WorldWideScience

Sample records for cbne detection microsystem

  1. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  2. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.;

    2011-01-01

    A micro differential thermal analysis (DTA) system is used for detection of trace explosive particles. The DTA system consists of two silicon micro chips with integrated heaters and temperature sensors. One chip is used for reference and one for the measurement sample. The sensor is constructed a...... of the Xsense project at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) which combines four independent sensing techniques, these micro DNT sensors will be included in handheld explosives detectors with applications in homeland security and landmine clearance....

  3. Integration of sample pretreatment, μPCR, and detection for a total genetic analysis microsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the emergence of lab-on-a-chip technology, a variety of chemical and biochemical assays were successfully implemented on microdevice platforms. Among the chip-based applications, genetic analysis based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively developed in order to accomplish the goal of cheap, rapid, high-throughput, and point-of-care DNA testing. We are summarizing here several formats of the miniaturized PCR systems including the integration of units for sample pretreatment and downstream analytical detection. The various sections cover (a) miniaturized PCR systems, (b) integrated sample pretreatment-PCR microsystems, (c) integrated PCR-detection microsystems, and (d) integrated sample pretreatment-PCR-detection microsystems. Respective microdevices were successfully introduced recently in the form of a fully integrated microsystem for genetic analysis with sample-in-answer-out capability. (author)

  4. Microsystem strategies for sample preparation in biological detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Bennett, Dawn Jonita (University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD); Manginell, Monica; Okandan, Murat; Acrivos, Andreas (The City College of New York, NY); Brozik, Susan Marie; Khusid, Boris (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ)

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this LDRD was to develop microdevice strategies for dealing with samples to be examined in biological detection systems. This includes three sub-components: namely, microdevice fabrication, sample delivery to the microdevice, and sample processing within the microdevice. The first component of this work focused on utilizing Sandia's surface micromachining technology to fabricate small volume (nanoliter) fluidic systems for processing small quantities of biological samples. The next component was to develop interfaces for the surface-micromachined silicon devices. We partnered with Micronics, a commercial company, to produce fluidic manifolds for sample delivery to our silicon devices. Pressure testing was completed to examine the strength of the bond between the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer and the silicon chip. We are also pursuing several other methods, both in house and external, to develop polymer-based fluidic manifolds for packaging silicon-based microfluidic devices. The second component, sample processing, is divided into two sub-tasks: cell collection and cell lysis. Cell collection was achieved using dielectrophoresis, which employs AC fields to collect cells at energized microelectrodes, while rejecting non-cellular particles. Both live and dead Staph. aureus bacteria have been collected using RF frequency dielectrophoresis. Bacteria have been separated from polystyrene microspheres using frequency-shifting dielectrophoresis. Computational modeling was performed to optimize device separation performance, and to predict particle response to the dielectrophoretic traps. Cell lysis is continuing to be pursued using microactuators to mechanically disrupt cell membranes. Novel thermal actuators, which can generate larger forces than previously tested electrostatic actuators, have been incorporated with and tested with cell lysis devices. Significant cell membrane distortion has been observed, but more experiments need to be

  5. Rapid sample preparation for detection and identification of avian influenza virus from chicken faecal samples using magnetic bead microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram; Bu, Minqiang; Handberg, Kurt;

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an infectious agent of birds and mammals. AIV is causing huge economic loss and can be a threat to human health. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used as a method for the detection and identification of AIV virus. Although RT-PCR is a...... sensitive method for detection of AIV, it requires sample preparation including separation and purification of AIV and concentrate viral RNA. It is laborious and complex process especially for diagnosis using faecal sample. In this study, magnetic beads were used for immunoseparation of AIV in chicken...... faecal sample by a magnetic microsystem. Using this system, all the 16 hemagglutinin (H) and 9 neuraminidase (N) subtypes of AIV were separated and detected in spiked faecal samples using RT-PCR, without an RNA extraction step. This rapid sample preparation method can be integrated with a total analysis...

  6. Microsystem process networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  7. A giant magnetoresistance ring-sensor based microsystem for magnetic bead manipulation and detection

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper a novel spin valvegiant magnetoresistance(GMR) ring-sensor integrated with a microstructure is proposed for concentrating, trapping, and detecting superparamagnetic beads (SPBs). Taking advantage of the fact that SPBs can be manipulated by an external magnetic field, a unique arrangement of conducting microrings is utilized to manipulate the SPBs toward the GMR sensing area in order to increase the reliability of detection. The microrings are arranged and activated in such a manner so as to enable the detection of minute concentrations of SPBs in a sample. Precise manipulation is achieved by applying current sequentially to the microrings. The fabricated ring-shaped GMR element is located underneath the innermost ring and has a magnetoresistance of approximately 5.9%. By the performed experiments it was shown that SPBs could be successfully manipulated toward the GMR sensing zone.

  8. A nanoporous optofluidic microsystem for highly sensitive and repeatable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdi, Soroush H.; White, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the demonstration of an optofluidic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) device that leverages a nanoporous microfluidic matrix to improve the SERS detection performance by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to a typical open microfluidic channel. Although it is a growing trend to integrate optical biosensors into microfluidic channels, this basic combination has been detrimental to the sensing performance when applied to SERS. Recently, however, synergistic combina...

  9. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  10. Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices. (topical review)

  11. Control of dynamic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyshevski, Sergey Edward

    2015-11-01

    This paper formulates and solves control problems for nonlinear microsystems which comprise micro-electromechanical devices, micromachined transducers and microelectronics. We perform a consistent dynamic analysis and coherent designs with a minimum level of simplifications using high-fidelity mathematical models. The proposed methodology enables practical implementation for multi-input/multi-output systems due to overall conceptual consistency, design coherence, computational efficiency, algorithmic effectiveness and hardware simplicity. Various issues in nonlinear analysis and control are examined and experimentally verified substantiating design concepts for high-performance microsystems. The reported findings are demonstrated for a proof-of-concept closed-loop electrostatic microactuator.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic pumping in microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Antonio, E-mail: ramos@us.es [Deptartamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    The physical principles behind the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuation in microsystems is presented by reviewing five different EHD micropumps. These are classified into two groups: micropumps that exert electric forces in the liquid bulk and micropumps that exert forces in the diffuse double layer. This review of five EHD micropumps allows us to analyse the EHD actuation ranging from very insulating liquids to electrolytic solutions.

  13. Microsystems technology: objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, Jan

    1996-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the objectives of microsystems technology (MST). The reason for this is two fold. First of all, it should explain what MST actually is. This question is often posed and a simple answer is lacking, as a consequence of the diversity of subjects that are perceived as MST. T

  14. Microsystem Cooler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle M.; Berhane, Bruk T.; Rebello, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    A patented microsystem Stirling cooler is under development with potential application to electronics, sensors, optical and radio frequency (RF) systems, microarrays, and other microsystems. The microsystem Stirling cooler is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include: two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines; and a micro-regenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. The use of diaphragms eliminates frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were custom fabricated for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist in an offset grating pattern. An additional regenerator was prepared with a random stainless steel fiber matrix commonly used in existing Stirling machines for comparison to the custom fabricated regenerators. The candidate regenerators were tested in a piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to simulate the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, electrostatically-driven comb-drive diaphragm actuators for the prototype device have been designed for deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) fabrication.

  15. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the inception of III–V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device. (topical review)

  16. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwak, N. P.; Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R.

    2015-04-01

    From the inception of III-V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device.

  17. Microsystems technology: objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Fluitman, Jan

    1996-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the objectives of microsystems technology (MST). The reason for this is two fold. First of all, it should explain what MST actually is. This question is often posed and a simple answer is lacking, as a consequence of the diversity of subjects that are perceived as MST. The second reason is that a map of the somewhat chaotic field of MST is needed to identify sub-territories, for which standardization in terms of system modules an interconnections is feasible. To d...

  18. Standardizing the microsystems technology description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liateni, Karim; Thomas, Gabriel; Hui Bon Hoa, Christophe; Bensaude, David

    2002-04-01

    The microsystems industry is promising a rapid and widespread growth for the coming years. The automotive, network, telecom and electronics industries take advantage of this technology by including it in their products; thus, getting better integration and high energetic performances. Microsystems related software and data exchange have inherited from the IC technology experience or standards, which appear not to fit the advanced level of conception currently needed by microsystems designers. A typical design flow to validate a microsystem device involves several software from disconnected areas like layout editors, FEM simulators, HDL modeling and simulation tools. However, and fabricated microsystem is obtained through execution of a layered process. Process characteristics will be used at each level of the design and analysis. Basically, the designer will have to customize each of his tools after the process. The project introduced here intends to unify the process description language and speed up the critical and tedious CAD customization task. We gather all the information related to the technology of a microsystem process in a single file. It is based on the XML standard format to receive worldwide attention. This format is called XML-MTD, standing for XML Microsystems Technology Description. Built around XML, it is an ASCII format which gives the ability to handle a comprehensive database for technology data. This format is open, given under general public license, but the aim is to manage the format withing a XML-MTD consortium of leader and well-established EDA companies and Foundries. In this way, it will take profit of their experience. For automated configuration of design and analysis tools regarding process-dependant information, we ship the Technology Manger software. Technology Manager links foundries with a large panel of standard EDA and FEA packages used by design teams relying on the Microsystems Technology Description in XML-MTD format.

  19. Laser Sealed Packaging for Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Frank; JACOT, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Packaging is the last process of microsystem manufacturing. There are mainly two kinds of packages: plastic or metallic. The two main components of the package (base and cover) may either be glued or soldered. Each of these techniques has its advantages and drawbacks, and the choice should be driven by the functionality of the microsystem. The advantage of gluing is that it is quite an easy production process. The drawback is that glue, like all polymers, is not hermetic on the long te...

  20. Microsystems for biological cell characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce...

  1. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  2. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  3. Researching and Designing Photovoltaic Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilse, D.; Kapała, J.; Sztymelski, K.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, J.

    2016-02-01

    Research on the photovoltaic module efficiency in the south of Poland was conducted in 2009 in Stryszawa and afterwards in 2012 in Zabrze and Stryszawa. The research involved taking measurements of electric energy produced by systems of various power and technical solutions. The efficiency of PV modules was compared to the intensity of solar radiation in the locations under consideration and, thus, the efficiency of converting solar energy into electricity was determined. The research results facilitated designing and mounting of forty PV microsystems in Zabrze in 2014 (power from 2000 Wp to 3000 Wp). To the satisfaction of their users, they operate without failure.

  4. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  5. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  6. Heterogeneously integrated microsystem-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Rajen

    2008-02-26

    A microsystem-on-a-chip comprises a bottom wafer of normal thickness and a series of thinned wafers can be stacked on the bottom wafer, glued and electrically interconnected. The interconnection layer comprises a compliant dielectric material, an interconnect structure, and can include embedded passives. The stacked wafer technology provides a heterogeneously integrated, ultra-miniaturized, higher performing, robust and cost-effective microsystem package. The highly integrated microsystem package, comprising electronics, sensors, optics, and MEMS, can be miniaturized both in volume and footprint to the size of a bottle-cap or less.

  7. Ultra-portable explosives sensor based on a CMOS fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the use of a green-light-emitting copolymer as a chemosensor to detect nitroaromatic-based explosive vapors by recording photoluminescence (PL and time-resolved PL decay. We show successful detection of 10 ppb 1,4-dinitrobenzene (DNB vapor. Both a conventional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC device and CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime micro-system are used in the DNB detection. An ultra-portable on-site explosive sensor based on the micro-system has also been demonstrated. This gives rise to the potential for real-time, reliable, inexpensive organic/inorganic hybrid explosives detection.

  8. Bayesian tomographic reconstruction of microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Sofia Fekih; Vabre, Alexandre; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-11-01

    The microtomography by X ray transmission plays an increasingly dominating role in the study and the understanding of microsystems. Within this framework, an experimental setup of high resolution X ray microtomography was developed at CEA-List to quantify the physical parameters related to the fluids flow in microsystems. Several difficulties rise from the nature of experimental data collected on this setup: enhanced error measurements due to various physical phenomena occurring during the image formation (diffusion, beam hardening), and specificities of the setup (limited angle, partial view of the object, weak contrast). To reconstruct the object we must solve an inverse problem. This inverse problem is known to be ill-posed. It therefore needs to be regularized by introducing prior information. The main prior information we account for is that the object is composed of a finite known number of different materials distributed in compact regions. This a priori information is introduced via a Gauss-Markov field for the contrast distributions with a hidden Potts-Markov field for the class materials in the Bayesian estimation framework. The computations are done by using an appropriate Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. In this paper, we present first the basic steps of the proposed algorithms. Then we focus on one of the main steps in any iterative reconstruction method which is the computation of forward and adjoint operators (projection and backprojection). A fast implementation of these two operators is crucial for the real application of the method. We give some details on the fast computation of these steps and show some preliminary results of simulations.

  9. Sensors and Microsystems : AISEM 2011 Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Corrado; Mosiello, Lucia; Zappa, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the 16th AISEM (“Associazione Italiana Sensori e Microsistemi”) National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, held in Rome 7-9 February 2011. The conference highlighted updated results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and microsystems. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications. Provides a selection of the best papers from the most recent AISEM conference; Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of sensors.              

  10. European Master Programs in Nanoelectronics and Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Demarchi, Danilo; Nielsen, Ivan Ring

    Nanotechnology and Microsystems are having increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering. The advent of nanotechnology brings about new possibilities in nanoelectronics, including increasingly complex systems on chip, sophisticated technology fusion between electronic devices...

  11. Microsystems for cellular force measurement: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsystems are providing key advances in studying single cell mechanical behavior. The mechanical interaction of cells with their extracellular matrix is fundamentally important for cell migration, division, phagocytosis and aptoptosis. This review reports the development of microsystems on studying cell forces. Microsystems provide advantages of studying single cells since the scale of cells is on the micron level. The components of microsystems provide culture, loading, guiding, trapping and on chip analysis of cellular mechanical forces. This paper gives overviews on how MEMS are advancing in the field of cell biomechno sensory systems. It presents different materials, and mode of studying cell mechanics. Finally, we comment on the future directions and challenges on the state of art techniques

  12. European Master Programs in Nanoelectronics and Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Demarchi, Danilo; Nielsen, Ivan Ring

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology and Microsystems are having increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering. The advent of nanotechnology brings about new possibilities in nanoelectronics, including increasingly complex systems on chip, sophisticated technology fusion between electronic devices...... have been around for a number of years. This paper presents an overview of present European programs in nanoelectronics and Microsystems. Also, the services provided for universities by the EuroTraining program1 are described....

  13. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Eric T.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2004-12-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices.

  15. A biodynamic microsystem for fluids viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to model, design and fabricate a biodynamic analysis microsystem required for determination of various molecular transport properties of the biological fluids. In order to achieve this, a lab-on-a-chip device was fabricated. The microfluidic system developed satisfies the objectives for the study of microcirculation and characterization of cell rheological properties, functions and behaviour. The measurement principle of the viscosity of biological fluids is based on the detection of the rotation of a polysilicon gear-wheels system. The gear-wheels have external diameters of 250 μm, 200 μm, 160 μm and 3 μm thickness. The micromachining process combines the undercut and refill technique with pin-joint bearing permitting the fabrication of bushings that were used to elevate the rotor away from the silicon surface. The testing of the microfluidic dynamic system was performed using electromagnetic micropumps and magnetic controllers. Each device was fabricated by silicon micromachining technology and tested to obtain the specific characteristics

  16. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  17. Integrated power management for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.N.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Bryan, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Div.

    1997-12-01

    There is a need for a universal power module for microsystems. This module should provide power conditioning, energy storage, and load matching for a variety of energy sources and loads such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and wireless sensors and micro-robots. There are a variety of potential ambient and human powered energy sources, which can supply some of the power needs of the military. The challenge is to capture these available sources of electrical energy and condition them to meet the voltage, current, and overall power demands of field-deployable microelectronics and MEMs-based devices such as wireless sensors and micro-robots. Most natural and man-made energy sources found in the environment have a low specific power and are not generally available on a continuous basis. Likewise, human-based energy sources must be optimally managed to meet the power needs in the field. Therefore, a power supply must have the ability to capture the available energy and store it in such a manner to be useful to meet the mission requirements of the device that is connected to the source. It must continuously monitor the status of energy stored and determine the expected demands of the device. A microelectronics-based power management chip can be developed to meet these objectives. The major challenge in realizing this concept will be the design of an intelligent power-conditioning chip that consumes a minimum of power to perform the functions of power conditioning, storage, load matching, and status monitoring. The prototype power conditioning integrated circuit would be capable of delivering a peak power of 100 mW at 5 V. The nominal operating condition would be a very low duty cycle for a relatively high power load, and a low-power source available for long periods of time, or a moderate-power source available intermittently.

  18. Ultraviolet transparent silicon oxynitride waveguides for biochemical microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Friis, Peter; Hübner, Jörg; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jørgensen, Anders Michael; Telleman, Pieter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2001-01-01

    , cannot accommodate guidance below 400 nm, owing to the presence of UV-absorbing centers. We show that silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) waveguides exhibit very good UV performance. The propagation loss for 24-mum-wide SiOxNy waveguides was found to be similar to1.0 dB/cm in the wavelength range 220-550 nm. The...... applicability of these waveguides was demonstrated in a biochemical microsystem consisting of multimode buried-channel SiOxNy waveguides that were monolithically integrated with microfluidic channels. Absorption measurements of a beta -blocking agent, propranolol, at 212-215 nm were performed. The detection...

  19. Heteromagnetic Microelectronics Microsystems of Active Type

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatiev, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type, by Alexander A. Ignatiev of Saratov State University and Alexander V. Lyashenko of JSC Research Institute Tantal in Russia, offers a very detailed and specialized account of the author's research and development of heteromagnetic materials and devices. The book is based on original material from the author's programs of designing heteromagnetic microsystems. Polyvalent, multiple parameter magneto-semiconductor microsystems are described and the book reports on extensive experimental and theoretical results of research in a range of frequencies up to 1000 GHz. For the first time the direction of satisfying criteria, and burst technologies, which can make a subject of discovery, are discussed in great detail. This book is intended for post-graduate students and researchers specializing in the design and application of heteromagnetic materials and devices. Alexander A. Ignatiev is author of Magnetoelectronics of Microwaves and Extremely High Frequenci...

  20. Microsystem reliability: Polymer adhesive and coating materials for packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob

    design approach to development of reliable microsystem packaging mandatory. Diffusion of water is identified as the most important parameter or physical mechanism lowering microsystem reliability due to corrosion, delamination etc. This topic is therefore treated thoroughly by mathematical modeling......Polymer microsystem packaging materials have been characterized and failure analysis methods have been developed with the aim of gaining higher microsystem reliability. The importance of this work stems from the fact that microsystem sensors due to small size are very sensitive to the often very...

  1. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  2. Microscopic TV Holography for Microsystems Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upputuri Paul Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The continuously advancing Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS technology requires a robust non-contact quantitative measurement system for the characterization of their performance, reliability and integrity. A TV holographic system with long working distance microscope is developed for the static, dynamic and 3-D surface profile characterization of Microsystems. The system can be operated either in continuous or stroboscopic illumination mode of operation. In this paper we present the development of a microscopic imaging system and its applications for Microsystems Metrology.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5, pp.491-498, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.908 Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4  

  3. MEMS & microsystems design, manufacture, and nanoscale engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Tai-Ran

    2008-01-01

    A bestselling MEMS text...now better than ever. An engineering design approach to Microelectromechanical Systems, MEMS and Microsystems remains the only available text to cover both the electrical and the mechanical aspects of the technology. In the five years since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant changes in the science and technology of miniaturization, including microsystems technology and nanotechnology. In response to the increasing needs of engineers to acquire basic knowledge and experience in these areas, this popular text has been carefully updated, including an entirely new section on the introduction of nanoscale engineering. Following a brief introduction to the history and evolution of nanotechnology, the author covers the fundamentals in the engineering design of nanostructures, including fabrication techniques for producing nanoproducts, engineering design principles in molecular dynamics, and fluid flows and heat transmission in nanoscale substances.

  4. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS,DAVID R.; MCWHORTER,PAUL J.

    2000-04-19

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology.

  5. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  6. Energy harvesting with functional materials and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    For decades, people have searched for ways to harvest energy from natural sources. Lately, a desire to address the issue of global warming and climate change has popularized solar or photovoltaic technology, while piezoelectric technology is being developed to power handheld devices without batteries, and thermoelectric technology is being explored to convert wasted heat, such as in automobile engine combustion, into electricity. Featuring contributions from international researchers in both academics and industry, Energy Harvesting with Functional Materials and Microsystems explains the growi

  7. Multilayer ISFET membranes for microsystems applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cané, Carles; Götz, A; Merlos, A.; Gràcia, I.; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Losantos Viñolas, Pedro; Lora-Tamayo, E.

    1996-01-01

    The fabrication of microsystems in which chemical measurements play a role make the on-chip combination of chemical sensors and signal processing circuitry highly desirable. Chemical sensors use sensitive layers which are not a part of MOS devices and in this sense, the determination of the best sensors and technological processes to achieve good integrated smart sensors is very important. In this paper a study of compatibility of ISFET chemical sensors and CMOS circuitry is presented for app...

  8. Tools for chemical synthesis in microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Klavs F.; Newman, Stephen G.; Reizman, Brandon Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Chemical synthesis in microsystems has evolved from simple proof-of-principle examples to become a general technique in academia and industry. Numerous such “flow chemistry” applications are now found in pharmaceutical and fine chemical synthesis. Much of the development has been based on systems employing macroscopic flow components and tubes, rather than the integrated chip technology envisioned by the lab-on-a-chip community. We review the major developments in systems for flow chemistry a...

  9. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  10. Corrosion and microfluidics in hot water microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses some important issues when designing microfluidic systems for hot pressurized water. The properties and behavior of water at elevated temperatures and in micro scale is briefly reviewed, and opportunities and possible problems of using hot pressurized water in microfluidic devices are brought up. Experimental work was focused on corrosion resistance for commonly used microsystem materials in hot pressurized water, and the microfluidic behavior for hot pressurized water. ...

  11. Intelligent Microsystems: Keys to the Next Silicon Revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCWHORTER,PAUL J.

    1999-10-20

    Paul McWhorter, Deputy Director for of the Microsystems Center at Sandia National Laboratories, discusses the potential of surface micromachining. A vision of the possibilities of intelligent Microsystems for the future is presented along with descriptions of several possible applications. Applications that are just around the corner and some that maybe quite a ways down the road but have a clear development path to their realization. Microsystems will drive the next silicon revolution.

  12. International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is going through the biggest transformation in its history. Automation and electrification of vehicles are expected to enable safer and cleaner mobility. The prospects and requirements of the future automobile affect innovations in major technology fields like driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and drivetrain development. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. It has been the mission of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for more than fifteen years to detect novel trends and to discuss the technological implications from early on. Therefore, the topic of the AMAA 2014 will be “Smart Systems for Safe, Clean, and Automated Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers w...

  13. Cost-driven design of smart microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Today's professionals are constantly striving to create sensor technology and systems with lower cost and higher efficiency. Miniaturization and standardization have become critical drivers for cost reduction in the design and development process, giving rise to a new era of smart sensors and actuators. These devices contain more components, but normally provide significant cost savings due to wider applicability and mass production. This first-of-its-kind resource presents methods for cost optimization of smart microsystems to help you select highly cost-efficient implementation variants. Wri

  14. Robust Bioinformatics Recognition with VLSI Biochip Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng L.; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2006-01-01

    A microsystem architecture for real-time, on-site, robust bioinformatic patterns recognition and analysis has been proposed. This system is compatible with on-chip DNA analysis means such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification. A corresponding novel artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm using new sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on error backpropagation (EBP) algorithm is invented. Our results show the trained new ANN can recognize low fluorescence patterns better than the conventional sigmoidal ANN does. A differential logarithmic imaging chip is designed for calculating logarithm of relative intensities of fluorescence signals. The single-rail logarithmic circuit and a prototype ANN chip are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  15. Microsystem design framework based on tool adaptations and library developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Rencz, Marta; Poppe, Andras; Szekely, Vladimir

    1996-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. This paper describes a Computer-Aided-Design Framework for microsystems, based on selected existing software packages adapted and extended for microsystem technology, assembled with libraries where models are available in the form of standard cells described at different levels (symbolic, system/behavioral, layout). In microelectronics, CAD has already attained a highly sophisticated and professional level, where complete fabrication sequences are simulated and the device and system operation is completely tested before manufacturing. In comparison, the art of microsystem design and modelling is still in its infancy. However, at least for the numerical simulation of the operation of single microsystem components, such as mechanical resonators, thermo-elements, elastic diaphragms, reliable simulation tools are available. For the different engineering disciplines (like electronics, mechanics, optics, etc) a lot of CAD-tools for the design, simulation and verification of specific devices are available, but there is no CAD-environment within which we could perform a (micro-)system simulation due to the different nature of the devices. In general there are two different approaches to overcome this limitation: the first possibility would be to develop a new framework tailored for microsystem-engineering. The second approach, much more realistic, would be to use the existing CAD-tools which contain the most promising features, and to extend these tools so that they can be used for the simulation and verification of microsystems and of the devices involved. These tools are assembled with libraries in a microsystem design environment allowing a continuous design flow. The approach is driven by the wish to make microsystems accessible to a large community of people, including SMEs and non-specialized academic institutions.

  16. Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valldorf, J.; Gessner, W. (eds.) [VDI/VDE Innovation und Technik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the total number of vehicles steadily increasing and soon approaching one billion, the world is facing serious challenges in terms of both safety of road transport and sustainability. Consequently the two major persistent issues for the automotive industry are improved safety and reduced emissions. The integration of complex microsystems with enhanced intelligence has enabled an increase in efficiency of the previously 'dumb' internal combustion engine by an average 1% annually during the last 20 years. In the future, such smart systems may help to leverage novel powertrain concepts towards the zero emission vehicle. Particularly for electric cars, anticipatory power management and efficient driving assistance will be needed to overcome range limitations. Electrical in-wheel motors equipped with novel miniaturized functionalities will be required. Intelligent systems for tire monitoring and control deserve special attention as well, since insufficient tire pressure accounts for more than 3% of the efficiency losses in the car. The conference book in hand is a showroom of activities, the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been known for during the last 12 years: advanced sensors including one based on the giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect, several camera and radar systems making road traffic safer by assisting the driver in recognizing pedestrians and obstacles, and human-machine interfaces based on the recognition of hand gestures - a striking example of how smart systems will further enhance the usability of vehicles and the comfort of driving. (orig.)

  17. Hyperspectral Polymer Solar Cells, Integrated Power for Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiebitz, Paul [Rochester Institute of Technology, NY(United States)

    2014-05-27

    The purpose of this research is to address a critical technology barrier to the deployment of next generation autonomous microsystems – the availability of efficient and reliable power sources. The vast majority of research on microsystems has been directed toward the development and miniaturization of sensors and other devices that enhance their intelligence, physical, and networking capabilities. However, the research into power generating and power storage technologies has not keep pace with this development. This research leveraged the capabilities of RIT’s NanoPower Research Laboratories (NPRL) in materials for advanced lithium ion batteries, nanostructured photovoltaics, and hybrid betavoltaics to develop reliable power sources for microsystems.

  18. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  19. Anticancer photodynamic therapy based on the use of a microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, E.; Bulka, N.; Zukowski, K.; Chudy, M.; Brzozka, Z.; Dybko, A.

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedures with an application of a microsystem. Two cell lines were used in the experiments, i.e. human lung carcinoma - A549 and normal human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5. Mono-, coculture and mixed cultures were performed in a microsystem at the same time. The microsystem consisted of a concentration gradient generator (CGG) which generates different concentrations of a photosensitizer, and a set of microchambers for cells. The microchambers were linked by microchannels of various length in order to allow cells migration and in this way cocultures were created. Transparent materials were used for the chip manufacture, i.e. glass and poly(dimethylsiloxane). A high power LED was used to test photodynamic therapy effectiveness in the microsystem.

  20. Economic alpha spectrometry using silicon microsystems and selectively adsorbing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first results obtained with a monitor SARAD EQF 3020 containing three alpha detector microsystems measuring radon in air, attached radon daughters and unattached radon daughters respectively. The three components are measured quasicontinuousely with a temporal resolution of 2 hours. The measuring range is 1 to 10 MBq/m3 by low detection limit of 0.1 Bq/m3 equivalent radon concentration. The system was rested in buildings, caves, mines, waterworks and other places. Using silicon microsystem integrating on a few chips an alpha detector, an ADC, a memory and logics can be produced at far lower cost than if assembled from individual components. We have also developed thin films selectively adsorbing radium and uranium from aqueous solutions, e.g. drinking waters. These films have simply to be placed into the solution to be analyzed and accumulate radium and uranium with a high efficiency. The adsorption capacity of this films is by a 20 h exposure nearly 70% for radium in the solution. The films are eventually measured by alpha spectrometry and show energy resolutions of below 50 keV. These thin films considerably reduce preparation times and thus costs. Replacing in addition the conventional alpha spectrometer by one of our silicon microsystems leads to a very economic system for the analysis of radium and uranium in drinking water. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  1. Integration of ferroelectric thin films into silicon based microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kügeler, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The integration of ferroelectric materials will enhance the functionality of conventional microsystems. The converse piezoelectric effect can be used for the fabrication of integrated actuators, which will help to realize integrated high frequency switches. The aim of this thesis is the integration of ferroelectric thin films into silicon based microsystems. Therefore, PZT thin films have been deposited on platinum coated silicon substrates by chemical solution deposition (CSD) and are charac...

  2. The introduction of powder blasting for sensor and microsystem applications

    OpenAIRE

    Belloy, E.; Thurre, S.; Walckiers, E.; Sayah, A.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    We introduce powder blasting using a pressurised nozzle and a metallic mask as a new promising technology for microsystem fabrication. We study basic parameters of this powder blasting erosion process as well as mask-geometry effects on the erosion rate. We demonstrate the application potential of this technique in three important fields of microsystems research: (i) the realisation of microfluidic chips for biochemical separations, (ii) the micropatterning of composite hard magnetic layers f...

  3. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  4. Microsystems Engineering of Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    microsystem. The idea behind this vision is, that such a system is portable and delivers more and qualitative better data more rapidly than a conventional system, while using only very small amounts of the reagents. To realize such a system, components from different fields, such as electronics, optics......, mechanics and fluidics, have to be miniaturized. In this book we will discuss the different aspects of (bio)chemical microsystem development, which are simulation, design, materials, microfabrication, microliquid handling components, interconnections, integration and applications. These topics are...... illustrated with examples, mainly from research projects at Mikroelektronik Centret....

  5. Microsystem engineering of lab-on-a-chip devices

    CERN Document Server

    Geschke, Oliver; Telleman, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Written on a non-specialist level by an interdisciplinary team of chemists, biologists and engineers from one of Europe's leading centres for microsystem research, the Danish Mikroelektronik Centret (MIC), this is a concise practical introduction to the subject. As such, the book is the first to focus on analytical applications, providing life and analytical scientists, biotechnologists and pharmaceutists with an understanding of the principles behind the design and manufacture of chemical and biochemical microsystems. The text is backed by a chapter devoted to troubleshooting as well as a g

  6. Introduction to microsystem technology a guide for students

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Gerald; Müller, Dörte

    2008-01-01

    Over half a century after the discovery of the piezoresistive effect, microsystem technology has experienced considerable developments. Expanding the opportunities of microelectronics to non-electronic systems, its number of application fields continues to increase. Microsensors are one of the most important fields, used in medical applications and micromechanics. Microfluidic systems are also a significant area, most commonly used in ink-jet printer heads. This textbook focuses on the essentials of microsystems technology, providing a knowledgeable grounding and a clear path through this we

  7. Preliminary Thermal Characterization of a Fully-Passive Wireless Backscattering Neuro-Recording Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, H. N.; Xu, W.; Shekhar, S.; Chae, J.; Miranda, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present analytical and experimental thermal characteristics of a battery-less, fully-passive wireless backscattering microsystem for recording of neuropotentials. A major challenge for cortically implantable microsystems involves minimizing the heat dissipated by on-chip circuitry, which can lead to permanent brain damage. Therefore, knowledge of temperature changes induced by implantable microsystems while in operation is of utmost importance. In this work, a discrete diode appended to the neuro-recording microsystem has been used to indirectly monitor the aforesaid temperature changes. Using this technique, the maximum temperature rise measured for the microsystem while in operation was 0.15 +/- 0.1 C, which is significantly less than current safety guidelines. Specific absorption ratio (SAR) due to the microsystem was also computed to further demonstrate fully-passive functionality of the neuro-recording microsystem.

