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Sample records for cber import product

  1. CBERS-02 Application Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jianning; YU Jin; MIN Xiangjun; LI Xingchao; HOU Minghui

    2004-01-01

    As the successor of CBERS-01, CBERS-02 was launched successfully on 21October 2003 and transmitted its first downlink data the next day. According to the OBT (On Board Test) outline, CRESDA cooperated with CAST and many remote sensing organizations in China in implementing the test of the satellite payloads, ground processing system and data application. In this paper, the test is briefly illustrated in three parts: Ⅰ. Satellite Parameters Test (especially the test for payloads), Ⅱ. Payload Image Quality Assessment, and Ⅲ. Data Application Assessment. The results of the test show that the image quality of CBERS-02 is much improved over CBERS-01 and will continue to play a more important role in the society and economic development of China.

  2. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  3. The Application Achievements And Perspective Of CBERS Series Satellite Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xingchao; Qi Xueyong; Lu Yilin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since the first China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS-1),launched in 1999,the CBERS data has been applied in many fields extensively.Remarkable social and economic benefits have been achieved.This article presents the application achievements during the past nine years,and gives a perspective for the future.All these applications demonstrate that the CBERS data has been an important data source for resources investigation and monitoring.

  4. The Prototype Development for The Second Generation CBERS Initiates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2005-01-01

    It's reported that the concept for the second generation CBERS-CBERS-03 & 04 to be jointly developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) and INPE went through the assessment by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) at the beginning of the year. It means that the prototype development of CBERS-03 & 04 has been initiated.

  5. CRESDA APPLICATION SYSTEM OF CBERS-1, RESULTS AND TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CRESDA Application System of CBERS-1 was established in 1999. During the operation of the system for more than two years, about 240 000 scenes of CBERS-1 Level 0 data have been archived and more than 13 000 scenes of Level 2 products have been ordered by end users from different application fields.In this paper, the typical examples of applications in crop yield estimation,calamity alleviation, resources survey and protection, environment monitoring and continuable development, and urban planning are mainly described.

  6. Applications Of CBERS Data In Oceanic Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaomin; Zhang Jie; Ma Yi; Song Pingjian

    2009-01-01

    @@ The CBERS series satellite data has been widely used by the First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (SOA) for the studies related to the monitoring of coral islands, land use changes of islands and coastal zone, green tide,implementation of ocean functional zoning, suspended particulate matter,sea ice, rafts cultivation and so on.The data covers the range of islands,coastal zone and inshore sea areas.

  7. Atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images with MODIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junsheng; ZHANG Bing; CHEN Zhengchao; SHEN Qian

    2006-01-01

    China Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS) CCD images have much potential for inland water environmental monitoring. However, their atmospheric accuracy correction can affect their quantitative applications. This paper contains an atmospheric correction algorithm for CBERS CCD images with MODIS data from the same day, the use of which improves the atmospheric correction algorithm of ocean color remote sensing developed by Gordon (1993, 1994) and makes it applicable to inland waters. The improved algorithm retrieves atmospheric parameters from MODIS data and uses them to perform the atmospheric correction of CBERS CCD images. Experimental results show that the atmospheric correction algorithm of CBERS CCD images assisted by MODIS data is reliable. Furthermore, MODIS data can be freely obtained on a daily basis, making the algorithm developed in this paper useful for environmental monitoring of inland waters.

  8. A tasseled cap transformation for CBERS-02B CCD data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li SHENG; Jing-feng HUANG; Xiao-lu TANG

    2011-01-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.In this paper,tasseled cap transformation coefficients appropriate for data from a new sensor (China & Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS-02B)) are presented.The first three components after transformation captured 98% of the four-band variance,and represent the physical characteristics of brightness (coefficients:0.509,0.431,0.330,and 0.668),greenness (coefficients:-0.494,-0.318,-0.324,and 0.741),and blueness (coefficients:0.581,-0.070,-0.811,and 0.003),respectively.We hope these results will enhance the application of CBERS-02B charge-coupled device (CCD) data in the areas of agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.

  9. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  10. Land use mapping from CBERS-2 images with open source tools by applying different classification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouse-García, Antonio J.; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús Gabriel; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco J.

    2016-02-01

    Land cover classification is often based on different characteristics between their classes, but with great homogeneity within each one of them. This cover is obtained through field work or by mean of processing satellite images. Field work involves high costs; therefore, digital image processing techniques have become an important alternative to perform this task. However, in some developing countries and particularly in Casacoima municipality in Venezuela, there is a lack of geographic information systems due to the lack of updated information and high costs in software license acquisition. This research proposes a low cost methodology to develop thematic mapping of local land use and types of coverage in areas with scarce resources. Thematic mapping was developed from CBERS-2 images and spatial information available on the network using open source tools. The supervised classification method per pixel and per region was applied using different classification algorithms and comparing them among themselves. Classification method per pixel was based on Maxver algorithms (maximum likelihood) and Euclidean distance (minimum distance), while per region classification was based on the Bhattacharya algorithm. Satisfactory results were obtained from per region classification, where overall reliability of 83.93% and kappa index of 0.81% were observed. Maxver algorithm showed a reliability value of 73.36% and kappa index 0.69%, while Euclidean distance obtained values of 67.17% and 0.61% for reliability and kappa index, respectively. It was demonstrated that the proposed methodology was very useful in cartographic processing and updating, which in turn serve as a support to develop management plans and land management. Hence, open source tools showed to be an economically viable alternative not only for forestry organizations, but for the general public, allowing them to develop projects in economically depressed and/or environmentally threatened areas.

  11. Pre-Launch Absolute Calibration of CCD/CBERS-2B Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flávio Jorge; Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients for the CCD/CBERS-2B sensor have been calculated from radiometric measurements performed in a satellite integration and test hall in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) headquarters, located in Beijing, China. An illuminated integrating sphere was positioned in the test hall facilities to allow the CCD/CBERS-2B imagery of the entire sphere aperture. Calibration images were recorded and a relative calibration procedure adopted exclusively in Brazil was applied to equalize the detectors responses. Averages of digital numbers (DN) from these images were determined and correlated to their respective radiance levels in order to calculate the absolute calibration coefficients. It has been the first time these pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients have been calculated considering the Brazilian image processing criteria. Now it will be possible to compare them to those that will be calculated from vicarious calibration campaigns. This comparison will permit the CCD/CBERS-2B monitoring and the frequently data updating to the user community.

  12. Concentration of chlorhophyll-a and the limit of the photic zone in the Third River reservoir (Córdoba-Argentina, using images from CBERS-2B satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Rodriguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The satellite images provided by remote sensors represent an important tool for monitoring, controlling and administering water resources. The aim of this work was to model the spatial distribution of the concentration of chlorhophyll-a and the limit of the photic zone in the Rio Tercero reservoir (Córdoba-Argentina, using images from CBERS-2B satellite and a geographical information system (SIG. We selected 15 samples places wherefrom we measured physical, chemical and biological parameters during the fall of 2008. By using a georeferenced image from sensor CBERS-2B and performing an analysis of the principal components (ACP, we were able to identify associations between variables and reflectance values of the satellite bands. Based on these associations and with simple regression models, we were able to know the spatial distribution of the variables: concentration of chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0, 73 and the limit of the photic zone (R2 = 0, 78 in the reservoir as a whole. We may conclude thata there exists a negative correlation between the concentration of chlorophyll-a and the water transparency in reservoir Rio Tercero, as well as that the sensor used allows us to evaluate the quality of the water in a relative short time.

  13. New Policies on Titanium Import and Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> In order to crack down the smuggling of tita-nium products,improve the production and op-eration orders and guarantee a healthy devel-opment of the titanium industry in China,theState Economics and Trade Commission,theMinistry of Commerce,the General Admini-stration of Customs and four other governmentdepartments have jointly issued a Circular onthe Administration of Import,Production andOperation for Titanium Products.The circularstipulates as follows:

  14. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  15. Computers and Productivity: Are Aggregation Effects Important?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. McGuckin; Kevin Stiroh

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical implications of aggregation bias when measuring the productive impact of computers. To isolate two specific aggregation problems relating to "aggregation in variables" and "aggregation in relations," we compare various production function estimates across a range of specifications, econometric estimators, and data levels. The results show that both sources of bias are important, especially as one moves from the sector to the economy level, and when the elasti...

  16. CBERS-02B星CCD与HR数据融合方法探讨%Discussion on the Fusion Methods of CBERS-02B CCD and HR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石华; 金宝轩

    2013-01-01

    随着CBERS-02B星(以下简称02B星)多光谱CCD数据与全色HR数据在各个领域的广泛应用,两者相差较大的空间分辨率给图像融合带来难题.在对改进型的IHS变换、主成分变换、Brovey变换、GS变换等融合算法分析的基础上,利用02B星数据进行融合试验,并对试验结果进行定性与定量评价,结果表明:①Brovey变换融合效果较差;②在影像的阴影区域,改进型的IHS变换融合结果存在光谱失真;③PCA变换光谱保真较好;④GS变换无论是统计结果还是图像的色彩和清晰度都明显优于上述三种方法.%With the wide application of CBERS-02B Satellite (named as 02B Satellite as follows) multi-spectral CCD data and HR panchromatic data in various fields,it brings the difficulty in image fusion due to the large difference of spatial resolution.Based on the analysis fusion algorithms such as improved-IHS transformation,principal component transformation (PCA),Brovey transformation,GS transformation,etc,02B satellite data is used to for fusion test and the test result is evaluated by the qualitative and quantitative indexes.The results show that Brovey fusion is a less effective transformation method,improved-IHS transformation has the spectrum distortion in the shade area of image and the relationship between the different spectral changes significantly,PCA transformation spectral fidelity is better,and GS transformation is significantly better than the above three methods in terms of the statistics or the color and clarity of the image,but the image brightness need to be improved.

