp from untreated eucalyptus wood.

  14. Transport of Residual Nitrogen and Carbon through Intact Soil Cores Amended with Stockpiled Feedlot Manure with Wood-Chip or Straw Bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J J; Beasley, B W; Drury, C F; Hao, X; Larney, F J

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact of using wood chips instead of straw bedding with feedlot manure on transport and leaching potential from feedlot manure is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if transport of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and nonpurgeable organic C (NPOC) to subsurface soil was lower for soils amended with feedlot manure if combined with wood chips compared with straw. A secondary objective was to compare transport of N and NPOC with organic amendments versus inorganic fertilizer. Stockpiled feedlot manure (SM) with wood chip (SM-WD) or barley straw (SM-ST) bedding at 39 Mg (dry wt.) ha, and inorganic fertilizer (IN) at 100 kg N ha, was applied annually for 13 yr to a clay loam soil in a replicated field experiment in southern Alberta, Canada. Intact soil cores were taken in fall 2011 (0-30 cm depth) from the three treatments, and the residual N and NPOC were eluted from the soil cores. Total N, total organic N, and NPOC were determined on filtered (1.0 μm) effluent samples that are primarily dissolved fraction but may contain some small particulate N and C. Peak concentrations, flow-weighted mean concentrations, and mass loss of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and NPOC were significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower by 35 to 86% for SM-WD compared with SM-ST. Mean recoveries were also significantly lower for SM-WD than SM-ST by 0.07 to 8% (absolute difference). The transport behavior was similar for SM-WD and IN treatment, but solute transport was greater for SM-ST than for IN. Application of stockpiled feedlot manure with wood chips instead of straw bedding may be a beneficial management practice to reduce transport and leaching potential of N fractions and NPOC.

  15. Porous nano-cerium oxide wood chip biochar composites for aqueous levofloxacin removal and sorption mechanism insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengze; Sun, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xin; Xu, Hongxia; Gao, Bin; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-14

    The adsorption removal of levofloxacin (LEV), a widely used fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by using the biochars derived from the pyrolysis of pine wood chip pretreated with cerium trichloride was investigated through batch sorption experiments and multiple characterization techniques. The differences in the basic physicochemical properties between Ce-impregnated biochars and the pristine biochars were confirmed by the analysis of elemental compositions, specific surface areas, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetry. FT-IR spectra of the pre- and post-sorption biochars confirmed the chemical adsorption for LEV sorption onto the biochars. Large shifts in the binding energy of Ce3d, O1s, C1s, and N1s regions on the pre- and post-sorption biochars indicated the surface complexation of LEV molecule onto the biochars. The binding species of Ce(4+) and Ce(3+) identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reflect the role of Ce oxides during sorption. Batch adsorption showed the significant enhancement of adsorption capacity for LEV after the Ce modification. Batch adsorption kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. Both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models reproduced the isotherm data well. Findings from this work indicated that Ce-impregnated biochars can be effective for the removal of aqueous LEV.

  16. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour.

  17. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy

  18. Estimated Softwood Volume Available for Wood Chipmills or other Low Grade Uses.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The potential of wood chip mills to influence the distribution of harvests and the dynamics of wood fiber utilization has become an issue of concern. Where wood chip...

  19. Estimated Hardwood Volume Available for Wood Chipmills or Other Low Grade Uses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The potential of wood chip mills to influence the distribution of harvests and the dynamics of wood fiber utilization has become an issue of concern. Where wood chip...

  20. In vitro bioavailability of heavy metals in pressure-treated wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Terry; Spanier, Jonathan; Butala, John H; Li, Ping; Rossman, Toby G

    2002-05-01

    Pressure treatment with chromium, copper, and arsenic (CCA) is the most prevalent method for protecting wood used in outdoor construction projects. Although these metals are tightly bound to the wood fibers and are not released under most conditions of use, we examined the bioavailability of metals in CCA pressure-treated wood dust in vitro. Cytotoxicity and metallothionein (MT) mRNA expression were examined in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells incubated with respirable-size wood dust generated by sanding CCA-treated and untreated (control) Southern yellow pine. In colony survival studies, increased cytotoxicity (p wood dust (351 +/- 77 microg/ml, mean +/- SE) compared with control wood dust (883 +/- 91 microg/ml). Increased cytotoxicity with CCA wood dust also occurred in an arsenic resistant subline of V79 cells, thus suggesting that arsenic was not responsible for the increased cytotoxicity. Metallothionein mRNA was significantly increased after 48 h of treatment with CCA wood dust compared with control wood dust. Incubation of CCA wood dust in cell culture media resulted in the transfer of copper, but not chromium or arsenic, into the media. Moreover, the treatment of cells with this filtered extract resulted in significantly increased metallothionein mRNA, suggesting that bioavailable copper is responsible for inducing metallothionein mRNA in V79 cells. Thus, these bioassays suggest that metals become bioavailable during in vitro culture of phagocytic V79 cells with CCA wood dust.

  1. Surface lignin change pertaining to the integrated process of dilute acid pre-extraction and mechanical refining of poplar wood chips and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Dilute acid pre-extraction enhanced the mechanically refined poplar pulp substrates' enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency obviously. The results showed that the surface lignin distribution was changed significantly in residual wood chips and pulp substrates, and the surface lignin distribution showed important impact on the following enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid pre-extraction can lead to a redistribution of lignin in fiber cell walls, i.e., the lignin was degraded and migrated to fiber surface in the form of re-deposited lignin and pseudo-lignin. However, higher pre-extraction intensity was not desired due to the formation of redeposited lignin and pseudo-lignin. This study will help to reach a deeper understanding on the lignin distribution in the view of molecular and ultrastructure, and promote the development of a cost-efficient pretreatment strategy for biomass processing.

  2. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  3. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  4. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    . This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  5. Least-cost allocation strategies for wood fuel supply for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study of geographical information system (GIS) for allocating forest wood chips resources to energy plants.......The article presents a study of geographical information system (GIS) for allocating forest wood chips resources to energy plants....

  6. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools

  7. Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC of Wood Chips in a Semi-Commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Using Manganese Ore as Bed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rydén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC is realized by using an active oxygen-carrying bed material in fluidized bed boilers. The active material is reduced in fuel rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in air rich parts. Advantages could be achieved such as new mechanisms for oxygen transport in space and time. Here calcined manganese ore has been used as active bed material in a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel was wood chips and the campaign lasted more than two weeks. From an operational point of view, manganese ore worked excellently. From the temperature profile of the boiler it can be concluded that fuel conversion was facilitated, especially in the dense bottom bed. The effect did not always translate to reduced emissions, which suggests that final combustion in the cyclone outlet was also influenced. Substituting 10% of the sand bed with manganese ore made it possible to reduce the air to fuel ratio without generating large amounts of CO. The use of 100% manganese ore resulted in higher emissions of CO than the sand reference, but, when combined sulphur feeding, dramatic reductions in CO emissions, up to 90% compared to sand reference, was achieved.

  8. Wood energy Technology Program; Puuenergian teknologiaohjelma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    The National Wood Energy Technology Program focuses on developing the production technology and improving the quality of forest chips from logging residues and small- sized trees. In 1998, energy use of forest chips in Finland amounted to 0.5 million solid-m{sup 3}. The main research areas of the program are: integration of energy production into industrial wood production in the conventional forestry; development of planning and logistics in the production and storage of forest chips; development of technology for chipping, handling and storage including operations at chip terminals and at the end-users facilities; development of long-distance transport of fuel chips and unchipped forest residues; preparing forest machine and truck contractors for the production of forest chips on a large scale; development of quality control to improve the heat value of the chips; and the operational reliability of wood chip-fired plants improving the handling and combustion properties of bark, sawdust and other solid wood residues from forest industry. The total budget for 1999 - 2003 is million FIM 250, Tekes' share of which amounts to million FIM 50.

  9. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)]. E-mail: xcao@stevens.edu; Ma, Lena Q. [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg{sup -1}), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg{sup -1} in carrot and 32 mg kg{sup -1} in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation. - Capsule: Compost amendment can reduce As exposure risk for humans by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA

  10. Removal of arsenic from toxic ash after combustion of impregnated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, L. M.; Pedersen, A. J.; Kristensen, I. V.; Ribeiro, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    ln the next ten years the amounts of waste wood impregnated with Cu, Cr and As (CCA) is expected to increase dramatically. Mixed with municipal solid waste for incineration the wood constitutes a problem because As emission is not hindered through common flue gas treatment. Furthermore the ashes will contain higher concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In different countries initiatives has been taken or are implemented to sort the impregnated wood from other waste and handle the wood separately. This handling can involve combustion in special plants. This paper deals with electrodialytic treatment of ash from combustion of CCA treated wood. The total concentrations in the ash were very high: 69gCu/kg, 62gCr/kg and 35gAs/kg. A SEM/EDX analysis showed that Cr was mainly build into the matrix structure of the ash. Cu, too, but some Cu was also precipitated on the surface of the particles. As, on the other hand, was only found associated with Ca and thus probably in a soluble form. As is the main problem of the ash due to the high toxicity and mobility and thus the treatment aims at removing this element. It was shown that during 5 days of electrodialytic treatment 92% As could be removed.

  11. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  12. Meat loaf, snuff and wood chips. The company Agnion builds wood gasification plants according to an innovative concept; Leberkaes, Schnupftabak und Hackschnitzel. Die Firma Agnion baut Holzvergasungs-Anlagen nach einem innovativen Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A flagship project in the Bavarian Achental (Federal Republic of Germany) wants to leverage the wood gasification: The local gasification plant with a so-called heat-pipe reformer transmits the technology and efficiency of large-scale power plants on the scale of smaller communities.

  13. Experimental investigation of wood chip gasification using downdraft fixed bed gasifier%基于下吸式固定床的木片气化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中青; 叶结旺; 赵超; 孙庆丰; 张齐生

    2016-01-01

    Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbonaceous materials into gaseous products which could be used as a fuel in engines for power generation or in boiler for heat supply. This paper investigated the effect of equivalence ratio (ER) on the gasification performance in terms of the temperature in the gasifier, the composition distribution of the producer gas, and the tar content in the producer gas using a lab-scale downdraft fixed bed gasifier fed by Pinus sylvestris wood chips. In addition, the characteristics of gasification byproducts, namely bio-char and bio-tar, were analyzed. The proximate and ultimate analysis, the surface morphology, the surface area, and the pore size distribution of wood charcoal were obtained by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The components of light tar and heavy tar were obtained by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the optimal ER was 0.251 with the maximum LHV of producer gas (4.55 MJ/Nm3 along with CO of 17.47%, H2 of 14.67%, CO2 of 12.43%, and CH4 of 2.12%), a minimum tar content of 350 mg/Nm3, and a maximum cold gas efficiency of 65.46%. The charcoal was a porous material with a high heating value of 28.17 MJ/kg and a high BET surface area 342 m2/g which could potentially be feedstock for the production of briquettes fuel and activated carbon. The light tar was mainly composed of phenols (36.75%), acetic acid (22.14%) and ketones (13.73%). After refining and dilution, the light tar could be a potential substance to produce plant growth regulator. The heavy tar was mainly composed of heterocyclic aromatics (59.98%), light aromatics (1 ring) (4.71%) and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2-3 ring) (16.48%). The heavy tar could be a potential feedstock for aromatic chemicals production.%樟子松木材是中国一种重要的生物质能源原料,通过气化技术可将其转化为高热值生物燃气,用于内燃

  14. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and fungal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara; Bajc, Marko; Robek, Robert; Humar, Miha; Sinjur, Iztok; Kadunc, Aleš; Oven, Primož; Rep, Gregor; Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Kraigher, Hojka; Jurc, Dušan; Pohleven, Franc

    2011-11-01

    The influence of Pleurotus ostreatus inoculation on wood degradation and on fungal community structure was studied. The experiments were performed on an organically poor fly ash deposit covered with a 10 cm layer of beech wood chips inoculated with P. ostreatus isolate ZIM76. Compared to non-inoculated wood chips, inoculation increased the temperatures and relative humidities and, in the first 6 months, accelerated Klason lignin degradation by 9% and also, after 17 months, increased iron translocation into wood chips by 30%. After 6 months, PCR-DGGE showed 22-28 and 13-21 fungal taxa in non-inoculated and P. ostreatus-inoculated beech chips, respectively. The differences in number of taxa and in the fungal community structure (based on Dice coefficient) between non-inoculated and inoculated wood chips diminished with time. The results indicate that the naturally occurring processes of wood degradation are as efficient as those occurring in sites inoculated with P. ostreatus.

  16. Chip, Chip, Hooray!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a science laboratory using different brands of potato chips in which students test their oiliness, size, thickness, saltiness, quality, and cost, then analyze the results to determine the best chip. Gives a brief history of potato chips. (YDS)

  17. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  18. Energy use of decayed wood; Lahopuun maeaerae, sisaeltoe ja hankintakustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, M.; Lipponen, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A study of the quality, amounts and delivery costs of decayed wood available for possible energy use will be carried out in co-operation by Metsaeteho and Forest Research Institute. The work will consist of the following sub-studies: Quality of decayed wood available for possible energy use, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use by municipalities in Western and Southern Finland, harvesting, transport and chipping costs of decayed wood in different delivery alternatives and as a practical example, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use in two potential consumption municipalities. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    OpenAIRE

    António J. A. Santos; Ofélia Anjos; Maria Cristina Morais; Graça Diogo; Rogério Simões; Helena Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal) and P. sylvestris (Finland) were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05) tracheid diameter and wall thick...

  20. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  1. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  2. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe. Price formation and internationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-07-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by means of time series analysis to increase understanding about the factors that govern market development. In Paper I, it is found that whereas the Austrian and German residential-quality wood pellet markets are integrated, Sweden is a separate market. The conclusion from Paper II is that despite a long history of trade in wood fuels between Estonia and Sweden, the two markets cannot be considered integrated. The results from Paper III indicate that refined and unrefined wood fuels should be seen as two separate markets, and that forest chips prices follow different trajectories depending on whether they are used in district heating or in forest industries. In Paper IV, it is acknowledged that although high and volatile oil prices are an important driver for the growth in demand for wood fuels, no significant spillover from oil price developments into Swedish wood fuel prices could be discerned in the time period 1993-2010. In Paper V, the conclusion is that prices of industrial roundwood and unrefined wood fuels followed a common trend in Sweden in the first decade of the 21st century. Paper VI shows that there is a significantly higher level of market maturity and internationalization in the Danish wood pellet market compared to the wood chip market in the country. In conclusion, this thesis uncovers some of the mechanisms that affect wood fuel markets, including the differences between unrefined wood fuels - such as wood chips - and the dynamic market for wood pellets. Whereas

  3. Zero-emission wood chip drier with terpene recovery. Project 2: Condensate treatment and terpene production. Final report; Emissonsfreier Holzspaenetrockner mit Rueckgewinnung von Terpenen. Teilvorhaben 2: Kondensataufbereitung und Terpengewinnung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, H.; Sievers, M.

    2002-07-01

    The wood drying process releases volatile constituents, of which terpene compounds are the most important as they can be used as feedstocks for the chemical industry (odorants and aromatic substances). Closed-cycle steam drying of wood chips (pinewood) with vapour condensation and integrated production of terpenes was investigated on a pilot scale and semi-industrial scale. The project was successful. An economic assessment of the pilot experiments showed that integrated terpene production may be economically interesting, especially if the condensates are used as process fluids and the process heat is recycled at least partly. (orig.) [German] Bei der Trocknung von Holz werden fluechtige orginaere Holzinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt. Besondere Bedeutung kommt den Terpenverbindungen zu, da diese als Rohstoffe in der chemischen Industrie (Duft- und Aromastoffherstellung) eingesetzt werden. Mit der Dampftrocknung im geschlossenen Gaskreislauf bietet sich erstmals die Moeglichkeit einer wirtschaftlichen produktionsintegrierten Gewinnung von Terpenverbindungen ueber eine Kondensation der angereicherten Brueden. Im Rahmen eines Verbundvorhabens wurde deshalb a) die technische Umsetzung eines Spaenetrockners (hier: Kiefernholz) wissenschaftlich und messtechnisch begleitet (Teilvorhaben 1, Bearbeitung: Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institut (FhG), Braunschweig) und b) die integrierte Gewinnung von Terpenen im Pilot- und halbtechnischen Massstab untersucht (Teilvorhaben 2, CUTEC-Institut). Mit Hilfe einer zweistufigen Abluftbehandlung aus Absorption und Kondensation im halbtechnischen Massstab konnte eine Vorfraktionierung der Holzinhaltsstoffe dahingehend erreicht werden, dass sich Staub, Harze und Wachse im Waschwasser anreichern, waehrend die fuer die Duftstoffindustrie interessanten Holzoele (Terpene) mit dem Kondensat abgeschieden werden. Die Abtrennung der Holzoele aus dem Kondensat wurde mit einem Leichtstoffabscheider realisiert. Bei Kondensatmengen von 200 bis 500 L/h wurden

  4. Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, para a avaliação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos; determinou-se a densidade básica dos cavacos, bem como se caracterizaram a sua espessura e morfologia. Os resultados indicaram valores médios de 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm para o comprimento, largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura média da parede das fibras, respectivamente. A densidade básica da madeira foi de 0,432 g/cm³ e a espessura dos cavacos, de 4,36 mm. Os valores médios de retenção dos cavacos foram de 0,9-16,9-44,5-30,7-6,1-0,9% nas peneiras 40, 25, 16, 8, 3,35 mm e fundo, respectivamente, sendo 75,2% retidos nas peneiras de 16-8 mm de abertura. Os resultados das análises anatômicas e morfológicas dos cavacos de madeira foram discutidos e comparados com informações da literatura especializada e correlacionados com o processo produtivo de chapas MDF.The increase of the MDF panels (Medium Density Fiberboard production by the use of the fast growing eucalypt wood species it evidences the need of the characterization of the cellular components, basic density and the chips morphology. With this aim 3 samples of wood chips of Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected, in the production line of panel industry. In laboratory, the wood chips were dissociated by maceration for the evaluation of the fiber and vessels dimensions; the wood basic density was determined and the thickness and morphology were characterized. The results indicated mean values of 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm for the fiber length

  5. Assessment of Ecotoxicity of Topsoils from a Wood Treatment Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.MENCH; C.BES

    2009-01-01

    A series of 9 soil samples were taken at a timber treatment site in SW Prance where Cu sulphate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have been used as wood preservatives (Sites P1 to P9) and one soil sample was collected at an adjacent site on the same soil type (Site P10).Copper was a major contaminant in all topsoils,varying from 65 (Soil P5)to 2600 mg Cu kg-1 (Soil P7),exceeding background values for French sandy soils.As and Cr did not accumulate in soil,except at Site P8 (52 mg As kg-1 and 87 mg Cr kg-1) where CCA-treated posts were stacked.Soil ecotoxicity was assessed with bioassays using radish,lettuce,slug Arion rufus L.,and earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny).There werc significantly differences in lettuce germination rate,lettuce leaf yield,radish root and leaf yields,slug herbivory,and earthworm avoidance.An additional bioassay showed higher negative impacts on bean shoot and root yields,Rhizobium nodule counts on Bean roots,and guaiacol peroxidase activity in primary Bean leaves for soil from Site P7,with and without fertilisation,than for soil from Site P10,despite both soils having a similar value for computed free ion Cu2+ activity in the soil solution (pCu2+).Beans grown in soil from Site P7 that had been fertilised showed elevated foliar Cu content and phytotoxic symptoms.Soils from Sites P7 (treatment plant) and P6 (storage of treated utility poles) had the highest ecotoxicity,whereas soil from Site P10 (high organic matter content and cation exchange capacity) had the lowest.Except at Site P10,the soil factor pCu2+ computed with soil pH and total soil Cu could be used to predict soil ecotoxicity.

  6. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  7. Determination of total arsenic in coal and wood using oxygen flask combustion method followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenhua; Furuzono, Takuya; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2010-04-15

    A simple and sensitive procedure for the determination of total arsenic in coal and wood was conducted by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The effect of various items (composition of absorbent, standing time between the combustion and filtration, particle size and mass of sample) was investigated. Under the optimized conditions of the OFC method, nine certified reference materials were analyzed, and the values of arsenic concentration obtained by this method were in good accordance with the certified values. The limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method were 0.29 microg g(-1) and less than 8%, respectively. In addition, eight kinds of coals and four chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood wastes were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from the microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method. The determination of arsenic in solid samples was discussed in terms of applicable scope and concentration range of arsenic.

  8. Health risks associated with the storage of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Forest Products, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    It has been known for many years now that the storage of wood fuel chips in large piles, without pretreatment or active ventilation, involves many problems. As is the case with the storage of any organic material in a pile, a series of biological, physical and chemical processes usually takes place resulting in a series of problems. The paper will primarily focus on the health risks involved in the handling of stored fuel chips of woody biomass. Soon after building a pile of wood fuel chips, the growth of fungi and bacteria usually take place. Their numbers and growth rates depend on many internal and external factors. The most frequent microorganisms associated with the storage of wood chips are moulds and actinomycetes. The inhalation of organic particles of bacteria, spores of actinomycete and moulds is associated with various forms of respiratory diseases: inhalation fever or Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS), and the uncommon disease allergic alveolitis. These diseases vary in their symptoms, severity and their long term effect. During screening, loading, transporting and other handling processes of wood fuel chips varying numbers of microspores, hyphal and bacterial segments and other organic products become airborne (organic dust). Awareness of the risks of exposure to airborne spores is the first step in minimizing these risks. Working environment could be greatly improved by avoiding unnecesary exposure to infected environments, or by taking suitable protective measures if needed. (au)

  9. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  10. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  11. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  12. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  13. Fire retardants for wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Jirouš-Rajković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with many advantages, wood as traditional building material also has some disadvantages. One of them is the flammability. The most usual way to improve the fire performance of wood is by treating it with fire retardants that can be applied to wood composite products during manufacture, pressure impregnated into solid wood or wood products or added as a paint or surface coating. Fire retardants are formulated to control ignition, flame spread on the wood surface and to reduce the amount of heat released from wood. Fire retardants cannot make wood non combustible. According to the European reaction-to-fire “Euroclasses”classification system for construction products, wood treated with fire retardant can meet the requirements of Euroclass B, whereas ordinary wood products typically fall into class D. This article attempts to bring together information related to the burning of wood, fire performance of wood, types of fire retardants and mechanism of fire retardancy. Fire retardant coatings and chemical impregnation by pressure-treating are described separately.