  8. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  9. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  10. Microsystems for liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides in the analytical protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical analyses are necessary to numerous steps for nuclear wastes management and for the control of the environment. An analytical protocol generally includes different steps of chemical separations which are lengthy, manual and complicated to implement because of their confinement in glove boxes and because of the hostile chemical and radiochemical media. Thus there is a huge importance to propose innovative and robust solutions to automate these steps but also to reduce the volumes of the radioactive and chemical wastes at the end of the analytical cycle. One solution consists in the miniaturization of the analyses through the use of lab-on-chip. The objective of this thesis work was to propose a rational approach to the conception of separative microsystems for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. To achieve this, the hydrodynamic behavior as well as the extraction performances have been investigated in one chip for three different chemical systems: Eu(III)-HNO3/DMDBTDMA, Eu(III)-AcO(H,Na)-HNO3/HDEHP and U(VI)-HCl/Aliquat336. A methodology has been developed for the implementation of the liquid-liquid extraction in micro-system for each chemical system. The influence of various geometric parameters such as channel length or specific interfacial area has been studied and the comparison of the liquid-liquid extraction performances has led to highlight the influence of the phases viscosities ratio on the flows. Thanks to the modeling of both hydrodynamics and mass transfer in micro-system, the criteria related to physical and kinetic properties of the chemical systems have been distinguished to propose a rational conception of tailor-made chips. Finally, several examples of the liquid-liquid extraction implementation in micro-system have been described for analytical applications in the nuclear field: U/Co separation by Aliquat336, Eu/Sm separation by DMDBTDMA or even the coupling between a liquid-liquid extraction chip and the system of detection

  11. Non-destructive three-dimensional imaging for microsystem devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed laminography with synchrotron radiation was developed and applied to the three-dimensional imaging of flat, laterally extended objects with high spatial resolutions. Particular experimental conditions of a stationary synchrotron have been taken into account by a scanning geometry different from that employed with conventional, mobile laboratory X-ray sources. High spatial resolutions down to the scale of one micrometre can be attained non-destructively also for objects of large lateral size. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by the application to the inspection of solder joints in various applications of microsystem technology. This highlights the potential for improved quality assurance of microsystem devices which could be applied e.g. for technology optimisation during their development cycle. (orig.)

  12. Clinical microsystems: a critical framework for crossing the quality chasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likosky, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Patients, payers, and the public have increased expectations concerning the quality, safety and costs of our health care delivery systems. Whether or not to redesign our complex delivery systems is no longer in question. In order to succeed in optimizing care and outcomes (clinical and financial) for our stakeholders, we must design and evaluate tests of change. This journey will require a fundamental shift in our traditional thinking about healthcare delivery systems, including how: (1) each of us relates (effectively or not) to one another, and (2) the value of our patient's care is impacted accordingly. With this challenge in mind, this article will provide insight to the reader concerning clinical microsystems, small groups of professionals who work together on a regular basis to provide care to discrete populations of patients. The reader will learn how to leverage these microsystems to meet our stakeholders' expectations, namely to optimize the quality, safety and costs of our health care delivery systems. PMID:24779117

  13. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices by Applying Microsystems Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, L. M.; Alpuim, P.; Correia, J. H.

    2010-09-01

    Microsystems technologies were applied in the fabrication of thermoelectric (TE) microconverters. Common techniques used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication, namely wet etching, lift-off (with SU-8 photoresist), reactive ion etching (RIE), and lithography-electroplating-molding, were compared in the fabrication process of TE microsystems based on Bi, Sb, and Te thin-film compounds. Thin films of bismuth and antimony tellurides were deposited by co-evaporation, with figures of merit comparable to those of bulk materials. Test structures were fabricated using lithography and wet etching. The etching recipe was optimized by varying the etchant dilution and composition until higher etch rates and desired material selectivity were attained. Since the etching process is applied after deposition, this process allows prior deposition of TE materials by any deposition method; thus, films with high figure of merit can be fabricated. Moreover, wet etching does not require the use of expensive equipment.

  14. Microinjection molding of microsystem components: new aspects in improving performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microinjection molding (µIM) is considered to be one of the most flexible, reliable and cost effective manufacturing routes to form plastic micro-components for microsystems. The molding machine, mold tool fabrication, material selection and process controlling in this specific field have been greatly developed over the past decades. This review aims to present the new trends towards improving micro-component performance by reviewing the latest developments in this area and by considering potential directions. The key concerns in product and mold designing, essential factors in simulation, and micro-morphology and resultant properties are evaluated and discussed. In addition, the applications, variant processes and outlook for µIM are presented. Throughout this review, decisive considerations in seeking improved performance for microsystem components are highlighted. (topical review)

  15. Assembly of microsystems for optical and fluidic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Haasl, Sjoerd

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses assembly issues encountered in optical and fluidic microsystem applications. In optics, the first subject concerns the active alignment of components in optical fibersystems. A solution for reducing the cost of optical component assembly while retaining submicron accuracy is to integrate the alignment mechanism onto the optical substrate. A polymer V-shaped actuator is presented that can carry the weight of the large components - on a micromechanical scale - and that can...

  16. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  17. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  18. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  19. 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Vittorio; Ponzoni, Andrea; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the 17th AISEM (“Associazione Italiana Sensori e Microsistemi”) National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, held in Brescia, 5-7 February, 2013. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.  ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of senso...

  20. A Microsystem Sediment-Water Simulation Study for the Proposed Jordanelle Reservoir, Heber City, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1983-01-01

    The technique of microsystem sediment-water simulation was used to predict water quality data for the proposed Jordanelle Reservoir, Heber City, Utah. Simulation microsystems were prepared for four sites located in the north arm of the reservoir basin including two sites located in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond. Data obtained from the tailings pond microsystems indicated that low pH water and high trace metal concentrations will exist in the north arm of the reservoir. These data su...

  1. Detection of Dissolved Lactose Employing an Optofluidic Micro-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Keplinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel optofluidic sensor principle is employed for a non-invasive and label-free characterization of lactose containing liquid samples. Especially for medicine and food industry, a simple, fast and accurate determination of the amount of lactose in various products is highly desirable. The presented system exploits the impact of dissolved molecules on the refractive index for sample characterization. On the optofluidic chip, a microfluidic channel filled with the analyte is hit by slightly diverging laser light. The center incident angle of the beam on-chip is set close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. Both the reflected and the transmitted light signals are recorded at the solid-liquid interface. The ratio of those two signals is then used as representative value for the analyte. Using this principle, lactose containing samples were differentiated based on their concentrations at a step size of 10 mmol/L. The use of the signals ratio instead of a single signal approach improves the stability of the system significantly, allowing for higher resolutions to be achieved. Furthermore, the fabrication of the devices in PDMS ensures biocompatibility and provides low absorbance of light in the visible range.

  2. 16th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA)

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2012 : Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles

    2012-01-01

    The ambitious objectives of future road mobility, i.e. fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and zero accidents, imply a paradigm shift in the concept of the car regarding its architecture, materials, and propulsion technology, and require an intelligent integration into the systems of transportation and power. ICT, components and smart systems have been essential for a multitude of recent innovations, and are expected to be key enabling technologies for the changes ahead, both inside the vehicle and at its interfaces for the exchange of data and power with the outside world. It has been the objective of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for almost two decades to detect novel trends and to discuss technological implications and innovation potential from day one on. In 2012, the topic of the AMAA conference is “Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles”. The conference papers selected for this book address current research, developments and i...

  3. Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2013 smart systems for safe and green vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    The road vehicle of the future will embrace innovations from three major automotive technology fields: driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and alternative propulsion. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. They increasingly appear to be the key enabling technologies for safe and green road mobility. For more than fifteen years the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been successful in detecting novel trends and in discussing the technological implications from early on. The topic of the AMAA 2013 will be “Smart Systems for Safe and Green Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers which all address the ongoing research and novel developments in the field. www.amaa.de.

  4. Microsystems, Space Qualified Electronics and Mobile Sensor Platforms for Harsh Environment Applications and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Okojie, Robert S.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Xu, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is presently developing and applying a range of sensor and electronic technologies that can enable future planetary missions. These include space qualified instruments and electronics, high temperature sensors for Venus missions, mobile sensor platforms, and Microsystems for detection of a range of chemical species and particulates. A discussion of each technology area and its level of maturity is given. It is concluded that there is a strong need for low power devices which can be mobile and provide substantial characterization of the planetary environment where and when needed. While a given mission will require tailoring of the technology for the application, basic tools which can enable new planetary missions are being developed.

  5. VLSI Microsystem for Rapid Bioinformatic Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Lue, Jaw-Chyng

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits is being developed as a means of bioinformatics-oriented analysis and recognition of patterns of fluorescence generated in a microarray in an advanced, highly miniaturized, portable genetic-expression-assay instrument. Such an instrument implements an on-chip combination of polymerase chain reactions and electrochemical transduction for amplification and detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

  6. Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnical actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

    2003-04-01

    A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

  7. An analysis of microsystems development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gilbert V.; Myers, David R.

    2011-06-01

    While Sandia initially was motivated to investigate emergent microsystem technology to miniaturize existing macroscale structures, present designs embody innovative approaches that directly exploit the fundamentally different material properties of a new technology at the micro- and nano-scale. Direct, hands-on experience with the emerging technology gave Sandia engineers insights that not only guided the evolution of the technology but also enabled them to address new applications that enlarged the customer base for the new technology. Sandia's early commitment to develop complex microsystems demonstrated the advantages that early adopters gain by developing an extensive design and process tool kit and a shared awareness of multiple approaches to achieve the multiple goals. As with any emergent technology, Sandia's program benefited from interactions with the larger technical community. However, custom development followed a spiral path of direct trial-and-error experience, analysis, quantification of materials properties at the micro- and nano-scale, evolution of design tools and process recipes, and an understanding of reliability factors and failure mechanisms even in extreme environments. The microsystems capability at Sandia relied on three key elements. The first was people: a mix of mechanical and semiconductor engineers, chemists, physical scientists, designers, and numerical analysts. The second was a unique facility that enabled the development of custom technologies without contaminating mainline product deliveries. The third was the arrival of specialized equipment as part of a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) enabled by the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989. Underpinning all these, the program was guided and sustained through the research and development phases by accomplishing intermediate milestones addressing direct mission needs.

  8. Microsystem integration from RF to millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency systems have been applied successfully to consumer products. Typically these radios operate up to 6 GHz. During recent years, interest towards microwave (up to 30 GHz) and millimeter wave frequencies (30 ... 300 GHz) has increased significantly. Technologies have been developed to have high performance microwave and millimeter wave components. On the other hand, integration and packaging technologies have not developed as fast while their importance is crucial especially in consumer applications. This presentation focuses to latest trends in wireless microsystem component integration and packaging trends backed up with demonstrators and measured results based on VTT's demonstrations.

  9. Local deposition and patterning of catalytic thin films in microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local deposition of catalysts is desired in a wide range of catalytic microsystems (microreactors and sensors). In this study, we investigate technologies enabling deposition and patterning of catalyst thin films in a manner compatible with standard micromachining processes. We evaluate and compare deposition techniques based on a combination of a self-assembly, soft-lithography and conventional micromachining. Platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) were used as model catalysts, both as a sputtered thin film and as nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina. The thin films were characterized and tested in terms of their catalytic activity based on CO chemisorption measurements, stability and reproducibility. (paper)

  10. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  11. Smart image sensors: an emerging key technology for advanced optical measurement and microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Peter

    1996-08-01

    Optical microsystems typically include photosensitive devices, analog preprocessing circuitry and digital signal processing electronics. The advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible today to integrate all photosensitive and electronical devices on one 'smart image sensor' or photo-ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits containing photosensitive elements). It is even possible to provide each 'smart pixel' with additional photoelectronic functionality, without compromising the fill factor substantially. This technological capability is the basis for advanced cameras and optical microsystems showing novel on-chip functionality: Single-chip cameras with on- chip analog-to-digital converters for less than $10 are advertised; image sensors have been developed including novel functionality such as real-time selectable pixel size and shape, the capability of performing arbitrary convolutions simultaneously with the exposure, as well as variable, programmable offset and sensitivity of the pixels leading to image sensors with a dynamic range exceeding 150 dB. Smart image sensors have been demonstrated offering synchronous detection and demodulation capabilities in each pixel (lock-in CCD), and conventional image sensors are combined with an on-chip digital processor for complete, single-chip image acquisition and processing systems. Technological problems of the monolithic integration of smart image sensors include offset non-uniformities, temperature variations of electronic properties, imperfect matching of circuit parameters, etc. These problems can often be overcome either by designing additional compensation circuitry or by providing digital correction routines. Where necessary for technological or economic reasons, smart image sensors can also be combined with or realized as hybrids, making use of commercially available electronic components. It is concluded that the possibilities offered by custom smart image sensors will influence the design

  12. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ahn, Kihoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream.

  13. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream. (topical review)

  14. Microsystems for pharmatechnology manipulation of fluids, particles, droplets, and cells

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of microfluidic approaches and applications in pharmatechnology. It is appropriate for students with an interdisciplinary interest in both the pharmaceutical and engineering fields, as well as process developers and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. The authors cover new and advanced technologies for screening, production by micro reaction technology and micro bioreactors, small-scale processing of drug formulations, and drug delivery that will meet the need for fast and effective screening methods for drugs in different formulations, as well as the production of drugs in very small volumes. Readers will find detailed chapters on the materials and techniques for fabrication of microfluidic devices, microbioreactors, microsystems for emulsification, on-chip fabrication of drug delivery systems, respiratory drug delivery and delivery through microneedles, organs-on-chip, and more.

  15. Chip-level three-dimensional assembling of microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Mita, Yoshio; Ogawa, Minoru; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    1999-03-01

    We propose a new method of assembling 3D microsystems by means of chip level electrical interconnection. Silicon dies are flip-chipped out of a silicon wafer by using ICP-RIE instead of a dicing saw. Fringes of the chips are patterned into pin-shapes so that they can be vertically inserted into the micro motherboard for electrical and physical connection. The pins are coated with Cr-Au, and the contact pads are electroplated with Cu for low contact resistance. the pins are tapered in width, and assembling was easily done by manual positing under the optical binocular microscope. This technique is a break through to the hybrid integration of various kinds of micro chips independent of materials or fabrication compatibility.

  16. Shape-dependent orientation of thermophoretic forces in microsystems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qi

    2013-09-24

    It is generally acknowledged that the direction of the thermophoretic force acting on microparticles is largely determined by the imposed temperature gradient, and the shape of the microparticle has little influence on its direction. We show that one type of thermophoretic force, emerged due to the advent of microfabrication techniques, is highly sensitive to object shape, and it is feasible to tune force orientation via proper shape design. We reveal the underlying mechanism by an asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation and point out the reason why the classical thermophoretic force is insensitive to the particle shape, but the force in microsystems is. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in methods for microparticle manipulation and separation.

  17. Analysis of Particle Transport in a Magnetophoretic Microsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Furlani, E P

    2006-01-01

    An analytical analysis is presented of the transport and capture of magnetic micro/nano-particles in a magnetophoretic microsystem that consists of an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements embedded beneath a microfluidic channel. The elements, which are polarized by a bias field, produce a nonuniform field distribution that gives rise to a force on magnetic particles within the microchannel. The equations governing particle motion are derived using analytical expressions for the dominant magnetic and fluidic forces. The magnetic force is obtained using an analytical expression for the field distribution in the microchannel combined with a linear magnetization model for the magnetic response of particles. The theory takes into account particle size and material properties, the bias field, the dimensions of the microchannel, the fluid properties, and the flow velocity. The equations of motion are solved to study particle transport and capture. The analysis indicates that the particles exhibit an oscillator...

  18. A hybrid microsystem for parallel perfusion experiments on living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Frauke; Seemann, Livia; Hierlemann, Andreas; Lichtenberg, Jan

    2007-08-01

    A fully integrated microchip device for performing a complete and automated sample-perfusion experiment on living cells is presented. Cells were trapped and immobilized in a defined grid pattern inside a small 0.5 µl volume incubation chamber by pneumatic anchoring on 1000 5-µm orifices. This new cell trapping technique assures a precise and repeatable cell quantity for each experiment and enables the formation of a homogeneous cell population in the incubation chamber. The microsystem includes a perforated silicon chip seamlessly integrated by a new embedding technique in a larger elastomer substrate, which features the microfluidic network. The latter forms the incubation chamber and allows for economic logarithmic dilution of the sample reagent over a range of three orders of magnitude with subsequent perfusion of the cell population. First, the logarithmic dilution stage was validated using quantitative fluorescent imaging of fluorescein solution. Then, the cell adhesion and culturing inside the incubation chamber was studied using primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The cells adhered well on laminin-coated surfaces and proliferated to form a confluent cell layer after 6 days in vitro. Finally, the complete system was tested by a perfusion experiment with cultured NHDFs, which were exposed to a fluorescent cell tracker at dilutions of 100 µm, 10 µm, 1 µm, 0.1 µm and 0 µm at a flow rate of 1.25 µl min-1 for 20 min. Fluorescence imaging of the cell array after incubation and image analysis showed a logarithmic relationship between sample concentration and the fluorescence signal. This paper describes the fabrication of the components and the assembly of the microsystem, the design approach and the validation of the sample diluter, cell-adhesion and cell-culturing experiments over several days.

  19. Wireless Performance of a Fully Passive Neurorecording Microsystem Embedded in Dispersive Human Head Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.; Chae, Junseok; Miranda, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the wireless performance of a biocompatible fully passive microsystem implanted in phantom media simulating the dispersive dielectric properties of the human head, for potential application in recording cortical neuropotentials. Fully passive wireless operation is achieved by means of backscattering electromagnetic (EM) waves carrying 3rd order harmonic mixing products (2f(sub 0) plus or minus f(sub m)=4.4-4.9 GHZ) containing targeted neuropotential signals (fm approximately equal to 1-1000 Hz). The microsystem is enclosed in 4 micrometer thick parylene-C for biocompatibility and has a footprint of 4 millimeters x 12 millimeters x 500 micrometers. Preliminary testing of the microsystem implanted in the lossy biological simulating media results in signal-to-noise ratio's (SNR) near 22 (SNR approximately equal to 38 in free space) for millivolt level neuropotentials, demonstrating the potential for fully passive wireless microsystems in implantable medical applications.

  20. Microsystems technologist workforce development capacity and challenges in Central New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Thor D.

    2008-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has made major investments in microsystems-related infrastructure and research staff development over the past two decades, culminating most recently in the MESA project. These investment decisions have been made based in part upon the necessity for highly reliable, secure, and for some purposes, radiation-hardened devices and subsystems for safety and sustainability of the United States nuclear arsenal and other national security applications. SNL's microsystems development and fabrication capabilities are located almost entirely within its New Mexico site, rendering their effectiveness somewhat dependent on the depth and breadth of the local microsystems workforce. Consequently, the status and development capacity of this workforce has been seen as a key personnel readiness issue in relation to the maintenance of SNL's microsystems capabilities. For this reason SNL has supported the instantiation and development of the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education, an Advanced Technology Education center funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, in order to foster the development of local training capacity for microsystems technologists. Although the SCME and the associated Manufacturing Technology program at Central New Mexico Community College have developed an effective curriculum and graduated several highly capable microsystems technologists, the future of both the center and the degree program remain uncertain due to insufficient student enrollment. The central region of New Mexico has become home to many microsystems-oriented commercial firms. As the demands of those firms for technologists evolve, SNL may face staffing problems in the future, especially if local training capacity is lost.

  1. A Vertically Integrated CMOS Microsystem for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Bruce R; Jingbin Yang; McKendry, Jonathan; Zheng Gong; Renshaw, David; Girkin, John M; Erdan Gu; Dawson, Martin D; Henderson, R K

    2010-12-01

    We describe a two-chip micro-scale time-resolved fluorescence analyzer integrating excitation, detection, and filtering. A new 8×8 array of drivers realized in standard low-voltage 0.35-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor is bump-bonded to AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs). The array is capable of producing sample excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM), enabling short lifetime fluorophores to be investigated. The fluorescence emission is detected by a second, vertically-opposed 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry. Captured chip data are transferred to a PC for further processing, including histogramming, lifetime extraction, calibration and background/noise compensation. This constitutes the smallest reported solid-state microsystem for fluorescence decay analysis, replacing lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics, and discrete electronics. The system is demonstrated with measurements of fluorescent colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples. PMID:23853381

  2. FERMI: a digital Front End and Readout MIcrosystem for high resolution calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a digital solution for the front-end electronics of high resolution calorimeters at future colliders. It is based on analogue signal compression, high speed A/D converters, a fully programmable pipeline and a digital signal processing (DSP) chain with local intelligence and system supervision. This digital solution is aimed at providing maximal front-end processing power by performing waveform analysis using DSP methods. For the system integration of the multichannel device a multi-chip, silicon-on-silicon multi-chip module (MCM) has been adopted. This solution allows a high level of integration of complex analogue and digital functions, with excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of multichip integration provides a high degree of reliability and programmability at both the function and the system level, with the additional possibility of customising the microsystem to detector-specific requirements. For enhanced reliability in high radiation environments, fault tolerance strategies, i.e. redundancy, reconfigurability, majority voting and coding for error detection and correction, are integrated into the design. ((orig.))

  3. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  4. Low temperature wafer-level bonding for hermetic packaging of 3D microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic copper–copper (Cu–Cu) thermo-compression bonding, oxide–oxide (SiO2–SiO2) fusion bonding and silicon–silicon (Si–Si) direct bonding are investigated for potential application as hermetic seal in 3D microsystem packaging. Cavities are etched to a volume of 1.4 × 10−3 cm3 in accordance with the MIL-STD-883E standard prescribed for microelectronics packaging. In the case of metal bonding, a clean Cu layer with a thickness of 300 nm and a Ti barrier layer with an underlying thickness of 50 nm are used. The wafer pair is bonded at 300 °C under the application of a bonding force of 5500 N for 1 h. On the other hand, Si–Si bonding and SiO2–SiO2 bonding are initiated at room ambient after surface activation, followed by annealing in inert ambient at 300 °C for 1 h. The bonded cavities are stored in a helium bomb chamber and the leak rate is measured with a mass spectrometer. An excellent helium leak rate below 5 × 10−9 atm cm3 s−1 is detected for all cases and this is at least ten times better than the reject limit

  5. Bio-Inspired Microsystem for Robust Genetic Assay Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyng Lue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact integrated system-on-chip (SoC architecture solution for robust, real-time, and on-site genetic analysis has been proposed. This microsystem solution is noise-tolerable and suitable for analyzing the weak fluorescence patterns from a PCR prepared dual-labeled DNA microchip assay. In the architecture, a preceding VLSI differential logarithm microchip is designed for effectively computing the logarithm of the normalized input fluorescence signals. A posterior VLSI artificial neural network (ANN processor chip is used for analyzing the processed signals from the differential logarithm stage. A single-channel logarithmic circuit was fabricated and characterized. A prototype ANN chip with unsupervised winner-take-all (WTA function was designed, fabricated, and tested. An ANN learning algorithm using a novel sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on the supervised backpropagation (BP algorithm is proposed for robustly recognizing low-intensity patterns. Our results show that the trained new ANN can recognize low-fluorescence patterns better than an ANN using the conventional sigmoid function.

  6. Novel microsystem applications with new techniques in LTCC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Walker, Charles A.

    2005-04-01

    Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) enables development and testing of critical elements on microsystem boards as well as nonmicroelectronic meso-scale applications. We describe silicon-based microelectromechanical systems packaging and LTCC meso-scale applications. Microfluidic interposers permit rapid testing of varied silicon designs. The application of LTCC to micro-high-performance liquid chromatography (?-HPLC) demonstrates performance advantages at very high pressures. At intermediate pressures, a ceramic thermal cell lyser has lysed bacteria spores without damaging the proteins. The stability and sensitivity of LTCC/chemiresistor smart channels are comparable to the performance of silicon-based chemiresistors. A variant of the use of sacrificial volume materials has created channels, suspended thick films, cavities, and techniques for pressure and flow sensing. We report on inductors, diaphragms, cantilevers, antennae, switch structures, and thermal sensors suspended in air. The development of 'functional-as-released' moving parts has resulted in wheels, impellers, tethered plates, and related new LTCC mechanical roles for actuation and sensing. High-temperature metal-to-LTCC joining has been developed with metal thin films for the strong, hermetic interfaces necessary for pins, leads, and tubes.

  7. A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, John David

    This dissertation is concerned with the development of a novel, versatile optical sensor platform for optical metrology and chemical sensing. We demonstrate the feasibility of embedding optical components between bonded silicon wafers with receptor cavities and optical windows to create a self-contained sensor microsystem that can be used for in-situ measurement of hostile environments. Arrays of these sensors internal to a silicon wafer can enable optical sensing for in-situ, real-time mapping and process development for the semiconductor industry in the form of an instrumented substrate. Single-die versions of these optical sensor platforms can also enable point-of-care diagnostics, high throughput disease screening, bio-warfare agent detection, and environmental monitoring. Our first discussion will focus on a single-wavelength interferometry-based prototype sensor. Several applications are demonstrated using this single wavelength prototype: refractive index monitoring, SiO2 plasma etching, chemical mechanical polishing, photoresist cure and dissolution, copper etch end-point detection, and also nanopore wetting phenomena. Subsequent sections of this dissertation will describe efforts to improve the optical sensor platform to achieve multi-wavelength sensing function. We explore the use of an off-the-shelf commercial RGB sensor for colorimetric monitoring of copper and aluminum thin-film etchings. We then expand upon our prior work and concepts to realize a fully integrated, chip-sized microspectrometer with a photon engine based on a diffraction grating. The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a working prototype with dimensions < 1 mm thick using standard planar microfabrication techniques is described. Proof-of-concept demonstrations indicate the working principle of dispersion, although with a low spectral resolution of 120 nm. With working knowledge of the issues of the first prototype, we present an improved 5-channel microspectrometer with a

  8. Local Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Silicon Microsystems: The Effect of Temperature Distribution on Growth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut E. Aasmundtveit

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local synthesis and direct integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs into microsystems is a promising method for producing CNT-based devices in a single step, low-cost, and wafer-level, CMOS/MEMS-compatible process. In this report, the structure of the locally grown CNTs are studied by transmission imaging in scanning electron microscopy—S(TEM. The characterization is performed directly on the microsystem, without any post-synthesis processing required. The results show an effect of temperature on the structure of CNTs: high temperature favors thin and regular structures, whereas low temperature favors “bamboo-like” structures.

  9. Approaches for the efficient extraction and processing of biopotentials in implantable neural interfacing microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating pace of research in neurosciences and rehabilitation engineering has created a considerable demand for implantable microsystems capable of interfacing with large groups of neurons. Such microsystems must provide multiple recording channels incorporating low-noise amplifiers, filters, data converters, neural signal processing circuitry, power management units and low-power transmitters to extract and wirelessly transfer the relevant neural data outside the body for computing and storage. This paper is reviewing several electronic recording strategies to address the challenge of operating large numbers of channels to gather the neural information from several neurons within very low-power constraints. PMID:22255671

  10. Large concentration changes due to thermal diffusion effects in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Søren;

    Thermal diffusion, or Sorét diffusion, is shown to cause significant concentration changes and transients in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients. In a silicon microsystem, a temperature gradient of about 100 oC/mm is measured to produce concentration transients of up to 13.7 % in an...... argon/helium mixture, when the flow is abruptly changed from a high value to a low value. Finite element simulations of the thermal diffusion in a geometry similar to the experimental setup reproduce the measurements....

  11. Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI); Myers, David R.

    2005-08-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].

  12. Hybridization, assembling, and testing of miniaturized optoelectronic modules for sensors and microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Karioja, Pentti; Rusanen, Outi; Lehto, Heikki; Lammasniemi, Jorma

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research and development work on packaging and manufacturing different optoelectronic modules and microsystems for spectroscopic applications at VTT Electronics. Four different spectrometer concepts are analyzed: a multiwavelength detector module, an LED array spectrometer module, a PGP-spectrograph and an IR- spectrometer on silicon. The construction, main features, packaging concepts and performance are reviewed.

  13. Smart sensors development based on a distributed bus for microsystems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Carles; Lorente, Bibiana

    2003-04-01

    Our main objective in this work has been to develop a comunication system applicable between sensors and actuators and the data processing circuitry inside the microsystem in order to develop a flexible and modular architecture. This communication system is based on the use of a dedicated sensor bus composed by only two wires (a bidirectional data line and a clock line for sincronization). The basic philosophy of this development has been to create an IP model with VHDL for the bus driver that can be added to the sensor or the actuator to create an smart device that could be easily plugged with the other componets of the microsystem architecture. This methodology can be applied to a high integrated microsystem based on an extensively use of microelectronics technologies (ASICs, SoCs & MCMs). The reduced number of wires is an extraordinary advatage because produce a minimal interconnection between all the components and as a consequence the size of the microinstrument becomes smaller. The second aspect that we have considered in this development has been to reach a communication protocol that permits to built-up a very simple but robust bus driver interface that minimize the circuit overhead. This interconnection system has been applied to biomedical and aerospatial microsystems applications.

  14. Novel Acoustic Wave Microsystems for Biophysical Studies of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru Ufuk

    Single cell analysis is an important topic for understanding of diseases. In this understanding, biomechanics approach serves as an important tool as it relates and connects the mechanical properties of biological cells with diseases such as cancer. In this context, analysis methods based on ultrasonics are promising owing to their non-invasive nature and ease of use. However, there is a lack of miniature systems that provide accurate ultrasonic measurements on single cancer cells for diagnostic purposes. The platform presented in this study exploits high frequency acoustic interaction and uses direct coupling of Rayleigh type SAWs with various samples placed inside microcavities to analyze their structural properties. The samples used are aqueous glycerin solutions and polystyrene microbeads for demonstrating proper system operation, and lead up to biological cells. The microcavity is instrumental in trapping a predetermined volume of sample inside and facilitating the interaction of the surface waves with the sample in question via a resonance condition. Ultimately, the resultant SAW reaching the output transducer incurs a phase delay due to its interaction with the sample in the microcavity. The system operates in a different manner compared to similar systems as a result of multiple wave reflections in the small volume and coupling back to the piezoelectric substrate. The proposed microsystem was first analyzed using finite element methods. Liquid and solid media were modeled by considering frequency dependent characteristics. Similarly, mechanical behavior of cells with respect to different conditions is considered, and biological cells are modeled accordingly. Prototype devices were fabricated on quartz and lithium niobate in a cleanroom environment. Process steps were optimized separately for devices with microcavities. Precise fabrication, alignment, and bonding of PDMS microchannels were carried out. Soft microprobes were fabricated out of SU-8, a

  15. Low cost and compact analytical microsystem for carbon dioxide determination in production processes of wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Izquierdo, David; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2016-08-10

    The design, construction and evaluation of a low cost, cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow microanalyzer, with optical detection, to monitor carbon dioxide in bottled wines and beers as well as in fermentation processes, is presented. The microsystem, constructed by computer numerically controlled (CNC) micromilling and using a multilayer approach, integrates microfluidics, gas-diffusion module and an optical flow-cell in a single polymeric substrate. Its size is slightly bigger than a credit card, exactly 45 × 60 × 4 mm in the microfluidic and diffusion module zone and 22.5 × 40 × 3 mm in the flow-cell zone. The gas-diffusion module is based on a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which allows the transfer of the carbon dioxide present in the sample to a bromothymol blue (BTB) pH-sensitive acceptor solution, where the color change is measured optically. The detection system consisted of a LED with an emission peak at 607 nm and a photodiode integrated in a printed circuit board (PCB). The obtained analytical features after the optimization of the microfluidic platform and hydrodynamic variables are a linear range from 255 to 10000 mg L(-1) of CO2 and a detection limit of 83 mg L(-1) with a sampling rate of 30 samples h(-1). PMID:27282752

  16. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Bruce R; Muir, Keith R; Gong, Zheng; McKendry, Jonathan; Girkin, John M; Gu, Erdan; Renshaw, David; Dawson, Martin D; Henderson, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED) array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM). This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented. PMID:22291564

  17. A CMOS Time-Resolved Fluorescence Lifetime Analysis Micro-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Dawson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a CMOS-based micro-system for time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis. It comprises a 16 × 4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs fabricated in 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS technology with in-pixel time-gated photon counting circuitry and a second device incorporating an 8 × 8 AlInGaN blue micro-pixellated light-emitting diode (micro-LED array bump-bonded to an equivalent array of LED drivers realized in a standard low-voltage 0.35 μm CMOS technology, capable of producing excitation pulses with a width of 777 ps (FWHM. This system replaces instrumentation based on lasers, photomultiplier tubes, bulk optics and discrete electronics with a PC-based micro-system. Demonstrator lifetime measurements of colloidal quantum dot and Rhodamine samples are presented.

  18. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  19. A digital front-end and readout microsystem for calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital solution to the front-end electronics for calorimetric detectors at future supercolliders is presented. The solution is based on hig speed A/D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter chain and local intelligence. Questions of error correction, fault-tolerance and system redundancy are also being considered. A system integration of a multichannel device in a multichip, Silicon-on-Silicon Microsystem hybrid, is used. This solution allows a new level of integration of complex analogue and digital functions, with an excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. It also allows a high degree of programmability at both the function and the system level, and offers the possibility of customising the microsystem with detector-specific functions. (orig.)