  17. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  18. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  19. Bundle Block Adjustment with Self-Calibration of Long Orbit CBERS-02B Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2012-07-01

    CBERS-02B was the first high resolution earth observation satellite in China, which adopted linear array push-broom sensor. The nadir ground resolution of the on board HR camera was 2.36 m. However, the accuracies of the on-board GPS receiver and star tracker were very limited due to the technical restrictions. The accuracy of direct geo-referencing by the on-board measurements of position and attitude parameters was about 1 kilometre, which restrained the wide applications of the CBERS-02B imagery in the surveying and mapping field. It is necessary to perform the bundle block adjustment to improve the accuracy of geo-referencing. A proper sensor model has to be adopted during the bundle block adjustment using strict physical sensor model with long orbit data, in order to solve the problem of too many unknown exterior orientation parameters (EOPs). Several sensor models have been discussed, such as quadratic polynomial model, systematic error compensation model, orientation image model, and piecewise polynomial model. The combination of the systematic error compensation model and the orientation image model will be used to deal with the CBERS-02B imagery in this paper. Furthermore, three TDI-CCD linear arrays were fixed on the focal plane of the HR camera. The middle CCD array was shifted against the left and the right one. The level 1A image used in this paper was mosaicked by the three sub-images collected by the left, the middle and the right CCD, respectively. But there were some displacements among the three sub-images in the mosaicked image and the three CCD arrays may not be rigorously parallel. The angular parameter α and the translation parameters χ, γ of each CCD refer to the theoretical position on the focal plane is used to model the interior distortions, so there are totally 9 interior distortion parameters, although some of them are not significant. The laboratory calibrated parameters of the image sensor are usually different from the true values

  20. Important motivators for buying green products

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products. Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and...

  1. Important motivators for buying green products

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products a...

  2. Energetic particle radiations measured by particle detector on board CBERS-1 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO YongQiang; XIAO Zuo; ZOU Hong; ZHANG DongHe

    2007-01-01

    Using the data measured by energetic particle detector on board CBERS-01 and -02 for the past five years, statistics was made to show the general features of MeV electrons and protons along a solar synchronous orbit at an altitude of 780 km. This height is in the bottom region of the Earth's radiation belts. Detectors are inside the satellite cabinet and such continuous monitoring of particle radiation environment inside a satellite has seldom conducted so far. After a proper and careful treatment, it is indicated that the data inside satellite are well correlated with the radiation environment outside. Besides the agreement of the general distribution characteristics of energetic electrons and protons with similar observations from other satellites, attention is particularly paid to the disturbed conditions. Variations of particle fluxes are closely related with solar proton events, in general, electron fluxes of outer belt are well correlated with Dst index after three days' delay while the electron injection occurred almost at the same day during great magnetic storms. It is confirmed that both energetic electrons and protons appear in the Polar Cap region only after the solar proton events.

  3. Investigating product cycles using Indian import data

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, S.; Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay; Rajendra R. Vaidya

    2007-01-01

    We derive country ranks using disaggregated Indian import data over 1991-2005 using the intuition that developed countries would export more advanced goods to India earlier than other countries. We find that, consistent with theory, the degree of innovation is a significant determinant of our ranks.

  4. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-09-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols. PMID:26956952

  5. The importance of milk and milk products in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Plisková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are a pivotal part of human nutrition for all life. In this work all the important components of milk and then influence the consumption of milk and milk products on human health are evaluated. Milk is an important source of energy in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, also substances for enhancing metabolism i.e. vitamins and minerals. This work also describes in details specific dairy products. Milk is very important immediately after birth, breast mil...

  6. Import analysis of China's major timber products In 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Baodong; Song Weiming; Tian Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Timber import is an important and integral part of China's timber trade.According to different kinds of product type,this paper analyzes its import in 2004 separately;based on the conditions of China's timber import trade in 2004,this paper finds out some existing problems and puts forward corresponding countermeasures.

  7. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  8. Identificação de fragmentos de floresta nativa, por diferentes intérpretes, com a utilização de imagens landsat e cbers em lavras, MG Identification of small areas of semideciduous forest, by different analysts, in Lavras region, MG, using Landsat and Cbers sattelites images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, as imagens dos satélites Landsat 7 e Cbers 2 foram analisadas com o objetivo de identificar áreas com fragmentos de floresta semidecídua e de avaliar a exatidão da classificação feita por diferentes intérpretes e técnicas de interpretação. O estudo foi realizado em Lavras, MG, utilizando o SIG-SPRING, que possui recursos para realização da classificação digital e visual. Na comparação das diferentes classificações e avaliação da exatidão, foram empregadas as exatidões global, do consumidor, do produtor e o coeficiente Kappa. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que a exatidão global foi maior que 90% e o coeficiente Kappa variou de 50% a 77% nas comparações feitas por diferentes intérpretes, em imagens Landsat e Cbers. Os mapas de fragmentos de vegetação produzidos com base na classificação digital das imagens Cbers e Landsat apresentaram alta porcentagem de áreas comuns e os intérpretes produziram diferentes mapas, porém, aqueles gerados pela imagem Cbers apresentaram a melhor concordância entre as classificações.In this work two images from Landsat 7 and Cbers 2 were analyzed in order to identify small areas of semideciduous forest and to evaluate the classification accuracy made by three different analysts. The study was carried out in Lavras region, MG, using the SPRING GIS with the appropriate functions to jufil the digital classification and visual inspection. The comparisons between the classifications and accuracy assessment procedures employed the overall accuracy, the user's accuracy, the producer's accuracy and the Kappa coefficient. The results showed that the overall accuracy were higher than 90% and the Kappa coefficient ranged from 50% to 77% when the Landsat and Cbers images were compared by different analysts. The fragments vegetation maps made from digital classification of Cbers and Landsat satellites images presented high percentage of common areas and analysts made different maps

  9. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-2 Products prohibited importation. (a) To prevent the spread of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)...

  10. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  11. Are imported consumer products an important diffuse source of PFASs to the Norwegian environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure perfluoroalkyl substances in a selection of imported consumer products (n = 45) and estimate population normalized emission rates during the use phase. 6:2 and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) were found in the highest concentrations ranging from imported consumer products were estimated to be 6.6, 2130 and 197 μg year−1 capita−1 respectively for the “intermediate” emission scenario. The results from this study suggest that emissions from imported products would have a small impact on the environmental concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids on a regional scale. - Highlights: • Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in 45 imported consumer products. • Population normalized emission rates were estimated for the most abundant PFASs. • Diffuse emissions from imported consumer products constitute a minor ongoing source of PFASs. - We find no support for the hypothesis that emissions from imported consumer products would be an important ongoing source of PFASs to the environment in non-producing countries

  12. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... require that every lot of imported product be given a visual inspection for appearance and condition... Nondiscrimination Statement The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs...). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of the Assistant Secretary...

  13. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.

  14. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Campagna; A. Nardoni; R. Cavallina

    2010-01-01

    Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from differe...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  16. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information...

  18. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M Smith

    Full Text Available The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  19. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  20. Remote Sensing of the EnviSat and Cbers-2B satellites rotation around the centre of mass by photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkin, N.; Korobeynikova, E.; Shakun, L.; Strakhova, S.; Tang, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    During 2013-2015 the photometric observations of the EnviSat satellite, which became space debris after the failure in April 2012 in low Earth orbit, were performed. The rotation pole position and slow change in sidereal rotation period were updated on the basis of analysis of specular glints observed in 222 light curves using reduction of synodic periods. Apparently, there are minor oscillations of the rotation pole near the normal to the orbital plane. The sense of the EnviSat's spinning is opposite to the sense of its orbital rotation. The sidereal period is best approximated by the second-order polynomial: Psid (sec) = 0.000021534 ·T2 + 0.04936003 · T + 121.18195 where T is measured in days from the beginning of 2013. This method being applied to another representative of space debris, namely the Cbers-2B satellite, has shown a similar result: there is not precise solution for the rotation pole either as it undergoes oscillations with various time scale from several hours to several months. In 2014, the spin axis made the 10 ° angle with the normal to the orbital plane while the sense of spinning is direct in this case, i.e. coincides with the sense of orbital rotation. The sidereal period is best approximated by the following expression: Psid (sec) = 0.000029543 ·T2 + 0.08094931 · T + 81.31775 where T is measured in days starting from March 10, 2014. This method allows of controlling slow changes in the spatial orientation of the rotation axis of the satellites in which specular reflection of light from flat faces of the surface is inherent.

  1. Análise de mapas de represas publicados na web usando imagens orbitais CCD/CBERS no estado de Minas Gerais Analysis of dams maps published on the web by using orbital CCD/CBERS images in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, bancos de dados públicos e gratuitos disponíveis na World Wide Web (WEB foram utilizados para avaliar as áreas das superfícies dos espelhos d'água das represas de Furnas e do Funil, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi comparar as informações obtidas nos bancos da WEB com os valores das áreas calculadas a partir de imagens do sensor CCD a bordo dos satélites CBERS2 e CBERS2B. A área da represa de Furnas obtida a partir das imagens CCD/CBERS2B, ano 2008, foi de 1.138 km², mas nos bancos de dados consultados esta área estava entre 1.182 e 1.503 km². A represa do Funil, construída em 2003, com superfície de espelho d'água de 29,37 km² e uma ilha com área de 1,93 km² não aparecem nos bancos Atlas, Geominas, IGAM e IBGE. Os resultados mostraram algumas discrepâncias nos bancos de dados publicados na WEB, tais como diferenças em áreas e supressão ou extrapolação de limites do espelho d'água. Concluiu-se que, até o momento, os responsáveis por algumas publicações de bancos de dados no Estado de Minas Gerais não tiveram rigor suficiente com as atualizações. As imagens CCD/CBERS, que também são dados públicos disponíveis na WEB, mostraram ser produtos adequados para verificar, atualizar e melhorar as informações publicadas.In this work some public databases from the World Wide Web (WEB were used to find the area of the Furnas and Funil Dams in Minas Gerais State. The purpose of this work was to compare the WEB public databases values and the real values obtained from the CCD camera images on board CBERS2 and CBERS2B satellites. The Furnas Dam area obtained from CCD/ CBERS2B images, in 2008, was 1.138 km², but in the consulted databases this area ranged from 1.182 to 1.503 km². The dam of the Funil, built in 2003, with a water surface of 29.37 km² and an island with 1.93 km² area, did not appear in Atlas, Geominas, IGAM and IBGE databases. The results revealed some problems in the WEB public

  2. Utility and importance of animal data in drug product labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrick, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Information on the use and safety of medicines to assist prescription by healthcare professionals occurs in drug labels (Summary of Product Characteristics in Europe and Package Insert in the USA). Animal data (notably genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity and/or repeat dose toxicity testing) comprise an important component of the information (having a vital role in giving assurance that an extensive safety assessment for the medicinal product has occurred) and regulatory guidance is available to help inform on its input into drug labels. However, an evaluation of animal data for the 27 new drugs approved in the USA in 2013 (and the same drugs if available in Europe) shows great variability in detail and level of information presented within and across regions and/or the possibility of confusion on interpretation of some of the presented animal study findings. It is concluded that it may be time to revisit what animal data are presented in drug product labels (although bearing in mind current regional regulatory guidance requirements), not only to allow within and across region consistency on information given but to present it in a way that fully assists healthcare professions when prescribing a medicine. PMID:24928564

  3. The importance of local products in economic development

    OpenAIRE

    GİRAY, Handan; ÖZKAN, F. Zehra; ORAN, Hülya

    2012-01-01

    Providing continuity and homogeneity in quality of traditional and local products enables producers to increase their income and consumers to protect themselves besides protection of these products as a cultural heritage. The procedure which is called “geographic indication” during registration of local products differentiates a product from the others through a reference to a given geographical area and proving its originality. Supplying a product to consumers with a registration, indicating...