  14. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions (

  15. Energy from wood - an overview; Holzenergie, Uebersicht - Energie du bois, apercu du bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  16. Energy wood procurement in connection with conventional wood procurement; Energiapuun hankinnan organisointi muun puunhankinnan yhteydessae - PUUT02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The research consisted of two sub-projects. The present role of forestry associations in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the first sub- project. The possibilities and willingness of them to increase the energy wood procurement were also studied. The role of forest machine and forestry service entrepreneurs in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the second sub-project. The effects of energy wood procurement on the operation of the forest machine companies in general were also studied in this sub-project. The sub-project three studied the requirements of the customer companies for the energy wood suppliers. All the material of the sub-projects was collected by personal inquiries. According to the executive directors of the forestry associations the role of the forestry associations in energy wood procurement varied between a by-stander and active participant. Active forestry associations announced the companies for stands available for cutting. They told also that they directed the harvesting to correct sites and deliver stems at the roadside. The role of the forestry association was emphasised especially when the associations on the basis of a letter of attorney carried out the timber trade. It was estimated that in the near future the operation of forest machine entrepreneurs in harvesting of energy wood would increase significantly. From the employment and turnover point of view the role of harvesting of energy wood was not seen as a significant matter. On the other hand, that harvesting of energy wood impede the harvesting of commercial timber was seen as a more significant matter. In the future the end-users of energy wood would like to have more competition in the energy wood markets. However, the energy wood suppliers were desired to be relative large so that the reliability of deliveries could be ensured. Simultaneously as the end-users wanted to decrease the price of forest chips, the machine entrepreneurs estimated the price to

  17. Pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles - experiments and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, S.; Goebel, B.; Houbak, N.; Henriksen, Ulrik [MEK - DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J. [COWI a/s, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A simple, dynamic, l-dimensional model describing heating, drying and pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles with a l-dimensional geometry has been developed and implemented. The model output is the dynamic evolution of both the char yield and the amount of volatiles. The model is developed in such a simple and accessible way, that it easily can be implemented in a larger model for dimensioning and optimisation of applications where pyrolysis is a part of the overall process as for instance gasification. Experiments using a Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA), built so pieces of wood can be fed into a hot atmosphere instantaneously, have been used to observe the influence of various parameters like temperature and size and wood types on the pyrolysis process. Results from the model have been compared with results from the experiments. The comparison showed good accordance when both wood particles with a well-defined geometry (a cylinder) and when beds of wood chips and wood pellets, respectively, were pyrolyzed. The model has proven that transport of heat to the wood; internal transport and accumulation of heat inside the wood and kinetics of pyrolysis are all important parameters. (au)

  18. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems; Holzenergie Teil 2b: Holzpellets und Pelletheizungen / Energie du bois Partie 2b: Granules de bois et installations de chauffage a granules de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  19. Energy wood procurement in connection with conventional wood procurement; Energiapuun hankinnan organisointi muun puunhankinnan yhteydessae - PUUT02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, P. [The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2000-08-01

    The research consists of three sub-projects. The present role of forestry associations in purchase of wood fuels is studied in the sub-project no. one. The possibilities and willingness of them to increase their share in purchase of wood fuels is also studied. The roles of forest machine and forest service entrepreneurs in purchase of wood fuels are investigated in the sub-project number two. The effects of energy wood harvesting on the operation of forest machine entrepreneur will also be studied this sub-project. The requirements of customers for the suppliers of energy wood are studied in the sub-project no. three. All the data in these sub-projects will be collected using personal interviews. It appeared that the harvesting of energy wood had no effect on the degree of employment of forest machine entrepreneurs, and that the energy wood entrepreneurs did not differ from other entrepreneurs. The activity of forest machine entrepreneurs was estimated to grow in the harvesting of energy wood in the near future. Measuring and accrual basis practices seemed also to differ widely from each other. The technologies appeared also to be targets of continuous development, so the technologies were relatively impermanent. Harvesting of energy wood was not seen to play a significant role in increment of the employment and turnover. However, the effect of energy wood harvesting on the aggravation of industrial wood harvesting was estimated to be more significant. In the future the end-users of energy wood word like to have more competition in the markets. However, the suppliers were wanted to be fairly large, so that the reliability of deliveries could be guaranteed. The potential for increasing the utilization of wood fuels is high, but the competitiveness of peat was estimated to be high, and simultaneously it was estimated to be a threat to increment of the utilization of wood fuels. As the end users want to decrease the price of the wood fuels, the wood chipping companies

  20. Harvesting, loading and transportation of wood (willow) chips, from agricultural land. Systems and costs. Final report; Skoerd, lastning och transport av traeflis (Salix) fraan jordbruksmark. System och kostnader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    In the report, available equipment for harvesting, loading and transportation of willow chips is described. Advantages and disadvantages are highlighted. Further, the practical experiences gathered within the project are presented, as well as results from new calculations of the costs for harvesting willow chips with varying equipment. All of the studied methods including dumping the chips on the ground for short time storage are, according to the calculations, more expensive than the original method handling the chips in containers through out the handling chain. However, this is true only as long as there are no costs for waiting between the links in the chain. As some waiting is impossible to avoid, practical experiences has led to the conclusion that the original system is not sufficient by it self. How it can be replaced by and combined with other techniques is discussed. Presented data and analysis are based on the information gathered at visits with harvest contractors and road carriers during the late winter of 2001, and at meetings following up the experiences during the harvest season of 2000/2001. At the end of the report, the found conditions and some suggestions for actions are listed to serve for further discussion among the parties within the business.

  1. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  2. Lignification and tension wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  3. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  4. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  5. WOOD CELLULOSE REMOVAL BY MEANS OF SELF- HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Longue Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the impact of removing hemicelluloses from chips of eucalyptus wood by self-hydrolysis treatment (H2O and on the subsequent ‘kraft’ process behavior and pulps bleachability and quality. The self-hydrolysis treatments were conducted at temperatures of 152°C (30, 45 and 60 minutes; 160°C (15, 30 and 45 minutes; and 170°C (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes; water: wood ratio of 4:1 m3/t. Normal chips (reference and self-hydrolyzed chips at 170°C during 5, 15 and 30 minutes were submitted to ‘kraft’ cooking up to kappa number 16 – 18 and the resulting pulp was bleached using the O/OD (EPO DD sequence. According to the results obtained, self-hydrolyzing the chips at 170°C for 30 minutes allowed the removal of up to 60% hemicelluloses. Cooking yield of the self-hydrolyzed chips for 30 minutes was around 6% smaller and pentosan content 88% lower than that of the regular chips. The efficiency of delignification with oxygen of the pulp derived from self-hydrolyzed chips for 30 minutes was of 75%, compared to 43.6% of the reference-pulp, and the bleaching cost using the O/OD (EPO DD sequence was US$ 7/adt per pulp, lower that that of the reference-pulp. The effluent originated from bleaching the pulp derived from the self-hydrolyzed chips presented lower values of COD (39.6%, color (21.3% and AOX (51.6%, compared to that of the reference-pulp.

  6. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  7. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  8. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  9. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  10. Conversion of Japanese red pine wood (Pinus densiflora) into valuable chemicals under subcritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Feridoun Salak; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-11

    A comparative study on the decomposition of Japanese red pine wood under subcritical water conditions in the presence and absence of phosphate buffer was investigated in a batch-type reaction vessel. Since cellulose makes up more than 40-45% of the components found in most wood species, a series of experiments were also carried out using pure cellulose as a model for woody biomass. Several parameters such as temperature and residence time, as well as pH effects, were investigated in detail. The best temperature for decomposition and hydrolysis of pure cellulose was found around 270 degrees C. The effects of the initial pH of the solution which ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 were studied. It was found that the pH has a considerable effect on the hydrolysis and decomposition of the cellulose. Several products in the aqueous phase were identified and quantified. The conditions obtained from the subcritical water treatment of pure cellulose were applied for the Japanese red pine wood chips. As a result, even in the absence of acid catalyst, a large amount of wood sample was hydrolyzed in water; however, by using phosphate buffer at pH 2, there was an increase in the hydrolysis and dissolution of the wood chips. In addition to the water-soluble phase, acetone-soluble and water-acetone-insoluble phases were also isolated after subcritical water treatment (which can be attributed mainly to the degraded lignin, tar, and unreacted wood chips, respectively). The initial wood:acid ratio in the case of reactions catalyzed by phosphate buffer was also investigated. The results showed that this weight ratio can be as high as 3:1 without changing the catalytic activity. The size of the wood chips as one of the most important experimental parameters was also investigated.

  11. Technology research of composite manufacturing MDF with Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla wood chips%白千层与尾巨桉木片混合压制MDF工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹馨蕾; 李凯夫; 陈文军

    2014-01-01

    采用正交试验设计方法,用不同工艺参数压制白千层-尾巨桉中密度纤维板(MDF),并对其力学性能进行测试。结果显示:木片的蒸煮压力对白千层-尾巨桉MDF静曲强度和吸水厚度膨胀率影响较大,而白千层木片与尾巨桉木片的混合比例则对内结合强度影响较大;对4.4 mm厚MDF试验成品的各项性能进行极差分析,得出在白千层与尾巨桉混合比例为1∶1、蒸煮时间为13 min、蒸煮压力0.95 MPa的条件下MDF的质量为最好,符合GB/T 11718-2009中对普通型中密度纤维板的性能要求。%The orthogonal test was used to explore the physical property of MDF with different process parameters. The results show that the steaming pressure had great impact in the static bending intensity and thickness swelling of the tested chips;the mixing ratio of Melaleuca alternifolia chips and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla chips had great effect to the internal bond strength. By analyzing the 4.4 mm MDF products with range analysis method,the conclusions were as follows:with the conditions of the mixing ratio 1︰1 of Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus grandis×E.urophylla, steaming time 13 mins, and the steaming pressure 0.95 MPa, the products quality MDF of is the best. In this way, the quality of MDF not only would reach the standard of GB/T11718-2009, but also has the best performance..

  12. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  13. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki; Puupellettien tuotanto kaksinkertaistuu. Biowatti Oy avasi pellettitehtaan Turengissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-07-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO{sub 2} load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets.

  14. Microbial communities in large-scale wood piles and their effects on wood quality and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matthias; Jirjis, Raida

    2012-08-01

    The demand of renewable energy sources, i.e. biomass, is steadily increasing worldwide to reduce the need of fossil energy sources. Biomass such as energy crops, woody species, forestry and agricultural residues are the most common renewable energy sources. Due to uneven demand for wood fuel, the material is mostly stored outdoors in chip piles or as logs until utilisation. Storage of biomass is accompanied by chemical, physical and biological processes which can significantly reduce the fuel quality. However, heating plants require high-quality biomass to ensure efficient operation, thereby minimising maintenance costs. Therefore, optimised storage conditions and duration times for chipped wood and tree logs have to be found. This paper aims at reviewing available knowledge on the pathways of microbial effects on stored woody biomass and on investigations of the fungal and bacterial community structure and identity. Moreover, potential functions of microorganisms present in wood chip piles and logs are discussed in terms of (1) reduction of fuel quality, (2) catalysing self-ignition processes, and (3) constituting health risk and unfriendly work environment.

  15. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  16. The economy of chip, whole-tree and short-wood methods in the pulpwood and fuelwood procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Branch-mass models, applicable for different kinds of technical/economical inspections of timber procurement, based on large data collections of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, were developed in the project. These models are based on the assumption that the branch-mass distribution inside the top-end of different tree-species resembles each-other. The production costs of pulp produced from first-thinning pine were lowest when the minimum diameter of the pulpwood varied between 6 - 9 cm, then the relative costs varied between 101 - 99. The production costs consisted of timber procurement costs, variable industrial timber processing and pulping costs, and secondary product reimbursements. In addition to the calculational inspections, the effects of the dimensions of pulpwood and the harvesting technology on profitability of harvesting of first thinning pine, on debarking, on the chip-size distribution and on fiber properties, were studied in the research. The profitability of harvesting is increased by about 10 % when the minimum diameter is decreased from 7 cm to 5 cm. This requires, however, that the size of the minimum-stem is not decreased

  17. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  18. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

  19. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... failure explanation under fatigue and static load conditions is observed. In the present study small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  20. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  1. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  2. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  3. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  4. Power generation using coir-pith and wood derived producer gas in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673 601, Kerala State (India)

    2006-10-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used for heating purposes and as supplementary or sole fuel in internal combustion engines. In this study, the potential of coir-pith and wood chips as the feedstock for gasifier is analyzed. The performance of the gasifier-engine system is analyzed by running the engine for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The system is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum diesel savings and lower emissions in the dual fuel mode operation while using coir-pith and wood chips separately. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual fuel mode of operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. The brake thermal efficiency of the engine while using wood chips in the dual mode operation is higher than that of coir-pith. The CO emission is higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to that of diesel mode. In the dual fuel mode of operation, the higher diesel savings is achieved while using wood chips as compared to that of coir-pith. The comparison of the performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine with diesel engine is also described. (author)

  5. Processing of the wood angelim pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjenane Corrêa Taques

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the behavior of wood Angelim stone (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke submitted to the machining process. The study was developed in a carpentry shop in the city of Alta Floresta-MT. 36 boards with dimensions of 150 cm x 13.5 cm x 2.5 cm, length, width and thickness were randomly selected respectively for machining tests. The tests were developed according to the machinability of equipment used by the furniture industry, planing, sanding, drill and split by nail. 8 boards of wood in the stack were selected randomly to determine the moisture, according to 7190 (ABNT, 1997. The notes used for evaluation of defects resulting in the wood during the machining processes were assigned according to ASTM D 1666 (1987. It was observed that the type of angelim stone showed excellent performance in grinding tests, no scratch on the surface piece a of the burring parts and the parts free from defects, with the burning of wood. In cracking test for nail had a good performance, because it showed cracks with the insertion of the nail and planing test a regular performance, with pullout grain, surface arrepiamento and pullout chip. Wood Angelim stone responds with quality to the machining processes in planing, sanding, drill and split by nail.

  6. TCP HolyWood

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Núñez Mori

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new end-to-end, sender side Transport Control Protocol called TCP HolyWood or in short TCP-HW. In a simulated wired environment, TCP HolyWood outperforms in average throughput, three of the more important TCP protocols ever made, we are talking about TCP Reno, TCP Westwood, and TCP Vegas; and in average jitter to TCP Reno and TCP Vegas too. In addition, according to Jain’s index, our proposal is as fair as TCP Reno, the Standard. Apresentamos um novo Protocolo de Controle de...

  7. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  8. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  9. Production of wood pellets. Influence of additives on production, quality, storage, combustion and life cycle analysis of wood pellets; Herstellung von Holzpellets. Einfluss von Presshilfsmitteln auf Produktion, Qualitaet, Lagerung, Verbrennung sowie Energie- und Oekobilanz von Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasler, P.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Buerli, J. [Buerli Pellets, Willisau (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study concerning the influence of additives on the various factors related to the manufacture of wood pellets and their use. Results of tests concerning the production, storage and combustion of wood pellets with and without additives are presented. Process modifications are discussed. The report shows that for all investigated additives neither energy consumption nor pellet throughput was improved. The influence of additives on the mechanical strength of the pellets is discussed, as are the combustion characteristics of the pellets, which emit significantly lower levels of NO{sub x} and particulate matter than typical wood chips. The authors recommend the application of advanced control technology to ensure optimum combustion conditions. A life-cycle analysis is presented which shows that pellets are ecologically more favourable than wood chips. The ecological potential for improvement in the manufacturing process is discussed, including emission reductions and heat recovery.

  10. Chips 2020

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising  Moore-like exponential g...

  11. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  12. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  13. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  14. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  16. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  17. The incorporation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material for making structural grade concrete: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With increasing industrialization, the industrial byproducts (wastes) are being accumulated to a large extent, leading to environmental and economic concerns related to their disposal (land filling). Wood ash is the residue produced from the incineration of wood and its products (chips, saw dust, bark) for power generation or other uses. Cement is an energy extensive industrial commodity and leads to the emission of a vast amount of greenhouse gases, forcing researchers to look for an alterna...

  18. Nanoscale in Wood, Nanowood and Wood-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guangjie; Lu Wenhua

    2003-01-01

    In order to introduce nano science and technology (NST) into the research field of wood science and technology, andpromote the research of wood science and wood-inorganic composites to nanoscale, some new concepts, such as the nano space inwood, nano structure units of wood and nanowood are put forward in this paper based on the layer structure of wood cell wall and thepile-up model of its main components. Furthermore, the process of preparing nanowood is discussed, and wood-inorganic nanocom-posites may be operated in three ways with wood (matrix) and inorganic filler phase in 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3 dimensions respectively. Thefollowing results are obtained: (1) The nanoscale voids in wood indicate that wood has inherent space to accommodate nanosizedmaterials, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanosticks; (2) According to the size from top down, the nano structure units in woodcan be classified as: nanolayers, nano CMF (cellulose microfibril) and matrix, nano crystallite units and cellulose chain clusters, andthese can theoretically form nanowood; (3) The preparation of wood-inorganic nanocomposites can be operated on 0-2, 0-3 or 2-3dimensions.

  19. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T. [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  20. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year 1996. The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose. The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in 1995 - 1996, to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In 1997 there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results (target < 1 % bark content) of the bolts and to improve the logistic productivity of the whole production chain

  1. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  2. Magnetic screening for heavy metal pollution in wood biomass obtained from roadside trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takaharu [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima City (Japan)], e-mail: staka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Bioshpere Science, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima City (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Heavy metal concentrations, magnetic susceptibility ({chi}), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetism (SIRM) of wood biomass (wood chips and/or wood pellets) specimens for 15 roadside sites and 1 forest site were measured. We measured the concentrations of 15 metals. The obtained concentration values typically met the European Standard EN 14961-2. However, the concentration values of some metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) slightly exceeded this standard for some samples. A simple correlation analysis revealed the existence of relationships and high correlations between magnetic parameters and metals such as Fe, Zn, Pb, Al, K, and Cr. The cube specimens with SIRMs of approximately 90 mA/m or more did not meet the specified European Standard. Specimens that had significantly positive {chi} values also did not meet the standard. It was shown that a simple inspection of heavy metal contamination in wood biomass can be performed by measuring its SIRM or magnetic susceptibility.

  3. Drying of peat and wood biomass. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapanainen, J. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Poltto- ja Voiteluainelaboratorio)

    1982-06-01

    Peat drying agrees with the typical drying curve of capillary porous materials, where a constant rate zone and a zone of decreasing rate of drying are distinguished. It depends on the way of water binding, how easily the moisure of pea can be removed. Wood is a hygroscopic porous material, and its drying can be described with the aid of diffusion theory. Milled peat is usually dried artificially in flash driers. Drum driers are also used for peat to some extent. The best known indirectly heated equipment is Peco-drier, where saturated steam and hot water are used as heat transfer media. A back-pressure drier developed in Sweden is also suitable for peat drying. In this equipment, indirect drying with back-pressure steam from the turbine is applied. Wood biomass (chips, bark) can be dried for example by hot-grinding, vibrating conveyor or drum drying methods. Cascade and pneumatic driers are also used for drying bark.

  4. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  5. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  6. A local heating system using wood fuels from farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Kurvinen, T. [Research and Development Centre of Kajaani, REDEC, Kajaani (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    This report is a part of the a project on sustainable biomass utilization chains. The project belongs to a larger group of studies on northern biomass utilization by the Thule Institute and the University of Oulu. A cooperative energy society working in the municipality of Perho (3400 inhabitants) in Finland has been studied in this report. The cooperative energy society delivers energy which is generated from wood chips to the Perho municipality. Generated energy has a competitive price compared with fuel oils. In addition, harvesting, chipping and transporting give the members of the society an extra income. Members need not to make any investments in new equipment in order to work in the co-operative society because the machinery needed is the same as the one they use for other forestry activities. The price of the energy generated by wood chips is bound to the price of alternative fuels. There is a 5 MW district heating plant in Perho municipality containing a 1.4 MW solid fuel fired boiler with grate and 1.6 MW and 2.0 MW oil fired boilers. An investment in a heating plant containing a solid fuel fired boiler is often many times greater than that of one containing an oil fired boiler. There are many advantages which are hard to evaluate in generating energy from wood fuel. E.g. employment, increased income from taxes, an increase in the cash flow in the municipality and the advantages for forest growth. When undersized trees are removed from a forest stand, the remaining trees will grow better. The advantage of forestry is, however, hard to evaluate in cash terms. There has been an estimate that the advantage is 50-100 FIM/ha/a when compared to the yield of unthinned pine forest. Studies have shown that the money paid for energy in the area may be recycled several times in purchasing products and services in the area. In Perho municipality, it has been estimated that over half million FIM of extra cash has been generated and invested in the area by the

  7. Force Relations and Dynamics of Cutting Knife in a Vertical Disc Mobile Wood Chipper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun R. BELLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The force relations and dynamics of cutting knife in a vertical disc wood chipper were investigated. The tool geometry determined include: rake angle (20 deg C; Shear angle, (fi= 52.15 deg C; the mean frictional angle, (t = 5.71 deg C. The analysis and comparison of the cutting forces has shown that the chips separated from the wood are being formed by off cutting, since normal applied force N is compressive in nature, the magnitude of the forces used by the knife on the wood is expected to increase as the cutting edge of the knife goes deeper into the wood until the value of the resisting force acting against the cut wood Ff is reached and exceeded. The evaluated forces acting on the knife and the chip are: F = 3.63Nmm^-1; N = 34.7 Nmm^-1; Fs= 27.45Nmm^-1; Fn =31.92 Nmm^-1; Ft = -8.46Nmm^-1; Fc = 33.85Nmm^-1. The resultant force acting on the tool face, Pr = 34.89Nmm^-1. The specific cutting pressure, Pc and cutting force needed to cut the timber, Fc, are 1.79 × 10^6 N/m2 and 644.84N respectively. The energy consumed in removing a unit volume of material is 69.96kJ/mm^-3 and the maximum power developed in cutting the chip is 3591.77W (4.82hp. The chipper efficiency (86.6% was evaluated by the highest percentage of accepted chip sizes.