  20. A digital front-end and readout microsystem for calorimetry at LHC--The FERMI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a digital solution to the front-end electronics for calorimetric detectors at future supercolliders based on high speed A/D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter chain and local intelligence. Questions of error correction, fault-tolerance and system redundancy are also considered. A system integration of a multichannel device in a multichip, Silicon-on-Silicon Microsystem hybrid will be used. This solution allows a new level of integration of complex analog and digital functions, with an excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of VLSI multichip integration allows a high degree of programmability at both the function and the system level, and offers the possibility of customizing the microsystem with detector-specific functions

  1. Insider action research and the microsystem of a Danish surgical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Mørcke, Anne Mette; Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This insider action research project aimed to improve interprofessional team performance at a surgical ward. The purpose of the project was (1) to critically appraise potential deficiencies in staffs’ identification, clinical judgment, and management of deteriorating ward patients, (2) to develop...... an interprofessional change model, and (3) evaluate the impact of the change model and the AR process. The insider AR project took place at a large Danish surgical ward with 60 participating physicians and nurses. The study was conducted in three interconnected action and reflection cycles using mixed methods. Staff...... with microsystems, this study highlights the importance of senior leaders to recognize the nature and power of using the microsystem approach for strategy, excellence, innovation, and research. Staff was able to formulate an overarching vision of interprofessionalism and this helped inspire changes in clinical...

  2. Photonic microsystems micro and nanotechnology applied to optical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solgaard, Olav

    2009-01-01

    ""Photonic Microsystems: Micro and Nanotechnology Applied to Optical Devices and Systems"", describes MEMS technology and demonstrates how MEMS allow miniaturization, parallel fabrication, and efficient packaging of optics, as well as integration of optics and electronics. It shows how the characteristics of MEMS enable practical implementations of a variety of applications, including projection displays, fiber switches, interferometers, spectrometers. The book describes the phenomenon of Photonic crystals (nanophotonics) and demonstrates how Photonic crystals enable synthesis of materials wit

  3. Removal of PCR inhibitors using dielectrophoresis as a selective filter in a microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg; Bang, Dang Duong; Poulsen, Claus Riber; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders

    2003-01-01

    fields. It has been shown that a cell will experience a force when an inhomogeneous electric field is applied. The effect is called dielectrophoresis (DEP). The resulting force depends on the difference between the internal properties of the cell and the surrounding fluid. DEP has been applied to...... is the first time dielectrophoresis has been used as a selective filter for removing PCR inhibitors in a microsystem....

  4. Assuring ultra-clean environments in microsystem packages : irreversible and reversible getters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zifer, Thomas; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr.; Hollenshead, Jeromy Todd; Buffleben, George M.; McElhanon, James Ross; Nilson, Robert H.

    2003-11-01

    A new generation of irreversible, chemically reacting getters specifically targeted toward assuring the integrity of the local environment within microsystem packages were developed and evaluated. These reactive getters incorporate volatile species into a polymer through covalent bonds, thus producing a non-volatile product. These reactive getters will be combined with getters that rely on absorption media (e.g. zeolites and high surface area carbon fibers) to scavenge non-reactive species, like solvents. Our getter systems will rely on device packaging to limit exchange between the microsystem and the global environment. Thus, the internal getters need only provide local environmental control within the microsystem package. A series of experiments were conducted to determine uptake rates and capacities absorption and reactive-based getters. Diffusion rates through the binder used to hold the getter particles together were also investigated. Getters were evaluated in environments with a saturated headspace and with a limited amount of the volatile species of interest. One- and two-dimensional numerical models and analysis techniques have been developed and used to predict the transport of contaminant species within a representative microsystem package consisting of an open gas-filled volume adjacent to a polymer layer containing embedded particles of getter. The two-dimensional model features explicit representation of the individual getter particles while the one-dimensional treatment assumes a homogeneous distribution of getter material within the getterlpolymer layer. Example calculations illustrate the dependence of getter performance on reaction rates, polymer diffusivity, and getter particle volume fraction. In addition, the model is used to deduce surface reaction rates, solid phase diffusivities, and maximum-loading densities by least-squares fitting of model predictions to measured histories of gas-phase contaminant concentration and getter weight gain.

  5. Fabrication of a novel microsystem for the electrical characterisation of cell array

    OpenAIRE

    Hediger, S.; Sayah, A.; M.A.M. Gijs

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and realised a new type of microsystem for the electrical characterisation of arrays of living cells for biomedical diagnostic purposes. We have used deep plasma etching for the fabrication of microholes and micro-fluidic channels in silicon substrates. After oxidation and electrical contact fabrication, these structured silicon wafers have been anodically bonded with Pyrex wafers. The fabrication is completed by the gluing of micro-patterned polyimide foils on top of the sil...

  6. Integrated research on the Pen Duick cold-water coral mounds: the MiCROSYSTEMS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooij, D.; De Mol, L.; D. Blamart; Mienis, F.; L. M. Wehrmann; Barbieri, R; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; Haas, H; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS Science Team

    2010-01-01

    The ESF EuroDIVERSITY MiCROSYSTEMS project aimed to turn the cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment (PDE) in the Gulf of Cadiz into a natural laboratory, exploring this highly complex biotope and to characterize its biodiversity. A common point of discussion with all other CWC mound provinces, surpassing its broad range of regional and morphological variability, concerns the driving forces regarding the initiation of these complex deep-water systems. Both oceanographic and ...

  7. Fabrication and characterization of reactive nanoscale multilayer systems for low-temperature bonding in microsystem technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive bonding is a still new low-temperature joining process that is based on reactive nanoscale multilayer systems. The heat required for the bonding process is generated by a self-propagating exothermic reaction within the multilayer system while the adhesive interconnect is supported by solder films. For microsystem applications, the approach is particularly useful if temperature-sensitive components and materials with high differences in coefficient of thermal expansion have to be joined. In this paper, this is successfully demonstrated for bonding a quartz strain gauge onto a stainless steel membrane and an IR-emitter onto a covar socket by using commercially available nickel/aluminum NanoFoils©. The quality of the bond interface of both demonstrators was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the strength was determined by a tensile test. On the other hand, integrated microsystem applications beyond die attachment require patterned bond structures, e.g. to form bond frames. Thus, alternative materials were additionally considered that can be directly deposited on silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering, such as aluminum/titanium as well as titanium/amorphous silicon (Ti/a-Si) bilayer systems. The properties of these basic multilayer systems and their reaction products were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and high-resolution electron microscopy. It is shown that specifically the Ti/a-Si system has substantial potential for direct microsystem technology integration provided the remaining open technological issues can be addressed during future research. In general, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the high potential of the reactive bonding process as a new advantageous assembly technology for the fabrication of future microsystems.

  8. Hybrid microsystem with functionalized silicon substrate and PDMS sample operating microchannel: A reconfigurable microfluidics scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid microsystem with separately functioned temperature controlling substrate and sample operating fluidic microchannel was developed to demonstrate a reconfigurable microfluidics scheme.The temperature controlling substrate integrated a micro heater and a temperature sensor by using traditional silicon-based micromechanical system(MEMS)technique,which guaranteed high performance and robust reliability for repeatable usage.The sample operating fluidic microchannel was prepared by poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)based soft lithography technique,which made it cheap enough for disposable applications.The PDMS microchannel chip was attached to the temperature controlling substrate for reconfigurable thermal applications.A thin PDMS film was used to seal the microchannel and bridge the functionalized substrate and the sample inside the channel,which facilitated heat transferring and prevented sample contaminating the temperature controlling substrate.Demonstrated by a one dimensional thermal resistance model,the thin PDMS film was important for the present reconfiguration applications.Thermal performance of this hybrid microsystem was examined,and the experimental results demonstrated that the chip system could work stably over hours with temperature variation less than 0.1oC.Multiple PDMS microchannel chips were tested on one heating substrate sequentially with a maximum intra-chip temperature difference of 1.0oC.DNA extracted from serum of a chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV)patient was amplified by this hybrid microsystem and the gel electrophoresis result indicated that the present reconfigurable microfluidic scheme worked successfully.

  9. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  10. LIGA-based microsystem manufacturing:the electrochemistry of through-mold depostion and material properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-01

    The report presented below is to appear in ''Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale'', Patrik Schmuki, Ed. Springer-Verlag, (ca. 2005). The history of the LIGA process, used for fabricating dimensional precise structures for microsystem applications, is briefly reviewed, as are the basic elements of the technology. The principal focus however, is on the unique aspects of the electrochemistry of LIGA through-mask metal deposition and the generation of the fine and uniform microstructures necessary to ensure proper functionality of LIGA components. We draw from both previously published work by external researchers in the field as well as from published and unpublished studies from within Sandia.

  11. Evolutionary algorithms for compact thermal modelling of microsystems: application to a micro-pyrotechnic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacin, J.; Salleras, M.; Puig, M.; Samitier, J.; Marco, S.

    2004-07-01

    In this work, we approach the problem of extracting a dynamic multiport thermal compact model from thermal impedance transients of microsystems using genetic algorithms. The model takes the form of a unique RC network, using a thermal-electrical analogy. The model topology is codified in a binary chromosoma and nonlinear least squares is used for sizing their components. The compact model topology evolution is genetically controlled to obtain the RC network that minimizes the reconstruction error of the thermal impedance transients. As an example, the proposed methodology is applied to an innovative silicon microthruster and compared with random search and sequential forward selection.

  12. Thermoelectric generator and solid-state battery for stand-alone microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, J.P.; Silva, M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; L.M. Gonçalves; Correia, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a thermoelectric (TE) generator and a solid-state battery for powering microsystems. Prototypes of TE generators were fabricated and characterized. The TE generator is a planar microstructure based on thin films of n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and p-type antimony telluride (Sb2Te3), which were deposited using co-evaporation. The measurements on selected samples of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films indicated a Seebeck coefficient in the range of 90–250 μV K−1...

  13. Electroplating and characterization of cobalt-nickel-iron and nickel-iron for magnetic microsystems applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Tang, Peter Torben;

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of pulse reverse (PR) electroplated CoNiFe and DC electroplated NiTe are presented. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density (B-s) and a low coercivity (H-c). A new bath formulation has...... been developed, which by means of PR electroplating makes it possible to deposit high B-s CoNiFe with a low residual stress level. The magnetic properties have been determined using a new simple measurement setup that allows for wafer level characterization. The results have been validated by...

  14. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  15. A microsystem-based assay for studying pollen tube guidance in plant reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel microsystem-based assay to assess and quantify pollen tube behavior in response to pistil tissues. During plant reproduction, signals from female tissues (pistils) guide the sperm-carrying pollen tube to the egg cell to achieve fertilization and initiate seed development. Existing pollen tube guidance bioassays are performed in an isotropically diffusive environment (for example, a semi in vivo assay in petri dishes) instead of anisotropically diffusive conditions required to characterize guidance signal gradients. Lack of a sensitive pollen tube guidance bioassay has therefore compounded the difficulties of identifying and characterizing the guidance signals that are likely produced in minute quantities by the ovules. We therefore developed a novel microsystem-based assay that mimics the in vivo micro-environment of ovule fertilization by pollen tubes in the model research plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this microdevice, the pollen tube growth rate, length and ovule targeting frequencies were similar to those obtained using a semi in vivo plate assay. As a direct measure of the microdevice's utility in monitoring pollen tube guidance, we demonstrated that in this device, pollen tubes preferentially enter chambers with unfertilized ovules, suggesting that the pollen tubes sense the concentration gradient and respond to the chemoattractants secreted by unfertilized ovules

  16. Miniaturized microDMFC using silicon microsystems techniques: performances at low fuel flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of high performance miniaturized micro direct methanol fuel cells (microDMFC) functioning at room temperature under a forced low input fuel flow rate (−1) fabricated using silicon microsystems techniques. A room temperature maximum power output of 12.5 mW cm−2 has been measured at a fuel flow rate of 5.52 µL min−1 for a fuel cell surface area as small as 0.3 cm2 (corresponding to a fuel use efficiency of 14.1% at 300 K). At a lower flow rate of 1.38 µL min−1, the fuel use efficiency rises to 20.1% although the power density falls to 4.3 mW cm−2. The study revealed that improved room temperature cell performances in terms of power density can be achieved at low flow rates (−1) by (i) reducing the fuel cell area and (ii) reducing the microchannel cross-section. The study also revealed that higher fuel use efficiencies are obtained at lower fuel flow rates. Fuel (methanol) for the anode and an oxidant (air) for the cathode are supplied via a compact serpentine network of micron-size microfluidic and gas microchannels; by using silicon microsystems techniques we also render the fuel cell compatible with other silicon technologies such as microelectronics and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS)

  17. Microsystem design

    CERN Document Server

    Senturia, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    Foreword. Preface. Acknowledgments. Part I: Getting Started. 1. Introduction. 2. An Approach to MEMS Design. 3. Microfabrication. 4. Process Integration. Part II: Modeling Strategies. 5. Lumped Modeling. 6. Energy-Conserving Transducers. 7. Dynamics. Part III: Domain-Specific Details. 8. Elasticity. 9. Structures. 10. Energy Methods. 11. Dissipation and the Thermal Energy Domain. 12. Lumped Modeling of Dissipative Processes. 13. Fluids. Part IV: Circuit and System Issues. 14. Electronics. 15. Feedback Systems. 16. Noise. Part V: Case Studies. 17. Packaging. 18. A Piezoresistive Pres

  18. Biomedical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEvolution of MEMSApplications of MEMSBioMEMS ApplicationsMEMS ResourcesText Goals and OrganizationMiniaturization and ScalingBioMEMS MaterialsTraditional MEMS and Microelectronic MaterialsPolymeric Materials for MEMSBiomaterialsMicrofabrication Methods and Processes for BioMEMSIntroductionMicrolithographyDopingMicromachiningWafer Bonding, Assembly, and PackagingSurface TreatmentConversion Factors for Energy and Intensity UnitsLaboratory ExercisesMicrofluidicsIntroduction and Fluid PropertiesConcepts in MicrofluidicsFluid-Transport Phenomena and PumpingFlow ControlLaboratory Exercis

  19. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr. (,; .); Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  20. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for Calorimetry at LHC, pt.1, 1990

    CERN Document Server

    Löfstedt, B; Svensson, C; Yuan, J; Hentzell, H; Sami, M; Stefanelli, F; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Dell'Acqua, A; Fumagalli, G; Goggi, Giorgio V; Maloberti, F; Torelli, G; Carlson, P J; Fuglesang, C; Kérek, A; Appelquist, G; Berglund, S R; Bohm, C; Yamdagni, N; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    We propose a digital approach to the front-end electronic chain for calorimetric detectors based on high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter chain and local intelligence. Questions of error correction, fault-tolerance and redundancy are also to be considered. The solutions proposed are designed to match the whole range of calorimeter performances in terms of resolution and signal speed. A system integration of a multichannel device in a multi-chip, Silicon- on-Silicon Microsystem hybrid is proposed. This solution allows a new level of integration of complex analog and digital functions, with an excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of large scale integration also offers the possibility to implement detector-specific functions, as well as a high degree of programmability at both the function and the system level.

  1. The BioSentinel Bioanalytical Microsystem: Characterizing DNA Radiation Damage in Living Organisms Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, A. J.; Hanel, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Boone, T.; Tan, M.; Mousavi, A.; Rademacher, A.; Schooley, A.; Klamm, B.; Benton, J.; Padgen, M.; Gentry, D.; Friedericks, C.; Defouw, G.; Parra, M.; Santa Maria, S.; Marina, D.; Swan, B. G.; Wheeler, S.; Gavalas, S.; Lewis, B.; Sanchez, H.; Chartres, J.; Lusby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We will present details and initial lab test results from an integrated bioanalytical microsystem designed to conduct the first biology experiments beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) since Apollo 17 (1972). The 14-kg, 12x24x37-cm BioSentinel spacecraft (Figure 1) assays radiation-responsive yeast in its science payload by measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired via homologous recombination, a mechanism common to all eukaryotes including humans. S. cerevisiae (brewer's yeast) in 288 microwells are provided with nutrient and optically assayed for growth and metabolism via 3-color absorptimetry monthly during the 18-month mission. BioSentinel is one of several secondary payloads to be deployed by NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) launch vehicle into approximately 0.95 AU heliocentric orbit in July 2018; it will communicate with Earth from up to 100 million km.

  2. Development of a microsystem based on a microfluidic network to tune and reconfigure RF circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue presents devices and the results of a tunable microwave microsystem associating RF circuits and microfluidic components. A channel is buried inside the substrate of a microstrip waveguide. This channel is located beneath a resonant stub. With this configuration a microfluidic passive tunable filter can be fabricated. Dielectric fluids are used to disrupt the electric field in a microstrip structure and thus modify the effective permittivity of the substrate. In this work, a notch filter is realized with an open-ended quarter-wavelength stub placed on top of a hollow SU-8 structure. This structure offers two advantages: channels can easily be fabricated and a reduction of SU8 losses. The filter shows a good performance; the initial cut-off frequency of 25 GHz shifts more than 20% when deionized water is used in fluidic channels. And the shape of RF function is kept throughout the range. (paper)

  3. Functional Materials for Microsystems: Smart Self-Assembled Photochromic Films: Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project set out to scientifically-tailor ''smart'' interfacial films and 3-D composite nanostructures to exhibit photochromic responses to specific, highly-localized chemical and/or mechanical stimuli, and to integrate them into optical microsystems. The project involved the design of functionalized chromophoric self-assembled materials that possessed intense and environmentally-sensitive optical properties (absorbance, fluorescence) enabling their use as detectors of specific stimuli and transducers when interfaced with optical probes. The conjugated polymer polydiacetylene (PDA) proved to be the most promising material in many respects, although it had some drawbacks concerning reversibility. Throughout his work we used multi-task scanning probes (AFM, NSOM), offering simultaneous optical and interfacial force capabilities, to actuate and characterize the PDA with localized and specific interactions for detailed characterization of physical mechanisms and parameters. In addition to forming high quality mono-, bi-, and tri-layers of PDA via Langmuir-Blodgett deposition, we were successful in using the diacetylene monomer precursor as a surfactant that directed the self-assembly of an ordered, mesostructured inorganic host matrix. Remarkably, the diacetylene was polymerized in the matrix, thus providing a PDA-silica composite. The inorganic matrix serves as a perm-selective barrier to chemical and biological agents and provides structural support for improved material durability in microsystems. Our original goal was to use the composite films as a direct interface with microscale devices as optical elements (e.g., intracavity mirrors, diffraction gratings), taking advantage of the very high sensitivity of device performance to real-time dielectric changes in the films. However, our optical physics colleagues (M. Crawford and S. Kemme) were unsuccessful in these efforts, mainly due to the poor optical quality of the composite films

  4. Screen printing as a holistic manufacturing method for multifunctional microsystems and microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, D.; Lozano, P.; Mata, D.; Cito, S.; Constantí, M.; Katakis, I.

    2009-11-01

    Microsystems are commonly manufactured by photolithographic or injection moulding techniques in a variety of realizations and on almost any material. A perennial problem in the manufacturing of microsystems is the difficulty to obtain hybrid devices that incorporate distinct materials with different functionalities. In most of the cases, cumbersome prototyping and high investment needed for manufacturing are additional problems that add to the cost of the final product. Such drawbacks are true not only for lab-on-a-chip but also for certain microreactor applications. Most importantly, in many commercial applications where an intermediate product between full fluidics control and a 'strip' is needed, such restraints prohibit the feasibility of reduction to practice. Screen printing on the other hand is a low cost technique that has been used for years in mass producing two-dimensional low cost reproductions of a mask pattern for circuits and art incorporates prototyping in production and allows the use of an almost limitless variety of materials as 'inks'. In this work it is demonstrated that taking advantage of the deposited ink's three-dimensional nature, screen printing can be used as a versatile and low cost technique for the fabrication of microchannels. Microchannels with dimensions in the order of 100 µm were fabricated that could readily incorporate functionalities through the choice of the materials used to create the microstructure. Variables have been investigated through a factorial experimental design as important process parameters that affect the resolution and print thickness of the resulting microchannels that incorporate electroactive elements. Such studies can lead to the optimization of the process for custom applications.

  5. Unsteady flows in milli- and microsystems: analysis of wall shear rate fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, F. [IFSTTAR, Department Materials, Aggregates and Materials Processing, Bouguenais Cedex (France); Legentilhomme, P.; Legrand, J.; Montillet, A.; Comiti, J. [Universite de Nantes, CNRS, UMR 6144, C.R.T.T, GEPEA, Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France)

    2011-09-15

    The particular benefits of microfluidic systems, in terms of heat and mass transfer enhancement, require conducting local flow diagnostics, especially when unsteady properties of the microflow can play a critical role at the reaction interface, as currently observed in the fields of bioengineering and chemical engineering. The present paper focuses on unsteady confined flows within microsystems characterized by various geometries of crossing channels and exhibiting high surface-to-volume ratios. An experimental analysis of the signal measured at microsensors embedded to the wall of microsystems is discussed. In the objective of performing flow diagnostics, including regime identification and wall flow structure recognition, two methods for electrochemical signal processing are investigated and compared within an experimental network of crossing minichannels. One method is based on the use of a transfer function, while the other, the so-called Sobolik solution (Sobolik et al. in Coll Czech Chem Commun 52:913-928, 1987), consists of finding a direct solution to the mass balance equation. Sobolik's method has been selected given its ability to provide a description, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers (317 < Re < 3,535), for all wall shear rate fluctuations, as well as for the associated mixing scales in the power spectra density (PSD). This technique is then applied to flow within micromixers composed of two crossing microchannels in order to study highly unsteady and inhomogeneous microflows. The hydraulic diameters of the studied channels are 500 and 833 {mu}m, respectively. Two flow patterns are investigated herein: the crossing-flow type and the impinging flow (or so called co-flow) for a Reynolds number range between 173 and 3,356. The PSD of wall shear rate fluctuations reveals various flow characteristics depending on the microchannel aspect ratio. (orig.)

  6. Non-destructive three-dimensional imaging for microsystem devices; Zerstoerungsfreie, dreidimensional abbildende Untersuchungen fuer Mikrosystem-Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfen, L.; Baumbach, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Synchrotronstrahlung

    2005-07-01

    Computed laminography with synchrotron radiation was developed and applied to the three-dimensional imaging of flat, laterally extended objects with high spatial resolutions. Particular experimental conditions of a stationary synchrotron have been taken into account by a scanning geometry different from that employed with conventional, mobile laboratory X-ray sources. High spatial resolutions down to the scale of one micrometre can be attained non-destructively also for objects of large lateral size. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by the application to the inspection of solder joints in various applications of microsystem technology. This highlights the potential for improved quality assurance of microsystem devices which could be applied e.g. for technology optimisation during their development cycle. (orig.)

  7. Comparative Study of the CSR Initiatives of Microsoft, IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems in the Gulf Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sikander, Huzaifa

    2008-01-01

    An integral part of the MBA degree at University of Nottingham is the management project worth 60 credits which marks the completion of the degree. I got a chance to do my management project with Microsoft Corporation Gulf and was working with three other friends of mine. The project was a comparative study of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives of Microsoft with IBM, Google, Sun Microsystems and Cisco Systems. I was working in the project with three other friends of mine an...

  8. PDMS-on-silicon microsystems: Integration of polymer micro/nanostructures for new MEMS device functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Chung

    2005-11-01

    Modern technologies found in military, space-craft, automotive, and telecommunications applications strongly demand reductions of the manufacturing cost, power consumption, size, and weight of integrated sensors and actuators. The research field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has seen significant technological innovations and advancements to meet this demand in the last two decades. Historically, MEMS technology has been seen as an offspring of silicon-based integrated circuit (IC) technology. But recently, the roles that polymer materials play in MEMS have been more pronounced due to their cost effectiveness, manufacturability, and compatibility with micro/nanoscale biological and chemical systems. Among these polymers, an organic elastomer, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), has become one of the most popular materials because of its unique material properties and moldability suited for low-cost rapid prototyping based on a fabrication technique called soft lithography. However, PDMS micro/nanostructures, not allowed to be integrated with other silicon-based devices, find their limited use in MEMS other than in passive microfluidic components. The lack of a technology bridging the gap between silicon and PDMS prohibits us to realize new MEMS devices potentially resulting from the simultaneous use of these two materials. This research explores a fully new technological concept of "PDMS-on-silicon microsystems." "PDMS-on-silicon microsystems" refers to a class of novel MEMS devices integrating PDMS micro/nanostructures onto silicon actuators and/or sensors. The research aims to demonstrate a new type of MEMS devices taking advantage of benefits resulting from both of silicon and PDMS. To achieve this goal, this work develops a new MEMS fabrication technique called "soft-lithographic lift-off and grafting (SLLOG)." The SLLOG process starts with soft lithography-based molding and release of a three-dimensional (3D) PDMS microstructure. This is followed by

  9. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of −3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of −1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of −23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  10. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed. PMID:20024028

  11. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  12. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential. (paper)

  13. Sun Microsystems' autoClient and management of computer farms at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern HEP experiments require immense amounts of computing power. In the BaBar experiment at SLAC, most of it is provided by Solaris SPARC systems. AutoClient, a product of Sun Microsystems, was designed to make setting up and managing large numbers of Solaris systems more straightforward. AutoClient machines keep all file systems, except swap, on a server and employ CacheFS to cache them onto a local disk, which makes them Field Replaceable Units with performance of stand-alone systems. The authors began exploring the technology in Summer 1998, and currently operate online, reconstruction, analysis and console AutoClient farms with the total number of nodes exceeding 400. Although the technology has been available since 1995, it has not been widely used, and the available documentation does not adequately cover many important details of AutoClient installation and management. This paper discusses various aspects of the authors experience with AutoClient, including tips and tricks, performance and maintainability, scalability and server requirements, existing problems and possible future enhancements

  14. Preliminary investigation of an SOI-based arrayed waveguide grating demodulation integration microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm(2) is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm(2) and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  15. Polyimide as a versatile enabling material for microsystems fabrication: surface micromachining and electrodeposited nanowires integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of using polyimide as a sacrificial and anchoring layer is demonstrated for post-processing surface micromachining and for the incorporation of metallic nanowires into microsystems. In addition to properties like a high planarization factor, a good resistance to most non-oxidizing acids and bases, and CMOS compatibility, polyimide can also be used as a mold for nanostructures after ion track-etching. Moreover, specific polyimide grades, such as PI-2611 from HD Microsystems™, involve a thermal expansion coefficient similar to silicon and low internal stress. The process developed in this study permits higher gaps compared to the state-of-the-art, limits stiction problems with the substrate and is adapted to various top-layer materials. Most metals, semiconductors or ceramics will not be affected by the oxygen plasma required for polyimide etching. Released structures with vertical gaps from one to several tens of μm have been obtained, possibly using multiple layers of polyimide. Furthermore, patterned freestanding nanowires have been synthesized with diameters from 20 to 60 nm and up to 3 μm in length. These results have been applied to the fabrication of two specific devices: a generic nanomechanical testing lab-on-chip platform and a miniaturized ionization sensor. (paper)

  16. Deep Etching Process Developed for the Fabrication of Silicon Carbide Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2000-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), because of its superior electrical and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, is a nearly ideal material for the microminiature sensors and actuators that are used in harsh environments where temperatures may reach 600 C or greater. Deep etching using plasma methods is one of the key processes used to fabricate silicon microsystems for more benign environments, but SiC has proven to be a more difficult material to etch, and etch depths in SiC have been limited to several micrometers. Recently, the Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field developed a plasma etching process that was shown to be capable of etching SiC to a depth of 60 mm. Deep etching of SiC is achieved by inductive coupling of radiofrequency electrical energy to a sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma to direct a high flux of energetic ions and reactive fluorine atoms to the SiC surface. The plasma etch is performed at a low pressure, 5 mtorr, which together with a high gas throughput, provides for rapid removal of the gaseous etch products. The lateral topology of the SiC microstructure is defined by a thin film of etch-resistant material, such as indium-tin-oxide, which is patterned using conventional photolithographic processes. Ions from the plasma bombard the exposed SiC surfaces and supply the energy needed to initiate a reaction between SiC and atomic fluorine. In the absence of ion bombardment, no reaction occurs, so surfaces perpendicular to the wafer surface (the etch sidewalls) are etched slowly, yielding the desired vertical sidewalls.

  17. Thermoelectric generator and solid-state battery for stand-alone microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J. P.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Silva, M. F.; Goncalves, L. M.; Correia, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a thermoelectric (TE) generator and a solid-state battery for powering microsystems. Prototypes of TE generators were fabricated and characterized. The TE generator is a planar microstructure based on thin films of n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and p-type antimony telluride (Sb2Te3), which were deposited using co-evaporation. The measurements on selected samples of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films indicated a Seebeck coefficient in the range of 90-250 µV K-1 and an in-plane electrical resistivity in the range of 7-17 µΩ m. The measurements also showed TE figures-of-merit, ZT, at room temperatures (T = 300 K) of 0.97 and 0.56, for thin films of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3, respectively (equivalent to a power factor, PF, of 4.87 mW K-2 m-1 and 2.81 mW K-2 m-1). The solid-state battery is based on thin films of: an anode of tin dioxide (SnO2), an electrolyte of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LixPOyNz, known as LiPON) and a cathode of lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2, known as LiCO), which were deposited using the reactive RF (radio-frequency) sputtering. The deposition and characterization results of these thin-films layers are also reported in this paper.

  18. Thermoelectric generator and solid-state battery for stand-alone microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermoelectric (TE) generator and a solid-state battery for powering microsystems. Prototypes of TE generators were fabricated and characterized. The TE generator is a planar microstructure based on thin films of n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and p-type antimony telluride (Sb2Te3), which were deposited using co-evaporation. The measurements on selected samples of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films indicated a Seebeck coefficient in the range of 90–250 µV K−1 and an in-plane electrical resistivity in the range of 7–17 µΩ m. The measurements also showed TE figures-of-merit, ZT, at room temperatures (T = 300 K) of 0.97 and 0.56, for thin films of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3, respectively (equivalent to a power factor, PF, of 4.87 mW K−2 m−1 and 2.81 mW K−2 m−1). The solid-state battery is based on thin films of: an anode of tin dioxide (SnO2), an electrolyte of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LixPOyNz, known as LiPON) and a cathode of lithium cobaltate (LiCoO2, known as LiCO), which were deposited using the reactive RF (radio-frequency) sputtering. The deposition and characterization results of these thin-films layers are also reported in this paper.

  19. Advanced microtechnologies for detection of chromosome abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul;

    2012-01-01

    cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To improve FISH application in cytogenetic analysis the issues with long experimental time, high volumes of expensive reagents and requirement for trained technicians need to be addressed. The protocol has recently evolved towards on...... chip detection of chromosome abnormalities with the development of microsystems for FISH analysis. The challenges addressed by the developed microsystems are mainly the automation of the assay performance, reduction in probe volume, as well as reduction of assay time. The recent focus on the...