  4. Highlighting the importance of testing in the product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Tahera, Khadija; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A product development is not a linear process of “design-build-test”; rather, the design process and the testing process are closely integrated throughout the product development process. The main objective of this paper is to understand how testing is integrated into the product development process and how that effects the product development processes in companies. This paper reports case studies in UK based manufacturing companies where physical testing are essential activities but key con...

  5. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  6. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  7. The importance of price for the sale of ecological products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Kirkeby; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    1993-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. A high price has been considered as one of the main reasons for consumers' unwillingness to buy ecological products in spite of often positive attitudes towards this category of products. The study reported in this paper had the purpose to find out whether the present price ...... are characterised by low consumer involvement: few alternatives are compared, not very many product attributes are used, and in the decision making, consumers resort to the application of simple choice tactics....... level for ecological products is indeed a decisive obstacle to the sale of ecological prducts. 2. The survey indicated that the market share for ecological products cannot be increased at the present price level. Hence, there is good reason to focus on the price parameter. 3. An experiment with price...

  8. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... increases the safety of the consumer and facilitates the free movement of goods between countries. (4) When... consumer the same protection from unsafe foreign goods as from unsafe domestic goods. (Sec. 9, 15 U.S.C... foreign manufacturers. 1009.3 Section 1009.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...

  9. [Important aspects of virus safety of advanced therapy medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, J; Stühler, A

    2010-01-01

    Virus safety of advanced therapy medicinal products is a particular challenge. These products may consist of whole cells and the manufacture of these is performed using various human or animal-derived starting materials and reagents. Therefore, extensive testing of donors and of established cell banks is required. Furthermore, the virus safety of reagents such as bovine sera, porcine trypsin, and growth factors needs to be considered. Whenever possible, manufacturing steps for inactivation or removal of viruses should be introduced. However, it is not possible to introduce such steps for cell-based medicinal products as the activity and viability of cells will be compromised. Only in the production of small and stable non-enveloped viral gene vectors is it conceivable to implement steps to selectively inactivate or remove potential contaminating enveloped viruses.

  10. Product Lifecycle Management: CERN to host an important international conference

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN designs, builds and operates machines that contain millions of items of many types, such as software, electronics, and electrical, mechanical and chemical components. It is a challenge to maintain a coherent configuration of everything that has been developed and installed. To do this, CERN developed the EDMS system – an integrated Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform that enables management of all the information related to the entire lifecycle of each single component. On 5 and 6 September CERN will host an international PLM conference at which participants will exchange experience and address how best to apply PLM in their organisations.   Pictogram representation of a typical product lifecycle. Picture by the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Manufacturing Engineering via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]. PLM is the activity of managing, in the most effective way, an organisation’s products all the way through their lifecycles: from th...

  11. China Expands Import Equipment of Marine Oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The oil price has been soaring continuously while the oil consumption in China has been increasingly rising, China is expanding the import of marine petroleum exploitation equipment greatly to produce more oil from oceans. According to the statistics from Tianjin Port, one of the largest international trade ports in China, 39 generating electricity sets for offshore oil exploitation have been imported and passed through the custom formalities in the first 7 months this year.The total value of them is US$ 4.407 million, an increase of 44.4% compared to the corresponding period last year, in addition, this port has also imported other offshore exploration and development equipment valued at US$ 120 million. Most of them are from the US with a value of US$ 57.25 million, anincrease of 54.9% over last year.

  12. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.;

    2007-01-01

    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations....... ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. scierotioniger, A...

  13. Differential Calculus, Tensor Products and the Importance of Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient coordinate-free notation is elucidated for differentiating matrix expressions and other functions between higher-dimensional vector spaces. This method of differentiation is known, but not explained well, in the literature. Teaching it early in the curriculum would avoid the tedium of element-wise differentiation and provide a better footing for understanding more advanced applications of calculus. Additionally, it is shown to lead naturally to tensor products, a topic previously...

  14. Role and importance of poultry products for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrancean Calin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to a topical issue about the enormous importance of nutrition to health. Research conducted shows that people today want the food they consume to have all appropriate nutrients and in order to be able to operate and how to have a better life.

  15. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  16. 78 FR 27279 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia-Importation of Horticultural Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... complete multiple steps prior to importing those products into Indonesia. The legal instruments through... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia-- Importation of... establishment of a panel to consider Indonesia's import restricting measures on the importation of...

  17. 78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells...) is transferring oversight responsibilities for certain wound care products containing live cells from... scientific and regulatory activities between CDRH and CBER. FDA believes that as more wound care...

  18. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  19. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine...

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR FRESH MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the biggest importer of food worldwide. Import rulesfor meat and meat products are fully harmonized and the European Commissionacts as the competent authority on behalf of the 25 Member States. The EUCommission is the sole negotiating partner for all non-EU countries in questionsrelated to import conditions for meat and meat products.

  1. Regional production adjustment to import competition: evidence from the French agro-industry

    OpenAIRE

    Corinne Bagoulla; Emmanuelle Chevassus-Lozza; Karine Daniel; Carl Gaigné

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the impact of increasing imports on the reallocation of agrifood production across regions within countries. From French data for the period 1995-2002, we show that regional agri-food production adjusts differently to increasing imports according to the region where the agri-food firms are located. More precisely, even though proximity to consumers significantly shapes the spatial distribution of agri-food production, an increase in agri-food imports does not mak...

  2. Study on China's Import Trade and Market in Main Forest Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANGang

    2005-01-01

    The forest products trade from other countries to China is predominantly and tremendously increasing and many dealers, officials and scholars are convinced that this trend will continue. This paper covers 5 topics: (1) Analysis on China's forest resources; (2) Analysis on the supply and demand factors of forest products in China; (3) The import trade of recent main forest products in China; (4) The market characteristics of forest products in China; (5)The development trends of forest products in China.

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  4. Few crop traits accurately predict variables important to productivity of processing sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery, case production, and gross profit margin, hereafter called ‘processor variables’, are as important metrics to processing sweet corn as grain yield is to field corn production. However, crop traits such as ear number or ear mass alone are reported in sweet corn production research rather t...

  5. A Note on Rice Production, Consumption and Import Data in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosner, L. Peter; McCulloch, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Debate about Indonesian rice policy has focused on estimates of production and consumption levels, and the level of imports they imply. However, Indonesian rice production and consumption data are controversial. Rice consumption as estimated from household survey data is much lower than officially reported rice production. This suggests that Indonesia is a net rice exporter, but in fact it has generally been a net importer. Some researchers argue that rice consumption data are underestimated;...

  6. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  7. Fruit and products of its processing and its importance for nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    JIRCOVÁ, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is focused on fruits and products of its processing and its importance in nutrition. The theoretical part deals with the chemical composition of fruits in general are described and fruit products and their importance for human health, the important matter we deal mainly vitamins, fiber and antioxidants. The practical part consists of questionnaires on the subject and their evaluation. The aim was to find out what kind of relationship and knowledge of students and pupils of the frui...

  8. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rezazadeh, Tahereh; Aghaiypour, Kh.; Heidari, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp), NOS terminator (253 bp), NPT (470 bp) and GUS (443 bp) for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. T...

  9. Radiological control of food importation products; Control radiologico de productos alimenticios de importacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  10. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported egg products; retention in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.930 Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under...

  11. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  12. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  13. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  14. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.;

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products, ...

  15. 16 CFR 1203.34 - Product certification and labeling by manufacturers (including importers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacturers (including importers). 1203.34 Section 1203.34 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203... “Complies with U.S. CPSC Safety Standard for Bicycle Helmets for Persons Age 5 and Older” or “Complies...

  16. THE EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE COW FRESHENING DISTRIBUTIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Kilmer, Richard L.; Morrill, John; Thomas H. Spreen; DeLorenzo, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Seasonal swings in milk production in Florida result in a need to import milk on a seasonal basis. A linear programming analysis is used to analyze alternate freshening-date distributions and project the cost savings to Florida dairy farmers from reduced milk imports.

  17. Importance and competitive advantage of the European Union countries in trade in agri-food products

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to show the importance and competitive advantage of the EU countries in trade in agri-food products. It was proved that old member states of the EU, especially Holland, Germany and France, play a dominant role in the agri-food trade. Although agri-food products occupy an important position in the total trade structure of the Central and East European countries, their significance in the exchange of agri-food products in the Community is incomparably smaller.

  18. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  19. EXAMINING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE IMPORTANCE OF RECYCLING IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi AYBOĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the development of technology and increasing competition, producing goods or services of the business is not enough today. Production forms of business and their pers- pectives on the environment during the production of goods and services are also monitored by the clients. Today, in the matter of ensuring the sustainability of products and hence the company, recycling has come into prominence. With these grounds, in the product life cycle costing in this study, the importance of recycling have been studied in a theoretical framework. For this purpose, basic concepts are primarily explained and product life cycle is compared with traditional costing. Then, employing the importance of recycling and its advantages are described. The presence of shortages of raw materials, the risk of extinction of natural resources and in today’s world where the cost rises, using recycled products decreases operating costs and so customers turn to recycled products with the environmental awareness. Hereat, competitiveness of enterprises, their product sales and market share have increased. In terms of environment, air and water pollution decrease and logging is prevented. During recent years, the creation of renewable resources by recycling will ensure sustainable production and bring a new dimension to the production systems.

  20. Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in Rice Importation Simulation Model: a Stochastic Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina G. de Guzman; Mina, Christian D.; Crean, Jason; Parton, Kevin; Reyes, Celia M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and Corn (IACRC), where the National Food Authority (NFA) and Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) are members, decides o...

  1. China’s Soybean Imports — Price Impacts using a Production System Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Marchant, Mary A.; Muhammad, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A differential production model is applied to study how soybean and soybean oil imports from the U.S., Brazil and Argentina compete on China’s markets and how China’s domestic prices of soybean meal and oil impact the country’s imports. The results support a presumption that China’s soybean imports from global markets are impacted by China’s domestic soybean meal price but not by the soybean oil price.