  8. Light roads : wood fibre and floating access roads aim at minimal ground disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2009-09-15

    Devon Canada has constructed an access road to a lease near Grande Prairie, Alberta using a floating mat made from a composite material. It was developed by Alberta-based Triple G Construction Ltd. which has handled wood harvesting and small oilfield contracting for almost 30 years. In the spring of 2008, Triple G recognized an opportunity to combine those two operations into a new service of building drivable wood fibre roads. Drivable wood fibre surfaces are made from surplus natural wood products, ideally from locally cleared rights-of-way. The wood is mulched into mixed chip sizes and spread over a separation material to create a road surface. Size mix is important because when they are compacted, the fibres mesh with each other and bind together for strength while allowing water to drain through. The roads eliminate the need for drainage ditching because they are built above ground level. A cloth type separation layer is used to prevent the mulch from getting mixed into the mud. Cost is a major advantage of wood fibre roads over matting. The reclamation cost of a wood fibre road is 10 per cent lower than that of a dirt road because the wood fibre can be picked up easily because of the separation layer, and the mulch can be reused. Currently, wood fibre roads are best for shorter term access-up to five years. But efforts are underway to make the routes permanent. Wood fibre roads aren't as effective over ground with high water content. ATR Manufacturing has therefore designed an all-terrain road-mat for access to muskeg areas. The road mat is made with a polypropylene honeycomb core bounded by layers of woven fibreglass-reinforced epoxy resin. The mat is lightweight, easy to install, and can float. The ATR mat is compliant to shear forces, bending rather than failing, yet rigid enough to support heavy equipment. 4 figs.

  9. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  10. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  11. Forest machine entrepreneurs in harvesting of energy wood; Metsaekoneyrittaejaet energiapuun korjuussa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekaelae, M. [Koneyrittaejien liitto ry, Helsinki (Finland); Maekinen, P. [Finnish Forest Research Association, Vantaa (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The amounts of energy wood harvested, and the effect on the turnover and the employment in the companies were studied. The effects of energy wood harvesting on the commercial timber harvesting, the factors affecting on the hardness of the work, as well as the machine technical problems have been studied. The forest entrepreneur's point of view has been taken into account in the research. The research is concentrated to the harvesting chains for logging residue chips. At present the logging residue chips are the most profitable part of the forest chips, so the predicted increase in the utilization will be concentrated to their recovery, at least in the first stage. Felling of the logging residues into stacks should support the production chains for logging residue chips, and in many cases also by a forest entrepreneur carrying out the forest haulage. The research was carried out as an interview of forest entrepreneurs active in harvesting of energy wood. 20 of these (25% of total) were interviewed. The entrepreneurs interviewed sold harvesting services to following purchasers: Biowatti Oy, Stora-Enso Oyj, UPM-Kymmene Oyj, Metsaeenergia ky and Kotimaiset energiat ky. Harvesting of energy wood had no effect on the rate of employment of the entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurs active in harvesting en ergy wood did not differ from other forest machine entrepreneurs. The amounts of energy wood, harvested by entrepreneurs have increased. The effects of harvesting energy wood on the activity of forest machine entrepreneurs will increase in the future. The questions concerning payment and technical solutions concerning harvesting will be highlighted. Forest machines, used for harvesting of commercial timber, can be used for harvesting logging residues. This requires changes in the normal working routines. Energy wood harvesting interferes with the harvesting of commercial timber. Processing of the stems more far away from the control room of a harvester was seen the main

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL WOOD TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an example of usage of the tool for round-wood transport planning from the Decision Support System “Forest Logistic Toolset” for com-pare of two approaches to the organization of international wood transportation

  13. Wood gas; Holz gibt Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Claudia

    2011-06-17

    Sixty years ago, wood gas was even used as a car fuel. Today, this ancient technology is experiencing a renaissance. Small cogeneration plants with wood gasifiers are ideal for renewable and decentral power supply concepts for tomorrow. Until then, there is much pioneering work to do until plants will be ready for serial production.

  14. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  15. Design Wood Nanocomposites from Polymer Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVWenhua; ZHAOGuangjie

    2004-01-01

    Researches on wood nanocomposites, which involve nano science and technology, wood science,materials science and other related subjects, have important science signification and promising prospect for the development and study of new wood composites with high appending values and multi-properties. This paper reviewed the conventional wood composites, and then discussed the approaches to prepare wood nanocomposites. Based on the achievements of researches on polymer/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites, the design ideas of preparing nanocomposites of wood and inorganic MMT were systematically put forward. Nano compounding of wood and other materials is an effective approach to greatly improve or modify wood.

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  17. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  18. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  19. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  20. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  1. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a better more specific performance (Oosterhuis 2003). A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on open ended approaches, able to negotiate between shifting requirements and to integrate knowledge on process and material......- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential for performance due to digital fabrication in this sustainable material. The production of a custom made design tool helped not only to explore design variations while keeping up the link to digital production machinery....... Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software...

  2. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  3. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  4. A CONTINUING REVERENCE FOR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Our ancestors knew a great deal about wood. They had to in order to do well in life. Wood has played a dominant role in human infrastructure for many generations, and for most of that time woodcraft has depended on the decentralized knowledge passed down among families and guilds. This editorial, while celebrating the knowledge, skills, and insights of the woodworkers of past generations, also calls for a renewed attention to wood’s unique character, including characteristics that today are too often classified as “defects.” We may need to take lessons from generations past to truly derive the best value from wood resources.

  5. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  6. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  7. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  8. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the phy

  9. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time.

  10. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  11. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  12. Biochemical modification of wood components

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of cellulose found in wood is one of the most important degradation processes for the carbon flux on earth. The degradation is performed by microorganisms that typically use enzymes. Since the cellulose in wood is crystalline and embedded in other polymers, making it inaccessible and durable, the enzymatic methods of cellulose degradation is also complex. In this thesis, the action of some of these enzymes, called cellulases, have been studied both fundamentally and for indust...

  13. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  14. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  15. Ammonia, total reduced sulfides, and greenhouse gases of pine chip and corn stover bedding packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. The objective of this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH3), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) when pine wood chips and corn stover were mixed in various...

  16. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating; Bilan environnemental du chauffage domestique au bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y. [BIO Intelligence Service, 94 - Ivry sur Seine (France)

    2009-03-15

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  17. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  18. Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Prinz, R.; Emer, B.; Sikanen, L., e-mail: dominik.roser@metla.fi

    2012-11-01

    This research analyses the productivity of energy wood chipping operations at several sites in Austria and Finland. The aim of the work is to examine the differences in productivity and the effects of the operational environment for the chipping of bioenergy at the roadside. Furthermore, the study quantifies the effects of different variables such as forest energy assortments, tree species, sieve size and machines on the overall productivity of chipping. The results revealed that there are significant differences in the chipping productivity in Austria and Finland which are largely based on the use of different sieve sizes. Furthermore, the different operational environments in both countries, as well as the characteristics of the raw material also seem to have an effect on productivity. In order to improve the chipping productivity, particularly in Central European conditions, all relevant stakeholders need to work jointly to find solutions that will allow a greater variation of chip size. Furthermore, in the future more consideration has to be given to the close interlinkage between the chipper, crane and grapple. As a result, investments costs can be optimized and operational costs and stress on the machines reduced. (orig.)

  19. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resh, Sigrid C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data

  20. Effect of Wood Variables on the Properties of Wood Fiber-Polypropylene Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of wood species (Chinese fir and Poplar), wood fiber content (10%, 25%, 40%) and wood fiber sizes (16 to 32 mesh, 32-65 mesh, above 65 mesh) on the properties of the wood fiber-Polypropylene composites were studied in this paper. The results indicate that the effect of wood fiber content and size in composite were more important than that of chosen wood species. Compared with polypropylene without wood fiber, the flexural strength of the composites increased when adding wood fiber into polypr...

  1. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  2. Energy savings using medium voltage softstarts on chip blowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J. R. [E. B. Eddy Forest Products, Ltd., Espanola, ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    Wood chip blowers are used to pneumatically blow hardwood and softwood chips to storage piles, chip bins and batch digesters. In the past they were allowed to run continuously because it was believed that frequent stops and starts would damage the equipment. Excellent energy paybacks have been achieved with the 1994 installation of silicon controlled rectifier softstarts on the blowers, thus eliminating the cost of running the equipment under no load conditions. Installation and operation of these medium voltage softstarts on both induction and synchronous motors, the project costs and the savings realized, were described. The installation of softstarts is only one example of saving energy in the paper and pulp industry. With advances in silicon controlled rectifier technology , variable speed drives, etc., there are many other opportunities which could be implemented at relatively low cost.

  3. Changes in the water-content of forest-fresh wood when stored in the forest; Feuchtegehalt-Aenderungen des Waldfrischholzes bei Lagerung im Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elber, U.

    2007-11-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the increased use of wood in the form of pellets or wood-chippings as a renewable source of energy for heating. Regardless of the type of product, the water content of the raw material has to be reduced as much as possible by natural drying processes since the heating value will increase as the water content decreases. The report describes a number of experiments in which the type and place of storage and the point in time at which the storage was started were systematically varied. Based on the results and findings from literature, rules of thumb for the most effective way to dry the wood were derived. These rules are described and discussed for various types of wood. The basics of wood drying are discussed and the results of drying tests are examined.

  4. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  5. Machinery for Forest Chip Production in Finland in 2007 and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy's study consisted of a survey of the production machinery for forest chips used by energy plants in 2007. The major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. In addition, the machinery and equipment stocked by the manufacturers and vendors of energy wood harvester heads, stump lifting devices, and chippers were also surveyed. The study provided also an estimate of future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland. The study estimated that a total of 1,100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. A total of 770 machine and truck units were contracted for the major forest chip suppliers in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will considerable increase the demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. If the consumption of forest chips by energy plants in 2015 reaches 15 TWh, i.e. about 7.5 mill. m3, then the forest machine and truck requirement will be over 1,700 units. The corresponding machinery requirement at an energy plant with a forest chip consumption of 25 TWh (approx. 12.5 mill. m3), will be close to 2,300 machine and truck units

  6. Interface Characteristics of Wood-hybrid Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEFenglian; ZHAOGuangjie

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the current interface characteristics of wood-hybrid composites, this paper starts off from the concept of composite interface and general theory of interface form, then the inner-surface and microstructure of wood and the interface characteristics of composites, such as wood- inorganic, wood-plastic and wood- metal made by electroless plating technique, are concluded and discussed in detail. Meanwhile,on the basis of that, some points of view about how to develop the wood-hybrid composites interface research in the future are also proposed.

  7. WOOD MODIFICATION BY HEAT TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Esteves

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood heat treatment has increased significantly in the last few years and is still growing as an industrial process to improve some wood properties. The first studies on heat treatment investigated mainly equilibrium mois-ture, dimensional stability, durability and mechanical properties. Mass loss, wettability, wood color, and chemical transformations have been subsequently extensively studied, while recent works focus on quality control, modeling, and study the reasons for the improvements. This review explains the recent interest on the heat treatment of wood and synthesizes the major publications on this subject on wood properties, chemical changes, wood uses, and quality control.

  8. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-01-01

    , cultural heritage, and rich traditional ecological knowledge. We discuss the anthropogenic character of wood-pastures, requiring multifunctional land management, which is a major conservation challenge. Despite increasing societal appreciation of wood-pastures, their integration into effective agricultural......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity...... and conservation policies has proved to be complicated, because institutional structures are traditionally organized within mono-functional sectors. We offer suggestions as to how these shortcomings might be overcome in the Common Agricultural Policy, including Rural Development policy, and the Habitats Directive...

  9. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  10. Elemental and organic carbon in flue gas particles of various wood combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, C.; Schmid, M.; Guentert, P.

    2005-12-15

    The airborne particulate matter (PM) in the environment is of ever increasing concern to authorities and the public. The major fractions of particles in wood combustion processes are in the size less than 1 micron, typically in the range of 30 to 300 nm. Of specific interest is the content of the elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the particles since these substances are known for its particular potential as carcinogens. Various wood combustion systems have been analysed (wood chip boiler, pellet boiler, wood log boiler, wood stove and open fire). The sampling of the particles was done by mean of a multi-stage particle sizing sampler cascade impactor. The impactor classifies the particles collected according to their size. The 7 stages classify the particles between 0.4 and 9 microns aerodynamic diameter. The analytical method for determining the content of EC and OC in the particles is based on coulometry. The coulometer measures the conductivity of CO{sub 2} released by oxidation of EC in the samples at 650 {sup o}C. The OC content is determined by pyrolysis of the particle samples in helium atmosphere.

  11. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resh, Sigrid C. [Michigan Technological University

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data loggers for measuring soil temperatures. To determine the early

  12. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  13. Review on Wood Discoloration and its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zehui; LV Wenhua; FEI Benhua; REN Haiqing; WU Yuzhang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms,types, compositions, affecting factors,prevention and remediable treatments of wood discoloration, and especially puts forward the biological control against wood stain and wood induced coloration.The authors think the followings are important:1)Developing the low poisonous or non-toxic, high-efficient and multi-functional anti-stain chemicals is still an important research direction to control wood discoloration.2)It is still very necessary to remove wood stain and restore wood original color and commercial value.3)The biological control has little environmental pollution and its cost is low.Researches on its theories and application should be strengthened.4)Wood color can be induced and turned to be the needed through heat treatment or ultraviolet irradiation without coloring materials,i.e.induced coloration,is a good idea to modulate wood,bamboo or rattan cane color.Itis becoming a new study field.

  14. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  15. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  16. Comparative wood anatomy of Rhodothamnus species

    OpenAIRE

    SERDAR, Bedri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the comparative wood anatomy of the European [Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Reichb.] and Anatolian (Rhodothamnus sessilifolius P.H.Davis) species of Rhodothamnus were studied. The wood anatomy of the taxa shows evidence of adaptation to growing in alpine habitats. The woods of the species exhibit primitive wood anatomical characteristics and share similar qualitative anatomical features. However, some of the quantitative anatomical characteristics of the taxa show significant ...

  17. Guide for construction of wood power systems. Construction - economic efficiency - technology; Leitfaden fuer die Errichtung von Holzenergie-Anlagen. Umsetzung - Wirtschaftlichkeit - Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchser, M. [Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Guidebook serves as a handbook for the entire operational sequence, which is necessary for the establishment of a wood combustion plant in Germany with an installed capacity larger than 100 kW{sub th}, for the use of fuel woods such as forest chips, wood and forest residues, pellets, wood waste, etc. within the limits of the laws and regulations prescribed for the respective performance classes. The Guidebook's purpose is to give potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants as well as the appropriate authorities a quick and global overview of the energetic use of wood in order to contribute to an increased application of this technology. The Guidebook introduces a Quality Model in Chapters 2 and 3, which describes the establishment of a wood combustion system in six phases. Eleven Management Aspects are differentiated, which can be helpful during the conversion of a project. Thus, potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants become acquainted with the most important aspects of this kind of project conversion. In addition, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the operating costs of wood combustion plants. The relevant licensing and planning procedures depending on the installed capacity and fuelwood use are comprehensively described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 supplies a concrete overview of the environmental aspects and emissions of wood combustion. Since wood combustion plants must be - as all other investments - financially secured Chapter 7 provides a description of the relevant information on public means and subsidies. Besides all important promotion programmes, the new German Renewable Energy Law (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz - EEG) of April 2000 is described in detail. Many examples of already realised wood combustion plant projects are described in Chapter 8. As an additional service, all significant addresses from ministries to energy agencies and associations are listed in Chapter 9. (orig.)

  18. CHIP Reporting in the CPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP reporting in the CPS is unreliable. Only 10 to 30 percent of those with CHIP (but not Medicaid) report this type of coverage in the CPS. Many with CHIP report...

  19. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  20. WOOD COLOR CHANGES BY AMMONIA FUMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Miklečić,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the influence of ammonia gas on wood color changes in response to an increasing demand for dark colored wood specimens. The darker wood color in ammonia fuming is accomplished through chemical reactions between ammonia gas and wood compounds. We exposed oak, maple, spruce, and larch wood samples to ammonia gas for 16 days. During fuming, the color changes were studied using CIE L*a*b* parameters. After fuming, the changes in extractives content, tannin, and nitrogen content were analyzed. The chemical changes of wood and residues of wood extractives after fuming were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Oak wood reacted intensively with ammonia gas in a very short time, and the darkening was prominent for all the investigated wood species. It was established that tannin had no major influence on color changes of maple and larch wood in the ammonia-fuming process. The FTIR spectra of fumed wood indicated involvement of carbonyl groups, and the FTIR spectra of wood extractives indicated involvement of carbonyl, aromatic, and alcohol groups in reaction with ammonia gas.

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  2. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  3. Test Firing of chunk wood - Is it possible to automate the fuel supply?; Proveldning av knubbved - Aer det moejligt att automatisera braenslematningen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Danielsson, Bengt-Olof

    2013-05-15

    Chunk wood is a wood fuel with a fuel particle length typically between 50 and 150 mm. The ad-vantage of chunk wood compared to wood chips is that the fuel dry as fast as fuel wood, but can be produced and handled as wood chip. Technologies for efficient producing, drying and distribution of Chunk wood have been developed since the 1970:s and machines for manufacturing the fuel is available on the market, but still there is no small-scale heating equipment in operation to burn the fuel automatically. The aim of the study was to investigate how the feeding and firing of chunk wood works in a standard 200 kW biomass boiler for various types of biofuels. The main focus was on studying how the fuel feeding system works using chunk wood and if the combustion and emissions are satisfactory. The boiler have a main fuel feeding auger screw connected to the bottom of the fuel storage, followed by a cell feeder and another auger screw that is feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber. The power consumption for the fuel feeding auger screws and the CO-emissions were measured during the firing period. In order to obtain reference values for the stresses in the fuel feeding system and the CO-emissions, regular wood chips were initially fired followed by the chunk wood firing. During the chunk wood firing period several interruptions in the fuel feeding occurred, as the trigger mechanism for the motor protection stopped the fuel supply. Most of the interruptions, however, could be resolved through manual reversing of the fuel feeding auger screw. Only at two occasions the entrance to the auger screw were manually cleared from large fuel pieces. The cell feeder and the auger screw feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber were stopped twice, and to continue operating the boiler it was enough to restart the feeding system. However, as they are both operated by the same motor we do not know whether the two shutdowns that occurred were caused by feeding problems in the auger

  4. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Xianjun Li; Yongfeng Luo; Hongbin Chen; Xia He; Jianxiong Lv; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased al...

  5. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  6. Wood Microstructure Effects on Chinese White Poplar Dyeing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANXinfang; BAOFucheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the influence of wood microstructure on wood dyeing, eleven parameters of wood microstructure and 5 parameters of wood dyeing effects for 34 pieces of wood boards from 5 trees of Chinese white poplar (Populus tornentosa) were determined and the multiple regression analysis between the factors of wood microstructures and the parameters of wood dyeing effects were made. The regression results show that each variable of wood dyeing effects has higher relationship with wood microstructures,and multiple correlation coefficients between each variable of wood dyeing effects and wood microstructures are 0.483 6-0.799 8. The main factors of wood microstructures influencing wood dyeing of Chinese whitep oplar are proportion of wood ray, proportion of vessel and proportion of wood fiber according to comparing the standardized regression coefficients of multiple regression equation.

  7. Wood stoves: the trendy pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaby, M.; Lovelock, J.

    1980-11-13

    The wood-burning stove is being increasingly accepted as an alternative to costly and scarce heating fuels. These stoves, however, contribute significantly to air pollution. The more efficient the stove, the more pollutants it releases. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are the primary offenders. Increasing use of these stoves may also exhaust timber and forest resources. (3 drawings, 2 photos)

  8. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  9. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  10. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  11. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  12. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips.

  13. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from

  15. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  16. [Wood dust as inhalative noxious agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, D; Liebetrau, G; Meister, W

    1985-01-01

    Wood dust is known as a cause of asthma and chronic bronchitis. From 1979 to 1983 we observed 115 patients with chronic lung diseases, who were exposed to wood dust during many years. We found an irritative pathogenesis in 101 patients with asthma or bronchitis. Twenty nine patients had got a positive skin test, especially with makoré, beech, koto, ash, pine. The inhalation test was positive in 7 of them. The occupational etiology was verified in 5 patients. Besides wood dust itself chemicals for wood protection or wood adhesives can have importance in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fourteen patients had got alveolitis or lung fibrosis after wood-dust exposition. In each case we found precipitating antibodies against moulds, which could be cultivated from wood dust to which the patients were exposed.

  17. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  18. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF FAST GROWTH PAULOWNIA WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jahan Latibari,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping of paulownia wood harvested from exotic tree plantations in northern Iran was investigated. The fiber length, width, and cell wall thickness of this wood were measured as 0.82 mm, 40.3 μm, and 7.1 μm, respectively. The chemical composition including cellulose, lignin, and extractives soluble in ethanol-acetone, 1% NaOH, hot and cold water was determined as 49.5%, 25%, 12.1%, 26.9%, 11.4%, and 8.1% respectively. The ash content of this wood was 0.45%. Pre-washed chips were chemically treated at 70°C for 120 minutes with different combinations of three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of hydrogen peroxide and three dosages (1.5, 3, and 4.5% of sodium hydroxide prior to defibration. Other chemicals including DTPA, sodium silicate, and MgSO4 were constant at 0.5%, 3%, and 0.5%, respectively. The results showed that using a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide charge, the brightness of APMP pulp reached 68.7% ISO and higher chemical dosages did not improve the brightness; however, to produce APMP pulp with higher strength, a sodium hydroxide charge of 4.5% was needed. The tensile strength, tear strength, burst strength indices, and bulk density of the APMP pulp produced from 1.5% hydrogen peroxide and 4.5% sodium hydroxide were measured as 15.5Nm/g, 6.54mN.m2/g, 0.56kPa.m2/g, and 3.47cm3/g, respectively. The resulting pulp was bulky and is suitable for use in the middle layer of boxboard to provide the desired stiffness with a lower basis weight.

  19. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  20. Combustion of furniture wood waste and solid wood: Kinetic study and evolution of pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the combustion processes of wood waste. Two kinds of waste have been studied: furniture wood waste (treated and used wood) and solid wood from factories (untreated wood). A kinetic study has been carried out for each material in air and an N2:O2 9:1 atmosphere with dynamic and dynamic + isothermal runs at different heating rates, considering the decomposition of the three main components of the wood and also the combustion of the char obtained. Satisfactory kinetic mod...

  1. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use...... focused on understanding the effects of cookstove use on the indoor air quality of 20 rural houses. In Europe, qualitative interviews were conducted to study the operation of WBSs in 24 dwellings. The energy and environmental performance of a fireplace, an ordinary wood stove and an automatic stove, were......, the advanced gasifiers and automatic stoves (Digital and Forced air) were identified to be among the best performing technologies. In spite of the fact that the thermal efficiency of the most advanced type of heating stoves (Gasifier) is around twice larger than that achieved for the most advanced type...

  2. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  3. International Transmission Under Bretton Woods

    OpenAIRE

    Alan C. Stockman

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the main channels of international transmission of economic disturbances under the Bretton Woods System and presents evidence on the short-run international transmission of inflation under that system. There appears to have been little short-run international transmission of inflation. Countries with one-percent higher money-growth rates subsequently had one-fourth to one-half percent higher inflation and a (predictably) lower real interest rate. This probably reflects eff...