  20. Water pollution analysis and detection. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning water pollution analysis, detection, monitoring, and regulation. Citations review online systems, bioassay monitoring, laser-based detection, sensor and biosensor systems, metabolic analyzers, and microsystem techniques. References cover fiber-optic portable detection instruments and rapid detection of toxicants in drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. The giant cold-water coral mound as a nested microbial/metazoan system: physical, chemical, biological and geological picture (ESF EuroDiversity MiCROSYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J. P.; Microsystems Team

    2009-04-01

    The MiCROSYSTEMS project under the ESF EUROCORES EuroDiversity scheme is a holistic and multi-scale approach in studying microbial diversity and functionality in a nested microbial/metazoan system, which thrives in deep waters: the giant cold-water coral mound. Studies on prolific cold-water coral sites have been carried out from the canyons of the Bay of Biscay to the fjords of the Norwegian margin, while the Pen Duick carbonate mound province off Morocco developed into a joint natural lab for studying in particular the impact of biogeochemical and microbial processes on modern sedimentary diagenesis within the reef sediments, in complement to the studies on I0DP Exp. 307 cores (Challenger Mound, off Ireland). Major outcomes of this research can be summarized as follows. • IODP Exp. 307 on Challenger Mound had revealed a significant prokaryotic community both within and beneath the carbonate mound. MiCROSYSTEMS unveils a remarkable degree of compartmentalization in such community from the seawater, the coral skeleton surface and mucus to the reef sediments. The occurrence of such multiple and distinct microbial compartments associated with cold-water coral ecosystems promotes opportunities for microbial diversity in the deep ocean. • New cases of co-habitation of cold-water corals and giant deep-water oysters were discovered in the Bay of Biscay, which add a new facet of macrofaunal diversity to cold-water coral reef systems. • The discovery of giant, ancient coral graveyards on the Moroccan mounds not only fuels the debate about natural versus anthropogenic mass extinction, but these open frameworks simultaneously invite for the study of bio-erosion and early diagenesis, in particular organo-mineralization, and of the possible role and significance of these thick, solid rubble patches in 3D mound-building and consolidation. • The assessment of the carbonate budget of a modern cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound) reveals that only 33 to 40 wt % of

  2. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 22nd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2011) Selected papers from the 22nd MicroMechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop (MME 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlckers, Per

    2012-07-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is a selection of 13 of the best papers presented at the 22nd Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe Workshop, which was arranged in Toensberg, Norway, 19-22 June, 2011. 110 participants attended the 3 day workshop that had 5 invited keynote speakers and 80 submitted poster presentations. The MME Workshop is organized every year to gather mostly European scientists and people from industry to discuss topics related to research in micromechanics and microsystems in an informal manner. A distinct feature of this specialized workshop is to be an excellent venue for young scientists in the field, such as PhD students, to present their latest work. This workshop series was inaugurated in Enschede, the Netherlands in 1989, followed by: Berlin, Germany (1990), Leuven, Belgium (1992), Neuchatel, Switzerland (1993), Pisa, Italy (1994), Copenhagen, Denmark (1995), Barcelona, Spain (1996) [1], Southampton, UK (1997) [2], Ulvik, Norway (1998) [3], Gif-sur-Yvette, France (1999) [4], Uppsala, Sweden (2000), Cork, Ireland (2001) [5], Sinaia, Romania (2002) [6], Delft, The Netherlands (2003) [7], Leuven, Belgium (2004) [8], Goteborg, Sweden (2005) [9], Southampton, UK (2006) [10], Guimaraes, Portugal (2007) [11], Aachen, Germany (2008) [12], Toulouse, France (2009) [13] and Enschede, the Netherlands (2010) [14]. The workshop series has remained remarkably true to its original concept such as still having micromechanics as a priority topic while, at the same time, adapting to recent research topics such as microsystems integration. It is nice to observe that an earlier fragmented and mostly academic research field now has matured into a very strong industrial field being one of the fastest growing industries in the world, with successful applications on all levels from high end to low end, from space to consumer applications, with the inclusion of microsystems in smartphones such as three-axis accelerometers and

  3. Low spring index, large displacement Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) coil actuators for use in macro- and micro-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschuh, Brad; Newman, Dava

    2014-03-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) offer unique shape changing characteristics that can be exploited to produce low­ mass, low-bulk, large-stroke actuators. We are investigating the use of low spring index (defined as the ratio of coil diameter to wire diameter) SMA coils for use as actuators in morphing aerospace systems. Specifically, we describe the development and characterization of minimum achievable spring index coiled actuators made from 0.3048 mm (0.012") diameter shape memory alloy (SMA) wire for integration in textile architectures for future compression space suit applications. Production and shape setting of the coiled actuators, as well as experimental test methods, are described. Force, length and voltage relationships for multiple coil actuators are reported and discussed. The actuators exhibit a highly linear (R2 designs, and the broader viability of these actuators in both macro- and micro-systems, are presented.

  4. Immuno-capture and in situ detection of Salmonella typhimurium on a novel microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel microfluidic chip and a LIF microsystem were designed and fabricated. • Salmonella typhimurium was captured and labeled by specific immuno-capture on chip. • CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled bacteria were detected by in situ analysis using LIF microsystem. • The proposed method has potential application in practice. - Abstract: The new method presented in this article achieved the goal of capturing Salmonella typhimurium via immunoreaction and rapid in situ detection of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) labeled S. typhimurium by self-assembly light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) microsystem on a specially designed multichannel microfluidic chip. CdSe/ZnS QDs were used as fluorescent markers improving detection sensitivity. The microfluidic chip developed in this study was composed of 12 sample channels, 3 mixing zones, and 6 immune reaction zones, which also acted as fluorescence detection zones. QDs–IgG–primary antibody complexes were generated by mixing CdSe/ZnS QDs conjugated secondary antibody (QDs–IgG) and S. typhimurium antibody (primary antibody) in mixing zones. Then, the complexes went into immune reaction zones to label previously captured S. typhimurium in the sandwich mode. The capture rate of S. typhimurium in each detection zone was up to 70%. The enriched QDs-labeled S. typhimurium was detected using a self-assembly LIF microsystem. A good linear relationship was obtained in the range from 3.7 × 10 to 3.7 × 105 cfu mL−1 using the equation I = 0.1739 log (C) − 0.1889 with R2 = 0.9907, and the detection limit was down to 37 cfu mL−1. The proposed method of online immunolabeling with QDs for in situ fluorescence detection on the designed multichannel microfluidic chip had been successfully used to detect S. typhimurium in pork sample, and it has shown potential advantages in practice

  5. SARAD EQF 3020 - A new microsystem based monitoring system for the continuous measurement of radon and the attached and unattached fraction of the radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the large differences in the dose factors for radon and radon daughters it's recommended to measure both, but monitors for the continuous and simultaneous measurement of radon and radon progeny concentrations are too expensive to be widely used if they are built from individual components. Integrating detector, readout electronics, memory and an A/D converter on a single chip offers far lower prices at least if this silicon microsystem can be produced in large quantities. It is known that dRAM cells of commercial available memories are sensitive to alpha particles, but even if one accepts unstable operating conditions (Ucc 2. Further development with special PMOS-transistors in a floating n-well as sensor cells has resulted in an alpha particle spectrometric microsystem with an effective sensor array of 40 mm2. Alternative for higher resolution we developed PiN -structures with more than 100 mm2 sensor area with integrated preamplification

  6. A Wireless and Batteryless Microsystem with Implantable Grid Electrode/3-Dimensional Probe Array for ECoG and Extracellular Neural Recording in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Wei Chang; Jin-Chern Chiou

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated wireless microsystem platform that provides the possibility to support versatile implantable neural sensing devices in free laboratory rats. Inductive coupled coils with low dropout regulator design allows true long-term recording without limitation of battery capacity. A 16-channel analog front end chip located on the headstage is designed for high channel account neural signal conditioning with low current consumption and no...

  7. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  8. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  9. Design and fabrication of three-axis accelerometer sensor microsystem for wide temperature range applications using semi-custom process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdassi, A.; Wang, Y.; Xereas, G.; Chodavarapu, V. P.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an integrated CMOS-MEMS inertial sensor microsystem, consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer sensor device and its complementary readout circuit, which is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from - 55°C to 175°C. The accelerometer device is based on capacitive transduction and is fabricated using PolyMUMPS, which is a commercial process available from MEMSCAP. The fabricated accelerometer device is then post-processed by depositing a layer of amorphous silicon carbide to form a composite sensor structure to improve its performance over an extended wide temperature range. We designed and fabricated a CMOS readout circuit in IBM 0.13μm process that interfaces with the accelerometer device to serve as a capacitance to voltage converter. The accelerometer device is designed to operate over a measurement range of +/-20g. The described sensor system allows low power, low cost and mass-producible implementation well suited for a variety of applications with harsh or wide temperature operating conditions.

  10. The Intersection of CMOS Microsystems and Upconversion Nanoparticles for Luminescence Bioimaging and Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic fluorophores and quantum dots are ubiquitous as contrast agents for bio-imaging and as labels in bioassays to enable the detection of biological targets and processes. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs offer a different set of opportunities as labels in bioassays and for bioimaging. UCNPs are excited at near-infrared (NIR wavelengths where biological molecules are optically transparent, and their luminesce in the visible and ultraviolet (UV wavelength range is suitable for detection using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. These nanoparticles provide multiple sharp emission bands, long lifetimes, tunable emission, high photostability, and low cytotoxicity, which render them particularly useful for bio-imaging applications and multiplexed bioassays. This paper surveys several key concepts surrounding upconversion nanoparticles and the systems that detect and process the corresponding luminescence signals. The principle of photon upconversion, tuning of emission wavelengths, UCNP bioassays, and UCNP time-resolved techniques are described. Electronic readout systems for signal detection and processing suitable for UCNP luminescence using CMOS technology are discussed. This includes recent progress in miniaturized detectors, integrated spectral sensing, and high-precision time-domain circuits. Emphasis is placed on the physical attributes of UCNPs that map strongly to the technical features that CMOS devices excel in delivering, exploring the interoperability between the two technologies.

  11. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter Kalsen;

    2006-01-01

    of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DER The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the...... cell is measured by integrated polymer optical elements (waveguide, lens, and fiber coupler). By comparing the cell counting rates measured by the two FCs, the collection efficiency of the DEP filter can be determined. The chips were used for quantitative determination of the effect of flow rate......, e.g., collecting cancer cells on a DEP filter while normal cells pass through the system. Furthermore, the microstructure is simple to fabricate and can easily be integrated with other microstructures for labon-a-chip applications....

  12. BIOMEMS Microsystems based on Silicon Integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers for biosensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lechuga, Laura M.; Sánchez del Río, José; Sepúlveda Martínez, Borja; Blanco, Francisco; Calle Martín, Ana; Domínguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    [EN]: We show the design, fabrication and testing of micro/nanobiosensor devices based on optical waveguides in a highly sensitive interferometric configuration and by using evanescent wave detection. The devices are fabricated by standard Silicon CMOS compatible technology. Direct biosensing with the interferometric devices is achieved after a specific receptor coupling to the waveguide surface using nanometer scale immobilization techniques. Further integration of the sensors, t...

  13. Deterministic approach for unsteady rarefied flow simulations in complex geometries and its application to gas flows in microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigullapalli, Sruti

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are widely used in automotive, communications and consumer electronics applications with microactuators, micro gyroscopes and microaccelerometers being just a few examples. However, in areas where high reliability is critical, such as in aerospace and defense applications, very few MEMS technologies have been adopted so far. Further development of high frequency microsystems such as resonators, RF MEMS, microturbines and pulsed-detonation microengines require improved understanding of unsteady gas dynamics at the micro scale. Accurate computational simulation of such flows demands new approaches beyond the conventional formulations based on the macroscopic constitutive laws. This is due to the breakdown of the continuum hypothesis in the presence of significant non-equilibrium and rarefaction because of large gradients and small scales, respectively. More generally, the motion of molecules in a gas is described by the kinetic Boltzmann equation which is valid for arbitrary Knudsen numbers. However, due to the multidimensionality of the phase space and the complex non-linearity of the collision term, numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation is challenging for practical problems. In this thesis a fully deterministic, as opposed to a statistical, finite volume based three-dimensional solution of Boltzmann ES-BGK model kinetic equation is formulated to enable simulations of unsteady rarefied flows. The main goal of this research is to develop an unsteady rarefied solver integrated with finite volume method (FVM) solver in MEMOSA (MEMS Overall Simulation Administrator) developed by PRISM: NNSA center for Prediction of Reliability, Integrity and Survivability of Microsystems (PRISM) at Purdue and apply it to study micro-scale gas damping. Formulation and verification of finite volume method for unsteady rarefied flow solver based on Boltzmann-ESBGK equations in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries are presented. The solver is

  14. Miniaturization of uranium/plutonium/fission products separation: design of a 'lab-on-CD' micro-system and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical analysis of spent nuclear fuels is essential to design future nuclear fuels cycle and reprocessing methods but also for waste management. The analysis cycle consists of several chemical separation steps which are time consuming and difficult to implement due to confinement in glove boxes. It is required that the separation steps be automated and that the volume of radioactive waste generated be reduced. The design of automated, miniaturized and disposable analytical platforms should fulfill these requirements. This project aims to provide an alternative to the first analytical step of the spent fuels analysis: the chromatographic separation of Uranium and Plutonium from the minor actinides and fission products. The goal is to design a miniaturized platform showing analytical performances equivalent to the current process, and to reduce both the exposure of workers through automation, and the volume of waste produced at the end of the analysis cycle. Thus, the separation has been implemented on a disposable plastic micro-system (COC), specifically designed for automation: a lab on a Compact Disk or lab-on-CD. The developed prototype incorporates an anion-exchange monolithic micro-column whose in-situ synthesis as well as surface functionalization have been optimized specifically for the desired separation. The development of an adapted separation protocol was carried out using a simulation tool modeling the elution of the various elements of interest. This tool is able to predict the column geometry (length and cross section) suited to obtain pure fractions of Uranium and Plutonium as a function of the sample composition. Finally, the prototype is able to automatically carry out four separations simultaneously reducing the number of manipulations, the analysis time and reducing the volume of liquid waste by a factor of 1000. (author)

  15. Pulse-Reverse Electrodeposition and Micromachining of Graphene-Nickel Composite: An Efficient Strategy toward High-Performance Microsystem Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; An, Zhonglie; Wang, Zhuqing; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2016-02-17

    Graphene reinforced nickel (Ni) is an intriguing nanocomposite with tremendous potential for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) applications by remedying mechanical drawbacks of the metal matrix for device optimization, though very few related works have been reported. In this paper, we developed a pulse-reverse electrodeposition method for synthesizing graphene-Ni (G-Ni) composite microcomponents with high content and homogeneously dispersed graphene filler. While the Vickers hardness is largely enhanced by 2.7-fold after adding graphene, the Young's modulus of composite under dynamic condition shows ∼1.4-fold increase based on the raised resonant frequency of a composite microcantilever array. For the first time, we also demonstrate the application of G-Ni composite in microsystems by fabricating a Si micromirror with the composite supporting beams as well as investigate the long-term stability of the mirror at resonant vibration. Compared with the pure Ni counterpart, the composite mirror shows an apparently lessened fluctuations of resonant frequency and scanning angle due to a suppressed plastic deformation even under the sustaining periodic loading. This can be ascribed to the reduced grain size of Ni matrix and dislocation hindering in the presence of graphene by taking into account the crystalline refinement strengthen mechanism. The rational discussions also imply that the strong interface and efficient load transfer between graphene layers and metal matrix play an important role for improving stiffness in composite. It is believed that a proper design of graphene-metal composite makes it a promising structural material candidate for advanced micromechanical devices. PMID:26812267

  16. The giant cold-water coral mound as a nested microbial/metazoan system: physical, chemical, biological and geological picture (ESF EuroDiversity MiCROSYSTEMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Henriet, J.-P.; The MICROSYSTEMS Team

    2009-01-01

    The MiCROSYSTEMS project under the ESF EUROCORES EuroDiversity scheme is a holistic and multi-scale approach in studying microbial diversity and functionality in a nested microbial/metazoan system, which thrives in deep waters: the giant cold-water coral mound. Studies on prolific cold-water coral sites have been carried out from the canyons of the Bay of Biscay to the fjords of the Norwegian margin, while the Pen Duick carbonate mound province off Morocco developed into a joint natural lab f...

  17. Dielectrophoresis microsystem with integrated flow cytometers for on-line monitoring of sorting efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Peter K; Rogeberg, Anders; Kutter, Jörg P; Bang, Dang D; Wolff, Anders

    2006-12-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) and flow cytometry are powerful technologies and widely applied in microfluidic systems for handling and measuring cells and particles. Here, we present a novel microchip with a DEP selective filter integrated with two microchip flow cytometers (FCs) for on-line monitoring of cell sorting processes. On the microchip, the DEP filter is integrated in a microfluidic channel network to sort yeast cells by positive DEP. The two FCs detection windows are set upstream and downstream of the DEP filter. When a cell passes through the detection windows, the light scattered by the cell is measured by integrated polymer optical elements (waveguide, lens, and fiber coupler). By comparing the cell counting rates measured by the two FCs, the collection efficiency of the DEP filter can be determined. The chips were used for quantitative determination of the effect of flow rate, applied voltage, conductivity of the sample, and frequency of the electric field on the sorting efficiency. A theoretical model for the capture efficiency was developed and a reasonable agreement with the experimental results observed. Viable and non-viable yeast cells showed different frequency dependencies and were sorted with high efficiency. At 2 MHz, more than 90% of the viable and less than 10% of the non-viable cells were captured on the DEP filter. The presented approach provides quantitative real-time data for sorting a large number of cells and will allow optimization of the conditions for, e.g., collecting cancer cells on a DEP filter while normal cells pass through the system. Furthermore, the microstructure is simple to fabricate and can easily be integrated with other microstructures for lab-on-a-chip applications. PMID:17161009

  18. A new monitoring microsystem for radiation measurement based on VSLI technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the researches performed at CERN in high energy physics a new semiconductor gamma detector, based on VSLI electronics was developed at INFN. This device is little, cheap reliable and presents high performances. In the frame of a collaboration work, performed between DITEC, Ansaldo ricerche, and INFN, was proposed, as possible, a new use of this detector, different from high energy experiments, namely, the ''average axial power distribution measurement in a nuclear fission reactor, using many ex-core detectors''. At present, the current PWR ex-core nuclear instrumentation system (NIS), is based on a detection facility, composed of four/six axial ionization chambas, each one of which monitors the ex-core neutron flux at one specific elevation. The new proposed Ex-core NIS concepts, is based on the presence of a large number of puntiform silicon detectors axially and radially arranged out of the reactor Vessel and the concrete primary shield. The presence of a large number of detectors and the use of a fast charge preamplifier, connected to the silicon detectors (both of low cost), allows the use of a computer for on line direct control and protection system enhancing safety and economic characteristics of the nuclear reactor. In this paper, after description of the semiconductor detector, of the preamplifier, and of their performances, the above indicated application are described, stressing the safety and economics advantages to be reached through its use. (orig.)

  19. The moderating role of developmental microsystems in selective preventive intervention effects on aggression and victimization of aggressive and socially-influential students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Although ecology is often cited as an important factor in prevention, it is infrequently incorporated to the evaluation of intervention effects. This study tests the moderating role of three developmental microsystems (family, peer, and school) on a family-focused intervention to prevent violence. The family intervention was part of the Multisite Violence Prevention Project, a trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: 1) a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, 2) a selective multiple family group intervention, 3) these two interventions combined, and 4) a no-intervention control condition. The present study focused on 1,113 eligible families from two cohorts. Students attending schools that were randomly assigned to the selective family intervention were compared with students in other conditions. Composite indicators of risk were formulated for each microsystem and entered as moderators of intervention effects on violence and aggression perpetration and overt and relational victimization. Results of intent-to-treat and dose-weighted analyses indicated that peer risk moderated outcomes, but family and school risk did not. Intervention effects were limited to youth with elevated peer risk at the outset of intervention. This pattern points to the importance of peer groups in the effects of family-focused interventions, particularly with high-risk early adolescent youth. More generally, the results illustrate the importance of mesosystems for understanding prevention effects. PMID:23203511

  20. A Wireless and Batteryless Microsystem with Implantable Grid Electrode/3-Dimensional Probe Array for ECoG and Extracellular Neural Recording in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated wireless microsystem platform that provides the possibility to support versatile implantable neural sensing devices in free laboratory rats. Inductive coupled coils with low dropout regulator design allows true long-term recording without limitation of battery capacity. A 16-channel analog front end chip located on the headstage is designed for high channel account neural signal conditioning with low current consumption and noise. Two types of implantable electrodes including grid electrode and 3D probe array are also presented for brain surface recording and 3D biopotential acquisition in the implanted target volume of tissue. The overall system consumes less than 20 mA with small form factor, 3.9 × 3.9 cm2 mainboard and 1.8 × 3.4 cm2 headstage, is packaged into a backpack for rats. Practical in vivo recordings including auditory response, brain resection tissue and PZT-induced seizures recording demonstrate the correct function of the proposed microsystem. Presented achievements addressed the aforementioned properties by combining MEMS neural sensors, low-power circuit designs and commercial chips into system-level integration.

  1. Introduction to microsystem design

    CERN Document Server

    Schomburg, Werner Karl

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically describes the design options for micro systems as well as the equations needed for calculating the behavior of their basic elements. The fundamental equations needed to calculate the effects and forces that are important in micro systems are also provided. Readers do not require previous knowledge of fabrication processes. This second edition of the volume is a thoroughly revised and extended update. The target audience primarily comprises experts in the field of micro systems and the book is also suitable for graduate engineering students. For quick reference, equations are presented in tables that can be found in an index at the end of the book.  .

  2. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 µm silicon layer and 10-30 µm screen printed...... PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 µm PZT layers......, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1µW at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the...

  3. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  4. Introduction to microsystem design

    CERN Document Server

    Schomburg, Werner Karl

    2011-01-01

    The book describes the design of micro systems systematically as well as the equations needed for an estimation of the basic elements. It can be used without knowing fabrication processes of micro systems and provides the basic equations needed to calculate the effects and forces which are important in micro systems. For quick reference equations are presented in tables which are found in an index at the end of this book.

  5. Etching in microsystem technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Microcomponents and microdevices are increasingly finding application in everyday life. The specific functions of all modern microdevices depend strongly on the selection and combination of the materials used in their construction, i.e., the chemical and physical solid-state properties of these materials, and their treatment. The precise patterning of various materials, which is normally performed by lithographic etching processes, is a prerequisite for the fabrication of microdevices.The microtechnical etching of functional patterns is a multidisciplinary area, the basis for the etching p

  6. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    When a sample, e.g. from a patient, is processed using conventional methods, the sample must be transported to the laboratory where it is analyzed, after which the results is sent back. By integrating the separate steps of the analysis in a micro total analysis system (μTAS), results can be...... obtained fast and better. Preferably with all the processes from sample to signal moved to the bedside of the patient. Of course there is still much to learn and study in the process of miniaturization. DNA analysis is one process subject to integration. There are roughly three steps in a DNA analysis......: Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort...

  7. Electrochemiluminescence DNA sensor array for multiplex detection of biowarfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar-Délèze, Anna-Maria; Gransee, Rainer; Martinez-Montequin, Sergio; Bejarano-Nosas, Diego; Dulay, Samuel; Julich, Sandra; Tomaso, Herbert; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2015-09-01

    Development of a fully automated electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA assay for multiplex detection of six biowarfare agents is described. Aminated-DNA capture probes were covalently immobilised on activated-carbon electrodes and subsequently hybridised to target strands. Detection was achieved via a sandwich-type assay after Ru(bpy)3(2+)-labelled reporter probes were hybridised to the formed probe-target complexes. The assay was performed in an automated microsystem in a custom designed ECL detection box with integrated fluidics, electronics,and movable photomultiplier detector. The obtained limits of detection were 0.6-1.2 nmol L(-1) for six targets ranging from 50 to 122 base pairs in size, with linear range 1-15 nmol L(-1). Non-specific adsorption and cross-reactivity were very low. Detection of six targets on a single chip was achieved with subnanomolar detection limits. PMID:26100549

  8. Ultrafast nanolaser device for detecting cancer in a single live cell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2007-11-01

    Emerging BioMicroNanotechnologies have the potential to provide accurate, realtime, high throughput screening of live tumor cells without invasive chemical reagents when coupled with ultrafast laser methods. These optically based methods are critical to advancing early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. The first year goals of this project are to develop a laser-based imaging system integrated with an in- vitro, live-cell, micro-culture to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions. In the second year, the system will be used to elucidate the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in the normal cell respiration state and in the disease state for normal and disease states of the cell. In this work we designed and built an in-vitro, live-cell culture microsystem to study mammalian cells under controlled conditions of pH, temp, CO2, Ox, humidity, on engineered material surfaces. We demonstrated viability of cell culture in the microsystem by showing that cells retain healthy growth rates, exhibit normal morphology, and grow to confluence without blebbing or other adverse influences of the material surfaces. We also demonstrated the feasibility of integrating the culture microsystem with laser-imaging and performed nanolaser flow spectrocytometry to carry out analysis of the cells isolated mitochondria.

  9. Immuno-capture and in situ detection of Salmonella typhimurium on a novel microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renjie, E-mail: 1058464972@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Ni, Yanan, E-mail: 468885029@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Xu, Yi, E-mail: xuyibbd@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); National Center for International Research of Micro/Nano-System and New Material Technology, No. 174, St. Shazhengjie, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology for National Defense, Chongqing (China); Jiang, Yan, E-mail: 919865356@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Dong, Chunyan, E-mail: 774176325@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China); Chuan, Na, E-mail: 814859441@qq.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, St. Shazheng, Shapingba District, Chongqing (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel microfluidic chip and a LIF microsystem were designed and fabricated. • Salmonella typhimurium was captured and labeled by specific immuno-capture on chip. • CdSe/ZnS quantum dots-labeled bacteria were detected by in situ analysis using LIF microsystem. • The proposed method has potential application in practice. - Abstract: The new method presented in this article achieved the goal of capturing Salmonella typhimurium via immunoreaction and rapid in situ detection of the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) labeled S. typhimurium by self-assembly light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection (LIF) microsystem on a specially designed multichannel microfluidic chip. CdSe/ZnS QDs were used as fluorescent markers improving detection sensitivity. The microfluidic chip developed in this study was composed of 12 sample channels, 3 mixing zones, and 6 immune reaction zones, which also acted as fluorescence detection zones. QDs–IgG–primary antibody complexes were generated by mixing CdSe/ZnS QDs conjugated secondary antibody (QDs–IgG) and S. typhimurium antibody (primary antibody) in mixing zones. Then, the complexes went into immune reaction zones to label previously captured S. typhimurium in the sandwich mode. The capture rate of S. typhimurium in each detection zone was up to 70%. The enriched QDs-labeled S. typhimurium was detected using a self-assembly LIF microsystem. A good linear relationship was obtained in the range from 3.7 × 10 to 3.7 × 10{sup 5} cfu mL{sup −1} using the equation I = 0.1739 log (C) − 0.1889 with R{sup 2} = 0.9907, and the detection limit was down to 37 cfu mL{sup −1}. The proposed method of online immunolabeling with QDs for in situ fluorescence detection on the designed multichannel microfluidic chip had been successfully used to detect S. typhimurium in pork sample, and it has shown potential advantages in practice.

  10. Conception et réalisation d'un convertisseur électro-thermique à grande constante de temps en technologie microsystème pour un disjoncteur thermique (Electro-thermal converter with long time constant in microsystem technology for thermal breaker)

    OpenAIRE

    Veychard, D.

    1999-01-01

    Integrated microsystems are becoming more and more important due to miniaturisation of complex systems. Most of the companies study the possibility to translate their products from macroscopic scale to microscopic scale. The purpose of this translation is the possibility to decrease production cost and to increase the performances. This thesis deals with the conception and fabrication of a thermal breaker in microsystems technologies.A thermal breaker protects an electrical network against ov...

  11. Evaluation of the thermal and hydraulic performances of a very thin sintered copper flat heat pipe for 3D microsystem packages

    CERN Document Server

    Tzanova, S; Avenas, Y; Schaeffer, Ch

    2008-01-01

    The reported research work presents numerical studies validated by experimental results of a flat micro heat pipe with sintered copper wick structure. The objectives of this project are to produce and demonstrate the efficiency of the passive cooling technology (heat pipe) integrated in a very thin electronic substrate that is a part of a multifunctional 3-D electronic package. The enhanced technology is dedicated to the thermal management of high dissipative microsystems having heat densities of more than 10W/cm2. Future applications are envisaged in the avionics sector. In this research 2D numerical hydraulic model has been developed to investigate the performance of a very thin flat micro heat pipe with sintered copper wick structure, using water as a refrigerant. Finite difference method has been used to develop the model. The model has been used to determine the mass transfer and fluid flow in order to evaluate the limits of heat transport capacity as functions of the dimensions of the wick and the vapou...

  12. Advantages and disadvantages associated with introducing an extra rarefied gas layer into a rotating microsystem filled with a liquid lubricant: First and second law analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the effects of rarefaction, viscous dissipation, aspect ratio, and accommodation coefficients on transport characteristics associated with a two-phase flow within a rotating microsystem are investigated. It is assumed that centrifugal acceleration due to rotation separates the mixture into two immiscible gas and liquid layers. The incompressible Navier–Stokes–Fourier (NSF) equations in the cylindrical reference frame are employed, while the effects of velocity slip and temperature jump phenomena for the gaseous phase are taken into account. Considering external heating influence and applying the classical thermal boundary conditions of Uniform Heat Flux and Constant Wall Temperature, three different thermal cases are constructed. Expressions for the velocity and temperature distributions of these thermal cases as well as the average entropy generation rate and the Bejan number pertained to the gas and liquid layers are presented. In addition, the criteria for evaluating the impact of the gas layer on shear and temperature reductions at the shaft and also irreversibility rise in the medium are discussed. -- Highlights: ► An immiscible gas–liquid flow in a shaft-housing micro-configuration is studied. ► The investigation includes both first and second law analyses of thermodynamics. ► Analytical solutions of the velocity and temperature distributions are obtained. ► These solutions are employed to carry out the associated second law analysis. ► The impact of the gas layer on overall behavior of the system is then discussed.

  13. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  14. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm3) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  15. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareło, K.; Górecka-Drzazga, A.; Dziuban, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm3) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment.

  16. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  17. Highly sensitive polymer-based cantilever-sensors for DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a technology for the fabrication of cantilever arrays aimed to develop an integrated biosensor microsystem. The fabrication process is based on spin coating of the photosensitive polymer and near-ultraviolet exposure. Arrays of up to 33 microcantilevers are fabricated in the novel polymer material SU-8. The low Young's modulus of the polymer, 40 times lower than that of silicon, enables to improve the sensitivity of the sensor device for target detection. The mechanical properties of SU-8 cantilevers, such as spring constant, resonant frequency and quality factor are characterized as a function of the dimensions and the medium. The devices have been tested for measurement of the adsorption of single stranded DNA and subsequent interstitial adsorption of lateral spacer molecules. We demonstrate that sensitivity is enhanced by a factor of six compared to that of commercial silicon nitride cantilevers

  18. Rapid detection of Avian Influenza Virus - Towards point of care diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram

    Ab) conjugated magnetic beads where RNA extraction step is not required. The developed bead-based system was able to capture, concentrate and purify all of the 16 H subtypes of AIV from the AIV spiked faecal samples, demonstrating the efficiency of the mAb conjugated beads and the developed method. Subsequently......, the newly developed beadiv based method was used in a microfluidic magnetic microsystem for the automation of sample preparation. Using LOC system with a Cyclic-Olefin-Copolymer (COC) polymer chip, the RTPCR was miniaturized and the entire process was detected in less than 2 h. This integrated LOC...... virus subtypes of H5 and H7. This solid-phase RT-PCR method combines a reverse-transcription amplification of RNA extract in the liquid-phase with sequence-specific nested PCR on the solid phase. The examination of 33 avian faecal and tracheal swab specimens was completed in less than 2 h with 94...

  19. Wafer-level hermetic packaging of 3D microsystems with low-temperature Cu-to-Cu thermo-compression bonding and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-temperature wafer-level Cu-to-Cu thermo-compression bonding and its reliability for hermetic sealing application have been investigated in this work. The volume of the encapsulated cavities is about 1.4×10−3 cm3 in accordance with the MIL-STD-883E standard prescribed for microelectronics packaging hermeticity measurement. The samples under test are bonded at 300 °C under a bonding force of 5500 N for 1 h in vacuum (∼2.5 × 10−4 mbar) with a 300 nm thick Cu diffusion layer and 50 nm thick Ti barrier layer which are deposited in an e-beam evaporator. The reliability test is accomplished through a temperature cycling test (TCT) from −40 to 125 °C up to 1000 cycles and a humidity test based on IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020 standard. In addition, an immersion in acid/base solution is applied to verify the corrosion resistance of the Cu frame for hermetic application. Excellent helium leak rate which is smaller than the reject limit defined by the MIL-STD-883E standard (method 1014.10) is detected for all the samples. These excellent helium leak rates show an outstanding bonding quality against harsh environment for hermetic encapsulation in 3D integration applications. (paper)

  20. Academic Emotions of Adolescents:Based on the View of Family Microsystem%青少年学业情绪:基于家庭微系统视角的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国良; 朱琳; 董妍

    2014-01-01

    This study elaborates the role of family in academic emotions from the view of microsys-tem.Based on the perspectives of the ecosystem theories and control value theory,the paper analyzes plenty of researches on the influence of family and parents in academic emotions.We find that family characteristics (socioeconomic status and parents’emotionality),parent child interaction (parent child relationship and parenting styles)and child characteristics factors (cognitive ability,personality treats and self cognition)all can affect adolescents’academic emotions,and academic emotions are af-fected by family characteristics via parent child interactive and child characteristics factors.Based on the above findings,we propound a hypothetical dynamic model about family microsystem impact aca-demic emotions,and propose the future research direction from a comprehensive perspective.%本文从微系统的视角阐述了家庭环境因素对青少年学业情绪的作用。以生态系统理论和学业情绪的控制价值理论为依托,在分析大量研究文献的基础上,作者发现家庭特征(家庭社会经济地位、父母情绪特点等)、亲子互动(亲子关系、教养方式等)以及青少年自身因素(认知能力、人格特征和自我认知等)都会显著影响青少年的学业情绪,且家庭特征往往通过亲子互动状况及青少年自身因素对学业情绪发挥作用。基于此,作者提出了家庭微系统影响青少年学业情绪的理论模型,并以此模型为基础对将来研究方向进行了全面展望。

  1. A microfluidic device with integrated fluorimetric detection for flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Alexandre; Raimundo, Ivo M; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R; Lima, Renato S; Araújo, Mário C Ugulino

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the development of flow analysis microsystems with integrated fluorimetric detection cells. Channels (width of 300-540 microm and depth of 200-590 microm) were manufactured by deep-UV lithography in urethane-acrylate (UA) resin. Plastic optical fibers (diameter of 250 microm) were coupled to a 2.0-mm-long detection channel in order to guide the excitation radiation from an LED (470 nm) and collect the emitted radiation at a right angle towards a photomultiplier. A single-line miniaturized system, with a total internal volume of 10.4 microL, was evaluated by means of standard fluorescein solutions (0.53-2.66 micromol L(-1), pH 8.5). The analytical signals presented a linear relationship in the concentration range studied, with a relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n = 5), providing a detection limit of 0.37 micromol L(-1) and an analytical frequency of 60 samples/h, using a flow rate of 60 microL min(-1). Optical microscopy images and videos acquired in real time for the hydrodynamic injection of 130 and 320 nL of sample solutions indicated the good performance of the proposed sampling strategy. Another microsystem with a total internal volume of 38 microL was developed, incorporating a confluence point for two solutions. This device was applied to the determination of the total concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in commercial mineral waters using the calcein method. Microscopy images and videos demonstrated the mixing efficiency of the solutions in the microchannels. A linear relationship was observed for the analytical signal in the Ca(2+) concentration range from 25 to 125 micromol L(-1), with relative standard deviations of 3.5%. The analysis of mineral waters with the proposed system provided results that did not differ significantly from those obtained by the EDTA titration method at a confidence level of 95%. These results demonstrate the viability of developing micro flow injection systems with an integrated fluorimetric detection cell

  2. Magneto-mechanical trapping systems for biological target detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2014-03-29

    We demonstrate a magnetic microsystem capable of detecting nucleic acids via the size difference between bare magnetic beads and bead compounds. The bead compounds are formed through linking nonmagnetic beads and magnetic beads by the target nucleic acids. The system comprises a tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensor, a trapping well, and a bead-concentrator. The TMR sensor detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside the trapping well, while the sensor output depends on the number of beads. The size of the bead compounds is larger than that of bare magnetic beads, and fewer magnetic beads are required to fill the trapping well. The bead-concentrator, in turn, is capable of filling the trap in a controlled fashion and so to shorten the assay time. The bead-concentrator includes conducting loops surrounding the trapping well and a conducting line underneath. The central conducting line serves to attract magnetic beads in the trapping well and provides a magnetic field to magnetize them so to make them detectable by the TMR sensor. This system excels by its simplicity in that the DNA is incubated with magnetic and nonmagnetic beads, and the solution is then applied to the chip and analyzed in a single step. In current experiments, a signal-to-noise ratio of 40.3 dB was obtained for a solution containing 20.8 nM of DNA. The sensitivity and applicability of this method can be controlled by the size or concentration of the nonmagnetic bead, or by the dimension of the trapping well.