  2. 基于CBERS-02B高分辨率遥感影像分割的最优尺度选取%Optimal scale selection base on CBERS-02B high-resolution remote sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况润元; 袁秀华; 罗卫; 张萌; 王聪颖

    2013-01-01

    高分辨遥感影像的信息提取对矿山的监测有着重要意义,影像分割是高分辨率遥感影像信息提取关键的一步.文中以赣州稀土矿山的高分辨率遥感影像为源数据,采用分形网络演化多尺度分割算法对高分辨率遥感影像进行分割,通过Robert算子的边缘提取结果计算分割参数获取分割尺度,并在此基础上设置不同分割尺度对影像进行分割,对比分析分割结果表明,沉淀池的最优分割尺度为35.最后利用分割质量值对分割结果进行评价分析,验证了试验结果的正确性.%It has important significance for high resolution remote sensing image information extraction to monitor rare earth mine. Image segmentation is a key step in the high resolution remote sensing image information extraction. In order to obtain the optimal segmentation results, this paper chooses high-resolution remote sensing image of Ganzhou rare earth mines, uses Fractal Net Evolution Approach algorithm to segment high resolution remote sensing image, and computes segmentation parameter to obtain segmentation scale by edge extraction results of Robert operator, and sets different segmentation scale to segment image base on it, after comparing and analyzing segmentation results, it shows that optimal segmentation scale of sedimentation tank was 35. At last Segmentation results were evaluated by segmentation quality value, it verifies the accuracy of experimental result.

  3. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 228Th and 40K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as 137Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of 137Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from 226Ra and 228Th were found to be low. Although 40K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. (note)

  4. Environmental assessment of imported organic products - focusing on orange juice from Brazil and soybeans from China

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2011-01-01

    The import of organic products to Denmark has seen a four to five fold increase during the last seven years, due to a growing demand for organic products. Globally, the market for organic food and drinks has also more than doubled during the same period. The global organic agricultural land has concurrently expanded from 26 to 35 million hectares, mostly due to major conversions in Argentina, China, India, Australia, USA and Brazil. While Europe and North America still makes up th...

  5. The United States (U.S.) Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gh. H.; E. Nica; R.-O. Ștefănescu-Mihăilă; G. Lăzăroiu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, mo...

  6. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a def...

  7. Evaluating the effect of exchange rate and labor productivity on import penetration of Brazilian manufacturing sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martin Faleiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several economists have argued that the sharp loss of competitiveness of the Brazilian industry was caused by a strong exchange rate appreciation. However, other economists have attributed this loss of competitiveness to the dismal growth of labor productivity in the Brazilian industrial sector. The present paper proposes to estimate the differential impacts of variations in exchange rate and labor productivity on the Brazilian market share of imports measured by the coefficient of import penetration of total demand for manufacturing goods. We start by developing a simple theoretical model to investigate under what conditions the impacts of an exchange rate depreciation and an increase in labor productivity would differ. We test the theoretical implications of the model by means of a GMM panel data analysis focusing on 17 manufacturing sectors in the period between 1996 and 2011. Our results suggest that both variables matter to explain the coefficient of import penetration. Nevertheless, labor productivity has the strongest negative impact on the market share of imported goods, even after controlling for sector fixed-effects.

  8. The Importance of Production Frequency in Therapy for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeal, Denice Michelle; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina Elke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the importance of production frequency during speech therapy to determine whether more practice of speech targets leads to increased performance within a treatment session, as well as to motor learning, in the form of generalization to untrained words. Method: Two children with childhood apraxia of speech were treated…

  9. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... risks of other livestock diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea, foot-and-mouth disease, infectious... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR 53314-53379... 92, 93, 94, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine...

  10. 31 CFR 537.203 - Prohibited importation of products of Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Section 3(b) of the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 provides that the prohibition contained in... Prohibitions § 537.203 Prohibited importation of products of Burma. Except as otherwise authorized, and... President determines and notifies specified committees of Congress that to do so is in the national...

  11. Measures for Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Measures for the Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products co-formulated by the Ministry of Commerce,the General Administration of Customs and the General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine,was hereby promul-gated,which entered into force as of May 1,2008.

  12. An Effective Review to Identify the Most Important Advances in Petroleum Production Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Cheraghi Kootiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The upstream of the petroleum industry involves itself in the business of oil and gas exploration and production (E & P activities. While the exploration activities find oil and gas reserves, the production activities deliver oil and gas to the downstream of the industry. The petroleum production is definitely the heart of the petroleum industry. Petroleum production engineering is that part of petroleum engineering that attempts to maximize oil and gas production in a cost-effective manner. To achieve this objective, production engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the petroleum production systems with which they work. The purpose of this paper is to identify the most important advances in petroleum production engineering in the past decade. Of course, a review paper in the allotted space simply cannot do justice to all new technologies, especially those that are advances to established techniques. We then expound upon two technologies that we feel have made already or have the capacity of quantum impact on the petroleum industry. These are high-permeability fracturing (often referred to in the vernacular as frac-pack and variants and complex well architecture which deals with wells with a main or mother bore from which branches are drilled.

  13. Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Padhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance.

  14. Detailed rules on the administration of import quota of important industrial products%重要工业品进口配额管理实施细则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Article 1. This set of detailed Rules is formulated according to the Regulations on the Administration of Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China to standardise the administration over the importation of important industrial products and promote fair trade.

  15. 9 CFR 590.945 - Foreign egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign egg products offered for... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.945 Foreign...

  16. 9 CFR 381.204 - Marking of poultry products offered for entry; official import inspection marks and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of poultry products offered...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.204 Marking of poultry products offered for...

  17. Cadastral maps of irrigated areas by center pivots in the State of Minas Gerais, using CBERS-2B/CCD satellite imaging Cadastro das áreas irrigadas por pivôs centrais, em Minas Gerais, utilizando imagens do satélite CBERS-2B/CCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-resolution satellite images have been widely used for the identification and quantification of irrigated areas by center pivot. These areas, which present predominantly circular forms, can be easily identified by visual analyses of these images. In addition to identifying and quantifying areas irrigated by center pivot, other information that is associated to these areas is fundamental for producing cadastral maps. The goal of this work was to generate cadastral mapping of areas irrigated by center pivots in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the purpose of supplying information on irrigated agriculture. Using the satellite CBERS2B/CCD, images were used to identify and quantify irrigated areas and then associate these areas with a database containing information about: irrigated area, perimeter, municipality, path row, basin in which the pivot is located, and the date of image acquisition.3,781 center pivots systems were identified. The smallest area irrigated was 4.6 hectares and the largest one was 192.6 hectares. The total estimated value of irrigated area was 254,875 hectares. The largest number of center pivots appeared in the municipalities of Unaí and Paracatu, with 495 and 459 systems, respectively. Cadastral mapping is a very useful tool to assist and enhance information on irrigated agriculture in the State of Minas Gerais.As imagens de satélite de média resolução são bastante utilizadas para a identificação e quantificação de áreas irrigadas por pivô central. Essas áreas, por apresentarem formas predominantemente circulares, podem ser facilmente identificadas por meio de análises visuais dessas imagens. Além da identificação e quantificação das áreas irrigadas por pivô, a adição de outras informações complementares a estas áreas é fundamental para gerar mapas cadastrais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi gerar um mapeamento cadastral das áreas irrigadas por pivôs centrais no Estado de Minas Gerais

  18. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  19. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions. The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes. It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important. Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter

  20. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot.

  1. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papagianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.

  2. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  3. Gas Strategy of China: Developing competition between national production and imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese gas market is facing four key challenges and the government is elaborating responses which will have implications for the Chinese and world energy markets: - Enabling the development of gas demand in order to fight against the issue of air pollution which is particularly strong in the big coast cities of the East and South-East of the country. This means replacing coal and oil by cleaner energy sources, including natural gas for which demand is booming. In such a young market, everything needs to be put in place: from the construction of LNG terminals to the sale and installation of gas stoves. The price of gas needs to be competitive for the market to develop. - Securing supplies: As national production is struggling to follow the rise in demand and as shale gas - of which China owns the second largest reserves in the world - is still a distant dream, this country is more and more reliant on imports. For evident energy security reasons, China diversifies its supplies at the maximum level and develops new energy partnerships. Four importing routes are favoured: LNG transported by ships, the West axis with Central Asia, the South axis with Burma and the new North-East axis with Russia. These imports, which amounted to 53 bcm in 2013, may triple by 2020. Even though China managed to negotiate a favourable price with Russia and its LNG importing price is lower than the one of Japan - thanks to its first LNG importing contracts signed in the early 2000 - imports are expensive, in particular for a country used to producing or importing coal at a very low cost. Up to now, the price at which gas is sold could not cover the import price and this system is not sustainable. - Developing national production: Despite important gas reserves - in particular for unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, CBM) - production in China is still not much developed in comparison with its potential and the growth opportunities are significant. Making the best of this potential

  4. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Stoiljković Dragoslav; Damjanović Budimir; Đorđević Jovica; Špehar Danko; Jovanović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE) were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of pol...

  5. Bees and their productsimportance for sustainable development of plants, animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Koszowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees are vital to humans and the environment. They play an important role in the pollination of crops; bee products are often used as therapeutic agents in many diseases. Honey is of rich chemical composition, which determines its nutritional and medicinal properties. Therefore, it is attributed prophylactic activity against many diseases. Bee products are also a source of antioxidants. Their quality depends on the climate, environment, soil, and method of storage. Unfortunately, in the recent years there has been an increase in mortality of these beneficial insects, which is connected with the devastating human impact on the environment. This article is a review of the literature on the healing properties of bee products and their threats.

  6. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo-qiang; Liu, Jiang-hua [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. (author)

  7. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Boqiang, E-mail: bqlin@xmu.edu.c [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu Jianghua [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security.