  4. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  5. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs.

  6. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianjun; ZHANG Biguang; LI Wenjun; LI Yanjun

    2006-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of temperature gradient on moisture movement during highly intensive drying,such as microwave-vacuum drying,the profile of the temperature and moisture content in sealed wood whose opposite faces were subjected to temperature gradient for a short time was measured.The ratio of the moisture content (MC) gradient to the temperature gradient (dM/dT) was calculated and the factors influencing moisture movement under nonisothermal conditions were discussed.The results indicate that moisture moved in wood from the warm surface to the cold one even if opposite faces of the sealed wood assembly were exposed continuously to different but constant temperatures for a short period.The moisture content on the cold surface was higher than that on the warm surface.The moisture content gradient opposite to the temperature gradient was established,and the dM/dT was below 0.9%/℃.The temperature in the sample and the distance from the hot surface of the sample was strongly linearly correlated.With an increase in temperature,initial moisture content and experimental time,the dM/dT was significantly increased.

  7. Tension wood and opposite wood in 21 tropical rain forest species. 1. Occurence and efficiency of G-layer

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Bruno; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Fournier, Meriem

    2006-01-01

    Wood samples were taken from the upper and lower sides of 21 naturally tilted trees from 18 families of angiosperms in the tropical rainforest in French Guyana. The measurement of growth stresses ensured that the two samples were taken from wood tissues in a different mechanical state: highly tensile stressed wood on the upper side, called tension wood and lower tensile stressed wood on the lower side, called opposite wood. Eight species had tension wood fibres with a distinct gelatinous laye...

  8. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  9. Fundamental study on production of 'hyper wood pellet' - (4) characterization of torrefied products obtained using various methods of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Sano, Tetsuya; Ohara, Seiji [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)], e-mail: tyoshid@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Nomura, Takashi; Watada, Hiroki [Fukui Prefectural Green Center, Sakai, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Improved wood pellets (hyper wood pellets) were produced from the torrefaction of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and oak (Konara, Quercus serrata). Five types of ovens were used under dry and wet conditions for the torrefaction of wood chips and the subsequent pellet samples. As a result, calorific values were improved in both Japanese cedar and oak species, and a 30% higher HHV was obtained in Japanese cedar by heat treatment at 240 deg C using an inert gas torrefaction oven. We also investigated the characteristics of torrefied products obtained using four other types of heat treatment under reduced pressure, with superheated steam, and using conventional charcoal ovens in view of larger-scale production. By using a flow-type oven with superheated steam, hyper wood pellets having a calorific value of 21.4MJ/kg were produced by heat treatment at 240 deg C. Elemental analyses showed that dehydration mainly occurred during the torrefaction conducted in this study.

  10. CHIP, CHIP, ARRAY! THREE CHIPS FOR POST-GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge Healthtech Institute recently held the 4th installment of their popular "Lab-on-a-Chip" series in Zurich, Switzerland. As usual, it was enthusiastically received and over 225 people attended the 2-1/2 day meeting to see and hear about some of the latest developments an...

  11. 心材提取物和专用木材防腐剂作为木材保护剂的相对功效%Relative efficacy of heartwood extracts and proprietory wood preservatives as wood protectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EugeneOnyekweOnuorah

    2002-01-01

    The relative potentials of either heartwood extracts (air dry extracts in 60 percent methanol) of very durable woods (Afzelia africana J.E. Smith; Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill & Perr.) Brenam. Syn. E guinensis G.Don. or Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Berg. Syn. Chlorophora excelsa (Welw) Benth.) or any of two proprietary wood preservatives (AWPA type "C" - Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) or 5 percent solution of AWPA Standard Designation P "9" type "C" - Pentanchlorophenol (Penta) in light oil solvent) to suppress attack on pressure treated Antiaris toxicaria Lesch Sapwood by either any of three species of decaying fungi (Coridopsis Polyzona Klotzch; Lenzites trabea; or Trametes cingulata Fr.) under soil block exposure conditions were investigated and threshold values determined. Extract/preservative dosages were either 8.009; 24.778; 48.056; 96.111 or 144.167 kg@m-3 (0.5; 1.5; 3.0; 6.0 or 9.0 1b/ft3). Exposure was for either 14 or 28 weeks and in accordance with ASTM D1413 - 72 Provisions. Conclusions reached were that at threshold values the ability of either any of the heartwood extracts or proprietary wood preservatives to suppress attack under conditions in this study was significant at 0.01. Relative efficacy of those biocides was dependent on fungal species. Neither any of the heartwood extracts nor any of the proprietary wood preservatives (except in the case of Trametes cingulata attack on CCA treated wood at highest retention level) was able to confer "very durable" rating on treated wood. Possible reasons for the reduced relative durability of extracts visa vis native heartwood were advanced. At the highest retention level (144.167 kg@m-3) there was no significant difference (at 0.05 level) between efficacy of each of the heartwood extracts and any of the proprietary wood preservatives (CCA or Penta).%本文调查了三种耐用木材(Afzelia africana J.E. Smith; Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill & Perr.) Brenam. Syn. E guinensis G.Don. or Milicia excelsa

  12. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-03

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  13. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  14. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  15. Harvesting energy wood in connection to young stand treatment; Energiapuun korjuu taimikon harvennuksen yhteydessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, J.; Lilleberg, R.; Poikela, A.; Rieppo, K. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    In the study felling-bunching and the Chipset chipharvester was tried in late thinning of a young stand. Also the impact of energy wood recovery in the young stand stage on the profitability of first thinning was monitored. On the study site the amount of trees to be cut was 5 300 - 22 000 trees/ha, mean height 2,7 - 5,0 m and the total biomass amounted to 26 - 75 m{sup 3}/ha. The felling-bunching was made with a chain-saw equipped with felling handles. The work consisted of opening of the strip roads, of thinning the stand between strip roads and of bunching the trees for the chip-harvester. The effective time expenditure of felling-bunching was on the different sites 8,5 - 27 in/ha or 0,24 - 0,64 h/m{sup 3}. The calculated costs of the work were 900 - 2 800 FIM/ha or 26 - 67 FIM/m{sup 3}. The density and volume of the trees strongly influenced work productivity. The Chipset chipping productivity was 5,7 - 8,7 m{sup 3} per gross effective hour. The chipping costs, when hauling distance was 250 meters, were 44 - 81 FIM/m{sup 3} or 21 - 43 FIM/MVVh. The total costs of energy wood procurement at the plant were 112 - 144 FIM/m{sup 3} or 56 - 73 FIM/MWh. The opening of strip roads during young stand treatment decreases net volume later in the first thinning. According to calculations made for the example sites the net volume decreased by approx. 9 m{sup 3}/ha. The first thinning costs thus increased by 4 FIM/m{sup 3} or ca 5 %. In the extension project the technical, economical and productional preconditions for combining young stand treatment, energy wood harvesting and first thinning will be monitored

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of fly ash from co-combustion of wood and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal content in fly ash from biomass combustion, such as straw, wood and sludge, often needs reducing before the ash can be used as fertilizer for agricultural land or as a component in the production of construction materials. In this study, fly ash from a boiler fueled with wood chips...... and straw was treated either by electrodialytic remediation (EDR) directly or by a combination of EDR and pre-wash with distilled water to investigate the possibilities of reducing the heavy metal content and reusing nutrients as fertilizer and bulk material in construction materials. Different experimental...... set-ups were tested for EDR treatment primarily of Cd and Pb as well as of Cu and Zn. Elemental contents such as K, P and Ni were compared in ash samples before and after treatment. The results showed that pre-washing caused an increase in total concentrations of most heavy metals because the highly...

  17. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with nanom...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings.......Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...

  18. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  19. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  20. Three Perspectives on the Bretton Woods System

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The twenty years that have passed since the collapse of the Bretton Woods System provide sufficient distance to safely assess the operation of the post-World War II international monetary system. This paper considers the history and historiography of Bretton Woods from three perspectives. First, I ask how the questions posed today about the operation of Bretton Woods differ from those asked twenty years ago. Second, I explore how today's answers to familiar questions differ from the answers o...

  1. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  2. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insu...

  3. Impregnation of Natural Rubber into Rubber Wood: A Green Wood Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Wassa Ruayruay; Sureurg Khongtong

    2014-01-01

    A green wood composite material was developed from the two environmentally friendly substrates natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). Natural rubber (NR) was introduced into rubber wood by pressurization of NR latex, followed by the removal of the aqueous phase to allow only dry NR to remain inside the wood structure. Scanning electron microscopy images and the weight increase of the dry impregnated samples revealed the retention of dry NR within the rubbe...

  4. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... European Wood-Pastures in Transition examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers...

  5. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr; José Carlos de Deus Jr; Mario Tomazello Filho; Franciane Andrade de Pádua; Francine Neves Calil; Jean Paul Laclau

    2014-01-01

    The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing) fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month). Fifteen (15) 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment), cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m) were taken for ...

  6. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T. [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  7. The development of eco-efficient wood-based pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuokkanen, M.; Kuokkanen, T. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: toivo.kuokkanen@oulu.fi; Pohjonen, V. (Univ. of Helsinki, Vaerrioe Research Station, Ruuvaoja (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Up to 20 million tons of waste wood biomass per year are left unused in Finland mainly in the forests during forestry operations. Due to global demands to considerably increase the proportion of renewable energy, there is currently tremendous enthusiasm in Finland to substantially increase wood-based pellet production. Pellets are short cylindrical pieces (the diameter being usually 6-10 mm and the length 10-30 mm), which are produced mechanically by compressing the uniform material that has first passed through a hammer mill or mills to provide a homogeneous dough-like mass. As part of European objective to increase the eco- and cost-efficient utilization of bioenergy from the European forest belt, the aim of our research group is to promote the development of Nordic wood-based pellet production both in the quantitative as well as in the qualitative sense. The main fields of pellet research, and our chemical toolbox, developed for these studies, including a new specific staining and optical microscope method for understanding the binding mechanisms of pellet processing, and thus for the control and development of pellet production, are described in this paper. In Finland the goal suggested by the EU sets the total proportion of renewable energy as high as 38% by 2020. The goal is demanding and requires also a strong increase of utilizing forestry waste biomasses which are classified as carbon dioxide emission neutral, in terms of the emission trading in the EU. Concerning the utilization of strongly increasing amount of wood biomass energy, one reasonable solution in Nordic forest belt is decentralized and optimized wood pellet production. Forest economists have calculated that with present costs the maximum distance of profitable transport for forest chips, saw dust or shavings in Finland is ca.100 km, for round wood it is 1000 km, but for wood pellets transported by sea the figure, however, is as much as 5000 km. These calculations, in conjunction with the

  8. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests.

  9. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  10. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  11. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical v

  12. Microwave Irradiation Treatment of Wood Flour and Its Application in PVC-Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shengfei; CHEN Wen; LIU Weihua; LI Huaxing

    2007-01-01

    The technique of microwave irradiation induced free radical bulk- polyaddition reactions in porous wood flour was used to modify wood flour. The behaviors of the modified wood flour under microwave irradiation, such as thermal stability and moisture sorption properties, were studied. A kind of semiinterpenetrating polymer network wood four (Semi-IPN-WF) can be formed through polymerization of MMA in the porous wood flour by microwave irradiation, and the thermal decomposition temperature of the semi-IPN-WF is considerably increased. PVC/Semi-IPN-WF composites were prepared by melt mixing in double rolls,which exhibit improved rheological properties, lower water sorption properties and outstanding mechanical performances.

  13. Effect of Wood Fillers on the Viscoelastic and Thermophysical Properties of HDPE-Wood Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood polymer composites (WPC have well proven their applicability in several fields of the plasturgy sector, due to their aesthetics and low maintenance costs. However, for plasturgy applications, the characterization of viscoelastic behavior and thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of WPC with the temperature and wood filler contents is essential. Therefore, the processability of polymer composites made up with different percentage of wood particles needs a better understanding of materials behaviors in accordance with temperature and wood particles contents. To this end, a numerical analysis of the viscoelastic, mechanical, and thermophysical properties of composite composed of high density polyethylene (HDPE reinforced with soft wood particles is evaluated.

  14. China's first WLAN chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The wireless local area network (WLAN) chips independently developed by CAS researchers were in the limelight of the recent Electronic Manufacture Exposition held in Suzhou, east China's Jiangsu Province.

  15. CHIP Enrollment Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CHIP quarterly and annual statistical enrollment reports. The quarterly reports contain point-in-time and ever enrolled data and the annual reports contain ever...

  16. Medicaid CHIP ESPC Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Scanning and Program Characteristic (ESPC) Database is in a Microsoft (MS) Access format and contains Medicaid and CHIP data, for the 50 states and...

  17. The incorporation of wood waste ash as a partial cement replacement material for making structural grade concrete: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaptik Chowdhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing industrialization, the industrial byproducts (wastes are being accumulated to a large extent, leading to environmental and economic concerns related to their disposal (land filling. Wood ash is the residue produced from the incineration of wood and its products (chips, saw dust, bark for power generation or other uses. Cement is an energy extensive industrial commodity and leads to the emission of a vast amount of greenhouse gases, forcing researchers to look for an alternative, such as a sustainable building practice. This paper presents an overview of the work and studies done on the incorporation of wood ash as partial replacement of cement in concrete from the year 1991 to 2012. The aspects of wood ash such as its physical, chemical, mineralogical and elemental characteristics as well as the influence of wood ash on properties such as workability, water absorption, compressive strength, flexural rigidity test, split tensile test, bulk density, chloride permeability, freeze thaw and acid resistance of concrete have been discussed in detail.

  18. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  19. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  20. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  1. Analysis of acetylated wood by electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, C.; Beckers, E.P.J.; Militz, H.; Veenendaal, van W.

    2003-01-01

    The properties of acetylated solid wood were investigated earlier, in particular the anti-shrink efficiency and the resistance against decay. This study focuses on the possible changes and damage to the wood structure due to an acetylation process leading to weight per cent gains of up to 20%. Elect

  2. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other genera)

  3. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.

    1983-01-01

    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  4. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  5. Generalized eczematous contact dermatitis from cocobolo wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche, Anna D; Prawer, Steven

    2003-06-01

    Occupational contact with cocobolo wood (Papilionaceae, Dalbergia retusa) has been reported to rarely cause delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report the case of a 53-year-old furniture and cabinetmaker who exhibited a generalized reaction mimicking erythroderma after exposure to sawdust from the wood. Patch testing to plants and woods standard (Chemotechnique, Dormer Laboratories, Ontario, Canada) was negative, and the specific allergen in cocobolo, obtusaquinone, was not available to us. The patient was tested instead to shavings of various woods as well as to sawdust of the suspected wood in petrolatum. He exhibited an exuberant response (+++) to both shavings and sawdust of cocobolo. After successful patch testing with shavings and sawdust in the absence of the purified chemical allergen, avoidance of the timber resulted in the resolution of his symptoms.

  6. Wood Crosscutting Process Analysis for Circular Saws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Krilek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of some cutting parameters (geometry of cutting edge, wood species, and circular saw type and cutting conditions on the wood crosscutting process carried out with circular saws. The establishment of torque values and feeding power for the crosswise wood cutting process has significant implications for designers of crosscutting lines. The conditions of the experiments are similar to the working conditions of real machines, and the results of individual experiments can be compared with the results obtained via similar experimental workstations. Knowledge of the wood crosscutting process, as well as the choice of suitable cutting conditions and tools could decrease wood production costs and save energy. Changing circular saw type was found to have the biggest influence on cutting power of all factors tested.

  7. Dimensional stability of heat treated wood floorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Živković

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat treated wood (HTW is successfully applied for floorings due to its better moisture resistance, increased dimensional stability, and uniform colour change to darker, brownish colours. The aim of this work was to define the hygroscopic range and equilibrium moisture content at ambient conditions of heat treated wood of two wood species – ash and beech. Material was treated at two temperature levels, 190 and 210 °C, and the properties were compared with native wood. The reduction in dimensional changes is expressed by volumetric shrinking and Anti Shrink Efficiency (ASE. Additionally, parquet elements were made out of such HTW, oil-impregnated and waxed, and subsequently tested for water vapour and liquid water permeability. Shrinking gradients of HTW were not reduced in comparison with native beech wood, but the absolute reduction in water uptake resulted in cca 50 % lower EMC values and up to cca 60 % improved ASE values. Surface treatment further improved the hygroscopic properties of HTW.

  8. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  9. Conception of the technology of wood production from short rotation coppice. Pt. 2; Konzept fuer ein Gesamtverfahren der Energieholzproduktion aus Kurzumtriebsplantagen. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Mirko; Firus, Siegfried; Grosa, Andre; Herlitzius, Thomas [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl Agrarsystemtechnik

    2011-07-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) of fast-growing tree species are becoming more and more important in Germany. Already in the issue 1.2011 of Landtechnik a part of the current research and development projects in the field of SRC at the professorship of agricultural machines of the Technische Universitaet Dresden were presented. In this second part the importance of harvesting, drying and storage of wood chips will be shown in detail, as they have significant influence on the chip quality. Possible solutions, studies and required developments will be highlighted to existing problems. (orig.)

  10. METAL CORROSION IN WATERBORNE PRESERVATIVE- TREATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Sugiyanto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity and firmness of wooden construction and furniture those are joined by metal screws depend on corrosion rate of these metals. This paper examines the weight-loss percentage of metal screws used in wood samples that have been treated with water-borne preser vative (i.e.3% borax boric acid and 3% diffusol CB and concurrently investigates the effect of brake fluid on preventing metal corrosion. Wood samples tested included three acacia and one eucalypts wood species which were grouped into sapwood and heartwood containing samples. Wood samples fastened with metal screws were freely suspended in glass jars that contained 25 ml of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to keep the humidity rate above 90%. After 12 months, the metal screws lost their weight due to the corrosion brought about by the related factors either in separate individual or in combination, which comprised brake and fluid-dipping , wood species, wood portion (sapwood and heartwood, kinds of preser vatives used. Corrosion rates of metal screws fastened in eucalypts wood sample as indicated by the screw-weight loss (i.e. 5.8% was more severe than that fastened in acacia wood. Furthermore, corrosion rate of metal screws as fixed firmly in sapwood sample proceeded faster than that in heartwood. This might be caused by the higher moisture content in sapwood. On the other hand, corrosion rate of the screws as fastened in waterborne-preser vative-treated wood samples was greater than that in non-preser ved wood due to electrokinetic characteristics and ionic potential exhibited by the preser vative thereby intensif ying the screw-corrosion process. Meanwhile, less severe corrosion was obser ved and recorded on the screws pre-dipped in brake fluid compared to those on the non-dipped screws

  11. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...... that can be used for label-free biochemical detection. All the bonding tests are compared with results obtained using similar Si chips. It is found that it is significantly more complicated to interconnect SU-8 than Si cantilever chips primarily due to the softness of SU-8....

  12. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVA ÇAUSHI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic market demand. The remaining 20% of domestic market needs in wood furniture are afforded by import. Small entities do not make serious investment in technology. Big enterprises such as Ardeno in Tirana, Biçaku in Durres, Shaga in Tirana, Ital-wood in Elbasan, Dafinori in Shkoder, etc., have made remarkable investments in their technology. They have installed several mechanized lines of production. So, Ital-wood has invested in a mechanized saw timber production line; Bicaku in wood panels coated with PVC lines; Dafinori in a wood handrail production technologic line; Ardeno in wooden chairs production technologic lines, and Shaga in the production of furniture with particle panels. These enterprises are using modern numerical command machines, vacuum presses for gluing PVC, cutting equipment for panels with laser ray, finishing lines with electrostatic field, modern lines of pneumatic transport for wood dust etc. These investments in new technologies have increased the quantity and quality of native wood products.

  13. Fuzzy Logic Control ASIC Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈理

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy logic control VLSI chip,F100,for industry process real-time control has been designed and fabricated with 0.8μm CMOS technology.The chip has the features of simplicity,felexibility and generality.This paper presents the Fuzzy control inrerence method of the chip,its VLSI implementation,and testing esign consideration.

  14. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption and offi......Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption.......5 emissions within a specific “wood burning living area”, but one Danish study exists [4]. In previous inventories distinct combustion air operation modes and the growing penetration of automate wood-burning stoves have not been considered. The present work aims to discuss opportunities for improving...... Portuguese combustion practices in laboratory tests. This study highlights that the previous PM2.5 emission inventories in Denmark and Portugal did not consider the possible variations on fuel moisture, dimensions of wood-logs and air-inlet operation patterns, although they are very important, especially...

  15. Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu

    2014-01-01

    We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.

  16. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  17. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jerome; Coomes, David; Jansen, Steven; Lewis, Simon L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zanne, Amy E

    2009-04-01

    Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.

  18. Inspecting wood surface roughness using computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezeng

    1995-01-01

    Wood surface roughness is one of the important indexes of manufactured wood products. This paper presents an attempt to develop a new method to evaluate manufactured wood surface roughness through the utilization of imaging processing and pattern recognition techniques. In this paper a collimated plane of light or a laser is directed onto the inspected wood surface at a sharp angle of incidence. An optics system that consists of lens focuses the image of the surface onto the objective of a CCD camera, the CCD camera captures the image of the surface and using a CA6300 board digitizes the image. The digitized image is transmitted into a microcomputer. Through the use of the methodology presented in this paper, the computer filters the noise and wood anatomical grain and gives an evaluation of the nature of the manufactured wood surface. The preliminary results indicated that the method has the advantages of non-contact, 3D, high-speed. This method can be used in classification and in- time measurement of manufactured wood products.

  19. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  20. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost

  1. Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    balance concept. 1.3 Fort Leonard Wood, MO, case study Fort Leonard Wood (FLW), MO, is the first installation case study for the developing NZI tool...20314-1000 Under Work Units 8609C7, BH01K8, and LG7452 ERDC TR-15-4 ii Abstract This report analyzes the hydrologic ability of Fort Leonard Wood... work was carried out in the second year of a 4-year program that is building on Net Zero Energy to tackle the more complicated problem of reducing

  2. Mathematical modelling of wood and briquettes torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfli, Felix Fonseca; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin. Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos; Soler, Pedro Beaton [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    A mathematical model valid for the torrefaction of wood logs and biomass briquettes is presented. The model described both chemical and physical processes, which take place in a moist piece of wood heated at temperatures between 503 and 573 K. Calibration measurements of the temperature profile and mass loss, were performed on dry cylinders of wood samples during torrefaction in an inert atmosphere at 503, 533, and 553 K. The calculated data shows a good agreement with experiments. The model can be a useful tool to estimate projecting and operating parameters for torrefaction furnaces such as minimum time of torrefaction, energy consumption and the mass yield. (author)

  3. Overview of Wood-based Panel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of wood-based panel was presented firstly in this paper. Some features of China’s wood-based panel industry were reviewed, including production bases, raw materials and main markets of wood-based panel. In addition, the trade flow of wood-based panel was described in the end.