  3. LIGA microsystems aging : evaluation and mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadden, Charles H.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2003-12-01

    The deployment of LIGA structures in DP applications requires a thorough understanding of potential long term physical and chemical changes that may occur during service. While these components are generally fabricated from simple metallic systems such as copper, nickel and nickel alloys, the electroplating process used to form them creates microstructural features which differ from those found in conventional (e.g. ingot metallurgy) processing of such materials. Physical changes in non-equilibrium microstructures may occur due to long term exposure to temperatures sufficient to permit atomic and vacancy mobility. Chemical changes, particularly at the surfaces of LIGA parts, may occur in the presence of gaseous chemical species (e.g. water vapor, HE off-gassing compounds) and contact with other metallic structures. In this study, we have characterized the baseline microstructure of several nickel-based materials that are used to fabricate LIGA structures. Solute content and distribution was found to have a major effect on the electroplated microstructures. Microstructural features were correlated to measurements of hardness and tensile strength. Dormancy testing was conducted on one of the baseline compositions, nickel-sulfamate. Groups of specimens were exposed to controlled thermal cycles; subsequent examinations compared properties of 'aged' specimens to the baseline conditions. Results of our testing indicate that exposure to ambient temperatures (-54 C to 71 C) do not result in microstructural changes that might be expected to significantly effect mechanical performance. Additionally, no localized changes in surface appearance were found as a result of contact between electroplated parts.

  4. Electrohydrodynamics and dielectrophoresis in microsystems: scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Ramos, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez, A [Dpto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de FIsica, Universidad de Sevilla, Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Green, N G [Bioelectronics Research Centre, Dept. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Morgan, H [Bioelectronics Research Centre, Dept. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-21

    The movement and behaviour of particles suspended in aqueous solutions subjected to non-uniform ac electric fields is examined. The ac electric fields induce movement of polarizable particles, a phenomenon known as dielectrophoresis. The high strength electric fields that are often used in separation systems can give rise to fluid motion, which in turn results in a viscous drag on the particle. The electric field generates heat, leading to volume forces in the liquid. Gradients in conductivity and permittivity give rise to electrothermal forces and gradients in mass density to buoyancy. In addition, non-uniform ac electric fields produce forces on the induced charges in the diffuse double layer on the electrodes. This causes a steady fluid motion termed ac electro-osmosis. The effects of Brownian motion are also discussed in this context. The orders of magnitude of the various forces experienced by a particle in a model microelectrode system are estimated. The results are discussed in relation to experiments and the relative influence of each type of force is described.

  5. Integration of bulk piezoelectric materials into microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    Bulk piezoelectric ceramics, compared to deposited piezoelectric thin-films, provide greater electromechanical coupling and charge capacity, which are highly desirable in many MEMS applications. In this thesis, a technology platform is developed for wafer-level integration of bulk piezoelectric substrates on silicon, with a final film thickness of 5-100microm. The characterized processes include reliable low-temperature (200°C) AuIn diffusion bonding and parylene bonding of bulk-PZT on silicon, wafer-level lapping of bulk-PZT with high-uniformity (+/-0.5microm), and low-damage micro-machining of PZT films via dicing-saw patterning, laser ablation, and wet-etching. Preservation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties is confirmed with hysteresis and piezo-response measurements. The introduced technology offers higher material quality and unique advantages in fabrication flexibility over existing piezoelectric film deposition methods. In order to confirm the preserved bulk properties in the final film, diaphragm and cantilever beam actuators operating in the transverse-mode are designed, fabricated and tested. The diaphragm structure and electrode shapes/sizes are optimized for maximum deflection through finite-element simulations. During tests of fabricated devices, greater than 12microm PP displacement is obtained by actuation of a 1mm2 diaphragm at 111kHz with properties of bulk-PZT5A are mostly preserved without any necessity of repolarization. Three generations of resonant vibration energy harvesters are designed, simulated and fabricated to demonstrate the competitive performance of the new fabrication process over traditional piezoelectric deposition systems. An unpackaged PZT/Si unimorph harvester with 27mm3 active device volume produces up to 205microW at 1.5g/154Hz. The prototypes have achieved the highest figure-of-merits (normalized-power-density x bandwidth) amongst previously reported inertial energy harvesters. The fabricated energy harvester is utilized to create an autonomous energy generation platform in 0.3cm3 by system-level integration of a 50-80% efficient power management IC, which incorporates a supply-independent bias circuitry, an active diode for low-dropout rectification, a bias-flip system for higher efficiency, and a trickle battery charger. The overall system does not require a pre-charged battery, and has power consumption of sleep-mode (simulated). Under lg vibration at 155Hz, a 70mF ultra-capacitor is charged from OV to 1.85V in 50 minutes.

  6. Microsystems for cell-based electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobas, Levent

    2013-08-01

    Among the electrophysiology techniques, the voltage clamp and its subsequent scaling to smaller mammalian cells, the so-called patch clamp, led to fundamental discoveries in the last century, revealing the ionic mechanisms and the role of single-ion channels in the generation and propagation of action potentials through excitable membranes (e.g. nerves and muscles). Since then, these techniques have gained a reputation as the gold standard of studying cellular ion channels owing to their high accuracy and rich information content via direct measurements under a controlled membrane potential. However, their delicate and skill-laden procedure has put a serious constrain on the throughput and their immediate utilization in the discovery of new cures targeting ion channels until researchers discovered ‘lab-on-a-chip’ as a viable platform for the automation of these techniques into a reliable high-throughput screening functional assay on ion channels. This review examines the innovative ‘lab-on-a-chip’ microtechnologies demonstrated towards this target over a period of slightly more than a decade. The technologies are categorically reviewed according to their considerations for design, fabrication, as well as microfluidic integration from a performance perspective with reference to their ability to secure G Ω seals (gigaseals) on cells, the norm broadly accepted among electrophysiologists for quality recordings that reflect ion-channel activity with high fidelity.

  7. Meissner-levitated micro-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T A; Samad, I; Hong, Z; Eves, D; Rastogi, A [Cambridge University Engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    Advanced silicon processing techniques developed for the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) industry have been exploited in recent years to enable the production of micro-fabricated moving mechanical systems known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). These devices offer advantages in terms of cost, scalability and robustness over their preceding equivalents. Cambridge University have worked for many years on the investigation of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in flywheel energy storage applications. This experience is now being used to research into superconducting Micro-Bearings for MEMS, whereby circular permanent magnet arrays are levitated and spun above a superconductor to produce bearings suitable for motors and other micron scale devices. The novelty in the device lies in the fact that the rotor is levitated into position by Meissner flux exclusion, whilst stability is provided by flux pinned within the body of the superconductor. This work includes: the investigation of the properties of various magnetic materials, their fabrication processes and their suitability for MEMS; finite element analysis to analyse the interaction between the magnetic materials and YBCO to determine the stiffness and height of levitation. Finally a micro-motor with the above principles is currently being fabricated within the group.

  8. Electrohydrodynamics and dielectrophoresis in microsystems: scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement and behaviour of particles suspended in aqueous solutions subjected to non-uniform ac electric fields is examined. The ac electric fields induce movement of polarizable particles, a phenomenon known as dielectrophoresis. The high strength electric fields that are often used in separation systems can give rise to fluid motion, which in turn results in a viscous drag on the particle. The electric field generates heat, leading to volume forces in the liquid. Gradients in conductivity and permittivity give rise to electrothermal forces and gradients in mass density to buoyancy. In addition, non-uniform ac electric fields produce forces on the induced charges in the diffuse double layer on the electrodes. This causes a steady fluid motion termed ac electro-osmosis. The effects of Brownian motion are also discussed in this context. The orders of magnitude of the various forces experienced by a particle in a model microelectrode system are estimated. The results are discussed in relation to experiments and the relative influence of each type of force is described

  9. Biochip microsystem for bioinformatics recognition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng (Inventor); Fang, Wai-Chi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A system with applications in pattern recognition, or classification, of DNA assay samples. Because DNA reference and sample material in wells of an assay may be caused to fluoresce depending upon dye added to the material, the resulting light may be imaged onto an embodiment comprising an array of photodetectors and an adaptive neural network, with applications to DNA analysis. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Meissner-levitated micro-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced silicon processing techniques developed for the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) industry have been exploited in recent years to enable the production of micro-fabricated moving mechanical systems known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). These devices offer advantages in terms of cost, scalability and robustness over their preceding equivalents. Cambridge University have worked for many years on the investigation of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in flywheel energy storage applications. This experience is now being used to research into superconducting Micro-Bearings for MEMS, whereby circular permanent magnet arrays are levitated and spun above a superconductor to produce bearings suitable for motors and other micron scale devices. The novelty in the device lies in the fact that the rotor is levitated into position by Meissner flux exclusion, whilst stability is provided by flux pinned within the body of the superconductor. This work includes: the investigation of the properties of various magnetic materials, their fabrication processes and their suitability for MEMS; finite element analysis to analyse the interaction between the magnetic materials and YBCO to determine the stiffness and height of levitation. Finally a micro-motor with the above principles is currently being fabricated within the group

  11. Stacking technology for a space constrained microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heschel, Matthias; Kuhmann, Jochen Friedrich; Bouwstra, Siebe;

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a stacking technology for an integrated packaging of an intelligent transducer which is formed by a micromachined silicon transducer and an integrated circuit chip. Transducer and circuitry are stacked on top of each other with an intermediate chip in between. The bonding...

  12. Pyramidal micromirrors for microsystems and atom chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupke, M.; Ramirez-Martinez, F.; Curtis, E. A.; Ashmore, J. P.; Eriksson, S.; Hinds, E. A.; Moktadir, Z.; Gollasch, C.; Kraft, M.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2006-02-01

    Concave pyramids are created in the (100) surface of a silicon wafer by anisotropic etching in potassium hydroxide. High quality micromirrors are then formed by sputtering gold onto the smooth silicon (111) faces of the pyramids. These mirrors show great promise as high quality optical devices suitable for integration into micro-optoelectromechanical systems and atom chips. We have shown that structures of this shape can be used to laser-cool and hold atoms in a magneto-optical trap.

  13. Wireless power transfer for medical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.  ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies in...

  14. Microsystems for cell-based electrophysiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the electrophysiology techniques, the voltage clamp and its subsequent scaling to smaller mammalian cells, the so-called patch clamp, led to fundamental discoveries in the last century, revealing the ionic mechanisms and the role of single-ion channels in the generation and propagation of action potentials through excitable membranes (e.g. nerves and muscles). Since then, these techniques have gained a reputation as the gold standard of studying cellular ion channels owing to their high accuracy and rich information content via direct measurements under a controlled membrane potential. However, their delicate and skill-laden procedure has put a serious constrain on the throughput and their immediate utilization in the discovery of new cures targeting ion channels until researchers discovered ‘lab-on-a-chip’ as a viable platform for the automation of these techniques into a reliable high-throughput screening functional assay on ion channels. This review examines the innovative ‘lab-on-a-chip’ microtechnologies demonstrated towards this target over a period of slightly more than a decade. The technologies are categorically reviewed according to their considerations for design, fabrication, as well as microfluidic integration from a performance perspective with reference to their ability to secure G Ω seals (gigaseals) on cells, the norm broadly accepted among electrophysiologists for quality recordings that reflect ion-channel activity with high fidelity. (topical review)

  15. Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reus, Roger De; Christensen, Carsten; Weichel, Steen;

    1998-01-01

    Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication...

  16. SWOT Analysis of Community Health Services Based on General Practitioner Teams in Microsystem%基于微小系统的全科团队社区卫生服务 SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖霞; 王芸; 戴俊明; 傅华

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于微小系统分析框架,应用SWOT分析方法与社区全科团队一起进行探索性研究,找出社区卫生服务实施的促进和阻碍因素,提出社区卫生服务的发展策略与建议。方法对社区卫生服务中心全科团队的在职医务人员运用专题小组访谈、个人访谈,让全科团队成员采用SWOT分析法分析社区卫生服务实施的促进和阻碍因素。结果全科团队SWOT分析发现,优势为所有人都认为团队团结、服务态度好、中心领导重视、标准化的硬件配置、便利的站点位置以及社区卫生服务的可及性。机会是外部资源的支持,包括了社区街道居委会、社区卫生服务中心和服务对象的支持,并且还有社会大环境中的上级部门的督导和政府的政策支持和投入。这些有利于工作的开展和提高社区卫生服务水平。结论提出了社区卫生服务全科团队的发展策略:应加强社区卫生服务质量管理;提升领导力,进一步提高管理水平;培养高素质的社区医务工作者;发挥全科团队的优势,优化资源配置;完善社区卫生服务信息系统。%Ob jective With participation of the General Practitioner Service Team ( GPST) , the development strate-gies and suggestions of the community health services were explored and proposed based on Microsystem analysis by the SWOT a -nalysis, find out the promoting and hindering factors of community health service implementation .Metho ds The medical per -sonnel in GPST was investigated by Focus Group Discussion and In -depth interview ,let the whole team members using the SWOT analysis method to analyze the promoting and hindering factors of community health service implementation .Results Through SWOT analysis , we found strengths for GPST were their team unity , good doctor-patient relationship, standard equip-ments and establishment , convenient site location , good and available services

  17. Hydrogel-Framed Nanofiber Matrix Integrated with a Microfluidic Device for Fluorescence Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Won; Koh, Won-Gun

    2016-06-21

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a pivotal role in regulating the composition of the extracellular matrix and have a critical role in vascular disease, cancer progression, and bone disorders. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a microdevice as a new platform for highly sensitive MMP-9 detection. In this sensing platform, fluorescein isocyanate (FITC)-labeled MMP-9 specific peptides were covalently immobilized on an electrospun nanofiber matrix to utilize an enzymatic cleavage strategy. Prior to peptide immobilization, the nanofiber matrix was incorporated into hydrogel micropatterns for easy size control and handling of the nanofiber matrix. The resultant hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix immobilizing the peptides was inserted into microfluidic devices consisting of reaction chambers and detection zones. The immobilized peptides were reacted with the MMP-9-containing solution in a reaction chamber, which resulted in the cleavage of the FITC-containing peptide fragments and subsequently generated fluorescent flow at the detection zone. As higher concentrations of the MMP-9 solution were introduced or larger peptide-immobilizing nanofiber areas were used, more peptides were cleaved, and a stronger fluorescence signal was observed. Due to the huge surface area of the nanofiber and small dimensions of the microsystem, a faster response time (30 min) and lower detection limit (10 pM) could be achieved in this study. The hydrogel-framed nanofiber matrix is disposable and can be replaced with new ones immobilizing either the same or different biomolecules for various bioassays, while the microfluidic system can be continuously reused. PMID:27214657

  18. Change Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rensink, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    Five aspects of visual change detection are reviewed. The first concerns the concept of change itself, in particular the ways it differs from the related notions of motion and difference. The second involves the various methodological approaches that have been developed to study change detection; it is shown that under a variety of conditions observers are often unable to see large changes directly in front of them. Next, it is argued that this "change blindness" indicates that focused att...

  19. Fingerprint detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, George C. (Rt. 1, Box 428B, Espanola, NM 87532)

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  20. Determination of total metal pollutants in water with optical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Michal; Prokaryn, Piotr; Dybko, Artur; Wroblewski, Wojciech; Brzozka, Zbigniew

    2003-09-01

    The total concentration of heavy metal ions was measured with the use of a highly sensitive reagent (4-(2-pyridylzo)-resorcinol (PAR)). Because of PAR chelates are slightly soluble in water and their forming is not selective, the analytical procedure for Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn determination was developed to perform the analysis in an aqueous environment without the need of inconvenient and time-consuming extraction. A proposed analysis method is more useful in comparison with classical FIA analysis what is crucial during fast classification of various natural water samples. To minimize the chemicals consumption such a classification can be performed in a specially designed microsystem. The Y- shape microchannel structure with a mixing area was made by fine engraving in PMMA plate and sealed with the PDMS one. The M2+-PAR complex forming conditions were determined for each of the chosen metal ions. The solubility of formed complexes was better when a micellar environment was created by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant (Triton X100). Next the synthetic mixtures of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn ions were prepared to obtain total molar metal ions concentration in the range from 10-6 to 10-4 M and measured after on-chip reaction. A tap water and HAC-sample (Highest Allowable Concentration, ΣMe=1,2•10-5 M) were also measured. The detection was performed in a special flow cuvette and spectra measurements were carried out using diode array spectrophotometer and CCD detector.

  1. Fingerprint detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C.

    1992-01-07

    This patent describes a method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints. It comprises contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon the a colloidal metal composition at a pH from about 2.5 to about 4.0 for time sufficient to allow reaction of the colloidal metal composition with the latent print; and, preserving or recording the observable print.

  2. Detection and analysis of SERS effect of nano gold by self-assembly chemical plating composite method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Huazhou; Gang, Chen; Lai, Chunhong; Liao, Xin; Wang, Rong

    2015-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as a powerful analytical tool has gained extensive attention. Despite of many efforts have been devoted to design SERS substrates, it still remains a grand challenge for creating a general substrate with high SERS active by a simple, controllable and low-cost way. Herein, we attempt to address this issue by fabricating SERS-active nano gold film based on self-assembly chemical plating composite method. The influence of gold colloid particle size on gold seed distribution density and the influence of the particle size of nano gold films on the SERS activity were investigated in detail. 10-5 M Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was taken as Raman probe molecules and homemade Raman detection microsystem was used as detector. According to the results of SERS detection, the SERS substrate enhancement factors (SSEF) were calculated, and the nano gold film with average particle size of about 55 nm showed the maximum SSEF of 0.93 × 105, which indicated such nano gold films showed excellent SERS activity. Moreover, these nano gold films are all low-cost and easy to prepared. This study provided theoretical and experimental basis for the design and preparation of general SERS substrate.

  3. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  4. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  5. On-line ion exchange preconcentration in a sequential injection lab-on-valve microsystem incorporating a renewable column with ETAAS for the trace-level determination of bismuth in urine and river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    A sequential injection system for on-line ion-exchange separation and preconcentration of trace-level amounts of metal ions with ensuing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described. Based on the use of a renewable microcolumn incorporated within an integrated lab...

  6. On-line ion exchange preconcentration in a sequential injection lab-on-valve microsystem incorporating a renewable column with ETAAS for the trace-level determination of bismuth in urine and river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    A sequential injection system for on-line ion-exchange separation and preconcentration of trace-level amounts of metal ions with ensuing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described. Based on the use of a renewable microcolumn incorporated within an integrated l...... the determination of 2.0 mug/l Bi (n = 7). The procedure was validated by determination of bismuth in a certified reference material CRM 320 (river sediment), and by bismuth spike recoveries in two human urine samples....

  7. Microsystem technologies for safety in automotive applications - SIFA MST. Partial projects: short time airbag igniters, packaging - MID and 3D-assembly, sensor integration. Final report; Technologien der Mikrosystemtechnik fuer die Sicherheit im Fahrzeug - SIFA-MST. Teilprojekte: Schneller Anzuender, Packaging, Sensorintegration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiederle, V.; Mahrle, J.

    1998-12-17

    Technologies of the microsystem technique for the safety in automobiles with the partial projects: - short time airbag igniters - packaging - MID and 3D-assembly - sensor integration. Development goals for a new generation of airbag igniters based on microsystems technologies (1st partial project) are derived from market- and technical requirements. Short time and low energy for the ignition of the pyrotechniques as well as the potential for monolithical integration to the future decentralized initiator electronics are identified as the main design goals. For the manufacturing of microelectronic components for automotive application (2nd partial project) it is necessary to introduce high quality, low cost processes. The reliability features are to be evaluated, before setting into series production. The knowledge about the behaviour of these componentes and about the handling during the manufacturing is every low. With this motivation the work packages of this part of project has been defined as follows: Single and multi-axial accelerometers are the key elements for the airbag control unit. Micromechanical sensors are becoming increasingly important due to their cost efficient manufacturability. A resonant sensor principle with thermal actuation and signal amplifications by a lever system was investigated (3rd partial project). The sensitivity of the demonstrator sensors was found to be 70 Hz/g at a basic frequency of 400 kHz. A Q-factor beyond 10000 was obtained. This sensor principle allows the minimization of the chip area and a subsequent cost optimization. Multi-axial sensors on a monolithic basis are under increasing demand for the central control unit. A new principle was worked out and tested. For a tire pressure control unit for example a strongly miniaturized pressure sensor with optimizid positioning of piezoresistors on a rectangular membrane was devised. (orig./AKF) [German] Technologien der Mikrosystemtechnik fuer die Sicherheit im Fahrzeug mit den

  8. μ-'Diving suit' for liquid-phase high-Q resonant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haitao; Chen, Ying; Xu, Pengcheng; Xu, Tiegang; Bao, Yuyang; Li, Xinxin

    2016-03-01

    A resonant cantilever sensor is, for the first time, dressed in a water-proof 'diving suit' for real-time bio/chemical detection in liquid. The μ-'diving suit' technology can effectively avoid not only unsustainable resonance due to heavy liquid-damping, but also inevitable nonspecific adsorption on the cantilever body. Such a novel technology ensures long-time high-Q resonance of the cantilever in solution environment for real-time trace-concentration bio/chemical detection and analysis. After the formation of the integrated resonant micro-cantilever, a patterned photoresist and hydrophobic parylene thin-film are sequentially formed on top of the cantilever as sacrificial layer and water-proof coat, respectively. After sacrificial-layer release, an air gap is formed between the parylene coat and the cantilever to protect the resonant cantilever from heavy liquid damping effect. Only a small sensing-pool area, located at the cantilever free-end and locally coated with specific sensing-material, is exposed to the liquid analyte for gravimetric detection. The specifically adsorbed analyte mass can be real-time detected by recording the frequency-shift signal. In order to secure vibration movement of the cantilever and, simultaneously, reject liquid leakage from the sensing-pool region, a hydrophobic parylene made narrow slit structure is designed surrounding the sensing-pool. The anti-leakage effect of the narrow slit and damping limited resonance Q-factor are modelled and optimally designed. Integrated with electro-thermal resonance excitation and piezoresistive frequency readout, the cantilever is embedded in a micro-fluidic chip to form a lab-chip micro-system for liquid-phase bio/chemical detection. Experimental results show the Q-factor of 23 in water and longer than 20 hours liquid-phase continuous working time. Loaded with two kinds of sensing-materials at the sensing-pools, two types of sensing chips successfully show real-time liquid-phase detection to ppb

  9. Electrochemical sensing method for point-of-care cortisol detection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ajeet Kaushik,1 Adriana Yndart,1 Rahul Dev Jayant,1 Vidya Sagar,1 Venkata Atluri,1 Shekhar Bhansali,2 Madhavan Nair11Center of Personalized Nanomedicine, Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Department of Immun­ology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, 2BioMEMS Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: A novel electrochemical sensing method was devised for the first time to detect plasma cortisol, a potential psychological stress biomarker, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive subjects. A miniaturized potentiostat (reconfigured LMP91000 chip interfaced with a microfluidic manifold containing a cortisol immunosensor was employed to demonstrate electrochemical cortisol sensing. This fully integrated and optimized electrochemical sensing device exhibited a wide cortisol-detection range from 10 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL, a low detection limit of 10 pg/mL, and sensitivity of 5.8 µA (pg mL-1, with a regression coefficient of 0.995. This cortisol-selective sensing system was employed to estimate plasma cortisol in ten samples from HIV patients. The electrochemical cortisol-sensing performance was validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The results obtained using both methodologies were comparable within 2%–5% variation. The information related to psychological stress of HIV patients can be correlated with disease-progression parameters to optimize diagnosis, therapeutic, and personalized health monitoring.Keywords: psychological stress, personalized health care, cortisol, HIV, electrochemical immunosensing, miniaturized sensing device

  10. Portable modular detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  11. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  12. Bicycle Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James; Arellano , Secundino; Carrillo , Alma; Cruz , Melinda; Kunitskiy, Dmitriy; Maynigo , Marlo; Sell , Monica

    2013-01-01

    Project Description:  Bicycle detection has become a popular feature of high demand in cities and agencies across the United States. California has recently mandated that all new limit line detector installations as well as modifications to existing limit line detection must provide bicycle detection. This has created the need to develop detection methodologies which are able to detect bicycles as well as differentiate them from vehicles. The objective of this project is to utilize Econolite ...

  13. Outlier detection using autoencoders

    CERN Document Server

    Lyudchik, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Outlier detection is a crucial part of any data analysis applications. The goal of outlier detection is to separate a core of regular observations from some polluting ones, called “outliers”. We propose an outlier detection method using deep autoencoder. In our research the invented method was applied to detect outlier points in the MNIST dataset of handwriting digits. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a potential to be used for anomaly detection.

  14. Optimisation and analysis of microreactor designs for microfluidic gradient generation using a purpose built optical detection system for entire chip imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla Yusuf, Hayat; Baldock, Sara J; Barber, Robert W; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nick J; Mohr, Stephan; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents and fully characterises a novel simplification approach for the development of microsystem based concentration gradient generators with significantly reduced microfluidic networks. Three microreactors are presented; a pair of two-inlet six-outlet (2-6) networks and a two-inlet eleven-outlet (2-11) network design. The mathematical approach has been validated experimentally using a purpose built optical detection system. The experimental results are shown to be in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions from the model. The developed networks are proven to deliver precise linear concentration gradients (R(2) = 0.9973 and 0.9991 for the (2-6) designs) and the simplified networks are shown to provide enhanced performance over conventional designs, overcoming some of the practical issues associated with traditional networks. The optical measurements were precise enough to validate the linearity in each level of the conventional (2-6) networks (R(2) ranged from 0.9999 to 0.9973) compared to R(2) = 1 for the theoretical model. CFD results show that there is an effective upper limit on the operating flow rate. The new simplified (2-11) design was able to maintain a linear outlet profile up to 0.8 microl/s per inlet (R(2) = 0.9992). The proposed approach is widely applicable for the production of linear and arbitrary concentration profiles, with the potential for high throughput applications that span a wide range of chemical and biological studies. PMID:19532963

  15. Mined area detection overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ian A.; Deas, Robert M.; Port, Daniel M.

    2002-08-01

    An overview of the progress on the UK MOD Applied Research Program for Land Mine Detection. The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) carries out and manages the whole of the UK MOD's Mined Area Detection Applied Research Program both within its own laboratories and in partnership with industrial and academic research organizations. This paper will address two specific areas of Applied Research: hand held mine detection and vehicle mounted mine detection in support of the Mine Detection Neutralization and Route Marking System which started in April 1997. Both are multi-sensor systems, incorporating between them metal detection, ground penetrating radar, nuclear quadrupole resonance, ultra-wideband radar, and polarized thermal imaging.

  16. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  17. Lighting detectives forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Skindbjerg Kristensen, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003.......Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003....

  18. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted by that...... enzyme...

  1. Aerial Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance

  2. On-chip microsystems in silicon: opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

    1996-03-01

    Integrated on-chip micro-instrumentation systems in silicon are complete data acquisition systems on a single chip. This concept has appeared to be the ultimate solution in many applications, as it enables in principle the metamorphosis of a basic sensing element, affected with many shortcomings, into an on-chip data acquisition unit that provides an output digital data stream in a standard format not corrupted by sensor non-idealities. Market acceptance would be maximum, as no special knowledge about the internal operation is required, self-test and self-calibration can be included and the dimensions are not different from those of the integrated circuit. The various aspects that are relevant in estimating the constraints for successful implementation of the integrated silicon smart sensor will be outlined in comparison with the properties of more conventional sensor fabrication technologies. It will be shown that the acceptance of on-chip functional integration in an application depends primarily on the added value in terms of improved specification or functionality that the resulting device provides in that application. The economic viability is therefore decisive rather than the technological constraints. This is in contrast to the traditional technology push prevailing in sensor research over market pull mechanisms.

  3. Large Scale Integration of Carbon Nanotubes in Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil

    2007-01-01

    Kulstof nanorør har mange egenskaber der kunne anvendes i kombination med traditionelle mikrosystemer, her især overlegne mekaniske og elektriske egenskaber. I dette arbejde bliver metoder til stor-skala integration av kulstof nanorør i mikrosystemer undersøgt, med henblik på anvendelse som mekan...

  4. Oxide dispersion strengthening of nickel electrodeposits for microsystem applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janek, Richard P. (Owens Technology Inc., Palo Alto, CA); Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Michael, R. P.; Goods, Steven Howard

    2003-11-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened nickel (ODS-Ni) electrodeposits were fabricated to net shape in a nickel sulfamate bath using the LIGA process. A 20 g/l charge of 10 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder was suspended in the bath during electrodeposition to produce specimens containing an approximately 0.001-0.02 volume fraction dispersion of the alumina particulate. Mechanical properties are compared to baseline specimens fabricated using an identical sulfamate bath chemistry without the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder charge. Results reveal that the as-deposited ODS-Ni exhibited significantly higher yield strength and ultimate tensile strength than the baseline material. This increase in as-deposited strength is attributed to Orowan strengthening. The ODS-Ni also showed improved retention of room temperature strength after annealing over a range of temperatures up to 600 C. Microscopy revealed that this resistance to anneal softening was due to an inhibition of grain growth in the presence of the oxide dispersion. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the properties of the dispersion strengthened deposit were uniform through its thickness, even in narrow, high aspect ratio structures. At elevated temperatures, the strength of the ODS-Ni was approximately three times greater than that of the baseline material although with a significant reduction in hot ductility.

  5. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is presented. The results for bulk silicon are applied to silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fabricated actuators, where measured temperatures with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}9 K, and 0.75-micron inplane spatial resolution, are achieved for the reflectance-based measurements. Reflectance-based temperatures are found to be in good agreement with Raman-measured temperatures from the same device.

  6. A case study of a microsystems MSc curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Mouthaan, Ton

    2004-01-01

    This paper tries to define the contents of master's programmes in Nanotechnology or Nanoengineering. This emerging technology holds large promises for industrial innovation and we need to prepare graduates properly as they will be confronted for most of their future careers with these new developments. The nano-world is a multidisciplinary world and the shortest way to a bad curriculum is filling it with a conglomerate of subjects from all disciplines. We should look for a philosophy and try ...

  7. Surface tension in microsystems engineering below the capillary length

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This book describes how surface tension effects can be used by engineers to provide mechanical functions in miniaturized products (<1 mm). Even if precursors of this field such as Jurin or Laplace already date back to the 18th century, describing surface tension effects from a mechanical perspective is very recent.The originality of this book is to consider the effects of capillary bridges on solids, including forces and torques exerted both statically and dynamically by the liquid along the 6 degrees-of-freedom.It provides a comprehensive approach to various applications, such as capillary ad

  8. HAREM: high aspect ratio etching and metallization for microsystems fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Collard, Dominique; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2008-07-01

    We report a simple bulk micromachining method for the fabrication of high aspect ratio monocrystalline silicon MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) in a standard silicon wafer. We call this two-mask microfabrication process high aspect ratio etching and metallization or HAREM: it combines double-side etching and metallization to create suspended micromechanical structures with electrically 'insulating walls' on their backside. The insulating walls ensure a proper electrical insulation between the different actuation and sensing elements situated on either fixed or movable parts of the device. To demonstrate the high potential of this simple microfabrication method, we have designed and characterized electrostatically actuated microtweezers that integrate a differential capacitive sensor. The prototype showed an electrical insulation better than 1 GΩ between the different elements of the device. Furthermore, using a lock-in amplifier circuit, we could measure the position of the moving probe with few nanometers resolution for a displacement range of about 3 µm. This work was presented in part at the 21st IEEE MEMS Conference (Tucson, AZ, USA, 13-17 January, 2008) (doi:10.1109/MEMSYS.2008.4443656).