  8. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. THE PRODUCTION OF MEDICINES IN ROMANIA AFTER 1990. WHAT'S THE REASON FOR IMPORTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Romania turned itself slowly but surely, from a large drugs producer, which has used to supplydrugs to the whole former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Member States, and with a net positive trade balance in medicine sector, into a large drugs importer, trying hardly to attract investors which could produce medicines not only for the Romanian domestic market, but also for all other Eastern European markets, Ukraine, Russia and Turkey. This paper focuses on the empirical analisys of the medicines production sector in Romania after 1990, aiming to emphasises the factors which have mostly affected this industry, in correlation with different interests and reasons which determined the increasing imports of drugs during the last years, by underlying at the same time, the role of the new public authority in charge of supervising the distribution and import of medicines in Romania, The National Medicines Administration (NMA. The paper relevance relies in the fact that Romania registered during the last years drug imports of an average of 1.7 billion euros, while the drug exports were only around 0,1 billions euros, according to the computations made on the data provided by the Romanian Institute of National Statistics (INS. The most imported products are patent drugs, which are more expensive than those produced by the domestic manufactured. At the same time, Romania registered an increase of the pharmaceutical market of around 20% only since its EU integration, this market proven to be largely driven by expensive products. Our research conducted to the conclusion that the Romanian resort authorities have to immediately adopt measures meant to limit consumption of expensive drugs, on the one side, and to reinforce the domestic manufacturers on the other side, even by attracting major investors in this sector. We have also identified that there is a large competitiveness for Romanian medicine products on the international market, due

  10. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. - Highlights: • Effects of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on mosquitoes were examined. • Three PPCP treatments increase susceptibility to a common larvicide (Bti). • Acetaminophen and the mixture of PPCPs caused an increase in developmental time. • The holobiome of mosquitoes treated with PPCPs were sequenced. • Three PPCP regimes changed the holobiome of the mosquitoes. - Pharmaceuticals and personal care products, common to reclaimed wastewater, alter the development of mosquitoes. They also alter the whole-body bacterial microbiome

  11. A glycine betaine importer limits Salmonella stress resistance and tissue colonization by reducing trehalose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilonieta, M Carolina; Nagy, Toni A; Jorgensen, Dana R; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2012-04-01

    Mechanisms by which Salmonella establish chronic infections are not well understood. Microbes respond to stress by importing or producing compatible solutes, small molecules that stabilize proteins and lipids. The Salmonella locus opuABCD (also called OpuC) encodes a predicted importer of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Under stress conditions, if glycine betaine cannot be imported, Salmonella enterica produce the disaccharide trehalose, a highly effective compatible solute. We demonstrate that strains lacking opuABCD accumulate more trehalose under stress conditions than wild-type strains. ΔopuABCD mutant strains are more resistant to high-salt, low-pH and -hydrogen peroxide, conditions that mimic aspects of innate immunity, in a trehalose-dependent manner. In addition, ΔopuABCD mutant strains require the trehalose production genes to out-compete wild-type strains in mice and macrophages. These data suggest that in the absence of opuABCD, trehalose accumulation increases bacterial resistance to stress in broth and mice. Thus, opuABCD reduces bacterial colonization via a mechanism that limits trehalose production. Mechanisms by which microbes limit disease may reveal novel pathways as therapeutic targets.

  12. Importance of nuclear technology in the conservation and production of nutritional fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.

  13. USE OF IMPORT REVOLVING LEVERAGE LEASING IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE RISKS IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Muftahova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the financing form in case of import revolving leverage leasing is described to modernize of fixed assets.In the research process the methods of mathematical modeling are applied.The mathematical model of the generalized method of calculation leasing payments proposed by the authors is represented according to the results of the research.The presented method includes several forms of leasing utilized both in the domestic and in the foreign practice.The novelty of this method consists in the fact that on the basis of the proposed forms of leasing is calculated the sum of leasing payment, which considers with the calculation insu-rance, financial and currency component to minimize losses from downtime due to the limited using of basic production assets of the enterprise in the organization of the production process.The method presented by authors is intended to minimize the risk of downtime of production equipment. This fact will enable us to provide high qualitative and quantitative indicators of the enterprise, stability and continuity of the production process.

  14. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (a)(1) Bovine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. 94.18 Section...

  15. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized....

  16. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.;

    1997-01-01

    for detection of psychrotolerant and heat-labile micro-organisms like P. phosphoreum. These methods have been used in many previous studies of MAP fish and this could explain why, contrary to the findings in the present study, P. phosphoreum in general was not detected previously in spoiled MAP fish.......Occurrence and growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum were studied in 20 experiments with fresh fish from Denmark, Iceland and Greece. The organism was detected in all marine fish species but not in fish from fresh water. Growth of P. phosphoreum to high levels (>10(7) cfu g(-1)) was observed in most...... products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate...

  17. Importance of agribusiness in national economies of Poland and Germany. Production and income results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to compare the importance of agribusiness in Polish and German economies. The paper analyses the internal structure of agribusiness and its share in national economies in terms of production and income results. The analysis is based on input-output matrix. The results show that the changes in the agribusiness structure in Poland go in the desired direction. The agriculture loses its significance, while food industry and industries manufacturing the production means and service become more significant. Agribusiness’ share in the national economy in Poland has been systematically falling in the analysed period. It must be emphasised here that the Polish agribusiness is still run in an old fashioned way, while in Germany it is modern. The main condition to change the situation in Poland is to generate economic growth and be able to benefit from the CAP instruments.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Imported Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Ashraf A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and elucidate the resistance mechanism in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from food products imported into the United States from 2011 to 2013. Food products contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica were mainly imported from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. PCR, DNA sequencing, and plasmid analyses were used to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants. Twentythree of 110 S. enterica isolates were resistant to various antimicrobial classes, including β-lactam, aminoglycoside, phenicol, glycopeptide, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and/or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Twelve of the isolates were multidrug resistant strains. Antimicrobial resistance determinants blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-9, blaOXA-1, tetA, tetB, tetD, dfrA1, dfrV, dhfrI, dhfrXII, drf17, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, orfC, qnrS, and mutations of gyrA and parC were detected in one or more antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica strains. Plasmid profiles revealed that 12 of the 23 antimicrobial-resistant strains harbored plasmids with incompatibility groups IncFIB, IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, IncW, and IncX. Epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance monitoring data combined with molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Salmonella strains isolated from imported food products may provide information that can be used to establish or implement food safety programs to improve public health.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Imported Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Ashraf A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and elucidate the resistance mechanism in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from food products imported into the United States from 2011 to 2013. Food products contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica were mainly imported from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. PCR, DNA sequencing, and plasmid analyses were used to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants. Twentythree of 110 S. enterica isolates were resistant to various antimicrobial classes, including β-lactam, aminoglycoside, phenicol, glycopeptide, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and/or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Twelve of the isolates were multidrug resistant strains. Antimicrobial resistance determinants blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-9, blaOXA-1, tetA, tetB, tetD, dfrA1, dfrV, dhfrI, dhfrXII, drf17, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, orfC, qnrS, and mutations of gyrA and parC were detected in one or more antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica strains. Plasmid profiles revealed that 12 of the 23 antimicrobial-resistant strains harbored plasmids with incompatibility groups IncFIB, IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, IncW, and IncX. Epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance monitoring data combined with molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Salmonella strains isolated from imported food products may provide information that can be used to establish or implement food safety programs to improve public health. PMID:27497122

  20. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  1. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  2. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  3. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Dragoslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of polymerization, the peak in the polymerization rate curve, the stability of the reaction, the structure and properties of LDPE, the separation of unreacted ethylene and polyethylene and ethylene compression are discussed.

  4. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  5. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  6. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  7. Global consumptive water use for crop production: The importance of green water and virtual water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Yang, Hong

    2009-05-01

    Over the last 4 decades the use of blue water has received increasing attention in water resources research, but little attention has been paid to the quantification of green water in food production and food trade. In this paper, we estimate both the blue and green water components of consumptive water use (CWU) for a wide range of agricultural crops, including seven cereal crops, cassava, cotton, groundnuts, potatoes, pulses, rapeseed, soybeans, sugar beets, sugarcane, and sunflower, with a spatial resolution of 30 arc min on the land surface. The results show that the global CWU of these crops amounted to 3823 km3 a-1 for the period 1998-2002. More than 80% of this amount was from green water. Around 94% of the world crop-related virtual water trade has its origin in green water, which generally constitutes a low-opportunity cost of green water as opposed to blue water. High levels of net virtual water import (NVWI) generally occur in countries with low CWU on a per capita basis, where a virtual water strategy is an attractive water management option to compensate for domestic water shortage for food production. NVWI is constrained by income; low-income countries generally have a low level of NVWI. Strengthening low-income countries economically will allow them to develop a virtual water strategy to mitigate malnutrition of their people.

  8. Micro-bubbles in cold production of heavy oil : are they present, are they important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikha, H.; Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Various models and studies of non-equilibrium behaviour of gas in the cold production of heavy oil have led researchers to believe that some of the geo-mechanical effects manifested in sand production are responsible for the generation of wormholes that act as high permeability conduits. This abstract examined the existence and flow of micro-bubbles and their importance in heavy oil recovery. An inline densitometer was installed on a flow-line to measure the bulk density of the fluids as they exited the porous medium. Micro-bubble flow was investigated by measuring the density of the flowing fluids. Results indicated that when micro-bubbles were present, they flowed with the oil after the bubbles were nucleated, thereby affecting the bulk density of the flowing fluid. The density of the produced fluid then decreased as a result of the existence of the micro-bubbles in the oil. In the absence of micro-bubbles, the bubbles grew in-situ and were trapped in the porous media by capillary forces. In this scenario, the flowing fluid was oil and the density measurements were not affected until the bulk gas flow started after critical gas saturation. Results of depletion experiments performed at varying depletion rates were presented, and the implications of the study for the modelling of foamy oil flow were also discussed.

  9. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  10. The socio-economic importance of family poultry production in the Republic of Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost every household keeps semi-scavenging family poultry in the backyard as a tradition, both for food and for the generation of additional income in Rodrigues, the second biggest island of the Republic of Mauritius. Recent studies have shown that improving husbandry and management practices on the farm can increase the return of the family poultry farmer significantly. A survey was carried out on households with family poultry on the social and economic importance of family poultry production on the island in 2002. Results showed that on an average, the family poultry farmer was 50 years of age, 42% were illiterate, 32% of the farmers were women, and the family consisted of five members. Besides their main occupation, animal farming was the main side-activity of 56% of the households. 50% of the respondents reared chickens firstly for income, 43% for home consumption, 4% for cultural reasons, and 3% simply for leisure. The profit obtained from the sale of chickens and eggs, and the monetary value of sale and home consumption of these commodities represented 9% and 18% of the total income of the family, respectively. 65% of the households wished to expand family poultry production as they found this system of production more profitable than the rearing improved commercial broilers and layers. The birds of 5% of the farmers constituted a nuisance to their neighbours. All the poultry merchants who marketed the family poultry found their business profitable, and wished to expand it. They priced the birds by their appearance, offered US dollar 2 / kg live weight, and sold them at US dollar 3.4 / kg live-weight to consumers in Mauritius. Family poultry had a guaranteed market, especially for being free scavenging birds, and for their rustic taste. (author)

  11. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or...