  4. The vessels in the wood of Javan Mangrove trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssonius, H.H.

    1950-01-01

    In the course of my study on the wood-anatomy of Javan woods (Mikrographie des Holzes der auf Java vorkommenden Baumarten), I examined also many woods from mangrove-trees. Mangrove has been the subject of much investigation; the community is usually described as xeromorphic. Mangrove woods proved to

  5. Finite Element Analysis Of Boron Diffusion In Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2002-01-01

    The coupled heat and mass transfer equations for air, water and heat transfer are supplemented with a conservation equation for an additional species representing the concentration of boron in wood. Boundary conditions for wood-air. wood-soil and wood-boron interfaces arc discussed and finally th...

  6. An Overview of the Biology of Reaction Wood Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Du; Fukuju Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    Reaction wood possesses altered properties and performs the function of regulating a tree's form, but it is a serious defect in wood utility. Trees usually develop reaction wood in response to a gravistimulus. Reaction wood in gymnosperms is referred to as compression wood and develops on the lower side of leaning stems or branches.In arboreal, dicotyledonous angiosperms, however, it is called tension wood and is formed on the upper side of the leaning. Exploring the biology of reaction wood formation is of great value for the understanding of the wood differentiation mechanisms, cambial activity, gravitropism, and the systematics and evolution of plants. After giving an outline of the variety of wood and properties of reaction wood, this review lays emphasis on various stimuli for reaction wood induction and the extensive studies carried out so far on the roles of plant hormones in reaction wood formation. Inconsistent results have been reported for the effects of plant hormones. Both auxin and ethylene regulate the formation of compression wood in gymnosperms. However, the role of ethylene may be indirect as exogenous ethylene cannot induce compression wood formation. Tension wood formation is mainly regulated by auxin and gibberellin. Interactions among hormones and other substances may play important parts in the regulation of reaction wood formation.

  7. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  8. Weathering Characteristics of Wood Plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted or Delignified Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated weathering performance of an HDPE wood plastic composite reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF. The wood flour was pre-extracted with three different solvents, toluene/ethanol (TE, acetone/water (AW, and hot water (HW, or sodium chlorite/acetic acid. The spectral properties of the composites before and after artificial weathering under accelerated conditions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, the surface color parameters were analyzed using colorimetry, and the mechanical properties were determined by a flexural test. Weathering of WPC resulted in a surface lightening and a decrease in wood index (wood/HDPE and flexural strength. WPCs that were reinforced with delignified wood flour showed higher ΔL* and ΔE* values, together with lower MOE and MOR retention ratios upon weathering when compared to those with non-extracted control and extracted WF.

  9. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  10. Storage of coppice wood - problems and possible solutions; Lagerung von Feldholz - Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idler, C.; Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Storage of processed coppice wood has been found to produce temperature increases of up to 60 C. This is invariably leads to a loss of dry weight and growth of potentially mycotoxin-forming moulds. Cost-effective storage of coppice wood necessitates a residual moisture of 30% or 25%. This has proved possible by storing whole trees or pieces. In chips the loss of useful energy amounts to 44%. By contrast, rain-proof storage of coarse chips leads to a slight increase in recoverable energy due to the drying effect. In order to keep losses through storage to a minimum, coppice wood should be processed after the harvest in such a way that the material can dry quickly. This can be achieved by storing it in pieces or whole trees. This inhibits mould growth and reduces loss of dry weight and energy. [German] Bei der Lagerung von aufbereitetem Feldholz konnten Temperaturerhoehungen bis zu 60 C registriert werden. Diese waren stets verbunden mit Trockenmasseverlusten sowie mit dem Auftreten von potentiell mykotoxinbildenen Schimmelpilzen. Fuer eine wirtschaftliche Lagerung von Feldholz sind Restfeuchtegehalte von 30% oder 25% notwendig, wie dies bei der Lagerung ganzer Baeume bzw. bei der Lagerung von Stuecken erzielt werden konnte. Der Verlust an technisch nutzbarer Energie betraegt bei Schnitzeln bis 44%, waehrend bei regengeschuetzt gelagerten Grobhackstuecken aufgrund des Trocknungseffektes ein leichter Energiegewinn erzielt wird. Fuer eine verlustminimierte Lagerung sollte das Feldholz nach der Ernte so aufbereitet werden, dass eine rasche Abtrocknung des Gutes ermoeglicht wird. Das kann durch eine Lagerung von Stuecken oder ganzen Baeumen erreicht werden. Dadurch wird der Entwicklung von Schimmelpilzen entgegengewirkt und die Trockenmasse- und Energieverluste reduziert. (orig.)

  11. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system.

  12. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Min, Soo-Hong; Han, James S

    2006-12-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an aqueous solution of a non-toxic anionic polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was evaluated. Problems with excessive viscosities during the screening of commercially available CMC products led to the selection of an ultra low viscosity CMC product that was still usable at a 4% concentration in water. Soxhlet extractions of chipped aspen wood and refined aspen wood fiber samples showed a higher extractives content for the refined material. Analysis of these extracts by FTIR spectroscopy suggested that the higher extractives content for the refined material resulted from the fragmentation of cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin, hemicelluloses) normally insoluble in their native states. Spectroscopic analysis of CMC and ferrous chloride treated fibers showed that the complex formed was sufficiently stable to resist removal during subsequent water washes. Equilibrium sorption data, which fit better with a Freundlich isotherm model than a Langmuir isotherm model, showed that phosphate removal could be enhanced by the CMC pretreatment. Results suggest that the process outlined may provide a facile means to improve the phosphate removal capacity of biomass-based stormwater filtration media.

  13. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Biomorphic Silicon Carbide Ceramics Fabricated from Wood Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, J. A.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide based, environment friendly, biomorphic ceramics have been fabricated by the pyrolysis and infiltration of natural wood (maple and mahogany) precursors. This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. These biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics have tailorable properties and behave like silicon carbide based materials manufactured by conventional approaches. The elastic moduli and fracture toughness of biomorphic ceramics strongly depend on the properties of starting wood preforms and the degree of molten silicon infiltration. Mechanical properties of silicon carbide ceramics fabricated from maple wood precursors indicate the flexural strengths of 3441+/-58 MPa at room temperature and 230136 MPa at 1350C. Room temperature fracture toughness of the maple based material is 2.6 +/- 0.2 MPa(square root of)m while the mahogany precursor derived ceramics show a fracture toughness of 2.0 +/- 0.2 Mpa(square root of)m. The fracture toughness and the strength increase as the density of final material increases. Fractographic characterization indicates the failure origins to be pores and chipped pockets of silicon.

  14. Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: Responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Jones, Cynthia S; Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Wood density plays a key role in ecological strategies and life history variation in woody plants, but little is known about its anatomical basis in shrubs. We quantified the relationships between wood density, anatomy, and climate in 61 shrub species from eight field sites along latitudinal belts between 31° and 35° in North and South America. Measurements included cell dimensions, transverse areas of each xylem cell type and percentage contact between different cell types and vessels. Wood density was more significantly correlated with precipitation and aridity than with temperature. High wood density was achieved through reductions in cell size and increases in the proportion of wall relative to lumen. Wood density was independent of vessel traits, suggesting that this trait does not impose conduction limitations in shrubs. The proportion of fibers in direct contact with vessels decreased with and was independent of wood density, indicating that the number of fiber-vessel contacts does not explain the previously observed correlation between wood density and implosion resistance. Axial and radial parenchyma each had a significant but opposite association with wood density. Fiber size and wall thickness link wood density, life history, and ecological strategies by controlling the proportion of carbon invested per unit stem volume.

  15. Effects of Mixing Temperature and Wood Powder Size on Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Recycled Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kojiro, Keisuke; Kanayama, Kozo; Yamamoto, Ken

    In this study, wood (cedar) powder ranging from 53 µm to 1 mm sizes, recycled polypropylene (PP) / polyethylene (PE) and acid-modified PP as a compatibilization agent were used to produce a wood-plastic recycled composite (WPRC). For discussing the effects of the wood powder sizes on the mechanical properties of the WPRC, a mixing process of the wood powder and the plastics in a constant wood content of 50% weight was firstly performed by a mixing machine controlled temperature and rotation of mixing blade. And then, to obtain WPRC panels the wood and plastics mixtures were compressed in a mould under a constant pressure and a temperature for a certain holding time. WPRC specimens for mechanical tests were cut from the WPRC panels, and a tensile strength and a size-stability were acquired. The results show that the successful mixing process runs above 180°C, where the mixing torque required compounding keeps constant or slightly increases. The tensile strength of the WPRC increases when the smaller size of wood powder is used for wood/plastic compound under successful mixing conditions. It is shown from thickness change rate of specimens that mixing temperature of wood/plastic compound affects a size stability of the WPRC.

  16. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  17. Wood recognition using image texture features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-jun Wang

    Full Text Available Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC, this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI. The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy.

  18. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  19. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Noraida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there was only harvested area having an impact with 1% significant level. This result indicates that, the harvested area become the most impact towards supply of rubber wood log either in short run or in the long run. While wages as input cost gave less impact in another word it become unburden to the producers.

  20. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Aydın; Gürsel Çolakoğlu

    2003-01-01

    Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomic...

  1. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  2. Effect of Wood Particle Size on the Properties of Wood/Polypropylene Composites Ⅰ:Mechanical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of wood powder/polypropy!ene composites with different wood particle sizes and wood species have been studied. All of the wood particie sizes increased the E-modulus of the composites. Tensile tests showed that wood partide sizes had a negative effect on the elongation at break and the tensile strength of the composites has been improved when wood particle sizes were be(ow 150 μm (below 100 mesh). For the impact tests, the wood partide sizes had a negative effect, but the MDF f...

  3. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification, 12 groups are recognised and compared with Hutchinson’s tribes. Groups I-V accommodate a mixture of representatives from Spiraeoideae and Rosoideae genera (or tribes); Groups VI-VII comprise the M...

  4. Cytometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2011-01-01

    A cytometer now under development exploits spatial sorting of sampled cells on a microarray chip followed by use of grating-coupled surface-plasmon-resonance imaging (GCSPRI) to detect the sorted cells. This cytometer on a chip is a prototype of contemplated future miniature cytometers that would be suitable for rapidly identifying pathogens and other cells of interest in both field and laboratory applications and that would be attractive as alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. The basic principle of operation of a conventional flow cytometer requires fluorescent labeling of sampled cells, stringent optical alignment of a laser beam with a narrow orifice, and flow of the cells through the orifice, which is subject to clogging. In contrast, the principle of operation of the present cytometer on a chip does not require fluorescent labeling of cells, stringent optical alignment, or flow through a narrow orifice. The basic principle of operation of the cytometer on a chip also reduces the complexity, mass, and power of the associated laser and detection systems, relative to those needed in conventional flow cytometry. Instead of making cells flow in single file through a narrow flow orifice for sequential interrogation as in conventional flow cytometry, a liquid containing suspended sampled cells is made to flow over the front surface of a microarray chip on which there are many capture spots. Each capture spot is coated with a thin (approximately 50-nm) layer of gold that is, in turn, coated with antibodies that bind to cell-surface molecules characteristic of one the cell species of interest. The multiplicity of capture spots makes it possible to perform rapid, massively parallel analysis of a large cell population. The binding of cells to each capture spot gives rise to a minute change in the index of refraction at the surface of the chip. This change in the index of refraction is what is sensed in GCSPRI, as described briefly below. The identities of the

  5. Experiment list: SRX122496 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || chip antibody=Rel || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip ant...ibody catalog number 1=sc-71 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc

  6. Wood zone plate fishnet metalens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazbayev Bakhtiyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresnel-zone plate lenses provide focusing performance while having low profile. Unfortunately, they usually display higher reflection losses than conventional dielectric lenses. Here, we demonstrate a low-profile Wood zone plate metalens based on the fishnet metamaterial working in a near-zero regime with an equivalent refractive index less than unity (nf = 0.51. The metalens is made of alternating dielectric and fishnet metamaterial concentric rings. The use of fishnet metamaterial allows reducing the reflections from the lens, while maintaining low profile, low cost and ease of manufacturing. The lens is designed to work at the W-band of the millimeter-waves range with a focal length FL = 22.8 mm (7.5 λ0 aiming at antenna or radar system applications. The focusing performance of the lens along with its radiation characteristics in a lens antenna configuration have been studied numerically and confirmed experimentally, showing a gain improvement of ~2.5 dB with respect to a fishnet Soret metalens.

  7. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  9. Mikrofluidik-Chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, E.; Lichtenberg, J.

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are becoming the new paradigm for chemical processing and analysis in the laboratory. Hair-fine channels made in planar substrates using silicon processing technologies replace beakers and tubing for automated liquid transport and handling on a sub-μ L scale. Reduced conduit diame

  10. MICROELECTRONICS: Flip the Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C P; Luo, S; Zhang, Z

    2000-12-22

    As integrated circuit fabrication advances rapidly and the market for faster, lighter, smaller, yet less expensive electronic products accelerates, electronic packaging faces its own challenges. In this Perspective, Wong, Luo, and Zhang describe recent advances in flip chip packaging. This technology has many advantages over the conventional wire bonding technology and offers the possibility of low-cost electronic assembly for modern electronic products.

  11. Exposure to wood dust and endotoxin in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Msamanga, G.I.; Burstyn, I.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Heederik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Workers in small-scale wood industries (SSWI) have increased risks of developing asthma and other respiratory diseases. Wood dust and microbial agents have both been suggested to play a role, but few studies have measured endotoxin exposure in SSWI in Africa. We assessed inhalable dust levels in 281

  12. Fracture tolerance of reaction wood (yew and spruce wood in the TR crack propagation system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Keunecke, Daniel; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2011-07-01

    The fracture properties of spruce and yew were studied by in-situ loading in an environmental scanning microscope (ESEM). Loading was performed with a micro-wedge splitting device in the TR-crack propagation direction. The emphasis was laid on investigating the main mechanisms responsible for a fracture tolerant behavior with a focus on the reaction wood. The fracture mechanical results were correlated with the features of the surface structure observed by the ESEM technique, which allows loading and observation in a humid environment. Some important differences between the reaction wood and normal wood were found for both investigated wood species (spruce and yew), including the formation of cracks before loading (ascribed to residual stresses) and the change of fracture mode during crack propagation in the reaction wood. The higher crack propagation resistance was attributed mainly to the different cell (i.e. fiber) geometries (shape, cell wall thickness) and fiber angle to the load axis of the reaction wood, as basic structural features are responsible for more pronounced crack deflection and branching, thus leading to crack growth retardation. Fiber bridging was recognized as another crack growth retarding mechanism, which is effective in both wood species and especially pronounced in yew wood.

  13. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  14. ROUGHNESS ON WOOD SURFACES AND ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Some visual characteristics of wood such as color, pattern and texture determine the quality of manufactured products. Surface properties of wood material are important both in production and marketing after production. Initial studies related to the roughness of wood surface were begun in early 1950’s. However, no general agreed standardization can not have been developed for wood surfaces. Surface roughness of wood is function of the production process, product type and the natural anatomical properties of wood. Contact and non-contact tracing methods are used to measure of wood surface roughness. Surface roughness also affects the gluability and wettability of wood surfaces. The success in finishing also depends on the surface roughness of wood.

  15. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  16. Effect of granulated wood ash fertilization on N2O emissions in boreal peat forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Maarit; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Hytönen, Jyrki; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands cover one third of the land surface area in Finland and over half of that are drained for forestry. Natural peatlands are either small sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) or they can also act as a sinks of N2O. When peatlands are drained, oxygen concentration in the peat increases, organic matter decomposition accelerates and N2O emissions may increase significantly, especially in nutrient rich peat soils. Hence drainage and land-use changes can have a big impact on N2O fluxes in peatlands. The annual consumption of wood chips is to be increased to 13.5 M m3 from the present 8.7 M m3 in Finland. This will also increase the amount of wood ash in the power plants. Wood ash contains considerable amounts of mineral nutrients but lacks nitrogen. Therefore, it has been used as a fertilizer in nitrogen rich peatland forests lacking other nutrients. Recycling of ash would also return the nutrients lost during biomass harvesting back to the forests. We studied the effects of granulated wood ash as a fertilizer in peat soils drained for forestry. Ash is nowadays granulated mainly to facilitate its handling and spreading. Granulation also stabilizes the ash decreasing the solubility of most of the nutrients and minimizing harmful effects of ash spread over the vegetation. Granulated wood ash increases soil pH less than loose ash. Drainage of peatland forests increases microbial activity in the soil which is furthermore intensified with the addition of ash promoting organic matter decomposition and possibly affecting N2O emissions. We studied the effect of granulated wood ash on N2O fluxes in three different peat forests in Finland in both field and laboratory experiments. In the field, N2O emissions were not affected by granulated wood ash fertilization but the soil respiration rate increased. However, in the laboratory studies we observed a clear decrease in N2O production due to wood ash addition, although changes in pH values were only minor. We studied what could

  17. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  18. Harvesting alternative, accumulation and procurement cost of small-diameter thinning wood for fuel in Central Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, J.; Heikkilae, J.; Anttila, P.

    2010-07-01

    This study compared harvesting alternatives, accumulation and procurement costs of small-diameter thinning wood chips for fuel, when trees were harvested either as delimbed stemwood or whole trees. The calculation was made for a hypothetical plant located in Central Finland and the radius of the procurement area was 100 km via the existing road network. Cutting was done with conventional harvester head equipped with multi-tree-handling (MTH) accessories, with the logged trees being chipped at the roadside storage. The cost of delimbed stemwood chips at heating plant was 24% higher compared to the cost of whole tree chips. The availability analysis attested that delimbing lowered the regional cutting removal by 42% compared to the whole tree harvesting, when the minimum accumulation for the fuel fraction at the stand was set at 25 m3/ha. Delimbing diminishes the recovery rate at the site, resulting in a diminishing number of potential recovery sites meeting the threshold volume. However, the study showed that the forest energy potential is increased and procurement costs are reduced, if delimbed stemwood is harvested from stands where the whole tree harvesting is not acceptable due to nutrient loss or for other ecological reasons. Intelligent selection of cutting methods for different stands enables minimization of transport distance and control of procurement cost. (orig.)

  19. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-wen

    2009-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the improvement of wood properties through genetic selection or a change in silviculture prescription. Tree breeding purpose requires measurement of a large number of samples. However, traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both time consuming and destructive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed, so new method would be needed to find. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation of wood and it can quickly, accurately estimate the properties of increment core, solid wood or wood meal. The present paper reviews the advances in the research on the wood chemistry properties and anatomical properties using NIR.

  20. General Regularities of Wood Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGOSS, Endre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface roughness of wood products is depending on many factors related both towood properties and wood working operational parameters. Probably this is the reason why there areno generally valid correlation determining surface roughness parameters as a function of influencingfactors. In particular, the account of wood structure in the surface roughness interpretation proved tobe difficult.In the last years an important progress was made in recognizing the role of the anatomicalstructure of wood species in the attainable surface roughness. The introduction of a structure numbermade it possible to express and characterize the different wood species numerically.The aim of these studies was the separation of roughness components due to the anatomicalstructure and the woodworking operation. Using a special finishing technique, the roughnesscomponent due to woodworking operations was not significant and could be separated. The samespecimens were also subjected to different woodworking operations using cutting velocities between10 and 50 m/s. The processing of experimental data resulted in a chart showing the minimumroughness component due to different woodworking operations. Special experimental investigationwas conducted to clear the influence of edge dullness on the surface roughness, especially on itsAbbott-parameters. The measurements showed that the Rk-parameter is a good indicator to predictedge dullness.

  1. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eScholz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  2. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars (for the same activation energy, the pre-exponential factor was up to 2 orders of magnitude greater for chars increased. The amount and composition of the ash forming matter of the wood fuels is believed to play an important role......This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... in the boiler and thereby the overall operation and efficiency of the plant. Chapter 1 consists of an introduction to thermal conversion of biomass fuels as well as a description of a Danish power plant where a measuring campaign was carried out as part of this project. Chapter 2 is a brief literature review...

  3. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...

  4. Properties of Wood/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Wenhua; ZHAO Guangjie

    2006-01-01

    With montmorillonite (MMT) organically modified as organophilic-MMT (OMMT) and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde resin (PF) as intermediate, the nanocomposites of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood and MMT, i.e. WMNC, were prepared via nano intercalation compounding, some properties of WMNC were analyzed. Results show that, compared with Chinese fir wood and its PF-impreg, WMNC has lower humidity and water absorption, better dimension stability, higher longitudinal compressive strength, abrasive resistance, fire-resistance, and water-leaching resistance with a very low mass ratio about 3% of MMT. The nano intercalation compounding of wood and exfoliated MMT nanolamellae is very promising. More studies should be carried out to fully reveal the nanosize effects and the special properties of WMNC.

  5. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  6. Bamboo and Wood in Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.

    2008-08-01

    Over centuries and millennia, our ancestors worldwide found the most appropriate materials for increasingly complex acoustical applications. In the temperate climate of Europe, where the instruments of the Western symphony orchestra were developed and perfected, instrument makers still primarily take advantage of the unique property combination and the aesthetic appeal of wood. In all other continents, one material dominates and is frequently chosen for the manufacture of wind, string, and percussion instruments: the grass bamboo. Here, we review from a materials science perspective bamboo's and wood's unique and highly optimized structure and properties. Using material property charts plotting acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient against one another, we analyze and explain why bamboo and specific wood species are ideally suited for the manufacture of xylophone bars and chimes, flutes and organs, violins and zithers, violin bows, and even strings.

  7. Research advance in wood composites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Wood composites can generally be classified in three parts: laminated composites, mixed composites and penetrated composites. Every part has its own characteristic and can be further divided. This paper introduces the history and the state of development of wood composites in China. The research about glue-laminated timber is rare and the industry hardly comes to being. A great of achievements have been obtained in mixed composites and it is well industrialized. Many studies on scrimber have been done and the Chinese researchers are looking for a feasible way to develop the scrimber industry in China. Chinese researchers also spent so much energy in studying wood plastic composites (WPC), but it has not been industrialized due to the high cost.