  9. Clinical Microsystems: A Critical Framework for Crossing the Quality Chasm

    OpenAIRE

    Likosky, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Patients, payers, and the public have increased expectations concerning the quality, safety and costs of our health care delivery systems. Whether or not to redesign our complex delivery systems is no longer in question. In order to succeed in optimizing care and outcomes (clinical and financial) for our stakeholders, we must design and evaluate tests of change. This journey will require a fundamental shift in our traditional thinking about healthcare delivery systems, including how: (1) each...

  10. Enzyme Hydrolysis of Soybean Oil in a Slug Flow Microsystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, J.; Schrott, W.; Slouka, Z.; Přibyl, M.; Brož, M.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Šnita, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, AUG 15 (2012), s. 194-202. ISSN 1369-703X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 892 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : lipase * microemulsion * micromixing Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2012

  11. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of breast cancer cells: A microsystems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasaraghavan, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance presents a versatile, label-free means of monitoring biological cells and their responses to physical, chemical and biological stimuli. Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women in the United States. Although significant progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment of this disease, there is a need for robust, easy-to-use technologies that can be used for the identification and discrimination of critical subtypes of breast cancer in biopsies obtained ...

  12. Low helium permeation cells for atomic microsystems technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellis, Argyrios T; Shah, Vishal; Donley, Elizabeth A; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2016-06-15

    Laser spectroscopy of atoms confined in vapor cells can be strongly affected by the presence of background gases. A significant source of vacuum contamination is the permeation of gases such as helium (He) through the walls of the cell. Aluminosilicate glass (ASG) is a material with a helium permeation rate that is many orders of magnitude lower than borosilicate glass, which is commonly used for cell fabrication. We have identified a suitable source of ASG that is fabricated in wafer form and can be anodically bonded to silicon. We have fabricated chip-scale alkali vapor cells using this glass for the windows and we have measured the helium permeation rate using the pressure shift of the hyperfine clock transition. We demonstrate micro fabricated cells with He permeation rates at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of cells made with borosilicate glass at room temperature. Such cells may be useful in compact vapor-cell atomic clocks and as a micro fabricated platform suitable for the generation of cold atom samples. PMID:27304286

  13. Pyramidal micro-mirrors for microsystems and atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Trupke, M; Curtis, E A; Ashmore, J P; Eriksson, S; Hinds, E A; Moktadir, Z; Gollasch, C; Kraft, M; Prakash, G V; Baumberg, J J

    2005-01-01

    Concave pyramids are created in the (100) surface of a silicon wafer by anisotropic etching in potassium hydroxide. High quality micro-mirrors are then formed by sputtering gold onto the smooth silicon (111) faces of the pyramids. These mirrors show great promise as high quality optical devices suitable for integration into MOEMS and atom chips. We have shown that structures of this shape can be used to laser-cool and hold atoms in a magneto-optical trap.

  14. Unconventional applications of wire bonding create opportunities for microsystem integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic wire bonding is a highly mature, cost-efficient and broadly available back-end process, intended to create electrical interconnections in semiconductor chip packaging. Modern production wire-bonding tools can bond wires with speeds of up to 30 bonds per second with placement accuracies of better than 2 μm, and the ability to form each wire individually into a desired shape. These features render wire bonding a versatile tool also for integrating wires in applications other than electrical interconnections. Wire bonding has been adapted and used to implement a variety of innovative microstructures. This paper reviews unconventional uses and applications of wire bonding that have been reported in the literature. The used wire-bonding techniques and materials are discussed, and the implemented applications are presented. They include the realization and integration of coils, transformers, inductors, antennas, electrodes, through silicon vias, plugs, liquid and vacuum seals, plastic fibers, shape memory alloy actuators, energy harvesters and sensors. (topical review)

  15. Transport and mixing enhancement in fluid-thermal microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Mata, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se investiga de forma experimental el transporte pasivo de magnitudes físicas en micro-sistemas con carácter de inmediata aplicación industrial, usando métodos innovadores para mejorar la eficiencia de los mismos optimizando parámetros críticos del diseño o encontrar nuevos destinos de posible aplicación. Parte de los resultados obtenidos en estos experimentos han sido publicados en revistas con un índice de impacto tal que pertenecen al primer cuarto del JCR. Primero de todo se...

  16. Nanotechnology in Microsystems: Towards the Integration of Nanoscale Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evoy, Stephane

    2002-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems have transformed the microelectronics industry by providing a new range of integrative functionalities to several applications. However, successful applications have been limited by materials and processing issues inherent to traditional microfabrication processes. Nanometer scale science and technology continues to revolutionize materials manufacturing, opening avenues for novel device design and integration approaches. Such advances will greatly enhance the list of functionalities accessible to integrative systems. Functions may include highly sensitive force- and mass sensors, photodetectors, biosystems, and signal processors. Our discussion will open with a quick overview of the current state of the art in integrative systems. We will then present prospective applications of nanotechnology in these areas. Topics will include the development and deployment of nanoeletromechanical systems as sensors and signal processors, as well as the development and assembly of multifunctional and hybrid nanosensors. Both "top-down" and "bottom-up" philosophies will be discussed, in terms of their application to materials development, device design, and process integration.

  17. GPU accelerated face detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphics processing units have massive parallel processing capabilities, and there is a growing interest in utilizing them for generic computing. One area of interest is computationally heavy computer vision algorithms, such as face detection and recognition. Face detection is used in a variety of applications, for example the autofocus on cameras, face and emotion recognition, and access control. In this thesis, the face detection algorithm was accelerated with GPU using OpenCL. The goal was...

  18. Detection in Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hupkens, Erik Peter

    1997-01-01

    In general, a detection problem arises when changes may appear in a certain process. These changes may be errors in a dynamic process, objects in images, scratches on surfaces, or anything that is not supposed to be present. This thesis is concerned with a generalization from one-parameter detection theory to multi-parameter detection theory. The difference between these problems is not just an increase in dimension of the independent parameter. Consider for example a process that is defined ...

  19. Network Traffic Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hong; Al-Azzawi, Hussein; Brani, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tutorial for network anomaly detection, focusing on non-signature-based approaches. Network traffic anomalies are unusual and significant changes in the traffic of a network. Networks play an important role in today's social and economic infrastructures. The security of the network becomes crucial, and network traffic anomaly detection constitutes an important part of network security. In this paper, we present three major approaches to non-signature-based network detect...

  20. Multiview Face Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sauquet, Tiffany; Rodriguez, Yann; Marcel, Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    In this document, we address the problem of multiview face detection. This work extends the frontal face detection system developed at the IDIAP Research Institute to multiview face detection. The main state-of-the art techniques are reviewed and a novel architecture is presented, based on a pyramid of detectors that are trained for different views of faces. The proposed approach robustly detects faces rotated up to -67.5 degree in the image plane and up to -90 degree out of the image plane. ...

  1. DROWSY DRIVER DETECTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Smita Jawale; Ms. Pragati Malvadia; Ms. Ashwini Meena

    2016-01-01

    A Drowsy Driver Detection System is an Image processing based system. This system is developed using a non-intrusive machine vision based concepts. In this system, there is a camera that will be continuously monitoring the driver’s face to detect fatigue. In case the driver is detected as fatigue, the system issues an alarm. This system detects drowsiness by checking the amount of time the eyes are closed. The first five consecutive frames of the camera is checked, if the eyes are found...

  2. Explicit Content Image Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marcial Basilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system gives for explicit content image detection based on Computer Vision Algorithms, pattern recognition and FTK software Explicit Image Detection. In the first stage, HSV color model is used for the input images for the purpose of discriminating elements that are not human skin images. Then the image is filtered using skin detection. The output image only contains the areas of which it is composed. The results show a comparison between the proposed system and the company software Access Data called Forensic Toolkit 3.1 Explicit Image Detection isperformed.

  3. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jimmy; Straub, Douglas L.; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Huckaby, David

    2007-04-03

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  4. Introduction to detection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Presentation of the information processing pipleline for detection including discussing of various issues and the use of mathematical modeling. A simple example of detection a signal in noise illustrated that simple modeling outperforms human visual and auditory perception. Particiants are going to...

  5. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  6. Radar target detection simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Ibrahim Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard radar detection process requires that the sensor output is compared to a predetermined threshold. The threshold is selected based on a-priori knowledge available and/or certain assumptions. However, any knowledge and/or assumptions become in adequate due to the presence of multiple targets with varying signal return and usually non stationary background. Thus, any predetermined threshold may result in either increased false alarm rate or increased track loss. Even approaches where the threshold is adaptively varied will not perform well in situations when the signal return from the target of interest is too low compared to the average level of the background .Track-before-detect techniques eliminate the need for a detection threshold and provide detecting and tracking targets with lower signal-to-noise ratios than standard methods. However, although trackbefore-detect techniques eliminate the need for detection threshold at sensor's signal processing stage, they often use tuning thresholds at the output of the filtering stage .This paper presents a computerized simulation model for target detection process. Moreover, the proposed model method is based on the target motion models, the output of the detection process can easily be employed for maneuvering target tracking.

  7. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...

  8. Biometric Fingerprint Liveness Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Váňa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with biometric fingerprint liveness detection. A software-based liveness detection approach using neural network is proposed. To distinguish between live and fake samples, three image quality features extracted from one image are used. The algorithm is tested on LivDet database comprising real and fake images acquired with three sensors.

  9. Detection in Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, Erik Peter

    1997-01-01

    In general, a detection problem arises when changes may appear in a certain process. These changes may be errors in a dynamic process, objects in images, scratches on surfaces, or anything that is not supposed to be present. This thesis is concerned with a generalization from one-parameter detection

  10. Array for detecting microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  11. Amplified leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, James

    2011-12-15

    Leaks are one of the major concerns for oil and gas producers. But recently, a Calgary-based company developed a tool that can find natural gas leaks in wellbores. This has relieved the oil and gas producers because the optics of finding downhole leaks just got a little brighter. Since then, there have been continuous efforts to broaden and refine fiber optics based methods. This paper presents amplified leak detection using fiber optics to identify even the smallest liquid leaks downhole. At high volumes, detection of downhole leaks in liquids is not a problem but at lower flow rates, the leaks become harder to detect, and at very low flow rates, they might not be detected at all. Hifi Engineering Inc. has developed the LeakSonar fiber optic acoustic sensor array that is specifically designed to detect and locate fluid migration in wellbores, even through multiple strings of casing.

  12. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sushama Shirke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP in a Wireless LAN (WLAN. Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We have also tried to exploreprobable points of failure and implemented algorithms to overcome these problems. Advantage of this implementation is that fake AP can be detected very quickly as WLAN Intrusion Detection System needs only 100 -200 packets in most cases.

  13. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline;

    2008-01-01

    ) using basophils passively sensitized with patient serum and a PCR method detecting soy DNA. Eight food products were selected as model foods to test the performance of the methods. There was an overall good agreement between the methods in terms of ranks of soy content but not the quantity. The sandwich......Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...... ELISA aimed at native soy proteins had the lowest detection limit of 0.05 ppm, but only identified soy in 5/8 products, and generally in lower amounts compared to other methods. The competitive ELISA had a higher detection limit of 21 ppm, but seemed more successful in detecting processed soy. Only HR...

  14. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  15. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  16. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Sushama Shirke; Mr. S.B.Vanjale

    2011-01-01

    This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS ) using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP) in a Wireless LAN (WLAN). Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC) Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We ha...

  17. Detection of counterfeit currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1250 namometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency.

  18. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  19. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  20. Towards Corrosion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.Zaidan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is a natural process that seeks to reduce the binding energy in metals. The end result of corrosion involves a metal atom being oxidized. Surface corrosion on aluminum aircraft skins, near joints and around fasteners, is often an indicator of buried structural corrosion and cracking In this paper we proposed a new method on which we are moving towards designing a method to detect the corrosion within the metals, the new method has defined texture analysis as the main method for this approach, the proposed enhancement shows less false positive and less false negative. The main functions used in this approach beside texture analysis are Edge detection, structure element and image dilation. The new approach has designed to detect a part of the image that has been affected by the corrosion, the tested images has showed a good result lying on detecting the corrosion part from the image.

  1. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... M.D.: PSA stands for Prostate Specific Antigen. It is a test that men have by having ... detection is the digital rectal exam. Barry Trevithick: It doesn't make sense to be afraid of ...

  2. Kick detection during drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a borehole drilling system including a drill string in a borehole with the drill string defining an annulus between the outer diameter of the string and the borehole. It comprises: pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the annulus which is transmitted to the surface from the transmitter and for generating an annulus pressure signal corresponding thereto; pressure detecting means near the surface of the system for detecting the modulated pressure pulse train in the standpipe which is transmitted to the surface from the transmitter via the drill pipe and for generating a standpipe pressure signal corresponding thereto; surface instrumentation means responsive to the annulus pressure signal and to the standpipe pressure signal; and means for comparing the difference in arrival time signal DTmeas with a predetermined difference in arrival time signal DTalarm to generate a signal if DTmeas > DTalarm

  3. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... necessary test for detection is the digital rectal exam. Barry Trevithick: It doesn't make sense to ... your open mouth. Narrator: When a digital rectal exam or PSA test indicates an abnormality, an ultrasound ...

  4. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  5. Face Detection using Ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Sébastien; Subburaman, Venkatesh Bala

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of ferns (a set of binary features) for face detection. The binary feature used here is the sign of pixel intensity difference. Ferns were first introduced for keypoint recognition and showed good performance, and improving the speed of recognition. Keypoint recognition deals with classification of few hundred different classes, while face detection is a two-class problem with an unbalanced data. For keypoint recognition random pixel pairs proved to be good enoug...

  6. Scaling up Copy Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian; Dong, Xin Luna; Lyons, Kenneth B.; Meng, Weiyi; Srivastava, Divesh

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that copying is prevalent for Deep-Web data and considering copying can significantly improve truth finding from conflicting values. However, existing copy detection techniques do not scale for large sizes and numbers of data sources, so truth finding can be slowed down by one to two orders of magnitude compared with the corresponding techniques that do not consider copying. In this paper, we study {\\em how to improve scalability of copy detection on structured data}. Ou...

  7. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  8. EMOTION DETECTION FROM TEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Naresh Shivhare

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content – based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  9. EMOTION DETECTION FROM TEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Shiv Naresh Shivhare; Saritha Khethawat

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content – based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  10. Emotion Detection from Text

    CERN Document Server

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  11. Detecting Illegal Arms Trade

    OpenAIRE

    DellaVigna, Stefano; Ferrara, Eliana La

    2010-01-01

    Illegal arms are responsible for thousands of deaths in civil wars every year. Yet, their trade is very hard to detect. We propose a method to statistically detect illegal arms trade based on the investor knowledge embedded in financial markets. We focus on eight countries under UN arms embargo in the period 1990-2005, and analyze eighteen events during the embargo that suddenly increase or decrease conflict intensity. If the weapon-making companies are not trading or are trading legally, an ...

  12. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life. PMID:25720597

  13. Proactive malware detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Jonathan; Diep, Michael; Dredden, David; Mix, Matthew; Olsen, Mark; Price, Brian; Steil, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Small-to-medium sized businesses lack resources to deploy and manage high-end advanced solutions to deter sophisticated threats from well-funded adversaries, but evidence shows that these types of businesses are becoming key targets. As malicious code and network attacks become more sophisticated, classic signature-based virus and malware detection methods are less effective. To augment the current malware methods of detection, we developed a proactive approach to detect emerging malware threats using open source tools and intelligence to discover patterns and behaviors of malicious attacks and adversaries. Technical and analytical skills are combined to track adversarial behavior, methods and techniques. We established a controlled (separated domain) network to identify, monitor, and track malware behavior to increase understanding of the methods and techniques used by cyber adversaries. We created a suite of tools that observe the network and system performance looking for anomalies that may be caused by malware. The toolset collects information from open-source tools and provides meaningful indicators that the system was under or has been attacked. When malware is discovered, we analyzed and reverse engineered it to determine how it could be detected and prevented. Results have shown that with minimum resources, cost effective capabilities can be developed to detect abnormal behavior that may indicate malicious software.

  14. Forensic audio watermark detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Zmudzinski, Sascha; Petrautzki, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    Digital audio watermarking detection is often computational complex and requires at least as much audio information as required to embed a complete watermark. In some applications, especially real-time monitoring, this is an important drawback. The reason for this is the usage of sync sequences at the beginning of the watermark, allowing a decision about the presence only if at least the sync has been found and retrieved. We propose an alternative method for detecting the presence of a watermark. Based on the knowledge of the secret key used for embedding, we create a mark for all potential marking stages and then use a sliding window to test a given audio file on the presence of statistical characteristics caused by embedding. In this way we can detect a watermark in less than 1 second of audio.

  15. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  16. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...... have not yet been seen for the detection sub-problem of TLR, where detection is dominated by methods based on heuristic models. Evaluation of existing systems is currently limited primarily to small local datasets. In order to provide a common basis for comparing future TLR research an extensive public...

  17. Neurology and detective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempster, Peter A; Lees, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    When searching for clues to reach a diagnosis, neurologists often empathise with the detective who is trying to solve a case. The premise of this article is that detective stories have been part of the fabric of neurology ever since the time that it evolved into a discrete medical speciality. We will examine how this form of narrative has found expression in detective mystery fiction and popular science publications created by 20th century neurologist physician-writers. We will also investigate the power of the neurologist's alter ego, Sherlock Holmes: his relationship to founders of clinical neuroscience such as Jean-Martin Charcot, William Gowers and Sigmund Freud, and his influences on neurological practice and its literary traditions. PMID:24006370

  18. Dark matter direct detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are now enough pieces of (gravitational or cosmological) evidence for the existence of dark matter in the universe. The dark matter is an unknown matter that do not emit any electromagnetic radiation and perhaps have very feeble interaction with other particles. It is now established from the study of anisotropies in apparently smooth cosmic microwave background radiation that about 26.5% of the content of the universe is made up of dark matter as compared to only a paltry amount of about 4.5% of known matter. Although the evidence of dark matter is so far gravitational by and large, there are now worldwide endeavours to detect the dark matter directly in the laboratories. The direct detection of dark matter is based on measuring the recoil energy of the nucleus that scatters off a possible dark matter particle that may happen to interact with a nucleus of the detecting material

  19. Methods for Doping Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetto, Federico; Giraud, Sylvain; Leuenberger, Nicolas; Boccard, Julien; Nicoli, Raul; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has focused its efforts on detecting not only small prohibited molecules, but also larger endogenous molecules such as hormones, in the view of implementing an endocrinological module in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this chapter, the detection of two major types of hormones used for doping, growth hormone (GH) and endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAASs), will be discussed: a brief historical background followed by a description of state-of-the-art methods applied by accredited anti-doping laboratories will be provided and then current research trends outlined. In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs) will also be presented as a new class of biomarkers for doping detection. PMID:27348309

  20. Diagnostics - Crack Detection '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings of the International Symposium Diagnostics -Crack Detection '87 which was held from June 23 to 26 1987 in Sala (CSSR) contains 5 papers falling under the INIS Subject Scope. The said papers mainly deal with the problems of in-service diagnostics of pumps and steam turbines of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, as well as crack detection of materials and welded joints of equipment and the control of the water regimen of the primary circuit of such power plants. (Z.M.)

  1. Detection of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2016-05-10

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  2. Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pietro, Roberto Di

    2008-01-01

    In our world of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, there is an on-going threat of intrusion, denial of service attacks, or countless other abuses of computer and network resources. In particular, these threats continue to persist due to the flaws of current commercial intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Intrusion Detection Systems is an edited volume by world class leaders in this field. This edited volume sheds new light on defense alert systems against computer and network intrusions. It also covers integrating intrusion alerts within security policy framework for intrusion response, rel

  3. Readers as research detectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Flaws in research papers are common but it may require arduous detective work to unravel them. Checklists are helpful, but many inconsistencies will only be revealed through repeated cross-checks of every little detail, just like in a crime case. As a major deterrent for dishonesty, raw data from...... all trials should be posted on a public website. This would also make it much easier to detect errors and flaws in publications, and it would allow many research projects to be performed without collecting new data. The prevailing culture of secrecy and ownership to data is not in the best interests...

  4. On lie detection "wizards".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles F; Uysal, Ahmet

    2007-02-01

    M. O'Sullivan and P. Ekman (2004) claim to have discovered 29 wizards of deception detection. The present commentary offers a statistical critique of the evidence for this claim. Analyses reveal that chance can explain results that the authors attribute to wizardry. Thus, by the usual statistical logic of psychological research, O'Sullivan and Ekman's claims about wizardry are gratuitous. Even so, there may be individuals whose wizardry remains to be uncovered. Thus, the commentary outlines forms of evidence that are (and are not) capable of diagnosing lie detection wizardry. PMID:17221309

  5. Detecting Android Malware Using Clone Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; Manar H. Alalfi; Member; ACM; IEEE; Thomas R. Dean; 邹颖

    2015-01-01

    Android is currently one of the most popular smartphone operating systems. However, Android has the largest share of global mobile malware and significant public attention has been brought to the security issues of Android. In this paper, we investigate the use of a clone detector to identify known Android malware. We collect a set of Android applications known to contain malware and a set of benign applications. We extract the Java source code from the binary code of the applications and use NiCad, a near-miss clone detector, to find the classes of clones in a small subset of the malicious applications. We then use these clone classes as a signature to find similar source files in the rest of the malicious applications. The benign collection is used as a control group. In our evaluation, we successfully decompile more than 1 000 malicious apps in 19 malware families. Our results show that using a small portion of malicious applications as a training set can detect 95% of previously known malware with very low false positives and high accuracy at 96.88%. Our method can effectively and reliably pinpoint malicious applications that belong to certain malware families.

  6. Evolutionary Theories of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P

    2005-04-29

    Current, mid-term and long range technologies for detection of pathogens and toxins are briefly described in the context of performance metrics and operational scenarios. Predictive (evolutionary) and speculative (revolutionary) assessments are given with trade-offs identified, where possible, among competing performance goals.

  7. Global Disease Detectives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-21

    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  8. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World-wide, several detectors currently running or nearing completion are sensitive to a core collapse supernova neutrino signal in the Galaxy. I will briefly describe the nature of the neutrino signal and then survey current and future detection techniques. I will also explore what physics and astrophysics we can learn from the next Galactic core collapse

  9. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  10. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  11. Detecting plastics in seedcotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase global market share and value the US cotton industry needs to supply cotton lint that is free of contamination. Removing plastic contamination first requires developing a means to detect plastics in seedcotton. This study was conducted to validate a custom Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IM...

  12. Crack detection '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participants of the conference heard 36 papers of which 13 were incorporated in INIS. The incorporated papers deal with the quality control of the equipment of nuclear power plants, with technical specifications and possibilities of diverse crack detection devices, as well as with personnel training for nondestructive materials testing. (E.S.)

  13. Portable raman explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  14. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  15. Coherent detection spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueren, H.G. van

    1969-01-01

    Various methods of optical spectroscopy are compared, with special emphasis on resolution and acceptance of the systems. It is shown that coherent detection with a laser as a local oscillator has important advantages for specific applications in astronomical spectroscopy and interferometry, especial

  16. Detecting Quantum Entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Terhal, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the criteria for separability and quantum entanglement, both in a bipartite as well as a multipartite setting. We discuss Bell inequalities, entanglement witnesses, entropic inequalities, bound entanglement and several features of multipartite entanglement. We indicate how these criteria bear on the experimental detection of quantum entanglement.

  17. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  18. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Schink, S.W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Boger, A.; Opel, M.; Gross, R.; Keizer, R.S.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Gupta, A.; Huebl, H.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO2 and Fe3O4 films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance ρ and the Hall voltage VHall characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonanc

  19. Fast fight detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  20. M/SI-GaAs/M diode: Role of the metal contact in electrical transport, α-particle and photon detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubecký, F.; Zat'ko, B.; Vanko, G.; Hubík, Pavel; Oswald, Jiří; Kindl, Dobroslav; Gombia, E.; Kováč, J.; Šagátová, A.; Nečas, V.

    Bratislava : Slovak University of Technology, 2014 - (Breza, J.; Donoval, D.; Vavrinsky, E.), s. 49-52 ISBN 978-1-4799-5474-2. [International Conference on Advanced Semiconductor Devices and Microsystems /10./. Smolenice (SK), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : current-voltage measurements * GaAs * radiation detectors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  1. How People Really Detect Lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.; Morrison, Kelly; Ferrara, Merissa

    2002-01-01

    Considers that participants in previous deception detection experiments may not have had access to the types of information people most often use to detect real-life lies. Suggests that people most often rely on information from third parties and physical evidence when detecting lies, and that the detection of a lie is a process that takes days,…

  2. Pre-impact fall detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fall detection algorithms, and types of falls for fall detection evaluation. In addition, the performance of the existing pre-impact fall detection solutions were also reviewed and reported in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and detection/lead time. This review also summarized the limitations in the existing pre-impact fall detection research, and proposed future research directions in this field. PMID:27251528

  3. Solar neutrino detection

    CERN Document Server

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  4. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it. PMID:15350761

  5. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  6. Chaos detection and predictability

    CERN Document Server

    Gottwald, Georg; Laskar, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing chaoticity from regularity in deterministic dynamical systems and specifying the subspace of the phase space in which instabilities are expected to occur is of utmost importance in as disparate areas as astronomy, particle physics and climate dynamics.   To address these issues there exists a plethora of methods for chaos detection and predictability. The most commonly employed technique for investigating chaotic dynamics, i.e. the computation of Lyapunov exponents, however, may suffer a number of problems and drawbacks, for example when applied to noisy experimental data.   In the last two decades, several novel methods have been developed for the fast and reliable determination of the regular or chaotic nature of orbits, aimed at overcoming the shortcomings of more traditional techniques. This set of lecture notes and tutorial reviews serves as an introduction to and overview of modern chaos detection and predictability techniques for graduate students and non-specialists.   The book cover...

  7. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  8. Handbook for Language Detectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryanne, Ulla; Bruntt, Karen Scheel Lassen

    Handbook for Language Detectives gives a thorough presentation of English grammar and discusses how to teach grammar. The book unveils to the readers, who will be working as grammar detectives, the fascinating world of language. It does not only deal with "traditional grammar" but also discusses...... what different grammatical structures mean (semantics) and how they influence the level of style (pragmatics). Grammar should not be taught as a separate discipline; it can and should be integrated in communicative language teaching. The book gives you innovative and valuable ideas of how this can be...... done. The book serves a double purpose: - English grammar and language usage at bachelor level from a functional linguistic point of view. - How to teach English grammar within a communicative approach. The book is mainly intended for Danish student teachers of English, but anyone else interested in...

  9. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  10. Particles: glueballs detected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For about twenty years, the glueballs, hypothetical particles predicted by the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory, have never been detected with certainty. Thanks to extraordinary complex computer calculations, Donald Weingarten's team from the IBM research center of Yorktown Heights new New York (USA), have claimed that they are now able to define glueballs. According to their calculations, glueballs have been detected several times in the debris from the collision experiments carried out at the SLAC, the CERN or the Pekin Institute for High Energy Physics. A critical commentary of these affirmations is given by Pierre Fayet from the ENS (Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris, France). This short paper gives also a short recall of the gluon model and of glueballs properties according to QCD theory. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  11. May Gravity detect Tsunami ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2004-01-01

    The present gravitational wave detectors are reaching lowest metric deviation fields able to detect galactic and extra-galactic gravitational waves, related to Supernova explosions up to Virgo cluster. The same gravitational wave detector are nevertheless almost able to reveal near field gravitational perturbations due to fast huge mass displacements as the ones occurring during largest Earth-Quake or Tsunami as the last on 26th December 2004 in Asiatic area. The prompt gravitational near field deformation by the Tsunami may reach the LIGO threshold sensitivity within 3000-10000 km distances. Their eventual discover (in LIGO data or in future on-line detector arrays) may offer the most rapid warning alarm system on earth. Nevertheless the later continental mass rearrangement and their gravitational field assessment on Earth must induce, for Richter Magnitude 9 Tsunami, a different terrestrial inertia momentum and a different rotation axis, as well as a detectable shrinking of the Earth radius of nearly R =1.7...

  12. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  13. Detecting ''secret'' quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a general quantum mechanical system undergoing a process, it is shown that one can tell from measurements on this system whether or not the system is characterized by quantum numbers the existence of which is unknown to the observer, even though the detection equipment used by the observer is unable to distinguish among the various possible values of the ''secret'' quantum number and hence always averages over them

  14. Aspects of leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  15. Operational Network Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to examine dependencies and tradeoffs between the resource usage (CPU and memory) and the analysis capabilities of Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). We base our work on the experience of running NIDS in large network environments (among them the Münchener Wissenschaftsnetz (MWN)). These show that resource management is vital for running NIDS in high volume networks. To reduce the resource consumption of NIDS is often only possible by reducing the NIDS' ana...

  16. Community Detection in Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Neubauer, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Viele Datensätze können als Graphen aufgefasst werden, d.h. als Elemente (Knoten) und binäre Verbindungen zwischen ihnen (Kanten). Unter dem Begriff der "Complex Network Analysis" sammeln sich eine ganze Reihe von Verfahren, die die Untersuchung von Datensätzen allein aufgrund solcher struktureller Eigenschaften erlauben. "Community Detection" als Untergebiet beschäftigt sich mit der Identifikation besonders stark vernetzter Teilgraphen. Über den Nutzen hinaus, den eine Gruppierung verwandter...

  17. Fraud Detection in Healthcare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the problem of fraud detection in healthcare in this chapter. Given the recent scrutiny of the ineciencies in the US healthcare system, identifying fraud has been on the forefront of the eorts towards reducing the healthcare costs. In this chapter we will focus on understanding the issue of healthcare fraud in detail, and review methods that have been proposed in the literature to combat this issue using data driven approach.

  18. Detecting microdamage in bone.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, T Clive; Mohsin, Sahar; Taylor, David; Parkesh, Raman; Gunnlaugsson, TThorfinnur; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Giehl, Michael; Gowin, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue-induced microdamage in bone contributes to stress and fragility fractures and acts as a stimulus for bone remodelling. Detecting such microdamage is difficult as pre-existing microdamage sustained in vivo must be differentiated from artefactual damage incurred during specimen preparation. This was addressed by bulk staining specimens in alcohol-soluble basic fuchsin dye, but cutting and grinding them in an aqueous medium. Nonetheless, some artefactual cracks are partially stained and ...

  19. Multimoment Radio Transient Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Spitler, Laura; Cordes, Jim; Chatterjee, Shami; Stone, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We present a multimoment technique for signal classification and apply it to the detection of fast radio transients in incoherently dedispersed data. Specifically, we define a spectral modulation index in terms of the fractional variation in intensity across a spectrum. A signal whose intensity is distributed evenly across the entire band has a much lower modulation index than a spectrum with the same intensity localized in a single channel. We are interested in broadband pulses and use the m...

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  2. Innovations. DNA detectives.

    OpenAIRE

    May, M

    1999-01-01

    To understand the many potential causes and resulting consequences of DNA damage, scientists first need methods to detect it. Canadian scientists X. Chris Le and Michael Weinfeld, with help from U.S. molecular biologist Steven Leadon, developed a selective, sensitive technique for measuring DNA damage. The scientists combined a thymine glycol antibody with thymine glycol to selectively tag a specific type of DNA damage. They then added a second antibody with fluorescing properties, and used l...

  3. Electronic spinal posture detection

    OpenAIRE

    Thoné, Jef; Jourand, Philippe; Puers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A wearable automatic monitoring system for back posture has been developed and tested. Making use of only five accelerometers placed on strategic locations on the back, a stand alone system enables detection, logging and feedback of the patient’s posture. The system enables alerting the patient of a bad posture, or long-term data logging to analyze the patient’s posture over a prolonged period.