  12. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat... DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.11 Restrictions on importation of meat and...

  13. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reisinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed control of two acetolactate-synthase inhibitor postemergence herbicides (imazamox and tribenuron methyl in several sunflower hybrids that carry the resistance gene against such herbicides. Common ragweed control by these herbicides was excellent: they suppressed the growth of the weed plant until the canopy closure of the crop (8-leaf stage. Common ragweed plants germinating after this date were unable to compete with the crop: although they survived, they remained small (ca. 70% reduction in height, produced ca. 90% less male inflorescences (source of the allergenic pollen, and caused no significant reduction in the crop yield. In order to stop the seed production by the few late-germinating weed plants we recommend a mechanical common measure (row-cultivator in late August.

  14. Importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (RAF/9/053) untitled Strengthening of the technical capacity for the protection patients and worker. The goal of this work is to highlight the importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and the Dose Length product (DLP). Measures were done at Polyclinic of Ilafy and CRDT Anosivavaka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Doses were evaluated by use of pencil ionization chamber model 6000-10 connected with an electrometer RAD-CHECK model 06-256. Knowledge of dose indicator and Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) allow the monitoring of scanner within the appropriate average dosimeter. It also insures the progressive determination for the most adapted dose requirements by choice of parameters available on scanner device. Measurements confirmed that doses from scanner devices of the two centers were under DRL requirements proposed by the IAEA, the European Commission (EC) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The present results confirm that the patient delivered doses for the two centers are optimized.

  15. Modeling the importance of biomass qualities in biomass supply chains for bioenergy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Upadhyay, J. H. Greibrokk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tactical-operational level quantitative model can be an important decision support tool for bioenergy producers. Goal programming approach can help analyze the costs and volume implications of various competing goals in terms of biomass characteristics on part of the bioenergy producers. One cost and six quality characteristics goals, namely moisture and ash contents, and thermal values of two types of biomass (forest harvest residue and un/under-utilized species are selected for the four bioenergy producers in northwestern, Ontario, Canada. We run four models cenarios: i benchmark total cost and ceilings of mean values of six biomass qualities (Initial Goals, iirelaxing the quality goals by 10% from the Initial Goals scenario, iii increasing the conversion efficiency by 10%, and iv all goals as in Initial Goals except the Atikokan Generating Station (AGSbeing supplied with only un/under-utilized biomass. The smaller power plants have relatively less per unit biomass procurement cost. While per unit procurement costs increased, the total costs and biomass volume required to produce the same amount of bioenergy for each power plant decreased in all scenarios compared to the benchmark costs. The goal programming approach, and the results thereof are found to be useful in making effective decisions in the biomass supply chains for bioenergy production.

  16. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  17. The Importance Of Product Attributes In High Context Cultures: Implications For Managing Business Relations In Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, A. H.; Leach, M P

    2005-01-01

    Should business marketers promote the same product attributes in both high context and low context cultures or should they differentiate according to cultural context. This question is pertinent to marketing research service providers and product manufacturers operating within Asia To help marketers belter communicate the desirable product attributes to their target markets, the current study examines various product attributes and how they are utilized in purchase decisions in high vs low cu...

  18. An investigation of most important internal and external organizational factors effect on new product performance in food industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid raza Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New products are critical and undeniable factors for companies that operate in a competitive and changing environment. Many researchers have sought to identify factors that affect the success of new product. This research seeks to identify and categorize the most important factors which influenced on the performance of new products in food industries. After reading several researches, these factors were classified into two categories: internal and external factors. The most important internal factors that, addressed in this research include: entrepreneurial orientation, organizational learning and new product development process, and the most important external factors are: the predictability of customers demands, technological turbulence, market turbulence and intensity of competition. Statistical society of this study is 66 food companies of Mazandaran province, with at least 2 years work experience, that released at least one new product within last year. In this study, hypothesis were tested by structural equation tests, correlation, and hierarchical and multiple regressions, and data analysis software SPSS16 and Visual PLS was used. The findings of this research indicate that entrepreneurial orientation, new product development process and predictability of customer demand has a direct and meaningful impact, and technological turbulence, market turbulence and competitive intensity have a significant moderating effect on the performance of new products in food industries. But it didn’t demonstrate a significant impact of organizational learning on new product performance. The study of indirect effect of organizational learning on new product performance shows that, organizational learning may increase the performance of new products when, a new product development process acts as a mediating variable. Determining suitability of the model by GOF indices shows that the modified model of new product model of new product development process

  19. Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase A plays an important role in cellulase production

    OpenAIRE

    de Assis, Leandro José; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Savoldi, Marcela; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background The production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is dependent on lignocellulosic biomass degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. The main component of lignocellulose is cellulose and different types of organisms are able to secrete cellulases. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans serves as a model organism to study cellulase production and the available tools allow exploring more in depth the mechanisms governing cellulase production and carbon catabolite repression. ...

  20. Evaluation and update of Norwegian and Danish oil production forecasts and implications for Swedish oil import

    OpenAIRE

    Sällh, David; Höök, Mikael; Grandell, Leena; Davidsson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an updated historic oil production analysis as well as an updated future oil production forecast for Norway and Denmark. Previous forecasts conducted by academic and official agencies using a variety of methodologies are contrasted and their accuracy examined. The bottom-up field-by-field methodology is found to be precise in the short-term, as it deviates by less than 1% from actual production. The impact of declining oil production in the North Sea on Sweden is explored ...

  1. The Wind Energy in Power Production and Its Importance in Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsy, Bela

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy is an increasingly important factor of the power system in Europe. But it is still just a small part of the significant changes of the new millennium, namely the spreading of micro power and decentralisation of the whole energy system which are very important elements of sustainability. This paper shows the importance of wind power…

  2. 21 CFR 120.14 - Application of requirements to imported products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 120.14 Section 120.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... specific requirements for imported juice. (a) Importer requirements. Every importer of juice shall either: (1) Obtain the juice from a country that has an active memorandum of understanding (MOU) or...

  3. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ..., ``Analysis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk to the U.S. Cattle Population from Importation of... final rule did not limit the importation of bovine-derived meat from Canada to that derived from cattle... meat from bovines 30 months of age or older while continuing to prohibit the importation of live...

  4. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups... Food Safety and Inspection Service Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat... compliance guide for U.S. importers and brokers on the electronic filing of import inspection...

  5. How Important is Presenteeism for the Value of Lost Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise;

    2010-01-01

    days with a resulting cost of €168 (SD, 203) and €203 (SD, 245), again depending on whether a multiplier was included. Overall, this article demonstrates that the value of lost production due to RA could be subject to an almost factor 2 increase if productivity effects of presenteeism and general...

  6. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  7. Denitrification: An important pathway for nitrous oxide production in tropical mangrove sediments (Goa, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bonin, P.C.; Michotey, V.D.

    , which was three times higher than at Tuvem. Detailed investigations to understand the major pathway contributing to N sub(2)O production performed at Tuvem showed that incomplete denitrification was responsible for up to 43 to 93% of N sub(2)O production...

  8. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  9. 9 CFR 327.3 - No product to be imported without compliance with applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... larger forms, shall be permitted entry except under the following conditions: (1) A complete procedure... microbiological testing of the finished product shall be installed by the processor, the product is subjected to such testing, and the results thereof are furnished to the Administrator and are acceptable to him...

  10. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...... production in relation to photon flux density differed considerably between entire communities and individual thallus parts. No light saturation occurred in the communities, and all photosynthetic variables such as light compensation point, efficiency of light utilisation at low light and maximum production......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE AND POSSIBILITY OF CARCASS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN HUNGARIAN PORK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Csató

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter data of the National pig database was analysed by the authors. The authors investigated the results of the (SEUROP grade scheme, which showed the connection between the pig proportions fell into the various grade classes and their prices. The analyses started when the introduction of the (SEUROP grade scheme took place in 1997 and was based on the official database published each week. For the sake of better overview the results were summed up to monthly intervals. The authors found that in the first period (shortly after the introduction of the grade scheme the prices of the slaughtered pigs fell into the various grade classes differed from each other by 6-7 %. As a result of the (SEUROP grade scheme’s introduction the proportion of the slaughtered pigs fell in the grade classes E and U increased from 18% to 27% and from 37% to 44% respectively. The proportions in the R, O, and P classes consequently decreased. Following the first period no changing pattern was found concerning these proportions which means that the improvement of the graded slaughter pigs stopped. Investigating the possible explanations the authors realised that the price differences between the grade classes decreased from 6-7% to 4-5%. Thus the meat processing industry in fact was paying more for one unit lean content of slaughtered pigs when fell into the worst categories than for those which can be found in the best categories. This however does not provide any motivation for the producers for improving carcass quality, which can only be obtained through higher costs. It can be concluded that carcass quality improvement is an important requirement for Hungary. Concerning the EU members the graded slaughter pigs can be found in the E and U categories almost exclusively. The same ratio is only 65% in Hungary. Therefore the modification of slaughtered pig prices of the E and U grade classes is vital in order to motivate the production of slaughtered pigs

  12. Host cell-induced signaling causes Clostridium perfringens to upregulate production of toxins important for intestinal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianming; Ma, Menglin; Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in humans and livestock due to prolific toxin production. In broth culture, C. perfringens uses the Agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate production of toxins important for enteritis/enterotoxemia, including beta toxin (CPB), enterotoxin, and epsilon toxin (ETX). The VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system (TCRS) also controls CPB production in broth cultures. Both the Agr-like QS and VirS/VirR systems are important when C...

  13. Cost-effective production of biotechnologically important hydrolytic enzymes by Sporotrichum thermophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Anju; Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    Economical production of xylanase and three cellulases, endo-β-1,4-glucanase (CMCase), exo-β-1,4-glucanase (FPase), β-glucosidase (BGL) was studied in submerged fermentation using cane molasses medium. A statistical optimization approach involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in the production of 72,410, 36,420, 32,420 and 5180 U/l of xylanase, CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase, respectively. Optimization resulted in more than fourfold improvements in production of xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Scale up of enzymes production in shake flasks of varied volumes was sustainable, suggesting a good scope for large scale enzyme production. Addition of microparticles engineered fungal morphology and enhanced enzymes production. Xylanase of S. thermophile is a neutral xylanase displaying its optimal activity at 60 °C while all the cellulases are optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The efficacy of enzyme cocktail in waste tea cup paper and rice straw hydrolysis showed that maximum sugar yield of 578.12 and 421.79 mg/g substrate for waste tea cup and rice straw, respectively, were achieved after 24 h. Therefore, concomitant production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes will be beneficial for the saccharification of lignocellulosics in generating both monomeric and oligomeric sugars for biofuels and other biotechnological applications.