  8. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  9. Genetic improvement of trees for wood production, with particular refeference to wood traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocetti M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of selected propagation material from tree improvement programs is expected to lead to a more homogenous product, generally appreciated by industry. So far, breeding strategy have been mainly targeted to maximize acclimation/adaptation to specific environment conditions, tree growth and disease resistance, but it is not obvious that such strategy might lead to improvement of wood characteristics at the same time. Therefore, it seems important to introduce wood traits improvement as specific target of the selection process in tree breeding programs, and/or to assess heritability of wood technological properties of trees previously selected based on different criteria. Investigations reported so far have revealed that several wood traits are under a medium to high genetic control. The main goal of this work is to discuss the suitability of wood traits improvement as main target of specific breeding programs, with particular attention to wood technological characteristics to be considered in the tree selection process. Finally, we focused on noble hardwoods, that have been the target species for many improvement programs developed in Italy, and particularly on wild cherry, where studies on the genetic control of wood traits are rare.

  10. Characteristics of heat-treated Turkish pine and fir wood after ThermoWood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Hamiyet Sahin

    2010-11-01

    The Finnish wood heat treatment technology ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Turkey. Data about the mechanical and physical properties of Turkish wood species are important for industry and academia. In this study two industrially important Turkish wood species, pine (Pinus nigraArnold.) and fir (Abies bornmülleriana Matf.) were heat-treated using the ThermoWood process. Pine and fir samples were thermally modified for 2 hr at 212 and 190 degrees C, respectively. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), impact bending strength (IBS), and compression strength (CS), in addition to swelling (Sw) and shrinkage (Sh) of thermally-modified wood were examined. The results indicate that the heat treatment method clearly decreased the MOR, MOE and lBS of pine and fir. However, a small increase was observed for CS values of heat treated wood species. The most affected mechanical properties were MOR and lBS for both pine and fir. The reduction in MOE was smaller than that in MOR and lBS. Volumetric shrinkage and swelling of these species were also improved by approximately half. In Addition, the changes in the mechanical and physical properties studied in pine were larger than that of fir.

  11. Nanoparticle Reactions on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. M.; Kirner, Th.; Wagner, J.; Csáki, A.; Möller, R.; Fritzsche, W.

    The handling of heterogenous systems in micro reactors is difficult due to their adhesion and transport behaviour. Therefore, the formation of precipitates and gas bubbles has to be avoided in micro reaction technology, in most cases. But, micro channels and other micro reactors offer interesting possibilities for the control of reaction conditions and transport by diffusion and convection due to the laminar flow caused by small Reynolds numbers. This can be used for the preparation and modification of objects, which are much smaller than the cross section of microchannels. The formation of colloidal solutions and the change of surface states of nano particles are two important tasks for the application of chip reactors in nanoparticle technology. Some concepts for the preparation and reaction of nanoparticles in modular chip reactor arrangements will be discussed.

  12. Lung function: occupational exposure to wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Occupational exposure to wood dust has been shown to cause several respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, sino-nasal adenocarcinoma, and impairment of lung function. The aim of the study was to estimate lung function (in the woodworking industry among workers employed by wood processing, who run the risk of being expose to wood dust. Methods The study concerns a group of 70 workers aged 24-55. All the workers underwent general and laryngological examination. A group of 20 workers, working at the positions where dustiness exceeded TLV (threshold limit value took X-ray of the chest and spirometry. The following parameters were measured: VC, IC, ERV, TV, BF, FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF25-75, FEV1%FVC, FEV1%VC. The data are presented as means ± SD and the authors applied references values according to ERS guidelines. Results The results show that there was no decline in FEV1 (3.7 ± 0.7 and FVC (4.5 ± 0.8. Normal lung function was defined as FEV1/VC ratio ≥0.7. None of the tested workers had obstructive pattern in spirometry. The mean FEV1%VC was 77.1 ± 10.2. These results suggest that wood dust exposure might not lead to significant pulmonary damage. Conclusions These data do not corroborate that wood dust plays significant role in lung function impairment. Future studies of respiratory health among workers exposed to wood dust are needed.

  13. Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E

    2016-03-01

    Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Our objective in this study was to compare headspace concentrations of ammonia (NH), total reduced sulfides (TRS), carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) when pine wood chips ( spp.) and corn stover ( L.) were mixed in various ratios (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, and 100% pine chips) and used as bedding with manure. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. Ammonia concentrations were highest for bedded packs containing 0, 10, and 20% pine chips (equivalent to 501.7, 502.3, and 502.3 mg m, respectively) in the bedding mixture and were lowest when at least 80% pine chips were used as bedding (447.3 and 431.0 mg m, respectively for 80 and 100% pine chip bedding). The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day 28. The highest concentration of TRS was observed when 100% pine chips were used as bedding (11.4 µg m), with high concentrations occurring between Days 7 and 14, and again at Day 35. Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation. We conclude that a mixture of bedding material that contains 30 to 40% pine chips may be the ideal combination to reduce both NH and TRS emissions. All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used.

  14. Methodology for choice of harvesting system for energy wood from early thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitila, J.

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to develop a methodology for estimating the procurement cost of forest chips from early thinnings. The most common logging systems and supply chains of forest chips used in early thinnings in Finland were compared at stand and regional level using productivity models and cost parameters obtained mainly from the substudies of this thesis. Furthermore, a decision tree was constructed for selecting harvesting method for energy wood originating from early thinnings. Forwarding productivity following mechanised cutting was significantly higher compared to productivity after motor-manual cutting. Mechanised cutting by the harvester enables felling and bunching of whole trees into large grapple loads close to strip roads, which facilitates increasing forwarding output and reducing costs. The two-machine system comprised of a harvester and a forwarder was the most cost-efficient logging system due to higher efficiency in cutting and especially in the forwarding phase. The cost of motor-manual whole-tree cutting was equal to mechanised whole-tree cutting, while forwarding cost after motor-manual cutting was almost double that after mechanised cutting. Using a forwarderbased harwarder resulted in the highest logging costs. However, with large tree volumes and removals its costs were almost equal to those of motor-manual-based logging. In order to achieve a breakthrough for the harwarder system, costs must be reduced by improving both machine technology and working techniques. Available volumes and procurement costs of fuel chips made of small-diameter trees were compared at regional level. The trees were harvested either by the multi-stem delimbed shortwood or whole-tree method and chipped by a truck-mounted drum chipper at the roadside. Based on the availability analysis, delimbing reduced regional cutting recovery by 42% compared to whole tree harvesting, when the minimum concentration of energy wood was set at 25 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1

  15. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8±0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6±0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710 mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300 mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9 mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMINATED WOOD OF LOGGING WASTE OF THREE NATURAL FOREST WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Malik

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to assess the characteristics of 3-ply laminated wood assembly incorporating wood waste belonged to three species i.e. bengkal (Nauclea sp., pisang-pisang (Alponsea teysmanii Boerl, and jambu-jambu (Eugenia spp..  The waste was procured from logged natural forests. The used adhesive was tannin-resorcinol formaldehyde.  The lamination experiment was replicated three times. The assessed characteristics were moisture content, density, formaldehyde emission, bonding strength, wood defect, and static bending strength. The resulting 3-ply laminated wood assembly (beam has a moisture content at 4.00 - 13.90%, density 0.30 - 0.68 gram per cm3, and formaldehyde emission 0.323 - 3.199 mg per liter that tended to increase with the decrease in density of the laminated wood.  The bonding strength of the laminated wood ranges varied from 47.14 to 107.52 kg per cm2  (dry testing and 40.76 - 79.57 kg per cm2  (wet testing.  Likewise, wood defect was about 80 - 100% (dry test and 20 - 80% (wet test.  Static bending strength varied from 455.62 - 843.36 kg per cm2 (for MOE and from 35,985.49 to 104,332.63 kg per cm2 (for MOR. Based on these data, the three wood waste species afforded good bending strength and they were suitable for reconstituting material for exterior-type laminated wood beam.

  17. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature. The distribution of bond lengths was examined using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) both prior to treatments and after. The results show that the absorbance bands of the spectra related to the hydroxyl and carboxyl stretching vibrations were changed by the treatments. Apparently, the first...

  18. BOREAS TE-2 Wood Respiration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. BOREAS TE-2 Continuous Wood Respiration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration measured continuously (about once per hour) in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  1. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  2. Investigation of modified cottonseed protein adhesives for wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several modified cottonseed protein isolates were studied and compared to corresponding soy protein isolates for their adhesive properties when bonded to wood composites. Modifications included treatments with alkali, guanidine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea. Wood composites...

  3. Relationships within balsaminoid Ericales: a wood anatomical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, F.; Dressler, S.; Jansen, S.; Van Evelghem, L.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    Wood samples of 49 specimens representing 31 species and 11 genera of woody balsaminoids, i.e., Balsaminaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and Tetrameristaceae, were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The wood structure of Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae, and Te

  4. Comparison between accelerated thermo-hydro aged wood and naturally aged wood

    OpenAIRE

    Froidevaux, Julien; Volkmer, Thomas; Gril, Joseph; Fioravanti, Marco; Navi, Parviz

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging in wood in term of physical, mechanical and chemical degradation has been studied first by Jiro Kohara [1] and more recently by Erhardt et al. [2-3] and Obataya [4]. It has been observed that similar degradation can be found in thermo-hydro (TH) treated wood [4]. The aim of this study is to compare the mechanical behavior of naturally aged and accelerate TH wood in the radial direction. A first pressure vessel with controllable temperature, oxygen pressure and relative hu...

  5. Economics of marketing wood fuel in south western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    OLUGBIRE O.O.; OPUTE O.H.; AREMU F.J.; OJEDOKUN C.A.; ADISA A.

    2016-01-01

    Marketing of fuel wood is an important source of livelihood for most parts of Nigeria. The study examined the economics of marketing of wood fuel in south western Nigeria with a view to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers, the profitability of marketing wood fuel, the market structure and constraints to profitability. Data for the study were obtained from a total sample of 100 randomly selected wood fuel marketers through interviews schedules and application of struc...

  6. Flammability Properties of Composites of Wood Fiber and Recycled Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flammability properties of composites of wood fiber and recycled plastic were evaluated by the cone calorimeter and oxygen index chamber. Results were shown as follows: 1) Wood-PVC composite showed worse thermal stability on time to ignition (TTI) and mean heat release rate (MHRR), but better performance on heat release rate (HRR) and mean efficient heat of combustion (MEHC); wood-PP composite had better thermal stability properties, but was worse on other fire performance; 2) Compared with wood-PVC composi...

  7. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    OpenAIRE

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical variation within the large genus Anthospermum is discussed. Secondary woodiness is likely to occur in a number of Anthospermum species; other species of the genus have “normal” wood structure or are...

  8. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.

    2011-07-01

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile in the boiler and thereby the overall operation and efficiency of the plant. Chapter 1 consists of an introduction to thermal conversion of biomass fuels as well as a description of a Danish power plant where a measuring campaign was carried out as part of this project. Chapter 2 is a brief literature review of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation on the relation between pyrolysis of wood in boiler-like conditions and wood char properties is presented. Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyser. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature varied in the range 673-1673 K for slow pyrolysis and 1073-1573 K for fast pyrolysis. The chars were oxidised in a thermogravimetric analyser and the mass loss data were used to determine char oxidation reactivity. Char yield from fast pyrolysis (104-105 K/s) was as low as 1-6% on a dry ash free basis, whereas it was about 15-17% for slow pyrolysis (10-20 K/min); char yield decreased as

  9. Effect of technological parameters and wood properties on cutting power in plane milling of juvenile poplar wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcík Štefan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental measurements aimed at observing the effect of technological parameters (cutting speed vc and feed speed vf , type of wood (juvenile wood and mature wood andwood species (aspen Populus tremula, L. and hybrid poplar Populus x Euramericana „Serotina“ on cutting power during plane milling of poplar wood. The results showed the reduction of cutting power with the decrease of cutting speed and feed speed. Lower cutting power was also measured in milling hybrid poplar than in milling aspen. The test also confirmed the effect of different anatomical and chemical structure of juvenile wood in relation to mature wood on different physical and mechanical properties of such wood and hence also on the cutting power in processing juvenile wood.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood...

  11. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  12. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kielak, Anna; Scheublin, Tanja; Mendes, L.W.; Van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance a

  13. 7 CFR 2902.42 - Wood and concrete sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Items § 2902.42 Wood and concrete sealers. (a) Definition. (1) Products that are penetrating liquids formulated to protect wood and/or concrete, including masonry and fiber cement siding, from damage caused by... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wood and concrete sealers. 2902.42 Section...

  14. Poisoned Playgrounds: Arsenic in "Pressure-Treated" Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Renee; Walker, Bill

    This study of 180 pressure-treated wood samples shows that treated wood is a much greater source of arsenic exposure for children than arsenic-contaminated drinking water. The report determines that an average 5-year-old, playing less than 2 weeks on a chromated-copper-arsenate-treated (CCA) wood play set would exceed the lifetime cancer risk…

  15. 75 FR 44251 - Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... AGENCY EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0441; FRL-8829-8 Wood Oils and Gums, and Streptomyces Strain K61; Registration... with chemical fungicides. The Wood Oils and Gums Registration Review Case no longer contains any other wood oils or gums with active ingredients with registered products except for cedarwood oil....

  16. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  17. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    .... 319.40-3 of the regulations lists the IPPC requirements, which include either heat treatment or... of Wood Packaging Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... unmanufactured wood articles to remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter...

  18. Micromechanical modelling of mechanical behaviour and strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Qing, Hai

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the micromechanical theoretical and numerical models of wood is presented. Different methods of analysis of the effects of wood microstructures at different scale levels on the mechanical behaviour, deformation and strength of wood are discussed and compared. Micromechanical models...

  19. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilgard, A.; Treu, A.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Westin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl

  20. Advances and expectations of study on wood rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马远荣; 罗迎社; 李贤军

    2008-01-01

    By studying and summarizing the characteristics of wood rheology,the mathematic models of creep and mechano-sorptive creep of wood were analyzed.Rheology behaviors in process,especially drying stress and deformation set were discussed.Application of wood rheology in woodcraft process was elaborated and the research prospects and orientation were forecasted.

  1. Effect Of Wood-Based Biochar And Sewage Sludge Amendments For Soil Phosphorus Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frišták Vladimír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of two biochars (pyrolysed wood chips and garden clippings on phosphorus (P availability in a heavy-metal contaminated soil poor in phosphorus. Short-term 14-days incubation experiments were conducted to study how applications of biochars at different rates (1 and 5 % in combination with (1:1 and without dried sewage sludge from a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP affected the content of soil extractable P. For P-availability analyses deionized water, calcium acetate lactate (CAL, Mehlich 3 and Olsen extraction protocols were applied. In addition, the content of total and mobile forms of potentially toxic heavy metals (PTHM was studied. Application of both biochars caused a significant decrease of PTHM available forms in sewage sludge amended soil samples. The concentration of total and available P increased with higher biochar and sewage sludge application rates.

  2. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  3. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  4. Towards Dependable Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive semiconductor technology scaling provides the means for doubling the amount of transistors on a single chip each and every 18 months. To efficiently utilize these vast chip resources, Multi-Processor Systems on Chip (MPSoCs) integrated with a Network-on-Chip (NoC) communication infras

  5. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The Danish Technological Institute is in co-operation with industry partners running a project aiming at predicting the service life of different wood protecting systems. The project focuses on examining the moisture reducing effect of different protecting systems for timber claddings...... and the ability of these to maintain the appearance of the surfaces, when the wood is used in service class 3 (EN 335-1 1992). A façade construction is exposed to weathering at the field test area of the Danish Technological Institute (near Copenhagen). In specific locations of the construction measurements...... of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...

  6. WOOD-WATER RELATIONSHIPS AND BIOLOGICAL DURABILITY OF HEAT-TREATED TAURUS FIR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Taurus Fir (Abies cilicica wood was treated with hot air at temperatures of 160, 190 and 220°C for 2h durations. After heat treatment, some physical properties and wood-water relationships were evaluated, such as mass loss, density, tangential swelling, radial swelling, volumetric swelling, swelling anisotropy, and fiber saturation point. In addition, the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood was tested in the laboratory with the soil contact test, and determined weight loss. The relationships between mass loss and some of the tested properties were determined using regression analysis. The results showed that heat treatment at 220°C had significant effects on the physical properties and the biological durability of Taurus Fir wood. Further, it was determined that there was a linear-negative correlation between weight loss and mass loss.

  7. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  8. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  9. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijderveen, M. van; Bramer, E.A.; Brem, G.

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The inco

  10. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  11. Dimensional Stabilization of Wood in Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    wall hydroxyl groups (which are brief description of each type will be in a volatile solvent forms an internal available in all three major cell wall...little recent attention is Parly research was done with com- wood. replacing cell wall water with waxes. mon beeswax and it would be in- Chemicals

  12. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  13. Formalistic Study on Death in the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is famous American short story writer. Death in the woods is considered as one of his most fa-mous and best short stories. In order to have a deeper understanding of this short story, in this paper, the formalistic approach will be used to analyze the whole text from the perspective of symbol and style.

  14. Evaluation Study of VTAE Wood Technics Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    A survey of former students of the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) wood technics programs and employers in woodworking industries was conducted during spring of 1985. General objectives were to determine job classifications, types of businesses, and relative importance of tasks or duties in various woodworking-related…

  15. Dust exposures in the wood processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, U; Mandryk, J; Hocking, A D; Lee, J; Mayhew, T; Baker, W

    1999-01-01

    Workers at four different woodworking processes--two logging sites, four sawmills, one major woodchipping operation, and five joineries situated in the state of New South Wales in Australia--were studied for personal inhalable dust exposures (N = 182). The geometric mean exposure at logging sites was 0.6 mg/m3 (N = 7), sawmills 1.6 mg/m3 (N = 93), woodchipping 1.9 mg/m3 (N = 9), and joineries 3.7 mg/m3 (N = 66). Overall, 62% of the exposures exceeded the current standards. Among joineries, 95% of the hardwood exposures and 35% of the softwood exposures were above the relevant standards. A majority of workers (approximately 90%) did not wear appropriate respirators approved for wood dust, while the ones who did wear them, used them on average less than 50% of the time. The significant determinants of personal wood dust exposures (n = 163) were found to be local exhaust ventilation, job title, use of handheld tools, cleaning method used, use of compressed air, and green or dry wood processed. Type of wood processed (softwood or hardwood) was not found to be statistically significant.

  16. Boron impregnation treatment of Eucalyptus grandis wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodaran, T K; Gnanaharan, R

    2007-08-01

    Eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. Boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (BAE) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. It was found that E. grandis wood, even in green condition, could be pressure treated to desired chemical dry salt retention (DSR) and penetration levels using 6% BAE solution. Up to a thickness of 50mm, in order to achieve a DSR of 5 kg/m(3) boron compounds, the desired DSR level as per the Indian Standard for perishable timbers for indoor use, it was found that neither the moisture content of wood nor the treatment schedule posed any problem as far as the treatability of E. grandis wood was concerned.

  17. Relations Between Permeability and Structure of Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fucheng; Zhao Youke; Lü Jianxiong

    2003-01-01

    The permeability and the structure of heartwood and sapwood of the solvent-exchange dried and the air-dried green-wood of Chinese-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were measured inorder to study the relations between the permeability and the structure. The results showed that the permeability of sapwood of boththe air-dried and the solvent-exchange dried wood was higher than that of heartwood, and the permeability of the solvent-exchangeddried heartwood and sapwood was higher than that of the air-dried. A higher permeability of wood was attributed to, on the one hand,a bigger number of flow path per unit area of the wood perpendicular to the flow direction resulted from a bigger number ofunaspirated pits per unit area and a bigger number of effective pit openings per membrane, and on the other hand, a smaller numberof tracheid in series connection per unit length parallel to flow direction resulted from a longer tracheid length and an effectivetracheid length for permeability.

  18. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  19. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  20. Robin Wood, "Rio Bravo," and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The film scholar Robin Wood, who died recently, taught me English during the mid-1960s at Welwyn Garden City High School (now Sir Frederick Osborn Comprehensive). He was one of those teachers who "made a difference". He helped me learn that it was all right for a boy from a working-class home to study stuff such as literature. But it was…

  1. Adhesives; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. The guide is divided into three sections, the first of which deals with…

  2. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  3. NeighbourWoods for Better Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan

    This publication aims to contribute to the development af NeighbourWoods through socially-inclusive planning, design and management. It presents experiences from an international project supported by the European Commission which evaluated and developed approaches and tools to assist NeighbourWoo...

  4. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  5. Wood preservation of low-temperature carbonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Krosse, A.M.A.; Putten, van der J.C.; Kolk, van der J.C.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood with dimensions (100 x 10 x 10mm) was thermally treated at 275degreesC in a muffle oven to impart resistance to microbial degradation. Low-temperature carbonised pine resulted in a visually homogeneously treated product with a substantial (about 70% w/w) reduced non-c

  6. THEORETICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTION OF THE CUTTING EDGE RECESSION DURING MILLING WOOD AND SECONDARY WOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolesław Porankiewicz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical method for prediction of cutting edge recession during milling wood and wood-based products, due to the presence of hard mineral contamination, High Temperature Tribochemical Reactions (HTTR, and frictional wearing, based on 3D random distribution of contaminant particles is presented and positively verified based on the example of three experiments from the literature, showing good correlation between the predicted and observed cutting edge recession.

  7. Exposure to wood dust and heavy metals in workers using CCA pressure-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Paul; Cohen, Beverly; Butala, John H; Gordon, Terry

    2002-01-01

    Chemical pesticide treatment enables relatively nonresistant woods to be used in outdoor construction projects. The most prevalent procedure used to protect these woods is pressure treatment with chromium, copper, and arsenic (CCA). This pilot study examined the airborne concentration and particle size distribution of wood particles, chromium, copper, and arsenic at both outdoor (measured over the whole work day) and indoor (measured during the performance of specific tasks) work sites. At the outdoor residential deck construction sites, the arithmetic mean total dust concentration, measured using personal filter cassette samplers, was 0.57 mg/m3. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (da) of the outdoor wood dust was greater than 20 microm. Indoor wood dust concentrations were significantly greater than those measured outdoor and were job category-dependent. The highest mean breathing zone dust concentration, 49.0 mg/m3, was measured at the indoor sanding operation. Personal impactor sampling demonstrated that the mean total airborne concentration of arsenic, but not chromium or copper, was consistently above recommended occupational exposure levels at the indoor work site, and occasionally at the outdoor work sites. At the indoor sanding operation, the mean total chromium, copper, and arsenic concentrations were 345, 170, and 342 microg/m3, respectively. Thus, significant exposure to airborne heavy metals can occur as a result of indoor and outdoor exposure to CCA pressure-treated wood dust. Therefore, current standards for wood dust may not adequately protect workers from the heavy metals commonly used in CCA pressure-treated wood.