  4. Progress in Nuclear Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtech, Richard

    2010-02-01

    The Transformational and Applied Research Directorate (TAR) was established within the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) to conduct, support, coordinate, and encourage near- and long-term Research and Development (R&D) programs for break-through technologies designed to dramatically improve capabilities to detect and report illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials. These programs cover a wide range of technologies and high-level technical challenges associated with the DNDO mission and the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). They encompass a range of technology levels, ranging from feasibility and proof of concept studies to technology demonstrations of systems. Even though the focus is on high level challenges, the direction of some topic areas can change from year to year. This presentation will provide an overview of the TAR mission and discuss the current status of transformational R&D efforts in three major program areas: Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATD), Exploratory Research (ER) and Academic Research Initiative (ARI). )

  5. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  6. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  7. Human kin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Kramer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection has favored the evolution of behaviors that benefit not only one's genes, but also their copies in genetically related individuals. These behaviors include optimal outbreeding (choosing a mate that is neither too closely related, nor too distant), nepotism (helping kin), and spite (hurting non-kin at a personal cost), and all require some form of kin detection or kin recognition. Yet, kinship cannot be assessed directly; human kin detection relies on heuristic cues that take into account individuals' context (whether they were reared by our mother, or grew up in our home, or were given birth by our spouse), appearance (whether they smell or look like us), and ability to arouse certain feelings (whether we feel emotionally close to them). The uncertainties of kin detection, along with its dependence on social information, create ample opportunities for the evolution of deception and self-deception. For example, babies carry no unequivocal stamp of their biological father, but across cultures they are passionately claimed to resemble their mother's spouse; to the same effect, 'neutral' observers are greatly influenced by belief in relatedness when judging resemblance between strangers. Still, paternity uncertainty profoundly shapes human relationships, reducing not only the investment contributed by paternal versus maternal kin, but also prosocial behavior between individuals who are related through one or more males rather than females alone. Because of its relevance to racial discrimination and political preferences, the evolutionary pressure to prefer kin to non-kin has a manifold influence on society at large. PMID:26263231

  8. Biomimetic novelty detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lein W.; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    In the crowded rain forest, how do animals locate camouflaged prey that resemble the environment, such as walking sticks? Birds will observe the suspected stick over a period of time to determine if its behavior matches that of a tree. If the stick's behavior exceeds normal tree behavior, such as moving faster than the other branches, the bird will determine that it is actually a walking stick and not a tree branch. Once this determination is made, they will prey on the insect. Studying this natural process of novelty detection, present in a variety of animals from birds to turkey vultures, can be beneficial for numerous human applications. The spatiotemporal novelty detector will be developed using self-referencing matched filters to go beyond auto-regression. This algorithm is more than the usual change detector for it will detect a novelty behavior that exceeds its predicted value based on past data, e.g. the bird who identifies a walking stick in the forest. A scalar model is presented; however, the application can be expanded to multiple modalities for more detailed applications. Some of these applications include gas pipeline leak detection, persistent surveillance, and the creation of a smart sensor web.

  9. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Warren M. [Nonproliferation and National Security Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  11. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %. PMID:27229489

  12. Radiation detection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for training personnel in the detection of radio-activity, but without using a radio-active source, includes radio transmitter and a radio receiver which responds to signals received from the transmitter to simulate aspects of a geiger counter. The apparatus establishes the magnitude of a parameter, e.g. the distance between transmitter and receiver and/or the signal strength from the transmitter, and then expresses the magnitude of the parameter on a scale similar to that of a geiger counter and/or produces an intermittent sound similar to that of a geiger counter at a rate according to said magnitude. (author)

  13. Detection of irradiated chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation treatment of food is growing acceptance and application to ever increasing variety of products. The method has indeed proved efficient in reducing food losses and in improving safety of products. Among vegetable products of interest for radiation treatment, chestnuts have recently been considered. Irradiation treatment of chestnuts has been authorized in countries such as Korea as a valid and safe alternative to the widespread use of fumigants. At the Italian level, Montella chestnut is a typical variety recognized as a PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) product and widely used in confectionery industry. In view of an extension of radiation treatment to this kind of product, to permit legal controls and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed and validated. The task of finding detection methods for irradiated chestnuts can be in principle afforded with different methods. The cellulose and sugar contained in the skin and pulp, respectively, might suggest the use of the protocol EN 1787 and EN 13708, relative to ESR spectroscopy. In particular, the protocol EN 1787, based on ESR technique, is applied to detect cellulose radicals radio-induced in outer shell part of the sample as well as in the seed present in the inner part of the fruit. It is known that ionizing radiation may induce two different ESR signals: cellulose signal and a single line signal centered at g = 2. The protocol EN 1787 uses the low intensity cellulose signal for identification. In the present study, in case of low cellulose content, even the g = 2 is analyzed for setting up an alternative identification procedure. Protocol EN 13708, used to identify food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy, is applied to the pulp of fruit. As for luminescence measurements, mineral isolation of silicates and TL measurements is done according to European Standard EN 1788. Preliminary test showed that the

  14. Detecting a Moving Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sidhanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of such videos abound in applications like sports, air traffic, car traffic and cloud transformations etc.

  15. Electrocardiogram events detection

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, João Paulo; Lopes, Vanda

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to create a system of medical diagnosis of the Electrocardiogram (ECG). The events of the ECG are related with the functioning of the heart and different disorders of the heart functioning have their own ECG pattern allowing the connection between ECG patterns and cardiac disorders. For this purpose, we present here an algorithm that detects the P, QRS and T events of the ECG under MATLAB environment. The algorithm is based in two techniques. The search for picks and valleys an...

  16. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Nucleic acid detection assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Liquid metal detection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensing instrument for use in detecting the presence or absence of liquid metal in a non-magnetic pipe or container comprises a pair of electromagnetic elements, each having a magnetic core and a primary induction coil, a third magnetic core bridging the end faces of the cores and a secondary induction coil wound about the third magnetic core on an axis normal to the axis of the pair of magnetic cores. Applied to nuclear reactors cooled by liquid metals eg. sodium or lead. (U.K.)

  19. Liquid explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  20. Ionizing radiation detecting unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design of a unit for ionizing radiation detection under high mechanical loads is described. The unit consists of a detector (scintillation or ionization), switching unit, an electronic unit, a compensation unit and absorption unit, and a jacket. To increase reliability of the unit under operation conditions at any space position in the wide range of mechanical loads and to simplify the construction, the absorption assembly has been made in the form of an elastic reference barrel-shaped element with slots along the element surface and connected to the switching unit and electronic unit by the compensation unit, which ridigity is higher than the element ridigity

  1. Detecting Planets Through Microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1997-01-01

    More than 100 microlensing events have been detected during the last ~4 years, most of them towards the Galactic Bulge. Since the line of sight towards the Bulge passes through the disk and the Bulge itself, the known stars towards the Bulge play a dominant role as gravitational lenses. If these stars have planets around them, then the signature of the planets can be seen as sharp, extra peaks on the microlensing light curves. Frequent, continuous monitoring of the on-going microlensing event...

  2. Electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the magnetoresistance properties of thin ferromagnetic CrO2 and Fe3O4 films under microwave irradiation. Both the sheet resistance ρ and the Hall voltage VHall characteristically change when a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) occurs in the film. The electrically detected ferromagnetic resonance (EDFMR) signals closely match the conventional FMR, measured simultaneously, in both resonance fields and line shapes. The sign and the magnitude of the resonant changes Δρ/ρ and ΔVHall/VHall can be consistently described in terms of a Joule heating effect. Bolometric EDFMR thus is a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic anisotropy and magnetoresistive phenomena in ferromagnetic micro- or nanostructures

  3. Opaque cloud detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  4. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  5. Real Time Face Detection Using Skin Detection (Block Approach)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sharif; Sajjad Mohsin; Muhammad Younas Javed

    2011-01-01

    Role of Face recognition in security applications can never be overstated, that is why researchers around the world are still actively participating in this area. The initial step in the procedure of face recognition is to detect it efficiently. In this paper, a hybrid technique is being proposed using skin detection (in RGB color space) and block approach. This fusion is proposed to achieve fast skin detection. Along with the fusion, template matching is also used for detection purpose. Bloc...

  6. MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Hilbrich; Joachim Protze; Martin Schulz; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Matthias S. Müller

    2013-01-01

    The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI) is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST) that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection...

  7. Detecting Priming News Events

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Di; Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Liu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We study a problem of detecting priming events based on a time series index and an evolving document stream. We define a priming event as an event which triggers abnormal movements of the time series index, i.e., the Iraq war with respect to the president approval index of President Bush. Existing solutions either focus on organizing coherent keywords from a document stream into events or identifying correlated movements between keyword frequency trajectories and the time series index. In this paper, we tackle the problem in two major steps. (1) We identify the elements that form a priming event. The element identified is called influential topic which consists of a set of coherent keywords. And we extract them by looking at the correlation between keyword trajectories and the interested time series index at a global level. (2) We extract priming events by detecting and organizing the bursty influential topics at a micro level. We evaluate our algorithms on a real-world dataset and the result confirms that ou...

  8. Gas detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of H2S leaks is accomplished by a pair of identical detectors. Each detector includes a He-Xe laser which emits at 3.6859 μm and which is mounted on a scanning device with a telescope. The beam is made to scan a number of strategically located retroreflectors and is reflected, forming a curtain of optically sensitive paths along two sides of the plant. By placing the two detectors at diagonally opposite corners of the storage area, this curtain is extended to surround the entire plant. If a leak occurs, a plume of H2S will cut through the curtain of optically sensitive paths and the scanning beam will be absorbed by the H2S which has a major absorption line at 3.6858 μm. The intensity of the reflected beam detected will vary depending on the concentration and diameter of the H2S plume. A second pair of detectors may be located at two other diagonally-opposite corners to provide a second curtain of optically-sensitive paths. This second curtain forms a grid with the first curtain, thus enabling the operator to determine where the gas is moving through the grid. (LL)

  9. Nanocomposite for radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Sunil

    2012-02-01

    Cerium fluoride is among the widely studied inorganic scintillators for radiation detection, because of its high light output and high stopping power. Herein, platelets shape CeF3 nanoparticles for radiation detection was synthesis by bisolvent solvothermal method. The characterization of nanoprticles was done by photoluminescence, XRD and SEM measurement. The synthesized CeF3 nanoparticles have broad emission peak around 330 nm. ZnO is a semiconductor scintillator, having fast decay time. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using solvothermal method and UV-Vis, photoluminescence and SEM measurement were done for their characterization. The absorption spectrum of the ZnO nanoparticles is dependent on the size of the nanoparticles. By changing the temperature and the concentration of zinc salt and surfactant, ZnO with absorption spectra overlapping with the emission spectra of CeF3 were made for the purpose of creating nanocomposites, with improved scintillation properties. The energy transfer between two nanoparticles was also studied and the changes in Photoluminescence intensity of the nanocomposites were described.

  10. DCA for Bot Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Hammadi, Yousof; Greensmith, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring the security of computers is a non-trivial task, with many techniques used by malicious users to compromise these systems. In recent years a new threat has emerged in the form of networks of hijacked zombie machines used to perform complex distributed attacks such as denial of service and to obtain sensitive data such as password information. These zombie machines are said to be infected with a 'bot' - a malicious piece of software which is installed on a host machine and is controlled by a remote attacker, termed the 'botmaster of a botnet'. In this work, we use the biologically inspired Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) to detect the existence of a single bot on a compromised host machine. The DCA is an immune-inspired algorithm based on an abstract model of the behaviour of the dendritic cells of the human body. The basis of anomaly detection performed by the DCA is facilitated using the correlation of behavioural attributes such as keylogging and packet flooding behaviour. The results of the applica...

  11. Detection of Logic Bombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Singh Bist

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer viruses are big threat to computer world; researchers doing work in this area have made various efforts in the direction of classification and detection methods of these viruses. Graph mining, system call arrangement and CFG analysis are some latest research activities in this field. The computability theory and the semi computable functions are quite important in our context of analyzing malicious activities. A mathematical model like random access stored program machine with the association of attached background is used by Ferenc Leitold while explaining modeling of viruses in his paper. Computer viruses like polymorphic viruses and metamorphic viruses use more efficient techniques for their evolution so it is required to use strong models for understanding their evolution and then apply detection followed by the process of removal. Code Emulation is one of the strongest ways to analyze computer viruses but the anti-emulation activities made by virus designers are also active. This paper involves the study of logic bombs.

  12. CT Detection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text:Godfrey N. Housnfield received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for inventing Computed Tomography in 1967. Since then the invention has evolved and is part of everyday diagnostics in every hospital. The first clinical Computed Tomography was installed in 1971. Since middle seventies a group of Physicists and Engineers have been development Computed Tomography in Haifa, under the name of different companies. The group started as Elscint, was bought by Picker in 1999, then modified the name to Marconi and was bought by Philips in 2002. Several of the first developments of Computed Tomography systems were done in Haifa, in particular in the detectors. Among several firsts, he first Solid State Computed Tomography detector and first multi-slice Computed Tomography should be mentioned. The evolution of Computed Tomography detection systems will be described. Nowadays Multi Slice Computed Tomography Detectors enable new applications like Computed Tomography Angiography and virtual Colonoscopy. The evolution of Computed Tomography detection systems will be described, from single slice to today 64 slice arrays and beyond

  13. Disease detection and elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In micropropagation, the health status of the donor mother plant and of the plants multiplied from it are among the most critical factors, which determine the success of a tissue culture operation. The indexing of the mother plants for freedom from viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases is a normal procedure in large-scale plant propagation through tissue culture. Plants not originating from pathogen-tested material must be screened for the presence of viruses Laboratories, which do not have in-house facilities to carry out plant indexing, should obtain their indexed stock plants from organizations such as Departments of Agriculture, agricultural universities or privately owned certified germplasm repositories that routinely produce such plant material. Batches of micropropagated plants should be tested for freedom from diseases either in-house or by other laboratories. ELISA has been the most effective method for virus and pathogen detection in plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization are more sensitive than ELISA, and can detect pathogens in extremely low amounts. The elimination of most viruses can be achieved by a combination of apical meristem culture and thermotherapy. (author)

  14. Distributed Impact Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  15. Change detection: training and transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Gaspar

    Full Text Available Observers often fail to notice even dramatic changes to their environment, a phenomenon known as change blindness. If training could enhance change detection performance in general, then it might help to remedy some real-world consequences of change blindness (e.g. failing to detect hazards while driving. We examined whether adaptive training on a simple change detection task could improve the ability to detect changes in untrained tasks for young and older adults. Consistent with an effective training procedure, both young and older adults were better able to detect changes to trained objects following training. However, neither group showed differential improvement on untrained change detection tasks when compared to active control groups. Change detection training led to improvements on the trained task but did not generalize to other change detection tasks.

  16. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  17. Canny Edge Detection using Verilog

    OpenAIRE

    D Narayana Reddy*; , Mohan A R2; , Subhramanya Bhat3

    2014-01-01

    Edge detection is one of the key stages in image processing and objects identification. The Canny Edge Detector is one of the most widely used edge detection algorithm due to its good performance. Edge detection carries preprocessing step for many image processing algorithms such as image enhancement, image segmentation, tracking and image/video coding. Canny’s edge detection algorithm that results in significantly reduced memory requirements decreased latency and increased th...

  18. Suicide bomber detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Naomi; Callejero, Carlos; Fiore, Franco; Gómez, Ignacio; Gonzalo, Ramón; Enríquez de Luna, Álvaro; Ederra, Iñigo; Palacios, Inés

    2009-05-01

    The chance of suicide bomber attacks against troops in the Theatre of Operations is currently quite high. Most of the time checkpoints and compound gates are not equipped with the appropriate equipment to screen for potential suicide bombers. The ultimate solution would be to be able to perform stand-off screening under various weather conditions whilst avoiding contact between Force Protection personnel and potential suicide bombers. Radiation in the millimeterwave and the lower Terahertz range, having the useful property of being able to penetrate clothing in addition to fog and rain, makes it a clear candidate for imaging in this situation. A study has been made simulating real case scenarios to test practical detection performance and stand-off distances at a range of frequencies in this band, the results of which will be presented.

  19. Purge corruption detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nankee, R.J. II; Frantz, D.C.; Tamm, J.R.; Gutermuth, T.R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an adaptive memory cell update method for the detection and correction of a possible purge corruption of the adaptive memory portion of the memory in an internal combustion engine control unit, the adaptive memory portion having purge free cells and normal cells. The method consists of: determining the adaptive memory cells to be used during the adaptive memory cell update by determining if the engine conditions are right to turn the purge system off; if the conditions are right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system off and using the purge free cells in the adaptive memory cell update; if the conditions are not right to turn the purge system off, turning the purge system on and using the normal cells in the adaptive memory cell update.

  20. Heart Auscultation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Vikramsinh Bhosale

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a system for analyzing of heart auscultation so every person can get information about their own heart condition. The auscultation means the sound created by any organ due to turbulent blood flow. The murmurs are heart abnormal sounds. The murmur can be detected and analyzed by using Digital Signal Processing (DSP stethoscope but looking cost aspect a system should have maximum accuracy level. The noise in audio files (.wave is degraded by using Finite Impulse Response (FIR filtering. The designed system calculates Root Mean Square (RMS value and Low Energy Rate (LER for sound signals directly taken from internet by using MATLAB platform. From the calculation, system classifies the signal either normal or murmur signals. Results are consulted with a physician. If signals are normal then Root Mean Square value is less than 0.3 (RMS0.8.

  1. Detection of elliptical contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the quantitation of myocardial perfusion defects in planar thallium-201 scintigrams. To be able to quantify the distribution of 201Tl in the myocardium as imaged by the scintigram, accurate delineation of the target object is a prerequisite. The distribution of the radionuclide within the contour of the left ventricle can be described by application of circumferential profiles. By comparing the computed circumferential profile with those of normal subjects, humans with no evidence of coronary artery disease, segments of the left ventricle with decreased bloodflow can be detected. In practice there is no real standard to compare with, and due to noise and biological variations, it is not always possible to make a definite decision regarding the presence of a defect in the distribution of the radionuclide. The value and limitations of the developed quantification procedure are discussed. Some future developments are suggested. 108 refs.; 57 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. Detection of anomalous events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  3. Immunological Detection of Arbutin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The relative molecular mass of Arbutin is small.Both fluorolabeling and radiolabeling may affect its properties and functions.Therefore, the immunoassay of Arbutin was studied.Arbutin was coupled to bovine serum albumin to get the Arbutin-BSA conjugate with high molar ratio of Arbutin to BSA.Two rabbits were injected with the conjugate to develop the anti-Arbutin serum.Ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography were used to purify the antibody.Double agar diffusion test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were adopted to identify the antibody titer.The results demonstrated that the purity and activity of the antibody are high.The method proposed is satisfactory for the immunological detection of Arbutin.

  4. Malware detection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ken; Lloyd, Levi; Crussell, Jonathan; Sanders, Benjamin; Erickson, Jeremy Lee; Fritz, David Jakob

    2016-03-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe systems and methods for malicious software detection and analysis. A binary executable comprising obfuscated malware on a host device may be received, and incident data indicating a time when the binary executable was received and identifying processes operating on the host device may be recorded. The binary executable is analyzed via a scalable plurality of execution environments, including one or more non-virtual execution environments and one or more virtual execution environments, to generate runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable. At least some of the runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable is stored in a shared database, while at least some of the incident data is stored in a private, non-shared database.

  5. Multimoment Radio Transient Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, Laura; Chatterjee, Shami; Stone, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We present a multimoment technique for signal classification and apply it to the detection of fast radio transients in incoherently dedispersed data. Specifically, we define a spectral modulation index in terms of the fractional variation in intensity across a spectrum. A signal whose intensity is distributed evenly across the entire band has a much lower modulation index than a spectrum with the same intensity localized in a single channel. We are interested in broadband pulses and use the modulation index to excise narrowband radio frequency interference (RFI) by applying a modulation index threshold above which candidate events are removed. The technique is tested both with simulations and using data from sources of known radio pulses (RRAT J1928+15 and giant pulses from the Crab pulsar). We find that our technique is effective at eliminating not only narrowband RFI but also spurious signals from bright, real pulses that are dedispersed at incorrect dispersion measures. The method is generalized to coheren...

  6. Strategies of Life Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Oliver; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Selsis, Franck; Summons, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The search for life outside the Earth has been one of mankind's most challenging quests. We have reached a level of technology that allows for initial steps toward thorough scientific investigation. The aim of this workshop was to take an interdisciplinary look at the signatures that would be indicative of past or present life on another planet and compare them to biosignatures on Earth. The purpose of the workshop was also to discuss state-of-the-art in-situ instruments that are envisioned to search for these signatures in the exploration of the solar system, as well as the discussion of concepts descriptive of the search for habitable planets around other stars. This book is intended to provide a reference to scientists and instrument developers working in the field of in-situ and remote life detection. It can also be used as an interdisciplinary introduction for students and post-doctoral researchers entering this new and exciting field.

  7. Detection of Supernova Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gil-Botella, Inés

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino burst from a core-collapse supernova can provide information about the star explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extent can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single supernova. The capabilities of present and future large underground neutrino detectors to yield information about the time and flavor dependent neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova are described in this paper. Neutrinos from past cosmic supernovae are also observable and their detection will improve our knowledge of the core-collapse rates and average neutrino emission. A comparison between the different experimental techniques is included.

  8. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, B.;

    2011-01-01

    , depressive and cognitive factors and for global assessment of functioning for social functioning at 5-year follow-up. The ED group also had more contacts with friends. Regression analysis did not find that these differences could be explained by confounders. Conclusions Early treatment had positive effects......Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome. This...... study reports the effects of reducing DUP on 5-year course and outcome. Method During 1997–2000 a total of 281 consecutive patients aged >17 years with first episode non-affective psychosis were recruited, of which 192 participated in the 5-year follow-up. A comprehensive early detection (ED) programme...

  9. Silicosis: controversy in detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemen Darwin Delgado García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the work of mining, quarrying, construction of tunnels and galleries, abrasive jet cleaning and smelting continue to present significant risks of silica exposure and silicosis epidemics still occur, even in developed countries. Patients with silicosis are particularly susceptible to opportunistic lung infections such as aspergillosis and tuberculosis. Occasionally silicosis is associated with scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and cancer. Early detection of silicosis is made by chest X-ray method, being the presence of rounded opacities the main sign of illness. However, no systematic information is available that allows use as a standard method of evaluation because their interpretation remains operator dependent both conventional radiological technique, digital and interpretation of computed tomography with high resolution.

  10. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang;

    2014-01-01

    Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution of...... community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....

  11. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  12. Detecting drugs at customs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of measuring ions by their drift times at atmospheric pressure is not new, but it has been only recently that ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been realised as a powerful method of identifying certain molecules of importance at low concentrations. The impetus has arisen initially from the desire of the military to detect chemical warfare agents in the field but more recently has been taken up by police and customs services to monitor drugs of abuse and explosives. The Australian Customs Service (Border Technology) has purchased a number of IM spectrometers and has installed them in all international ports and airports. The first cases of persons apprehended for importation of controlled substances with evidence from IMS have appeared in the courts and the legal system is coming to terms with this new forensic tool. Ion mobility spectrometry may be thought of as time of flight mass spectrometry at atmospheric pressure. The presence of gas gives the possibility of a number of ion-molecule reactions, and the time taken to traverse drift tubes of a few centimetres at a field of typically 25 kV m-1 is around 10-20 ms. Ions are generated by a 63Ni source, which ionises the carrier gas (dry air), which in turn ionises the injected analyte. Detection limits in the low ppb range are found for many substances. Details of sample collection, sensitivity and limitations of the ion mobility spectrometry are given. Extensions to IMS include the use of Fourier Transform method, electro spray and neural networks

  13. Dark matter detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, Laura

    2016-08-01

    More than 80 years after its first postulation in modern form, the existence and distribution of dark matter in our Universe is well established. Dark matter is the gravitational glue that holds together galaxies, galaxy clusters and structures on the largest cosmological scales, and an essential component to explain the observed fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. Yet its existence is inferred indirectly, through its gravitational influence on luminous matter, and its nature is not known. A viable hypothesis is that dark matter is made of new, elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths spanning a wide range. Two well-motivated classes of candidates are axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), and experimental efforts have now reached sensitivities that allow them to test this hypothesis. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early Universe, can be detected by exploiting their predicted couplings to photons and electrons. WIMPs can be detected directly by looking for their collisions with atomic nuclei ultra-low background detectors, or indirectly, through the observation of their annihilation products such as neutrinos, gamma rays, positrons and antiprotons over the astrophysical background. A complementary method is the production of dark matter particles at colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider, where they could be observed indirectly via missing transverse energy, or via associated particle production. I will review the main experimental efforts to search for dark matter particles, and the existing constraints on the interaction cross sections. I will also discuss future experiments, their complementarity and their ability to measure the properties of these particles.

  14. Parallel Detection of Cathodoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C. C.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A GEC P8600 Charge-coupled device has been used in the design and fabrication of a parallel detection system or optical multichannel analyser for the analysis of Cathodoluminescence Spectra. The P8600, whilst designed for video applications, is used as a linear array by merging entire rows of pixels together on the on-board output amplifier. A dual slope integration method of correlated double sampling has been used for noise reduction. An analysis of the performance of this system is given and the achieved noise level of 22 electrons is found to be in good agreement with that theoretically possible. A complete description of the circuits is given together with details of its use with a "Link 860" computer/analyser and a "Philips 400" electron microscope. To demonstrate the system, a study of the cathodoluminescent properties of Cadmium Telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been made. In particular the effect of dislocations, stacking faults and twins on luminescence has been studied. Dislocations are seen to cause a quenching of excitonic emission with no corresponding increase in any other emission. The effect of stacking faults was seen to vary between different samples with an enhancement of long wavelength emission seen in poor quality samples. This supports the premise that the faults are nucleated by surface impurities which are also responsible for the enhanced emission. Some twin defects have been found to cause enhanced excitonic emission. This is compatible with the existence of natural quantum wells at twin faults proposed by other workers. The speed with which the parallel detection system can acquire spectra makes it a valuable tool in the study of beam sensitive materials. To demonstrate this, measurements were made of the decay rates of the weak cathodoluminescence from the organic crystal Coronene. These rates were seen to have time constants less than two minutes and such

  15. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

  16. Statistical theory of signal detection

    CERN Document Server

    Helstrom, Carl Wilhelm; Costrell, L; Kandiah, K

    1968-01-01

    Statistical Theory of Signal Detection, Second Edition provides an elementary introduction to the theory of statistical testing of hypotheses that is related to the detection of signals in radar and communications technology. This book presents a comprehensive survey of digital communication systems. Organized into 11 chapters, this edition begins with an overview of the theory of signal detection and the typical detection problem. This text then examines the goals of the detection system, which are defined through an analogy with the testing of statistical hypotheses. Other chapters consider

  17. Imbalance problem in community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng Gang

    2016-09-01

    Community detection gives us a simple way to understand complex networks' structures. However, there is an imbalance problem in community detection. This paper first introduces the imbalance problem and then proposes a new measure to alleviate the imbalance problem. In addition, we study two variants of the measure and further analyze the resolution scale of community detection. Finally, we compare our approach with some state of the art methods on random networks as well as real-world networks for community detection. Both the theoretical analysis and the experimental results show that our approach achieves better performance for community detection. We also find that our approach tends to separate densely connected subgroups preferentially.

  18. Canadian landmine detection research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, John E.; Das, Yogadhish; Faust, Anthony A.

    2003-09-01

    Defence R&D Canada (DRDC), an agency within the Department of National Defence, has been conducting research and development (R&D) on the detection of landmines for countermine operations and of unexploded ordnance (UXO) for range clearance since 1975. The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), located at DRDC Suffield, was formed in 1998 to carry out R&D related to humanitarian demining. The lead group responsible for formulating and executing both countermine and humanitarian R&D programs in detection is the Threat Detection Group at DRDC Suffield. This paper describes R&D for both programs under the major headings of remote minefield detection, close-in scanning detection, confirmation detection and teleoperated systems. Among DRDC's achievements in landmine and UXO detection R&D are pioneering work in electromagnetic and magnetic identification and classification; the first military-fielded multisensor, teleoperated vehicle-mounted landmine detection system; pioneering use of confirmation detectors for multisensor landmine detection systems; the first fielded thermal neutron activation landmine confirmation sensor; the first detection of landmines using a real-time hyperspectral imager; electrical impedance imaging detection of landmines and UXO and a unique neutron backscatter landmine imager.

  19. Detection Range of Airborne Magnetometers in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne magnetometers are utilized for the small-range search, precise positioning, and identification of the ferromagnetic properties of underwater targets. As an important performance parameter of sensors, the detection range of airborne magnetometers is commonly set as a fixed value in references regardless of the influences of environment noise, target magnetic properties, and platform features in a classical model to detect airborne magnetic anomalies. As a consequence, deviation in detection ability analysis is observed. In this study, a novel detection range model is proposed on the basis of classic detection range models of airborne magnetometers. In this model, probability distribution is applied, and the magnetic properties of targets and the environment noise properties of a moving submarine are considered. The detection range model is also constructed by considering the distribution of the moving submarine during detection. A cell-averaging greatest-of-constant false alarm rate test method is also used to calculate the detection range of the model at a desired false alarm rate. The detection range model is then used to establish typical submarine search probabilistic models. Results show that the model can be used to evaluate not only the effects of ambient magnetic noise but also the moving and geomagnetic features of the target and airborne detection platform. The model can also be utilized to display the actual operating range of sensor systems.

  20. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  1. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  2. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  3. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  4. Network intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oboile Tirelo; YANG Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, network computer systems play an increasingly important role in society and economy. They have become the targets of a wide array of malicious attacks that invariably turn into actual intrusions. This is why the computer security has become an essential concern for network administrators. Too often, intrusions wreak havoc inside LANs and the time and cost to repair the damage can grow to extreme proportions. Instead of using passive measures to fix and patch security holes once they have been exploited, it is more effective to adopt a protective approach to intrusions. In addition to the well-established intrusion prevention techniques such as data encryption and message integrity, user authentication and user authorization, as well as the avoidance of security flaws inherent to many off-the-shelf applications, intrusion detection techniques can be viewed as an addition safeguard for network computers. The paper discusses traditional and new security designs, the approach to implementing best-practice security measures and the method to trace the malicious computer attackers.

  5. Community detection in graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo

    2010-02-01

    The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i.e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of the same cluster and comparatively few edges joining vertices of different clusters. Such clusters, or communities, can be considered as fairly independent compartments of a graph, playing a similar role like, e.g., the tissues or the organs in the human body. Detecting communities is of great importance in sociology, biology and computer science, disciplines where systems are often represented as graphs. This problem is very hard and not yet satisfactorily solved, despite the huge effort of a large interdisciplinary community of scientists working on it over the past few years. We will attempt a thorough exposition of the topic, from the definition of the main elements of the problem, to the presentation of most methods developed, with a special focus on techniques designed by statistical physicists, from the discussion of crucial issues like the significance of clustering and how methods should be tested and compared against each other, to the description of applications to real networks.

  6. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casada, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  7. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  8. MUSIC algorithms for rebar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) algorithm is employed to detect and localize an unknown number of scattering objects which are small in size as compared to the wavelength. The ensemble of objects to be detected consists of both strong and weak scatterers. This represents a scattering environment challenging for detection purposes as strong scatterers tend to mask the weak ones. Consequently, the detection of more weakly scattering objects is not always guaranteed and can be completely impaired when the noise corrupting data is of a relatively high level. To overcome this drawback, here a new technique is proposed, starting from the idea of applying a two-stage MUSIC algorithm. In the first stage strong scatterers are detected. Then, information concerning their number and location is employed in the second stage focusing only on the weak scatterers. The role of an adequate scattering model is emphasized to improve drastically detection performance in realistic scenarios. (paper)

  9. MUSIC algorithms for rebar detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Raffaele; Leone, Giovanni; Dell'Aversano, Angela

    2013-12-01

    The MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification) algorithm is employed to detect and localize an unknown number of scattering objects which are small in size as compared to the wavelength. The ensemble of objects to be detected consists of both strong and weak scatterers. This represents a scattering environment challenging for detection purposes as strong scatterers tend to mask the weak ones. Consequently, the detection of more weakly scattering objects is not always guaranteed and can be completely impaired when the noise corrupting data is of a relatively high level. To overcome this drawback, here a new technique is proposed, starting from the idea of applying a two-stage MUSIC algorithm. In the first stage strong scatterers are detected. Then, information concerning their number and location is employed in the second stage focusing only on the weak scatterers. The role of an adequate scattering model is emphasized to improve drastically detection performance in realistic scenarios.

  10. Effectiveness of scat detection dogs for detecting forest carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; Donovan, T.M.; MacKay, Paula; Zielinski, William J.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the detection and accuracy rates of detection dogs trained to locate scats from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus), fishers (Martes pennanti), and bobcats (Lynx rufus). During the summers of 2003-2004, 5 detection teams located 1,565 scats (747 putative black bear, 665 putative fisher, and 153 putative bobcat) at 168 survey sites throughout Vermont, USA. Of 347 scats genetically analyzed for species identification, 179 (51.6%) yielded a positive identification, 131 (37.8%) failed to yield DNA information, and 37 (10.7%) yielded DNA but provided no species confirmation. For 70 survey sites where confirmation of a putative target species' scat was not possible, we assessed the probability that ???1 of the scats collected at the site was deposited by the target species (probability of correct identification; P ID). Based on species confirmations or PID values, we detected bears at 57.1% (96) of sites, fishers at 61.3% (103) of sites, and bobcats at 12.5%o (21) of sites. We estimated that the mean probability of detecting the target species (when present) during a single visit to a site was 0.86 for black bears, 0.95 for fishers, and 0.40 for bobcats. The probability of detecting black bears was largely unaffected by site- or visit-specific covariates, but the probability of detecting fishers varied by detection team. We found little or no effect of topographic ruggedness, vegetation density, or local weather (e.g., temp, humidity) on detection probability for fishers or black bears (data were insufficient for bobcat analyses). Detection dogs were highly effective at locating scats from forest carnivores and provided an efficient and accurate method for collecting detection-nondetection data on multiple species.