  14. Cost-effective production of biotechnologically important hydrolytic enzymes by Sporotrichum thermophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Anju; Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    Economical production of xylanase and three cellulases, endo-β-1,4-glucanase (CMCase), exo-β-1,4-glucanase (FPase), β-glucosidase (BGL) was studied in submerged fermentation using cane molasses medium. A statistical optimization approach involving Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM) resulted in the production of 72,410, 36,420, 32,420 and 5180 U/l of xylanase, CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase, respectively. Optimization resulted in more than fourfold improvements in production of xylanolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. Scale up of enzymes production in shake flasks of varied volumes was sustainable, suggesting a good scope for large scale enzyme production. Addition of microparticles engineered fungal morphology and enhanced enzymes production. Xylanase of S. thermophile is a neutral xylanase displaying its optimal activity at 60 °C while all the cellulases are optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The efficacy of enzyme cocktail in waste tea cup paper and rice straw hydrolysis showed that maximum sugar yield of 578.12 and 421.79 mg/g substrate for waste tea cup and rice straw, respectively, were achieved after 24 h. Therefore, concomitant production of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes will be beneficial for the saccharification of lignocellulosics in generating both monomeric and oligomeric sugars for biofuels and other biotechnological applications. PMID:26581490

  15. Incorporating Regional Rice Production Models in a Simulation Model of Rice Importation: a Discrete Stochastic Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalina G. de Guzman; Mina, Christian D.; Crean, Jason; Parton, Kevin; Reyes, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    In the Philippines, importation has remained as one of the most feasible options for the government to meet the growing demand for rice. It is thus imperative for the government to develop a strategy that would ensure adequate supply and minimum importation costs. One of the critical factors in import decisionmaking is rice production. The Inter-Agency Committee on Rice and Corn (IACRC), of which the National Food Authority (NFA) and the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) are members, de...

  16. Factors Influencing Consumer’s Choices in FMCG Products: A Case Study of Imported Fruit Juices in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zekrgoo, Seyed Masiha

    2013-01-01

    Companies specializing in imported Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGs) in Malaysia do not have sufficient knowledge on the factors/variables influencing consumers’ choices of different products in Malaysia. Furthermore, there is lack of literature focusing on Malaysian consumers and especially on influential factors on imported fruit juices in Malaysia. These factors have motivated this researcher to conduct an exploratory research on the variables that influence consumers’ choice of imported ...

  17. Bumble bee colony dynamics: quantifying the importance of land use and floral resources for colony growth and queen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Elizabeth E; Williams, Neal M

    2016-04-01

    Bumble bee (Bombus) species are ecologically and economically important pollinators, and many species are in decline. In this article, we develop a mechanistic model to analyse growth trajectories of Bombus vosnesenskii colonies in relation to floral resources and land use. Queen production increased with floral resources and was higher in semi-natural areas than on conventional farms. However, the most important parameter for queen production was the colony growth rate per flower, as opposed to the average number of available flowers. This result indicates the importance of understanding mechanisms of colony growth, in order to predict queen production and enhance bumble bee population viability. Our work highlights the importance of interpreting bumble bee conservation efforts in the context of overall population dynamics and provides a framework for doing so. PMID:26913696

  18. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  19. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials. PMID:25875352

  20. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer...... trust as a distinct volition factor influencing the likelihood that consumers will act on green intentions and strongly emphasizes the needs to manage consumer trust as a prerequisite for the development of a market for green products. Specifically, based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative...... methods, it is found that lack of consumer trust is a barrier for the development of a market for organic food in Thailand. Two focus groups and ten in-depth interviews revealed low knowledge about and low trust in organic food, certification, control and labeling. Further, a mall-intercept survey (N=177...

  1. Uranium production from imported raw material at Sillamaee in 1949-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ores, ore concentrates and chemical concentrates imported mainly from Czechoslovakia and German Democratic Republic were processed at Sillamaee plant in the years 1949-1989. The paper describes the development of uranium extraction and the equipment used. (author)

  2. The importance of buffalo in milk production and buffalo population in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Perišić P.; Bogdanović V.; Mekić C.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Stanojević D.; Popovac M.; Stepić S.

    2015-01-01

    This research paper gives an analysis on the size of world’s domestic buffalo populations, their milk production and the size of buffalo population in Serbia. Population of domestic buffalo in the world is constantly increasing so that in 2013 there were 199 783 549 individuals, out of which in India in the same year they raised 57.77% of buffalo world population, in Pakistan 18.87%, and in China 11.64%. The share of total world production of buffalo milk i...

  3. The importance of hydrothermal venting to water-column secondary production in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that seafloor hydrothermal venting in the open northeast Pacific Ocean has a marked impact on secondary biomass and production within the overlying water column. Specifically, we use net tows and concurrently measured acoustic backscatter data collected over six summers to examine the effects of hydrothermal venting from the Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge on macro-zooplankton biomass and production throughout the entire 2000 m depth range. Previous research shows that ontogenetic diapausing migrators and their predators from the upper ocean aggregate above the neutrally buoyant plumes in summer and resume feeding on plume and bottom upwelled particles, resulting in increased zooplankton reproductive output to the upper ocean. Within the limitations of our sampling methodology, net tows reveal a statistically significant exponential decline in total water-column biomass with increasing lateral distance from the vent fields. The acoustic backscatter data show a similar decline, but only below 800 m depth. Near-surface biomass was highly variable throughout the region, but values near vents consistently ranged higher than summer values found elsewhere in the offshore northeast Pacific. Water-column biomass was similar in magnitude above and below 800 m depth throughout the region. Because epiplume biomass can be advected a considerable distance from vent fields, biomass enhancement of the water column from hydrothermal venting may extend considerable distances to the west and northwest of the vent sites, in the prevailing directions of the subsurface flow. Based on the extensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected, and the strong correlation between zooplankton production derived from net sample biomass and acoustic backscatter intensity, we estimate that daily macro-zooplankton production in the upper 400 m of the water column within 10 km of the vent fields averages approximately 16% of photosynthetic

  4. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    This paper takes an economic approach to investigate the role of geographical proximity for organizing new product development (NPD) activities within inter-firm linkages. Product development theory and the resource-based view is discussed from an inter-firm perspective and contrasted to arguments...... low support for the general role of geographical proximity for organizing NPD activities within inter-firm linkages. The result suggests that geographical proximity seems to play a role in inter-firm linkages in few cases. For instance, it is shown that knowledge intensive firms exhibit a propensity...

  5. The importance of country related connections in pictures and slogans for COO products in print advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Irene; Raedts, Mariet

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the use of country-of-origin (COO) connections in slogans and/or pictures for different COO product print advertisements. We evaluate if marketeers can benefit from focusing on COO-connections in the slogans/texts used and/or in the ‘visualization’ of the ad by adding pictures of the country concerned. Based on a 4x2x2 between subject design, we have analysed the impact on the attitude towards the advertisement, towards the product, towards the qua...

  6. Importance of Touch in the Design of Pleasurable Products and Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Bouché; Sébastien Crochemore

    2004-01-01

    Today, the act of purchase is more and more irrational. Customers' choices are based on emotional and multisensorial features, particularly on touch, which is the most emotional sense. Then it is essential in the design process to work on shapes, materials, textures to make users living pleasant experiences in all contact areas of the product. It's also essential to consider the dynamic aspect of touch to follow the body and generate pleasant tactile effects. Finally, how can we introduce touch in the design process considering companies' know-how, culture and subjectivity of each actor of new product creation?

  7. Analysis of Export and Import Processes of Seclected Products in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Keretho; Saisamorn Naklada

    2011-01-01

    Administrative and procedural barriers to import and export processes may unnecessarily impede further participation in international trade. Business Process Analysis (BPA) is a powerful tool which can help to identify these barriers and suggest ways to streamline trade processes. As part of the ARTNeT Regional Study on Improving Regional Trade Procedures and Processes, a BPA was conducted on Thai exports of sugar to Bangladesh and auto-parts to India as well as imports of raw materials used ...

  8. Labour productivity and innovation performance : the importance of internal labour flexibility practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vergeer, R.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops and examines the idea that internal labour flexibility practices are beneficial for labour productivity and innovation performance of companies. This is tested in two studies using unique company level datasets. In Study 1, results obtained from 377 independent companies reveal

  9. Silage inoculant effects on milk production and why that may be important to you

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage inoculants are the most common additives used in making corn and hay crop silages. The main active ingredients in these products are lactic acid bacteria that help ensure the fermentation in the silo goes in a direction that helps preserve the crop. While inoculants have been available for ma...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.110 - Assessments on imported pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Pork and pork products Article description Assessment Cents/lb Cents/kg 0203 Meat of swine, fresh... other: Other .20 .440920 0206 Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules....0000 Of swine, frozen: Livers .20 .440920 0206.49.0000 Of swine, frozen: Other .20 .440920 0210...

  11. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... definition of ``Manufacturer of tobacco products'' to reflect a recent statutory change, and by amending a reference to the sale price of large cigars to incorporate a clarification published in a prior TTB....'' Temporary Rule T.D. ATF-421 On December 22, 1999, ATF published in the Federal Register (64 FR 71918)...

  12. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... technical corrections by amending the definition of ``Manufacturer of tobacco products'' to reflect a recent statutory change, and by amending a reference to the sale price of large cigars to incorporate a..., the temporary rule makes several technical corrections by amending the definition of ``Manufacturer...

  13. 9 CFR 327.14 - Marking of products and labeling of immediate containers thereof for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishment number assigned by the foreign meat inspection system and certified to the Program; and such other... of stamps or brands made with branding ink, such ink shall be harmless and shall create permanent... foreign government and such name is prominently and legibly displayed, the words “product of” may...