  8. The influence of irradiated wood filler on some properties of polypropylene - wood composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Điporović-Momčilović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of compatibility between the wood filler and thermoplastic matrix is of essential importance in composite production. Numerous methods have been developed for increasing this compatibility, which is still representing a challenging objective of composite research throughout the world. The research into these methods is primarily directed towards their efficiency from the viewpoint of the composite performance and their economical acceptability. The latter is of particular importance for the composite production in the developing countries with respect to the shortage of the corresponding funds. With this respect, the utilization of ionizing radiation might have considerable advantages. In this research, the beech wood flour was irradiated by a dose of 10 kGy of 60Co gamma rays for purpose of provoking the changes by the ionizing effect. The effects of ionizing radiation upon the properties of wood particles have been examined by IR spectroscopy and by determination of contents of hydroxyl groups in wood by acetylating as an indirect method. All these methods have been expected to reveal the chemical effects of the applied radiation treatment. The irradiated and the control wood flour were used in order to produce the samples of composite with polypropylene. The polypropylene-wood flour (PP-WF composites were produced with 40% of wood particles having fraction size 0.3 mm. The melt-blended composites were modified with amido-acrylic acid (AMACA as a new coupling agent synthesized for this propose in amount of 6 wt.% (based on wood filler and successively with 0.05 wt.% (based on PP of organic peroxide during mixing step. The composites containing coupling agents showed superior mechanical properties, compared to the untreated one. The highest extent of improvement of tensile was achieved in PP-WFl composites modified with AMACA coupling agent.

  9. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  10. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  11. Enzymatic degradation of finely divided wood meal. II. Rollmilling and the subsequent enzymic degradation of Pinus densiflora wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, E.; Yaku, F.; Tanaka, R.; Koshijima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The roll-milling of wood (P. densiflora) gave products with particle size less than 10 mu and high rate of saccharification under enzymic hydrolysis. About 90% of the available polysaccharides in wood could be converted into reducing sugars when roll-milled wood was subjected to enzymic hydrolysis using cellulase.

  12. Dry vs soaked wood: modulating the volatile extractible fraction of oak wood by heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Charlie J; Sok, Nicolas; Laroche, Jérémy; Gourrat, Karine; Prida, Andréi; Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Gougeon, Régis D

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the water content of wood on the concentrations of volatile compounds which can be extracted after heat treatments. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS) has been used to compare the concentrations of six aroma compounds (vanillin, furfural, eugenol, guaïacol and cis- and trans-whisky lactones) in hydroalcoholic extracts of heated oak wood samples either previously soaked in hot water or not. Except for eugenol, concentrations of extracted aromas appeared to be lower in soaked woods than in dry woods for temperatures up to 200 °C. If a delaying effect of water could explain such overall lower extracted concentrations from soaked woods, a PCA analysis revealed that for the longer duration (25 min of heat treatment), the adsorbed water could promote a higher impact of furfural, eugenol and both whisky lactones on the composition of hydroalcoholic extracts, suggesting that alternative mechanisms of thermal modifications of the wood macromolecular network could exist at high temperatures in presence of adsorbed water.

  13. Factors controlling large-wood transport in a mountain river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Zawiejska, Joanna; Hajdukiewicz, Maciej; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-01

    As with bedload transport, wood transport in rivers is governed by several factors such as flow regime, geomorphic configuration of the channel and floodplain, or wood size and shape. Because large-wood tends to be transported during floods, safety and logistical constraints make field measurements difficult. As a result, direct observation and measurements of the conditions of wood transport are scarce. This lack of direct observations and the complexity of the processes involved in wood transport may result in an incomplete understanding of wood transport processes. Numerical modelling provides an alternative approach to addressing some of the unknowns in the dynamics of large-wood in rivers. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of controls governing wood transport in mountain rivers, combining numerical modelling and direct field observations. By defining different scenarios, we illustrate relationships between the rate of wood transport and discharge, wood size, and river morphology. We test these relationships for a wide, multithread reach and a narrower, partially channelized single-thread reach of the Czarny Dunajec River in the Polish Carpathians. Results indicate that a wide range of quantitative information about wood transport can be obtained from a combination of numerical modelling and field observations and from document contrasting patterns of wood transport in single- and multithread river reaches. On the one hand, log diameter seems to have a greater importance for wood transport in the multithread channel because of shallower flow, lower flow velocity, and lower stream power. Hydrodynamic conditions in the single-thread channel allow transport of large-wood pieces, whereas in the multithread reach, logs with diameters similar to water depth are not being moved. On the other hand, log length also exerts strong control on wood transport, more so in the single-thread than in the multithread reach. In any case, wood transport strongly

  14. Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands. Final report; Systemstudier ungskogsbraensle. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, J.E. [Dalarna Univ., Falun (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The three-year project 'Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands' has been carried out during the period March 1998 to February 2001. New technology for harvesting small trees has created a possibility to develop efficient wood fuel systems using raw material from young forest stands. This possibility coincides with a great demand for tending of young stands from a silvicultural point of view. The main aim of the project has been to analyse and assess wood fuel systems based on this concept. The spectrum of criteria for assessment has been broad, including productivity, profitability, safety and health aspects, employment and environmental impact. As an example of a new technology which has been developed and studied during the project period can be mentioned a new felling head which can be used for cutting and handling several trees at the same time. The weight of the felling head is only about 270 kg, which has done it possible to use it on smaller base-machines as well as larger machines. The productivity has shown to be about 150-250 trees/hour in stands with a diameter of 5-10 cm. The productivity, expressed as biomass, is about 2-3 tonnes dry substance/hour. In the design of production system, bundling of trees early in the process is considered to be especially promising. The development of such a system is ongoing, but is not at the market yet. Some experimental studies have been done on transportation, storing and chipping of such bundles with varying size and varying tree-species. The calculated cost of this system will be lower then for traditional chipping-systems, because of the higher density for the handle units. It is much easier to handle bundles than small non-bundled trees, the chipping-productivity will be high and the transportation can be done with regular timber trucks. The calculation cost for the bundle-system will be about 120-130 SEK/MWh in stands with a diameter of some 7-10 cm, which can be

  15. Effects of biological pre-treatment of pine chips on the beating performance of Kraft pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami IMAMOGLU; Celil ATIK

    2007-01-01

    The Calabrien pine (Pinus brutia ) wood chips prior to kraft pulping were biologically pre-treated with selected whiterot fungi ( Ceriporiopsis subvermispora ), which was recorded to be preferentially attacking the lignin component of the wood. The effects of this treatment on beating performance and physical strength of resultant papers were studied in detail. Bio-treated samples showed comparable and, in most cases, higher physico-mechanical properties than those obtained from untreated controls. Under the same beating conditions the bio-treated kraft pulp was noted to have the lower SR° indicating a lower degree of external fibrillation. The paper made from bio-treated kraft pulp has a higher density, tensile property, air permeability and swellability. Furthermore, remarkable energy savings up to 33 % were observed when beating bio-treated kraft pulp. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms taking place during bio-treatment and the modification processes of cell wall components.

  16. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N.; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect. PMID:27649315

  17. Bacterial community succession in pine-wood decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKielak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Though bacteria and fungi are common inhabitants of decaying wood, little is known about the relationship between bacterial and fungal community dynamics during natural wood decay. Based on previous studies involving inoculated wood blocks, strong fungal selection on bacteria abundance and community composition was expected to occur during natural wood decay. Here we focused on bacterial and fungal community compositions in pine wood samples collected from dead trees in different stages of decomposition. We showed that bacterial communities undergo less drastic changes than fungal communities during wood decay. Furthermore, we found that bacterial community assembly was a stochastic process at initial stage of wood decay and became more deterministic in later stages, likely due to environmental factors. Moreover, composition of bacterial communities did not respond to the changes in the major fungal species present in the wood but rather to the stage of decay reflected by the wood density. We concluded that the shifts in the bacterial communities were a result of the changes in wood properties during decomposition and largely independent of the composition of the wood-decaying fungal communities.

  18. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-12-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers.

  19. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Poul Bo (Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  20. Protection of wood from microorganisms by laccase-catalyzed iodination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M; Engel, J; Thöny-Meyer, L; Schwarze, F W M R; Ihssen, J

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, Norway spruce wood (Picea abies L.) was reacted with a commercial Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of potassium iodide salt or the phenolic compounds thymol and isoeugenol to impart an antimicrobial property to the wood surface. In order to assess the efficacy of the wood treatment, a leaching of the iodinated and polymerized wood and two biotests including bacteria, a yeast, blue stain fungi, and wood decay fungi were performed. After laccase-catalyzed oxidation of the phenols, the antimicrobial effect was significantly reduced. In contrast, the enzymatic oxidation of iodide (I(-)) to iodine (I(2)) in the presence of wood led to an enhanced resistance of the wood surface against all microorganisms, even after exposure to leaching. The efficiency of the enzymatic wood iodination was comparable to that of a chemical wood preservative, VP 7/260a. The modification of the lignocellulose by the laccase-catalyzed iodination was assessed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The intensities of the selected lignin-associated bands and carbohydrate reference bands were analyzed, and the results indicated a structural change in the lignin matrix. The results suggest that the laccase-catalyzed iodination of the wood surface presents an efficient and ecofriendly method for wood protection.

  1. Factors Affecting the Resinification of Liquefied Phenolated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-hui; Zhao Guang-jie1; Hu Shi-yu

    2005-01-01

    Wood of Chinese fir and poplar were liquefied in phenol at 150℃ and atmospheric pressure. The liquefied wood were reacted with formaldehyde to synthesize the liquefied wood-based resin. The factors affecting the resinification and the properties of new resin were investigated. The results show that the formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio have important influence on the resin characteristics. With the increase of formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratio, the yield of resin increases, and the free phenol content of resins decreases, showing that the resinification of liquefied wood is more complete at higher formaldehyde/liquefied wood molar ratios. The reaction temperature on the viscosity of the liquefied resin has considerable effect; the viscosity of resin increased with increasing reaction temperature,and the amount of liquefied poplar resin increased more quickly than that of liquefied Chinese fir resin. The resinification time also has obvious influence on the viscosity of resin; the viscosity of liquefied poplar resin is more sensitive to resinification time compared with that of liquefied Chinese fir. The amount of sodium hydroxide can improve the water miscibility of liquefied wood resin.The optimum sodium hydroxide/liquefied wood molar ratio for preparation of liquefied wood-based resins exceeds 0.4.

  2. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  3. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF IONIC LIQUIDS IN WOOD RELATED INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqin Han

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of ionic liquids (ILs has provided a new platform for efficient utilization of wood. In this paper, applications of ILs in wood-related industries are reviewed. First, the dissolution of wood in ILs and its application are described. Then the ILs used for wood preservation and improvement of wood anti-electrostatic and fire-proof properties are illustrated. Finally, “green” wood processing with ILs is discussed. Although some basic studies of ILs, such as their economical syntheses and toxicology are eagerly needed and some engineering problems still exist, research for application of ILs in wood-related industries has made great progress in recent years.

  4. Forest Management Effects on Channel Wood and Wood-Channel Interactions in Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S.

    2006-12-01

    First-cycle logging in much of California's redwood region converted streams with some of the highest known wood volumes and piece sizes to efficient log transport channels. A century later, second-growth trees are still much smaller than old growth, and later logging and stream cleaning have further affected potential wood inputs and large woody debris (LWD) volumes in channels. At Caspar Creek, a 50-year paired watershed study creates an opportunity to compare the effects of two second-growth forest management strategies on wood dynamics in these channels, and to examine how the resulting differences in LWD affect channel form and process. Both the North and South Forks of Caspar Creek started the 20th century with almost no in-channel wood and little potential LWD as a result of clearcut logging, burning, and channel clearing. Stands had partially regrown by 1968, when near-channel roadbuilding and selective logging in the 424-ha South Fork watershed again reduced potential channel LWD. Trees that fell into the channel during logging were removed, along with some instream wood. Logging began in the 384-ha North Fork in 1989 using ridgetop roads; buffer strips were left between the mainstem channel and upslope clearcuts. Potential LWD in the buffer strips was reduced by selective cutting, but channel LWD was not immediately affected. LWD mapping, inventories, and tagging, channel cross-sections and photos, and pool mapping and volume measurements show differences in channel wood and LWD-channel interactions between the two watersheds. Windthrow from buffer strips increased the total channel LWD volume in the North Fork in the mid 1990's while reducing potential future LWD. These higher LWD loads increased pool volumes and enabled increased sediment storage, particularly upstream of logjams. In the South Fork, total LWD volumes are lower and a higher proportion of the wood is residual old growth pieces, some of which entered the channel during the 1970's logging

  5. Experiment list: SRX122568 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ip antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 h

  6. Experiment list: SRX122522 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  7. Experiment list: SRX122566 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  8. Experiment list: SRX122412 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  9. Experiment list: SRX122406 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Irf1 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab52520 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-640 http:/

  10. Experiment list: SRX214070 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2

  11. Experiment list: SRX214086 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entiated || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacturer 1=none || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manuf...acturer 2=none http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-

  12. Experiment list: SRX122417 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  13. Experiment list: SRX122415 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  14. Experiment list: SRX122485 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Atf3 || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody ...catalog number 1=sc-188 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Abcam || chip antibody catalog number 2=ab70005-100

  15. Experiment list: SRX122565 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Stat2 || treatment=LPS || time=0 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog... number 1=ab53149 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-839 http:/

  16. Experiment list: SRX122520 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  17. Experiment list: SRX122414 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  18. Experiment list: SRX122416 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http://d

  19. Experiment list: SRX214074 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  20. Experiment list: SRX214072 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  1. Experiment list: SRX122523 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=60 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  2. Experiment list: SRX214071 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=

  3. Experiment list: SRX214073 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ge=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox2KE-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  4. Experiment list: SRX122521 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntibody=Irf2 || treatment=LPS || time=30 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalog ...number 1=ab65048 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-498 http://

  5. Experiment list: SRX214075 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available age=Undifferentiated || treatment=Overexpress Sox17EK-V5 tagged || cell line=KH2 || chip antibody 1=none || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=none || chip antibody 2=V5 || chip antibody manufacture

  6. Experiment list: SRX214067 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fferentiated || cell line=F9 || chip antibody 1=Pou5f1/Oct4 || chip antibody manufacture...r 1=Santa Cruz || chip antibody 2=none || chip antibody manufacturer 2=none http://dbarchive.bioscien

  7. Experiment list: SRX122413 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antibody=Junb || treatment=LPS || time=120 min || chip antibody manufacturer 1=Abcam || chip antibody catalo...g number 1=ab28838 || chip antibody manufacturer 2=Santa Cruz || chip antibody catalog number 2=sc-46 http:/

  8. Fate of Phosphorus During Co-Combustion of Rapeseed Cake with Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, P.; Zevenhoven, M.; Hupa, M.; Davidsson, K.; Åmand, L. E.; Zabetta, E. C.; Barišić, V.

    Recent studies show that deposit formation and agglomeration in fluidized bed boilers may be aggravated by a high phosphorus content besides alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in a fuel. This paper presents the fate of phosphorus during co-combustion of wood chips and wood pellets with rapeseed cake pellets, a high phosphorus fuel in a 12MW CFB boiler. 12 hour tests with 12% and 18% (energy basis) of rapeseed cake with wood were performed with and without limestone addition. All fuels were characterised by means of standard fuel analyses combined with chemical fractionation. Retrieved ash samples were analysed using wet chemical analysis complemented with SEMlEDXA. Gaseous alkali metal chlorides as well as HCI and SO2 were measured upstream of the convective pass at a flue gas temperature of 800°C where also the deposit samples were collected with a deposit probe. The composition of deposits was studied with SEMlEDXA. Analyses of bed material particle cross-sections showed phosphorus compounds present within a K-silicates matrix between the agglomerated sand particles, indicating direct attack of gaseous potassium compounds on the bed surface followed by adhesion of rich in phosphorus ash particles. Build-up of the deposits took place mainly on the windward side of the probe; where up to 9 wt-% of phosphorus was present. SEMlEDXA shows that rapeseed cake addition caused an increase of K, Na besides P indicating presence of low melting phosphate salts in the deposits. During limestone addition in the deposit samples the increase of CI could be noticed however no significant change in P content was observed. This paper shows that agglomeration and fouling when co-firing rapeseed cake may be linked to its high content of organically bonded phosphorus — phytic acid salts; together with high content of water soluble fraction of alkali metals chlorides and sulphates in the fuel mixture.

  9. Harvesting techniques for energy wood of forest owners; Metsaenomistajien energiapuun korjuutekniikat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)] Ihonen, M. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop harvesting techniques and methods for small-wood and logging residues, suitable for use by forest owners and small-scale entrepreneurs. Examples of such methods are piling of logging residues at site and forest transport with farm tractors. The project is carried out by field experiments with new machines and methods and by work-studies at sites in practice. A cost-accounting model for firewood production will also be revised. The work study of the harvesting method of first- thinning wood and energy wood based on the use of SykeNaarva logging equipment was carried out as part of chips supply to Perho Energy Co-operative. The productivity of logging was in practice significantly higher than in previous field tests with the prototype equipment. The costs were lower than in manual logging. Field experiments were also carried out with manual logging with a chain saw equipped with felling grips (Reo-Tuote Ky). Operation experiments with a chain-limbing device for farm tractors (Eskon Paja Oy), related to product development, were also carried out. A literature study, specialist interviews and field experiments were carried out on the transports of logging residues with farm factors. A four-drive tractor equipped with a timber loader and a trailer is suited technically for this work. Productivity is reduced by slow loading and in particular by a small load size when operating with the basic fleet. The costs are reduced by small capital costs and by rapid transports between the sites. To improve the economy of harvesting logging residues, inexpensive technical solutions were studied for farm tractors in co-operation with engineering works

  10. Pyrolytic characteristics of burning residue of fire-retardant wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guangjie; LUO Wensheng; Furuno T; REN Qiang; MA Erni

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics of the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,a multifunctional fire-resistance test oven aimed at simulating the course of a fire was used to burn fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.Samples at different distances from the combustion surface were obtained and a thennogravimetric analysis (TG) was applied to test the pyrolytic process of the burning residue in an atmosphere of nitrogen.The results showed that:1) there was little difference between fireretardant wood and its residue in the initial temperature of thermal degradation.The initial temperature of thermal degradation of the combustion layer in untreated wood was higher than that in the no burning wood sample;2) the temperature of the flame retardant in fire-retardant wood was 200℃ in the differential thermogravimetry (DTG).The peak belonging to the flame retardant tended to dissipate during the time of burning;3) for the burning residue of fire-retardant wood,the peak belonging to hemicellulose near 230℃ in the DTG disappeared and there was a gentle shoulder from 210 to 240℃;4) the temperature of the main peaks of the fireretardant wood and its burning residue in DTG was 100℃ lower than that of the untreated wood and its burning residue.The rate of weight loss also decreased sharply;5) the residual weight of fire-retardant wood at 600~C clearly increased compared with that of untreated wood.Residual weight of the burning residue increased markedly as the heating temperature increased when burning;6) there was a considerable difference with respect to the thermal degradation temperature of the no burning sample and the burning residue between fire-retardant wood and untreated wood.

  11. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  12. The effects of heat treatment on the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad Bal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment can be used to improve the physical properties and durability of wood. The results achieved by heat treatment can be affected significantly by various factors. Juvenile wood and mature wood from the same trunk have different properties, and the effects of heat treatment on their physical properties have not been well defined. Thus, a study to determine the differences in the physical properties of juvenile wood and mature wood of E. grandis after heat treatment was conducted. Samples of both types of wood were treated at temperatures of 120, 150, and 180 oC for durations of 4, 6, and 8 h. The results showed that the physical properties of juvenile and mature wood, e.g., swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point, did not decrease to the same extent. Mass loss of mature wood was higher than that of juvenile wood. Generally, percentage decreases of volumetric swelling, moisture content, and fiber saturation point of juvenile wood were more affected than those of mature wood.

  13. Utilization of peat procurement network for purchase of energy wood. Subproject; Turpeen hankintaverkoston kaeyttoe energiapuun hankintaan. Osaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Tervo, M. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Thule Institute

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the project is to investigate and develop the energy wood procurement to the mire-terminals for production of mixed fuels, carried out by the peat contractors and forest machine entrepreneurs. The investigation of the costs of the chips produced for mixed fuels, the deviation of them and the possibilities to reduce them form the main part of the project. The duration of the project is two years, and it started in the summer 1997. Procurement of energy wood, carried out by forest machine and peat entrepreneurs, to the bog terminals for production of mixed fuels by the side of peat, will be studied in the project both experimentally and calculationally. The utilization of peat procurement network for energy wood procurement will mainly be studied. Costs and the harvesting logistics will be estimated using the software developed in the research. The project is divided into five sub-tasks: (1) survey on the contractor and machine needs of the experimental work; (2) selection of entrepreneurs and the harvesting sites; (3) practical harvesting experiments; (4) development of the cost calculation software; (5) analysis and reporting of the results

  14. Chips with everything

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In March 1972, Sir Robin Saxby gave a talk to the Royal Television Society called 'TV and Chips' about a 'state of the art' integrated circuit, containing 50 resistors and 50 transistors. Today's 'state of the art' chips contain up to a billion transistors. This enormous leap forward illustrates how dramatically the semiconductor industry has evolved in the past 34 years. The next 10 years are predicted to bring times of turbulent change for the industry, as more and more digital devices are used around the world. In this talk, Sir Robin will discuss the history of the Microchip Industry in parallel with ARM's history, demonstrating how a small European start-up can become a world player in the IT sector. He will also present his vision of important applications and developments in the next 20 years that are likely to become even more pervasive than the mobile phone is today, and will provide anecdotes and learning points from his own experience at ARM. About ARM: Sir Robin and a group of designers from Acorn...

  15. Timber Chips as the Insulation Material for Energy Saving in Prefabricated Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the feasibility of a roof insulation method for prefabricated offices that uses vinyl packed timber chips to reduce air conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads and which also improves indoor thermal comfort. The advantages of the new roof insulation method were revealed through comparing the impacts of four roof types on prefabricated offices. The AC load and indoor thermal comfort (surface temperature and air temperature were evaluated. The disposal of scrap timber discarded from building construction projects is costing money, and is also a waste of natural resources. The assessment of a new roof insulation method with timber chips demonstrates the advanced usage of timber chips, reducing the environmental load in the building construction process. On the other hand, since prefabricated offices have lower thermal storage capacities and are less airtight than RC (reinforced concrete or S (steel structured buildings, the AC load consumption and indoor thermal comfort exacerbation in prefabricated offices is more serious. Especially in summer, a large amount of solar energy absorption from the roof raises the indoor air temperature and significantly increases the cooling load. This research contributes to the environmental design for prefabricated offices, and develops a method for the reuse of wood chips.