  11. Malware Detection Through Call Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kinable, Joris

    2010-01-01

    Each day, anti-virus companies receive large quantities of potentially harmful executables. Many of the malicious samples among these executables are variations of earlier encountered malware, created by their authors to evade pattern-based detection. Consequently, robust detection approaches are required, capable of recognizing similar samples automatically.In this thesis, malware detection through call graphs is studied. In a call graph, the functions of a binary executable are represented ...

  12. Detection of signals in noise

    CERN Document Server

    McDonough, Robert N

    1995-01-01

    The Second Edition is an updated revision to the authors highly successful and widely used introduction to the principles and application of the statistical theory of signal detection. This book emphasizes those theories that have been found to be particularly useful in practice including principles applied to detection problems encountered in digital communications, radar, and sonar.Detection processing based upon the fast Fourier transform

  13. Direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dark matter is one of the most important basic topics of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology in the 21st century. Its existence has been established by gravitational effects, but its identity is still a mystery. In this review we shall discuss the principle of direct detection of the weak interaction massive particle(WIMP), direct detection techniques, the current status and future developments of experimental detection, and finally some new experimental physics results. (authors)

  14. Computer virus : design and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Arding, Petter; Hedelin, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Computer viruses uses a few different techniques, with various intentions, toinfect files. However, what most of them have in common is that they wantto avoid detection by anti-malware software. To not get detected and stay unnoticed,virus creators have developed several methods for this. Anti-malwaresoftware is constantly trying to counter these methods of virus infections withtheir own detection-techniques. In this paper we have analyzed the differenttypes of viruses and their infection tec...

  15. Materials science for nuclear detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peurrung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detection materials.

  16. Group discussion improves lie detection

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Detecting lies is difficult. Accuracy rates in experiments are only slightly greater than chance, even among trained professionals. Costly programs aimed at training individual lie detectors have mostly been ineffective. Here we test a different strategy: asking individuals to detect lies as a group. We find a consistent group advantage for detecting small “white” lies as well as intentional high-stakes lies. This group advantage does not come through the statistical aggregation of individual...

  17. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Linghua Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT) and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in ...

  18. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Snyder, Sarah J. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Parks, Steven L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and systems may provide for a structure having a plurality of interconnected panels, wherein each panel has a plurality of detection layers separated from one another by one or more non-detection layers. The plurality of detection layers may form a grid of conductive traces. Additionally, a monitor may be coupled to each grid of conductive traces, wherein the monitor is configured to detect damage to the plurality of interconnected panels in response to an electrical property change with respect to one or more of the conductive traces. In one example, the structure is part of an inflatable space platform such as a spacecraft or habitat.

  19. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia-chun; Li Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variations of attack signature. In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  20. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  1. Software Code Clone Detection Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Puri

    2012-01-01

    The aspiration of this study is to understand and analyze the concept of software Cloning and its detection. Software cloning is an acuity in which source code is duplicated. Software cloning and its detection is one of emerging and most dominant area of research in the field of software engineering. There exist numbers of techniques to detect clone in software. The focus of this study will be given on acquiring and analyzing the concept of hybrid clone detection technique. We will try to dev...

  2. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jia-chun; Li; Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variation of attack signature.In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  3. Portable receiver for radar detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  4. Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...

  5. Detection of signals in noise

    CERN Document Server

    Whalen, Anthony D; Declaris, Nicholas

    1971-01-01

    Detection of Signals in Noise serves as an introduction to the principles and applications of the statistical theory of signal detection. The book discusses probability and random processes; narrowband signals, their complex representation, and their properties described with the aid of the Hilbert transform; and Gaussian-derived processes. The text also describes the application of hypothesis testing for the detection of signals and the fundamentals required for statistical detection of signals in noise. Problem exercises, references, and a supplementary bibliography are included after each c

  6. Real Time Face Detection Using Skin Detection (Block Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of Face recognition in security applications can never be overstated, that is why researchers around the world are still actively participating in this area. The initial step in the procedure of face recognition is to detect it efficiently. In this paper, a hybrid technique is being proposed using skin detection (in RGB color space and block approach. This fusion is proposed to achieve fast skin detection. Along with the fusion, template matching is also used for detection purpose. Block approach for skin detection means dividing the image into square blocks virtually and then applying the detection ratios on corner pixels. If the corner pixels satisfy the ratios completely, the whole block will be considered as a skin block and if none of them satisfies these ratios, the block will be treated as a non-skin block. Even if some of the corner pixels satisfy the ratios, then the block will be searched for skin pixels. In this way, it will rapidly detect a face in an image including high resolution pixels. The experiments are carried out and the results have shown the significant improvements both in time and accuracy of the detection, that has prove the fastness and robustness of the proposed technique.

  7. Detection of suspicious activity using incremental outlier detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrajac, D.; Reljin, N.; Pejcic, N.; Vance, T.; McDaniel, S.; Lazarevic, A.; Chang, H. J.; Choi, J. Y.; Miezianko, R.

    2009-08-01

    Detection of unusual trajectories of moving objects can help in identifying suspicious activity on convoy routes and thus reduce casualties caused by improvised explosive devices. In this paper, using video imagery we compare efficiency of various techniques for incremental outlier detection on detecting unusual trajectories on simulated and real-life data obtained from SENSIAC database. Incremental outlier detection algorithms that we consider in this paper include incremental Support Vector Classifier (incSVC), incremental Local Outlier Factor (incLOF) algorithm and incremental Connectivity Outlier Factor (incCOF) algorithm. Our experiments performed on ground truth trajectory data indicate that incremental LOF algorithm can provide better detection of unusual trajectories in comparison to other examined techniques.

  8. MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hilbrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection approach handled correctly. Finally, we present optimizations for the processing of MPI operations that reduce runtime deadlock detection overheads. Existing approaches often require (p analysis time per MPI operation, for p processes. We empirically observe that our improvements lead to sub-linear or better analysis time per operation for a wide range of real world applications.

  9. Detecting suicidality on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridianne O'Dea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted

  10. Instruments for Methane Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Sibu Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the explanation of different instruments for detecting methane gas in detail. This paper discusses their working principles. Methane gas detection is essentially required in the areas like in coal mines, power plant, Waste Water Treatment, Boiler Rooms etc. This paper also discusses their roles in various applications.

  11. Supernova Neutrinos Detection On Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin-Heng; Huang, Ming-Yang; Young, Bing-Lin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the detection of supernova neutrino on Earth. Then we propose a possible method to acquire information about $\\theta_{13}$ smaller than $1.5^\\circ$ by detecting the ratio of the event numbers of different flavor supernova neutrinos. Such an sensitivity cannot yet be achieved by the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment.

  12. Edge Detection Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Govinda Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edge detection is still difficult task in the image processing field. In this paper we implemented fuzzy techniques for detecting edges in the image. This algorithm also works for medical images. In this paper we also explained about Fuzzy inference system, which is more robust to contrast and lighting variations.

  13. A note on robust detection

    OpenAIRE

    Devroye, Luc; Gy??rfi, L??szl??; Lugosi, G??bor

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a simple new hypothesis testing procedure, which, based on an independent sample drawn from a certain density, detects which of $k$ nominal densities is the true density is closest to, under the total variation (L_{1}) distance. We obtain a density-free uniform exponential bound for the probability of false detection.

  14. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  15. Instruments for Methane Gas Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sibu Thomas; Ms. Nishi Shahnaj Haider

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives the explanation of different instruments for detecting methane gas in detail. This paper discusses their working principles. Methane gas detection is essentially required in the areas like in coal mines, power plant, Waste Water Treatment, Boiler Rooms etc. This paper also discusses their roles in various applications.

  16. Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    for detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter are time-consuming and laborious. They lack specificity and do not enable detection of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria. The focus of the present thesis has been development and validation of PCR-based detection methods for Salmonella...... of these pathogens in the food chain, in order to improve intervention strategies and make more effective the control of production lines and single food items. To serve this purpose, rapid and reliable detection and quantification methods are imperative. The culture-based standard methods currently applied...... and Campylobacter. A conventional PCR-based method for detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse following 20 h of enrichment in Bolton broth was successfully compared to the ISO standard culture-based method (10272) on 68 naturally infected chickens. The method was subsequently validated on artificially...

  17. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  18. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  19. Hanle detection for optical clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with 423 nm electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. And the potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. This Hanle detection configur...

  20. Track-before-detect procedures for detection of extended object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zhang, Xiaoling; Shi, Jun

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we present a particle filter (PF)-based track-before-detect (PF TBD) procedure for detection of extended objects whose shape is modeled by an ellipse. By incorporating of an existence variable and the target shape parameters into the state vector, the proposed algorithm performs joint estimation of the target presence/absence, trajectory and shape parameters under unknown nuisance parameters (target power and noise variance). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good detection and tracking capabilities for extended objects.

  1. Track-before-detect procedures for detection of extended object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we present a particle filter (PF-based track-before-detect (PF TBD procedure for detection of extended objects whose shape is modeled by an ellipse. By incorporating of an existence variable and the target shape parameters into the state vector, the proposed algorithm performs joint estimation of the target presence/absence, trajectory and shape parameters under unknown nuisance parameters (target power and noise variance. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has good detection and tracking capabilities for extended objects.

  2. Homeland Security and Contraband Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R. C.

    Detection of contraband and illicit materials has become increasingly important, especially since the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001. The nature of the detection problem embodies both physics issues and a set of operational constraints that limit the practical application of neutrons. The issue under consideration is detection of materials that are considered serious threats; these may include explosives; radioactive materials, fissile materials, and other materials associated with nuclear weapons, often referred to as special nuclear material (SNM). The overriding constraint is in the physics: systems must be based on clean physics; but unlike physics experiments, detection systems work under the limitation that materials must be identified nonintrusively, without interrupting the normal flow of commerce and with a high probability of detection and a low probability of false alarms. A great deal of work has been reported in the literature on neutron-based techniques for detecting explosives and drugs. The largest impetus by far for detecting explosives comes from aviation industry requirements for inspecting luggage and, to a lesser extent, cargo. The major alternative techniques are either X-ray-based or chemical trace detection methods that look for small traces of explosive residues. The limitations of the X-ray and trace methods in detecting explosives are well known, but currently (2008) it is safe to say that no neutron- or nuclear-based technique is being used routinely for security inspection, despite extensive development of these methods. Smuggling of nuclear materials has become a concern, and neutron techniques are particularly attractive for detecting them. Given the limitations of X-ray techniques and the need for SNM detection, it is now useful to reexamine neutron methodologies, particularly imaging. A significant number of neutron-based techniques have been proposed and are under development for security applications

  3. Optoacoustic detection of tissue glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Ara; Omar, Murad; Tserevelakis, George J; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative-based diseases including diabetes, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders are accompanied by accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Therefore, AGE-associated changes in tissue optical properties could yield a viable pathological indicator for disease diagnostics and monitoring. We investigated whether skin glycation could be detected based on absorption changes associated with AGE accumulation using spectral optoacoustic measurements and interrogated the optimal spectral band for skin glycation determination. Glycated and non-glycated skin was optoacoustically measured at multiple wavelengths in the visible region. The detected signals were spectrally processed and compared to measurements of skin auto-fluorescence and to second harmonic generation multiphoton microscopy images. Optoacoustic measurements are shown to be capable of detecting skin glycolysis based on AGE detection. A linear dependence was observed between optoacoustic intensity and the progression of skin glycation. The findings where corroborated by autofluorescence observations. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by observing normalised tissue spectra. This result points to a ratiometric method for skin glycation detection, specifically at 540 nm and 620 nm. We demonstrate that optoacoustic spectroscopy could be employed to detect AGE accumulation, and possibly can be employed as a non-invasive quick method for monitoring tissue glycation. PMID:26417487

  4. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  5. Track-before-detect procedures for detection of extended object

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Ling; Zhang Xiaoling; Shi Jun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we present a particle filter (PF)-based track-before-detect (PF TBD) procedure for detection of extended objects whose shape is modeled by an ellipse. By incorporating of an existence variable and the target shape parameters into the state vector, the proposed algorithm performs joint estimation of the target presence/absence, trajectory and shape parameters under unknown nuisance parameters (target power and noise variance). Simulation results show that the proposed...

  6. A microbial detection array (MDA for viral and bacterial detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Kevin S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying the bacteria and viruses present in a complex sample is useful in disease diagnostics, product safety, environmental characterization, and research. Array-based methods have proven utility to detect in a single assay at a reasonable cost any microbe from the thousands that have been sequenced. Methods We designed a pan-Microbial Detection Array (MDA to detect all known viruses (including phages, bacteria and plasmids and developed a novel statistical analysis method to identify mixtures of organisms from complex samples hybridized to the array. The array has broader coverage of bacterial and viral targets and is based on more recent sequence data and more probes per target than other microbial detection/discovery arrays in the literature. Family-specific probes were selected for all sequenced viral and bacterial complete genomes, segments, and plasmids. Probes were designed to tolerate some sequence variation to enable detection of divergent species with homology to sequenced organisms, and to have no significant matches to the human genome sequence. Results In blinded testing on spiked samples with single or multiple viruses, the MDA was able to correctly identify species or strains. In clinical fecal, serum, and respiratory samples, the MDA was able to detect and characterize multiple viruses, phage, and bacteria in a sample to the family and species level, as confirmed by PCR. Conclusions The MDA can be used to identify the suite of viruses and bacteria present in complex samples.

  7. Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Aart J.; Mitrofanov, Alexander V.; Serebryannikov, Evgenii E.; Kartashov, Daniil V.; Zheltikov, Aleksei M.; Baltuška, Andrius

    2010-04-01

    We have experimentally detected optical harmonics that are generated due to a tunneling-ionization-induced modulation of the electron density. The optical signature of electron tunneling can be isolated from concomitant optical responses by using a noncollinear pump-probe setup. Whereas previously demonstrated tools for attosecond metrology of gases, plasmas, and surfaces rely on direct detection of charged particles, detection of the background-free time-resolved optical signal, which uniquely originates from electron tunneling, offers an interesting alternative that is especially suited for systems in which free electrons cannot be directly measured.

  8. Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have experimentally detected optical harmonics that are generated due to a tunneling-ionization-induced modulation of the electron density. The optical signature of electron tunneling can be isolated from concomitant optical responses by using a noncollinear pump-probe setup. Whereas previously demonstrated tools for attosecond metrology of gases, plasmas, and surfaces rely on direct detection of charged particles, detection of the background-free time-resolved optical signal, which uniquely originates from electron tunneling, offers an interesting alternative that is especially suited for systems in which free electrons cannot be directly measured.

  9. Detecting Double Compressed JPEG Images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    Rostrevor : Curran Associates, Inc, 2010, P12. ISBN 978-1-84919-207-1. [3rd International Conference on Imaging for Crime Detection and Prevention (ICDP-09). London (GB), 03.12.2009-03.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Blind forgery detection * double jpeg compression Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/ZOI/mahdian-detecting double compressed jpeg images.pdf

  10. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  11. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  12. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....

  13. Novelty detection in dermatological images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel

    2003-01-01

    The problem of novelty detection is considered for at set of dermatological image data. Different points of view are analyzed in detail. First, novelty detection is treated as a contextual classification problem. Different learning phases can be detected when the sample size is increased. The...... possibility of avoiding pattern registration by transforming the data to a space invariant of registration is explored through a canonical analysis tool. Problems of expressing the data in a way they can be compared are also considered here, for instance, pattern registration. An approach for patterns...... alignment using an algorithm that iteratively approximateds the minimal value of an assumed smooth function is proposed. Registration outputs are evaluated and analyzed with the Multivariate Alteration Detection Transform....

  14. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  15. Detecting Stochastic Information of Electrocardiograms

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, R M; Guti'errez, Rafael M.; Sandoval, Luis A.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present a method to detect, identify and characterize stochastic information contained in an electrocardiogram (ECG). We assume, as it is well known, that the ECG has information corresponding to many different processes related to the cardiac activity. We analyze scaling and Markov processes properties of the detected stochastic information using the power spectrum of the ECG and the Fokker-Planck equation respectively. The detected stochastic information is then characterized by three measures. First, the slope of the power spectrum in a particular range of frequencies as a scaling parameter. Second, an empirical estimation of the drift and diffusion coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation through the Kramers-Moyal coefficients which define the evolution of the probability distribution of the detected stochastic information.

  16. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  17. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  18. Marfan's Syndrome: Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Marfan's Syndrome, a disorder of connective tissue, has gained increased attention since the death of volleyball star Flo Hyman. This article reviews the disease and discusses methods of detection and management. (Author/MT)

  19. Detecting coherent structures using braids

    CERN Document Server

    Allshouse, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    The detection of coherent structures is an important problem in fluid dynamics, particularly in geophysical applications. For instance, knowledge of how regions of fluid are isolated from each other allows prediction of the ultimate fate of oil spills. Existing methods detect Lagrangian coherent structures, which are barriers to transport, by examining the stretching field as given by finite-time Lyapunov exponents. These methods are very effective when the velocity field is well-determined, but in many applications only a small number of flow trajectories are known, for example when dealing with oceanic float data. We introduce a topological method for detecting invariant regions based on a small set of trajectories. In the method we regard the two-dimensional trajectory data as a braid in three dimensions, with time being the third coordinate. Invariant regions then correspond to trajectories that travel together and do not entangle other trajectories. We detect these regions by examining the growth of hypo...

  20. Standoff Detection Technology Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standoff Detection Technology Evaluation facility is the only one of its kind in the country and allows researchers to release a known amount of material while...

  1. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  2. Recent advances in mycotoxins detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruchika; Singh, Jay; Sachdev, Tushar; Basu, T; Malhotra, B D

    2016-07-15

    Mycotoxins contamination in both food and feed is inevitable. Mycotoxin toxicity in foodstuff can occur at very low concentrations necessitating early availability of sensitive and reliable methods for their detection. The present research thrust is towards the development of a user friendly biosensor for mycotoxin detection at both academic and industrial levels to replace conventional expensive chromatographic and ELISA techniques. This review critically analyzes the recent research trend towards the construction of immunosensor, aptasensor, enzymatic sensors and others for mycotoxin detection with a reference to label and label free methods, synthesis of new materials including nano dimension, and transuding techniques. Technological aspects in the development of biosensors for mycotoxin detection, current challenges and future prospects are also included to provide a overview and suggestions for future research directions. PMID:27019032

  3. Detection of precessing circumpulsar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Grimani, C

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidences indicate that formations of disks and planetary systems around pulsars are allowed. Unfortunately, direct detections through electromagnetic observations appear to be quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24, the hypothesis of a rigid precessing disk penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio transient observations from this star. Disk self-occultation and precession may limit electromagnetic observations. Conversely, we show here that gravitational waves generated by disk precessing near the light cylinder of young and middle aged pulsars would be detected by future space interferometers with sensitivities like those expected for DECIGO (DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) and BBO (Big Bang Observer). The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing disks are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar System. Speculations on upper limits to detection rates are presented.

  4. Trends In Android Malware Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Shaerpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes different Android malware detection techniques from several research papers, some of these techniques are novel while others bring a new perspective to the research work done in the past. The techniques are of various kinds ranging from detection using host based frameworks and static analysis of executable to feature extraction and behavioral patterns. Each paper is reviewed extensively and the core features of each technique are highlighted and contrasted with the others. The challenges faced during the development of such techniques are also discussed along with the future prospects for Android malware detection. The findings of the review have been well documented in this paper to aid those making an effort to research in the area of Android malware detection by understanding the current scenario and developments that have happened in the field thus far.

  5. Rod Photoreceptors Detect Rapid Flicker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, J. D.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    1977-01-01

    Rod-isolation techniques show that light-adapted human rods detect flicker frequencies as high as 28 hertz, and that the function relating rod critical flicker frequency to stimulus intensity contains two distinct branches. (MLH)

  6. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  7. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  8. Dendritic Cells for Anomaly Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems, more specifically the negative selection algorithm, have previously been applied to intrusion detection. The aim of this research is to develop an intrusion detection system based on a novel concept in immunology, the Danger Theory. Dendritic Cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells and key to the activation of the human signals from the host tissue and correlate these signals with proteins know as antigens. In algorithmic terms, individual DCs perform multi-sensor data fusion based on time-windows. The whole population of DCs asynchronously correlates the fused signals with a secondary data stream. The behaviour of human DCs is abstracted to form the DC Algorithm (DCA), which is implemented using an immune inspired framework, libtissue. This system is used to detect context switching for a basic machine learning dataset and to detect outgoing portscans in real-time. Experimental results show a significant difference between an outgoing portscan and normal traffic.

  9. FACE DETECTION USING EIGEN METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASHAAM NAEEM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As continual research is being conducted in the area of computer vision, one of the most practical applications under vigorous development is in the construction of a robust face detection system. While the problem of detecting faces under various variations remains largely unsolved, a demonstration system as proof of concept that such systems are now becoming practical have been developed. A system capable of reliable detection, with reduced constraints in regards to the position and orientation of the face and the illumination and background of the image, has been implemented. Those face detection system is based upon “eigenfaces”, which has been separated into three major modules – pre-processing, construction of face space and face localization. A completely robust real-time face detectionsystem is still under heavy investigation and development, the implemented systems are still serving as an extendable foundation for future research.

  10. Detection of Life Forms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gaia Genomics proposes to develop an instrument for the detection of earthborn and/or planetary life forms that are based on a nucleic acid paradigm. Highly...

  11. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES DETECTIVE (DETECTIVE) ACTIVITY IN UKRAINE, HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT, THE WORLD EXPERIENCE IN THE MARKET OF PRIVATE DETECTIVE (DETECTIVE) ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the nature, role, place and term of detective (detective) activity, history of development, the world experience in the market of private detective activity in Ukraine. Potential options of its legalization and formalization of the detective (detective) activity in the state. The existence of a law that specifically regulates legal relationships in the field of detective work, will promote a single state policy in the detective work that will allow to carry out effective ...

  12. Fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, David

    2014-01-01

    This master’s thesis concerns three different areas in the field of fault detection in photovoltaic systems.Previous studies have concerned homogeneous systems with a large set of parameters being observed,while this study is focused on a more restrictive case. The first problem is to discover immediate faults occurring in solar panels. A new online algorithm is developed based on similarity measures with in a single installation. It performs reliably and is able to detect all significant fau...

  13. Graffiti Detection Using Two Views

    OpenAIRE

    Di Stefano, Luigi; Tombari, Federico; Lanza, Alessandro; Mattoccia, Stefano; Monti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel video surveillance approach designed to detect vandal acts occurring on the background of the monitored scene, such as graffiti painting on walls and surfaces, public and private property defacing or etching, unauthorized post sticking. The aim of our approach is to detect this class of events rapidly and robustly. We propose to use two synchronized views to deploy synergically depth and intensity information concerning the monitored scene. Our system can work with...

  14. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  15. Kernel Rootkits Implement and Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghe; ZHANG Liancheng; LI Shuo

    2006-01-01

    Rootkits, which unnoticeably reside in your computer, stealthily carry on remote control and software eavesdropping, are a great threat to network and computer security. It' time to acquaint ourselves with their implement and detection. This article pays more attention to kernel rootkits, because they are more difficult to compose and to be identified than useland rootkits. The latest technologies used to write and detect kernel rootkits, along with their advantages and disadvantages, are present in this article.

  16. Detecting scintillations in liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, P. R.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We review our work in developing a tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB)-based detection system for a measurement of the neutron lifetime using magnetically confined ultracold neutrons (UCN). As part of the development of the detection system for this experiment, we studied the scintillation properties of liquid helium itself, characterized the fluorescent efficiencies of different fluors, and built and tested three detector geometries. We provide an overview of the results from these studies as well as references for additional information.

  17. Detection of landmines (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sinha

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of landmines is a problem concerning both military and peacekeeping forces. This paper reviews literature on strategic minefield layouts, modern mine clearing, and mine countermeasure techniques based on mechanical methods. Discusses hydraulic and signal processing techniques, ion-trap mobility spectrometer, subsurface probing radar and few other novel methods employed for this purpose. The specialised directions that the landmine detection methods are taking are clearly pointed out.

  18. Coal-shale interface detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  19. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  20. Contraband detection with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent terror events and the increase in the trade of illicit drugs have fuelled the exploration of the use of fast neutrons as probes for the detection of hidden contraband, especially explosives, in packages ranging in size from small mail items to cargo containers. The various approaches using fast neutrons for contraband detection, presently under development, are reviewed. The role that a neutron system might play in the non-intrusive interrogation of airline luggage is discussed

  1. Network Detection Theory and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Steven T.; Senne, Kenneth D.; Philips, Scott; Kao, Edward K.; Bernstein, Garrett

    2013-01-01

    Network detection is an important capability in many areas of applied research in which data can be represented as a graph of entities and relationships. Oftentimes the object of interest is a relatively small subgraph in an enormous, potentially uninteresting background. This aspect characterizes network detection as a "big data" problem. Graph partitioning and network discovery have been major research areas over the last ten years, driven by interest in internet search, cyber security, soc...

  2. Detecting and Punishing Unconscious Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Tetlock, Philip E; Gregory Mitchell; L. Jason Anastasopoulos

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental results demonstrating how ideology shapes evaluations of technology aimed at detecting unconscious biases: (1) liberals supported use of the technology to detect unconscious racism but not unconscious anti-Americanism, whereas conservatives showed the reverse pattern, (2) liberals and conservatives opposed punishing individuals for unconscious bias but supported punishing organizations failing to use the technology to root out, respectively, racism or anti-Americanism,...

  3. Wave Detection in Acceleration Plethysmogram

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jae Mok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Acceleration plethysmogram (APG) obtained from the second derivative of photoplethysmography (PPG) is used to predict risk factors for atherosclerosis with age. This technique is promising for early screening of atherosclerotic pathologies. However, extraction of the wave indices of APG signals measured from the fingertip is challenging. In this paper, the development of a wave detection algorithm including a preamplifier based on a microcontroller that can detect the a, b, c, and ...

  4. Trends In Android Malware Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh Shaerpour; Ali Dehghantanha; Ramlan Mahmod

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes different Android malware detection techniques from several research papers, some of these techniques are novel while others bring a new perspective to the research work done in the past. The techniques are of various kinds ranging from detection using host based frameworks and static analysis of executable to feature extraction and behavioral patterns. Each paper is reviewed extensively and the core features of each technique are highlighted and contrasted with the others...

  5. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  6. Silicon microcantilevers with MOSFET detection

    OpenAIRE

    Tosolini, Giordano; Villanueva, G.; Pérez Murano, Francesc; Bausells, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of silicon microcantilevers with MOSFET detection, to be used in force measurements for biomolecular detection. Thin cantilevers are required for a high force sensitivity. Therefore the source and drain of the transistors have been fabricated by As implantation to obtain shallow PN junctions. The cantilevers have been oriented on the non-standard (1 0 0) crystallographic direction of silicon, to maximize the stress response of the NMOS transistors. The force sensitiv...

  7. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  8. Hanle Detection for Optical Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard.

  9. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  10. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-01

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic. PMID:25938763

  11. Hanle detection for optical clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Shengnan; Pan, Duo; Chen, Peipei; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2015-01-01

    Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard. PMID:25734183

  12. Application of detecting algorithm based on network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤斌; 杨永田; 江子扬; 孙冰心

    2004-01-01

    Because currently intrusion detection systems cannot detect undefined intrusion behavior effectively,according to the robustness and adaptability of the genetic algorithms, this paper integrates the genetic algorithms into an intrusion detection system, and a detection algorithm based on network traffic is proposed. This algorithm is a real-time and self-study algorithm and can detect undefined intrusion behaviors effectively.

  13. Error Detection Processes in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Carl Martin

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study which analyzed problem solvers' error detection processes by instructing subjects to think aloud when solving statistical problems. Effects of evaluative episodes on error detection, detection of different error types, error detection processes per se, and relationship of error detection behavior to problem-solving proficiency…

  14. Detection of galaxies with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. E.; Krone-Martins, A.; dos Anjos, S.; Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: Besides its major objective tuned to detecting the stellar galactic population, the Gaia mission experiment will also observe a large number of galaxies. In this work we intend to evaluate the number and the characteristics of the galaxies that will effectively pass the on-board selection algorithm of Gaia. Methods: The detection of objects in Gaia will be performed in a section of the focal plane known as the Sky Mapper. Considering the Video Processing Algorithm criterion of detection and the known light profiles of disc and bulges galaxies, we assess the number and the type of extra-galactic objects that will be observed by Gaia. Results: We show that the stellar disc population of galaxies will be very difficult to observe. In contrast, the spheroidal component of elliptical galaxies and bulges having higher central surface brightness and steeper brightness profile will be easier to detect. We estimate that most of the 20 000 elliptical population of nearby galaxies inside the local region up to 170 Mpc are in a state to be observed by Gaia. A similar number of bulges could also be observed, although the low luminosity bulges should escape detection. About two thirds of the more distant objects up to 600 Mpc could also be detected, increasing the total sample to half a million objects including ellipticals and bulges. The angular size of the detected objects will never exceed 4.72 arcsec, which is the size of the largest transmitted windows. Conclusions: A heterogeneous population of elliptical galaxies and bulges will be observable by Gaia. This nearby Universe sample of galaxies should constitute a very rich and interesting sample for studying their structural properties and their distribution.

  15. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  16. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: An alternative detection mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  17. Automatic Hazard Detection for Landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned planetary landers to date have landed 'blind'; that is, without the benefit of onboard landing hazard detection and avoidance systems. This constrains landing site selection to very benign terrain,which in turn constrains the scientific agenda of missions. The state of the art Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) technology can land a spacecraft on Mars somewhere within a 20-100km landing ellipse.Landing ellipses are very likely to contain hazards such as craters, discontinuities, steep slopes, and large rocks, than can cause mission-fatal damage. We briefly review sensor options for landing hazard detection and identify a perception approach based on stereo vision and shadow analysis that addresses the broadest set of missions. Our approach fuses stereo vision and monocular shadow-based rock detection to maximize spacecraft safety. We summarize performance models for slope estimation and rock detection within this approach and validate those models experimentally. Instantiating our model of rock detection reliability for Mars predicts that this approach can reduce the probability of failed landing by at least a factor of 4 in any given terrain. We also describe a rock detector/mapper applied to large-high-resolution images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for landing site characterization and selection for Mars missions.

  18. Visual cues for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszewski, James J.; Davison, Alan D.; Tischuk, Julia A.; Dippel, David J.

    2007-04-01

    Can human vision supplement the information that handheld landmine detection equipment provides its operators to increase detection rates and reduce the hazard of the task? Contradictory viewpoints exist regarding the viability of visual detection of landmines. Assuming both positions are credible, this work aims to reconcile them by exploring the visual information produced by landmine burial and how any visible signatures change as a function of time in a natural environment. Its objective is to acquire objective, foundational knowledge on which training could be based and subsequently evaluated. A representative set of demilitarized landmines were buried at a field site with bare soil and vegetated surfaces using doctrinal procedures. High resolution photographs of the ground surface were taken for approximately one month starting in April 2006. Photos taken immediately after burial show clearly visible surface signatures. Their features change with time and weather exposure, but the patterns they define persist, as photos taken a month later show. An analysis exploiting the perceptual sensitivity of expert observers showed signature photos to domain experts with instructions to identify the cues and patterns that defined the signatures. Analysis of experts' verbal descriptions identified a small set of easily communicable cues that characterize signatures and their changes over the duration of observation. Findings suggest that visual detection training is viable and has potential to enhance detection capabilities. The photos and descriptions generated offer materials for designing such training and testing its utility. Plans for investigating the generality of the findings, especially potential limiting conditions, are discussed.

  19. Software Defect Detection with Rocus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jiang; Ming Li; Zhi-Hua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Software defect detection aims to automatically identify defective software modules for efficient software test in order to improve the quality of a software system. Although many machine learning methods have been successfully applied to the task, most of them fail to consider two practical yet important issues in software defect detection. First, it is rather difficult to collect a large amount of labeled training data for learning a well-performing model; second, in a software system there are usually much fewer defective modules than defect-free modules, so learning would have to be conducted over an imbalanced data set. In this paper, we address these two practical issues simultaneously by proposing a novel semi-supervised learning approach named Rocus. This method exploits the abundant unlabeled examples to improve the detection accuracy, as well as employs under-sampling to tackle the class-imbalance problem in the learning process. Experimental results of real-world software defect detection tasks show that Rocgs is effective for software defect detection. Its performance is better than a semi-supervised learning method that ignores the class-imbalance nature of the task and a class-imbalance learning method that does not make effective use of unlabeled data.

  20. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlage, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Youngblood, T. [Frisby Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States); Lamothe, D. [American Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States). Ordnance/Explosives Environmental Services Div.

    1998-04-01

    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.