  16. Packaging commercial CMOS chips for lab on a chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Chaudhuri, Timir; Abshire, Pamela; Smela, Elisabeth

    2014-05-21

    Combining integrated circuitry with microfluidics enables lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices to perform sensing, freeing them from benchtop equipment. However, this integration is challenging with small chips, as is briefly reviewed with reference to key metrics for package comparison. In this paper we present a simple packaging method for including mm-sized, foundry-fabricated dies containing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits within LOCs. The chip is embedded in an epoxy handle wafer to yield a level, large-area surface, allowing subsequent photolithographic post-processing and microfluidic integration. Electrical connection off-chip is provided by thin film metal traces passivated with parylene-C. The parylene is patterned to selectively expose the active sensing area of the chip, allowing direct interaction with a fluidic environment. The method accommodates any die size and automatically levels the die and handle wafer surfaces. Functionality was demonstrated by packaging two different types of CMOS sensor ICs, a bioamplifier chip with an array of surface electrodes connected to internal amplifiers for recording extracellular electrical signals and a capacitance sensor chip for monitoring cell adhesion and viability. Cells were cultured on the surface of both types of chips, and data were acquired using a PC. Long term culture (weeks) showed the packaging materials to be biocompatible. Package lifetime was demonstrated by exposure to fluids over a longer duration (months), and the package was robust enough to allow repeated sterilization and re-use. The ease of fabrication and good performance of this packaging method should allow wide adoption, thereby spurring advances in miniaturized sensing systems.

  17. Remarks on the Woods-Saxon Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Capak, M

    2016-01-01

    More recently, comprehensive application results of approximate analytical solutions of the Woods-Saxon potential in closed form for the 5-dimensional Bohr Hamiltonian have been appeared [14] and its comparison to the data for many different nuclei has clearly revealed the domains for the sucsess and failure in case of using such potential forms to analyse the data concerning with the nuclear structure of deformed nuclei within the frame of the collective model. Gaining confidence from this work, exact solvability of the Woods-Saxon type potentials in lower dimensions for the bound states having zero angular momentum is carefully reviewed to finalize an ongoing discussion in the related literature and clearly shown that such kind of potentials have no analytical solutions even for l=0 case.

  18. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Robin A; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2014-11-01

    Woody plants convert the energy of the sun into lignocellulosic biomass, which is an abundant substrate for bioenergy production. Fungi, especially wood decayers from the class Agaricomycetes, have evolved ways to degrade lignocellulose into its monomeric constituents, and understanding this process may facilitate the development of biofuels. Over the past decade genomics has become a powerful tool to study the Agaricomycetes. In 2004 the first sequenced genome of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed a rich catalog of lignocellulolytic enzymes. In the decade that followed the number of genomes of Agaricomycetes grew to more than 75 and revealed a diversity of wood-decaying strategies. New technologies for high-throughput functional genomics are now needed to further study these organisms.

  19. Simulated wood budgets in two mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Bird, Stephen; Reid, David; Hogan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Large wood (LW) recruitment, transport, and storage were evaluated over a century in Gregory and Riley creeks (Haida Gwaii, British Columbia) by modeling a reach-scale LW budget using two frameworks for output: LW loss through decay and downstream transport, and loss through depletion. At reach and at watershed scales, mass movement and bank erosion dominated inputs, and fluvial transport was an important flux term in several reaches. Large wood recruitment by mortality was relatively minor in comparison. Large proportions of the in-channel LW were stored in jams with a mean age of 40-50 years. Overall, both modeling approaches yielded reasonable stored LW predictions in the study creeks, with the omission/inclusion of transport responsible for the largest differences between models. Modeled storage generally was within 30% of that measured in the field, and our results illustrate the large temporal variation in storage resulting from episodic inputs of LW from hillslopes.

  20. Properties of blue-stained wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-stain fungi. Among them Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila are reported as the most important staining organism. In previous researches, it was generally considered that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. However, there were some opposite results published as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two blue stain fungi A. pullulans and S. pithyophila for periods between two and eight weeks. FTIR, weight, colour and non-destructive modulus of elasticity measurements were performed before and after exposure. The results showed that blue stain fungi, besides considerable discoloration, do not cause any significant damage to wood. Surprisingly the non-destructive MoE analysis showed that modulus of elasticity even slightly increase after fungal exposure.

  1. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  2. Theoretical Study of Wood Microwave Pretreatment in Rectangular Cavity for Fabricating Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifying wood by high intensive microwave pretreatment method is widely researched for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites, but the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency of microwave pretreatment have not reached the ideal state. In this study, the pretreated wood in rectangular cavity by high intensive microwave is theoretically studied by the finite element method based on the Maxwell electromagnetic field equations and the heat and mass transfer theory. The results show that the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency are related to the microwave feeding modes. Compared with the single-port and the two-port feeding mode, the four-port feeding mode is the best case on temperature uniformity and energy efficiency. The optimized parameters of cavity to pretreatment wood are achieved, which are that the height of cavities is between 0.08 m and 0.11 m in the four-port feeding mode when the thickness of wood is 0.06 m.

  3. Wood-mineral wool hybrid particleboards

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiński, M. Ł.; Król, M. E.; Jaskółowski, W.; Borysiuk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to compound mineral wool with wood particles in the production of particleboards of reduced flammability. Three series of boards with various contents of mineral wool (10, 20, 30 wt%) were successfully manufactured using urea-formaldehyde resin as binder. Thickness swelling, mechanical and thermal properties as well as ignitability of the boards were assessed. It occurred that reduced ignitability is accompanied by a decrease in mechanical pe...

  4. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  5. Solid Wood Products from Eucalypts Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve and diversify the use of tropical plantation timbers in Southern China, with support from International Tropical Timber Organizations (ITTO), a research project was started in 2002 focusing on development of processing and manufacturing technologies to promote production of value-added wood products from eucalypts plantations. This project will also facilitate the formulation of forest management strategy in China to supplement the diminishing supply of timber from the natural forests. The sp...

  6. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  7. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  8. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    With reference to the paradigme shift regarding the formation of dioxins in municiplan solid waste incinerators experimental results are taken into account which lead to the suspicion that the same mechanism of de-novo-synthesis also applies to fireplace chimneys. This can explain the dioxin...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  9. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  10. Moisture Absorption in Certain Tropical American Woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-08-01

    only. /2 ~~ Probably sapwood Table 3 (Continued) Species Source Increase over 40 percent Fiddlewood (Vit ex Gaumeri) Roble Blanco (Tabebuia...School of Forestry and is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research , Department of the Navy, under Contract N6 ori-UU, Task Order XV (Project...Designation NR-033-020). The scope of the complete research program is indicated in Properties and Uses ££ Tropical Woods, I published.in TROPICAL ^OODS

  11. Functional lignocellulosic materials prepared by ATRP from a wood scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabane, Etienne; Keplinger, Tobias; Künniger, Tina; Merk, Vivian; Burgert, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Wood, a natural and abundant source of organic polymers, has been used as a scaffold to develop novel wood-polymer hybrid materials. Through a two-step surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP), the porous wood structure can be effectively modified with polymer chains of various nature. In the present study, polystyrene and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were used. As shown with various characterization techniques including confocal Raman microscopy, FTIR, and SEM/EDX, the native wood ultrastructure and features are retained and the polymer chains can be introduced deep within the wood, i.e. inside the wood cell walls. The physical properties of the new materials have been studied, and results indicate that the insertion of polymer chains inside the wood cell wall alters the intrinsic properties of wood to yield a hybrid composite material with new functionalities. This approach to the functionalization of wood could lead to the fabrication of a new class of interesting functional materials and promote innovative utilizations of the renewable resource wood. PMID:27506369

  12. Theoretical computation and analysis of benefits of wood cutting power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yan; YANG Chunmei; ZHAN Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of high energy waste in the course of the wood fiber processing in the wood-based panel industry.In the light of the energy economy principle,the cutting theory on the micron and long-slice wood fiber was put forward.In this paper,by means of analyzing the power waste in traditional processing,a series of analytical measures,such as,cytology,super precision work theory and fiber processing,and so on were utilized in the micron wood fiber formation process,and the cutting conception of the micron and long-slice wood fiber was put forward.Accordingly,the study of the micron and long-slice wood fiber was put into the microstructure study.This paper scientifically explains the reasons why the traditional wood fiber processing consumes more energy and the fiber quality low.In an example,the cutting power on the micron and long-slice wood fiber was calculated,which was compared with the traditional cutting power.The result showed that the energy waste by machining at micron is much lower than by heat grind and the high quality and long-slice wood fiber was gained.Thus,a revolutionary step was taken in the paper-making and wood-based panel industry of China.

  13. S-Chip Technical Assistance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The page will provide access to reports and other published products designed to assist states with complicated S-Chip technical issues. The reports and products...

  14. Performance Simulation of Solid Wood Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu NEMEŞ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chairs made of solid wood belong to a category which requires special attention due to its frequent structural stressing. This study proposes the identification through load simulation of those structural elements, which can potentially become vulnerable. In this way measures can be taken during the design process to avoid eventual drawbacks and appropriate solutions can be found. The chair types that were the subject of this analysis have a simple construction, being commonly used in various human activities, but also the sitting ergonomics were kept in mind. When determining their dimensions, standards, studies and existing research were followed. The chair types were chosen as follows: a chair without stretchers, one with lateral stretchers and a lounge chair. The wood species for which the study was made is Fraxinus excelsior – ash wood, which shows average mechanical performance when compared to other hardwoods preferred by chair manufacturers. Its properties were used for a further analysis. Identifying the areas of the chair structure which are stressed by the human body was necessary in order to simulate real-life conditions. The finite element method was used, with a dedicated software. The interpretation of results is able to prove the quality of the design process. The proposed methodology may be applicable also for more complex chair structures.

  15. THE MEASUREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF WOOD DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosario Proto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the woodworking industry presents many issues in terms of occupational health and safety. This study on exposure to wood dust could contribute to the realization of a prevention model in order to limit exposure to carcinogenic agents to the worker. The sampling methodology illustrated the analysis of dust emissions from the woodworking machinery in operation throughout the various processing cycles. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of exposure was performed using two different methodologies. The levels of wood dust were determined according to EN indications and sampling was conducted using IOM and Cyclon personal samplers. The qualitative research of wood dust was performed using an advanced laser air particle counter. This allowed the number of particles present to be counted in real time. The results obtained allowed for an accurate assessment of the quality of the dust emitted inside the workplace during the various processing phases. The study highlighted the distribution of air particles within the different size classes, the exact number of both thin and ultra-thin dusts, and confirmed the high concentration of thin dust particles which can be very harmful to humans.

  16. Handling of fuel chips - a health problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemquist, L.H.; Blomqvist, G.; Karlsson, E.; Vincent, A.; Lundgren, R.; Eliasson, L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been made about health problems and occurrence of mold in connection with handling of fuel chips. The investigation was composed of three different parts. First, an inquiry was made to chip stokers about handling, storage etc. of chips as well as possible medical trouble. The answers indicated that symptoms on allergic alveolitis are common among chip stokers, 13% of the answers. Second, a determination of the proportion of living airborne colony-forming mold fungi was made at some chip using units. Third, a pilot study was made to examine the possibilities to improve storability of fuel chips using high-temperature drying.

  17. 75 FR 16149 - Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-April 26, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Administration Medicaid and CHIP Programs; Meeting of the CHIP Working Group-- April 26, 2010 AGENCIES: Centers...-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group (referred to as the ``CHIP Working Group''). The CHIP Working... Medicaid, CHIP, and Employer-Sponsored Coverage Coordination Working Group (``CHIP Working......

  18. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  19. Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Bastin

    Full Text Available Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing. However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass.Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood.Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity

  20. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  1. Impact of Wood Species, Dimensions and Drying Temperature on Sorption Behaviour of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Albrektas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the interdependence between wood sorption properties and its dimensions, species and drying temperature. The research was carried out on specimens of six species of wood (oak, ash, aspen, birch, spruce and pine which had different dimensions and were dried at temperatures ranging between 30 and 90 °C. Subsequently specimens underwent the moistening and air drying process, and the following parameters were recorded: moistening and drying rate, moisture content distribution, steady moisture content and sorption hysteresis. It was established that sorption hysteresis was most affected by the cross section dimensions of the specimen. It was determined that, when the thickness of wood specimens increases from 7 to 30 mm, sorption hysteresis grows up to 8 times. The steady moisture content depends on the density, measurements and drying temperature of the specimen.

  2. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  3. Universal Fingerprinting Chip Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casique-Almazán, Janet; Larios-Serrato, Violeta; Olguín-Ruíz, Gabriela Edith; Sánchez-Vallejo, Carlos Javier; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Hybridization approach predicts the most probable hybridization sites across a target nucleic acid of known sequence, including both perfect and mismatched pairings. Potential hybridization sites, having a user-defined minimum number of bases that are paired with the oligonucleotide probe, are first identified. Then free energy values are evaluated for each potential hybridization site, and if it has a calculated free energy of equal or higher negative value than a user-defined free energy cut-off value, it is considered as a site of high probability of hybridization. The Universal Fingerprinting Chip Applications Server contains the software for visualizing predicted hybridization patterns, which yields a simulated hybridization fingerprint that can be compared with experimentally derived fingerprints or with a virtual fingerprint arising from a different sample. Availability http://bioinformatica.homelinux.org/UFCVH/ PMID:22829736

  4. Sustainability Impact Assessment on the Production and Use of Different Wood and Fossil Fuels Employed for Energy Production in North Karelia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Pekkanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization rate of woody biomass in eastern Finland is high and expected to increase further in the near future as set out in several regional, national and European policies and strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the sustainability impacts of changes in fuel consumption patterns. We investigated fossil and woody biomass-based energy production chains in the region of North Karelia, focusing on some economic, environmental and social indicators. Indicators were selected based on stakeholder preferences and evaluated using the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA. The analysis was based on representative values from National Forest Inventory data, scientific publications, national and regional statistics, databases, published policy targets and expert opinion. From the results it became evident that shifting from fossil to wood-based energy production implies some trade-offs. Replacing oil with woody biomass in energy production would increase the local value added remaining in the region, create employment opportunities and would reduce total GHG emissions. However, firewood, wood chips from small-diameter trees from early thinning and wood pellets have high production costs. Moreover, large greenhouse gas emission resulted from wood pellet production. The case study generated valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments and demonstrated the usefulness of ToSIA as a tool presenting existing knowledge on sustainability impacts of alternative energy supply chains to inform decision making.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent via bacterial sulfate reduction in an anoxic bioreactor packed with wood and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko

    2014-09-22

    We investigated the removal of nitrogen and phosphate from the effluent of a sewage treatment plant over a long-term operation in bioreactors packed with different combinations of wood and iron, with a trickling filter packed with foam ceramics for nitrification. The average nitrification rate in the trickling filter was 0.17 kg N/m3∙day and remained at 0.11 kg N/m3∙day even when the water temperature was below 15 °C. The denitrification and phosphate removal rates in the bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron were higher than those in the bioreactor packed with cedar chips and iron. The bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron continued to remove nitrate and phosphate for >1200 days of operation. The nitrate removal activity of a biofilm attached to the aspen wood from the bioreactor after 784 days of operation was 0.42 g NO3-N/kg dry weight wood∙ day. There was no increase in the amount of dissolved organic matter in the outflow from the bioreactors.

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent via Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in an Anoxic Bioreactor Packed with Wood and Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamashita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the removal of nitrogen and phosphate from the effluent of a sewage treatment plant over a long-term operation in bioreactors packed with different combinations of wood and iron, with a trickling filter packed with foam ceramics for nitrification. The average nitrification rate in the trickling filter was 0.17 kg N/m3∙day and remained at 0.11 kg N/m3∙day even when the water temperature was below 15 °C. The denitrification and phosphate removal rates in the bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron were higher than those in the bioreactor packed with cedar chips and iron. The bioreactor packed with aspen wood and iron continued to remove nitrate and phosphate for >1200 days of operation. The nitrate removal activity of a biofilm attached to the aspen wood from the bioreactor after 784 days of operation was 0.42 g NO3-N/kg dry weight wood∙ day. There was no increase in the amount of dissolved organic matter in the outflow from the bioreactors.

  7. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburrn fuel for coal-fired boilers: AWMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification or reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient s...

  8. Evaluation of wood chip gasification to produce reburn fuel for coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasification/reburn testing with biomass and other wastes is of interest to both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Italian Ministry of the Environment & Territory (IMET). Gasification systems that use wastes as feedstock should provide a clean, efficient sour...

  9. CFD simulation of wood chip combustion on a grate using an Euler-Euler approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, D.; Schnell, U.; Scheffknecht, G.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the increase of computational power, it is nowadays common practice to use CFD calculations for various kinds of firing systems in order to understand the internal physical phenomena and to optimise the overall process. Within the last years, biomass combustion for energy purposes has gained rising popularity. On an industrial scale, mainly grate firing systems are used for this purpose. Generally, such systems consist of a dense-packed fuel bed on the grate and the freeboard region above, where in the field of numerical modelling, it is common practice to use different sub-models for both zones. To avoid this, the objective of this paper is the presentation of a numerical model including a detailed three-dimensional description of the fuel bed and the freeboard region within the same CFD code. Because of the implementation as an Eulerian multiphase model, both zones are fully coupled in terms of flow and heat transfer, and appropriate models for the treatment of turbulence, radiation, and global reactions are presented. The model results are validated against detailed measurements of temperature and gaseous species close to the bed surface and within the radiative section of a 240 kW grate firing test facility.

  10. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  11. Results from tests of a Stirling engine and wood chips gasifier plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell; Werling, J.

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification and a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants based on biomass, because the need for gas cleaning is eliminated and problems with fouling of the Stirling engine heater are considerably reduced...

  12. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    bioenergy and agricultural system through a polygenerating energy system, producing electricity, district heatand fertile biocharfor agricultural soil application. The case analysisis based on utilization of forest residues from a sustainably harvested forest. Quantification of the biogenic global warming......To mitigate the increasing pressure on Earth ́s biosphere through increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, processes in the anthroposphere must change from being fossil-to renewable resource driven. Bioenergy utilization of forest residues can be a step towards achieving...... potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum...

  13. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  14. Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Algren, Loui;

    2016-01-01

    with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) unit and industrial energy utility supply in the Danish city of Horsens. The objective was to optimize economic performance and minimize total CO2 emission of the FMG while it was required to meet the local district heating demand plus the thermal utility demand......Flexible multi-generation systems (FMGs) consist of integrated and flexibly operated facilities that providemultiple links between the different sectors of the energy system. The present study treated the design optimization of a conceptual FMG which integrated a methanol-producing biorefinery...... of ± 25% in investment costs and methanol price, and considering two different electricity price scenarios.In addition, a change in the interest rate from 5% to 20% was found to reduce the lower bound of the NPVto 181.3 M€ for reference operating conditions. The results suggest that the applied interest...

  15. Remarks on orthotropic elastic models applied to wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Tadeu Mascia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood is generally considered an anisotropic material. In terms of engineering elastic models, wood is usually treated as an orthotropic material. This paper presents an analysis of two principal anisotropic elastic models that are usually applied to wood. The first one, the linear orthotropic model, where the material axes L (Longitudinal, R( radial and T(tangential are coincident with the Cartesian axes (x, y, z, is more accepted as wood elastic model. The other one, the cylindrical orthotropic model is more adequate of the growth caracteristics of wood but more mathematically complex to be adopted in practical terms. Specifically due to its importance in wood elastic parameters, this paper deals with the fiber orientation influence in these models through adequate transformation of coordinates. As a final result, some examples of the linear model, which show the variation of elastic moduli, i.e., Young´s modulus and shear modulus, with fiber orientation are presented.

  16. Laser transillumination imaging for determining wood defects and grain angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Sari; Heikkinen, Jorma; Räty, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Wood defects and grain angle correlate strongly with timber strength and grading. In this study a laser transillumination imaging method was developed to determine wood defects and grain angle. The method uses a near infrared laser light source which illuminates a wood sample with a round beam and the image generated by the light transmitted through the sample is captured for further analysis. In basic and flawless wood, the transmitted light pattern is an ellipse and wood defects and grain angle deviation will change the shape, size and location of the ellipse. The method could be used for determining the strength of wood, grading sawn timber, studying finger and glue joints, estimating moisture and differentiating between heartwood and sapwood.

  17. Acidity of selected industrial wood species in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mlađan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acidity of wood has an important role in many areas of wood applications. Hence, this paper presents a study on the acidity of beech, fir and poplar, as the representatives of the most industrially utilized wood species in Serbia. The contents of both the soluble and insoluble acids were determined through the extraction methods with cold distilled water and sodium acetate solution, respectively, followed by the titration with sodium hydroxide solution. The acidity strongly differs among the three wood species used in this research. The amount of insoluble acids was the highest in fir, almost twice as much than in poplar, and about 68 % higher than in fir wood species. Such differences also showed a strong correlation with the gel times of UF adhesive mixes with hot water extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for Afforestation of Serbia

  18. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  19. Processing of whole-wood to fuel and raw material; Kokopuun kaesittely polttoaineeksi ja raaka-aineeksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, V.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Biofuels

    1997-12-01

    The forest industry`s need of wood has increased remarkably during this decade, and will probably continue to increase also during the next few years due to the realisation of the extension investments of the production. Mechanising of whole-tree and tree- section harvesting, development of the lorry transportation of whole-trees and tree-sections, and the improvement of the yield and the quality of pulp-chip fraction produced using integrated harvesting methods are important development targets for the production methods research. The objective of this project is to develop research equipment, by which it is possible to study the unit processes of wood processing, and to develop new wood processing concepts, by which whole-trees could be used for fuel and forest industrial raw material purposes optimally, by combining the unit processes. The research equipment will be of full scale so that it will enable the processing of whole-trees, whole-tree bundles, felling residues and stem-wood fragments. The research equipment consists of versatile measuring and data collection equipment, enabling the processing and analysis of research data. A compactor has been developed in the project, and the development of debarking and feeding units has been started. Additionally, a crushing equipment serving the needs of the research projects of VTT Energy`s research programme `Solid fuel processing technology` has been constructed in the project. The data collection system and the high- speed camera have been acquired to VTT Energy to be used for the measuring equipment

  20. Plantation Forests for Sustainable Wood Supply and Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With the implementation of Natural Forests Protection Program, wood resource base in China is shifting from naturally grown forests to plantation forests. This paper reviews: 1) The evolution of Chinese decade-long reforestation program and its contribution to sustainable wood supply and development, and 2) impacts of "China's Natural Forest Protection Program and " Fast-Growing and High-Yield Plantation Program in China " on China's wood supply and sustainability. In addition, this paper highlights Chi...