  14. The economic importance of products extracted from Amazonian flood plain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, S; Kvist, L P; Cáseres, A

    2001-09-01

    Rural people in the Peruvian Amazon practice agriculture and extract a wide range of products from natural forests, rivers and lakes. Their diversified livelihood system includes fish, game, and plant products. In 2 flood-plain villages, data for one year have been collected to compare the economy of local agriculture with the economy of extracted forest products for subsistence as well as for commerce. The study includes both fauna (game and fish) and flora (timber as well as nontimber). The results show that extracted forest products for subsistence, especially fish, are a main factor in the local economy. The daily net income from extraction activities exceeds both income from cultivation and the normal daily wages for unskilled workers, emphasizing the need for thorough socioeconomic investigations before any alternative land-use option is implemented. The average value per ha of natural forest used for extraction is in the order of USD 13 yr-1, and the average extraction area is 113 ha household-1. When yield from agriculture is included in the calculations, the total per ha value of current extraction and agricultural activities increases to USD 21 yr-1.

  15. Usage patterns of personal care products: Important factors for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Dudzina, T.; Delmaar, C.J.; Bakker, Mireille; Russel, F.G.M.; Goetz, N. von; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2013-01-01

    Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for

  16. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...

  17. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  18. Importance of iron complexation for Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical production at circumneutral pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Miller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between Fe(II and H2O2 to yield hydroxyl radicals (HO•, the Fenton reaction, is of interest due to its role in trace metal and natural organic matter biogeochemistry, its utility in water treatment and its role in oxidative cell degradation and associated human disease. There is significant dispute over whether HO•, the most reactive of the so-called reactive oxygen species, is formed in this reaction, particularly under circumneutral conditions relevant to natural systems. In this work we have studied the oxidation kinetics of Fe(II complexed by L = citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA and also measured HO• production using phthalhydrazide as a probe compound at pH 8.2. It is shown that HO• is the sole product of the Fe(IIL-H2O2 reaction for L = EDTA and DTPA, with kinetic modelling of the full reaction pathway utilized to confirm this finding. Quantitative HO• production also appears likely for L = citrate, although uncertainties with the speciation of Fe(II-citrate complexes as well as difficulties in modelling the oxidation kinetics of these complexes has prevented a definitive conclusion. In the absence of ligands at circumneutral pH, inorganic Fe(II reacts with H2O2 to yield a species other than HO•, contrary to the well-established production of HO• from inorganic Fe(II at low pH. Our results suggest that at high pH Fe(II must be complexed for HO• production to occur.

  19. To explore the importance of brand to Chinese product under the international environment

    OpenAIRE

    HOU, Shuhao

    2013-01-01

    Brand is the sum of all tangible and intangible attributes of a product and branding is the core part of marketing which segment the market and determine the target customers of the company. Branding today is more about corporate branding which link the internal stakeholders and external stakeholders. That would allow firms to create a strong brand through integrated operation in the corporate level. Chinese manufacturing industry was criticized as “good manufacturing but no brand” and “adver...

  20. Evaluation of Fungal Flora and Mycotoxin in Some Important Nut Products in Erbil Local Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    In this study a wide range of moulds representing several genera and species was recorded. Ten samples of each pure and salted (almond, cashewnut, hazelnut, Peanut and pistachio) were collected from different markets (Shekhalla, Tayrawa and Qaysari) in Erbil city, Iraq. High infection of fungal genera was found in pure samples, while low infection was found in salted nut products samples, application of nuts with salts was found to increase the resistance of nuts to invasion and colonization ...

  1. The importance of urea-molasses multinutrient blocks for ruminant production in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early work demonstrated that the growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed cut and carry grass was low and inefficient but that with supplementation of a mixture of nutrients this improved threefold. Feeding urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMBs) to buffaloes fed cut and carry grass improved rumen ammonia levels and microbial growth yield. Supplementation with UMMBs markedly stimulated milk yield and growth rate of cattle under village management conditions where other nitrogenous supplements were not used but had no effect when a large amount of concentrate or soybean curd waste was included in the diets. When supplemented with UMMBs, cattle or sheep fed cut and carry grass showed a wide variation in growth rate improvement. The best response in sheep was a 126% increase in the live weight gain of Garut fighting sheep, for which the weight gain improved from 140 g/d in the controls to 316 g/d in the supplemented lambs. Reproductive rate, specifically birth weight and survival of goats, was increased by feeding UMMBs in the traditional system of raising goats. In 12 out of 14 trials highly significant and economic increases in production resulting from feeding UMMBs were observed. The potential of UMMBs to increase both the level and efficiency of livestock production and so profitability in Indonesia is substantial and represents a major technology breakthrough for all meat/milk production systems. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Photon Production through Multi-step Processes Important in Nuclear Fluorescence Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, C; Pruet, J

    2006-10-26

    The authors present calculations describing the production of photons through multi-step processes occurring when a beam of gamma rays interacts with a macroscopic material. These processes involve the creation of energetic electrons through Compton scattering, photo-absorption and pair production, the subsequent scattering of these electrons, and the creation of energetic photons occurring as these electrons are slowed through Bremsstrahlung emission. Unlike single Compton collisions, during which an energetic photon that is scattered through a large angle loses most of its energy, these multi-step processes result in a sizable flux of energetic photons traveling at large angles relative to an incident photon beam. These multi-step processes are also a key background in experiments that measure nuclear resonance fluorescence by shining photons on a thin foil and observing the spectrum of back-scattered photons. Effective cross sections describing the production of backscattered photons are presented in a tabular form that allows simple estimates of backgrounds expected in a variety of experiments. Incident photons with energies between 0.5 MeV and 8 MeV are considered. These calculations of effective cross sections may be useful for those designing NRF experiments or systems that detect specific isotopes in well-shielded environments through observation of resonance fluorescence.

  3. BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hector

    Full Text Available The idea that species diversity can influence ecosystem functioning has been controversial and its importance relative to compositional effects hotly debated. Unfortunately, assessing the relative importance of different explanatory variables in complex linear models is not simple. In this paper we assess the relative importance of species richness and species composition in a multilevel model analysis of net aboveground biomass production in grassland biodiversity experiments by estimating variance components for all explanatory variables. We compare the variance components using a recently introduced graphical Bayesian ANOVA. We show that while the use of test statistics and the R² gives contradictory assessments, the variance components analysis reveals that species richness and composition are of roughly similar importance for primary productivity in grassland biodiversity experiments.

  4. Seeking the Important Nodes of Complex Networks in Product R&D Team Based on Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to seek the important nodes of complex networks in product research and development (R&D team is particularly important for companies engaged in creativity and innovation. The previous literature mainly uses several single indicators to assess the node importance; this paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making model to tentatively solve these problems. Firstly, choose eight indicators as the evaluation criteria, four from centralization of complex networks: degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and eigenvector centrality and four from structural holes of complex networks: effective size, efficiency, constraint, and hierarchy. Then, use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP to obtain the weights of these indicators and use technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS to assess the importance degree of each node of complex networks. Finally, taking a product R&D team of a game software company as a research example, test the effectiveness, operability, and efficiency of the method we established.

  5. [Chronic bone pain due to raised FGF23 production? The importance of determining phosphate levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, R.T. de; Vervloet, M.G.; Bravenboer, N.; Heijboer, A.C.; Heijer, M. den; Lips, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is an important finding in the evaluation of patients with chronic bone pain. Fibroblast-growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays a role in the differential diagnosis of hypophosphatemia. A 34-year-old man had progressive pain in both shoulders and hips due to hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. H

  6. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED... the importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of animals from regions where swine vesicular... such regions may be commingled with fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of animals from a region where...

  7. Caracterização espectral de áreas de gramíneas forrageiras infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" por meio de imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Spectral characterization of forage grasses infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" through CCD/CDBERS -2 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Rosatti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Imagens CCD/CBERS-2, nas bandas espectrais CCD2, CCD3 e CCD4, dos anos de 2004 e 2005, de Mirante do Paranapanema - SP, foram transformadas em reflectância de superfície usando o modelo 5S de correção atmosférica e normalizadas radiometricamente. O objetivo principal foi caracterizar espectralmente áreas de pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha em fase de florescimento, isentas e infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária", possibilitando a sua detecção por meio da comparação entre os valores de reflectância de superfície denominada de Fator de Reflectância Bidirecional de Superfície (FRBS. Teve-se, também, o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia das imagens CCD/CBERS-2 para a obtenção de respostas espectrais de pastagens. Os dosséis sadios e doentes da Brachiaria brizantha foram identificados por meio da análise dos valores de reflectância e dos dados observados no Índice de Estresse Hídrico Acumulativo Relativo da Cultura (ACWSI obtidos na área de estudo. Os resultados indicaram que as principais diferenças foram a diminuição da reflectância na banda CCD3 e o aumento da reflectância na banda CCD4 nas áreas doentes. A metodologia empregada com o uso de dados do sensor CCD/CBERS-2, associados ao ACWSI, mostrou-se eficaz para discriminar dosséis infectados com a "mela-das-sementes da braquiária".CCD/CBERS-2 images in the spectral bands of CCD2, CCD3 and CCD4 of the years 2004 and 2005, from Mirante do Paranapanema - SP (Brazil, were transformed into surface reflectance images using the 5S atmospheric correction model and radiometrically normalized. The main objective was to spectrally characterize pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the flowering phase, exempt and infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" making it possible its detection through the comparison among the SBRF - Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor values. At the same time, it was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the

  8. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  9. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of FCC commercial catalysts. Analysis of products of industrial importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamonti, Francisco J.; De la Puente, Gabriela; Sedran, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica (INCAPE, FIQ, UNL-CONICET), Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-04-15

    The results of the conversion of a VGO over six equilibrium commercial FCC catalysts with different formulations in a batch CREC Riser Simulator laboratory reactor at 500 and 550 C, catalyst to oil ratio 6.1 and reaction times from 3 to 30 s, were analyzed. It was possible to define the main catalyst characteristics in terms of various evaluation items, such as activity, gasoline yield and quality, LPG yield and coke yield, or the yields of particular compounds like, e.g., isobutane. Important differences in activity between catalysts were not observed, but catalyst properties reflected clearly as significant differences in gasoline, LPG or coke selectivities. Particularly, catalyst's hydrogen transfer properties impacted on gasoline composition and isobutane yield. The results showed that the CREC Riser Simulator reactor is an important tool for the evaluation of both commercial catalysts and feedstocks and process conditions. (author)

  11. A DFT analysis of thermal decomposition reactions important to natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2010-07-01

    The thermal decomposition reactions of several important natural flavor and fragrance chemicals have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G*). Retro-aldol reactions of glucose, fructose, hernandulcin, epihernandulcin, [3]-gingerol, and [4]-isogingerol; retro-carbonyl-ene reactions of isopulegol, lavandulol, isolyratol, and indicumenone; and pyrolytic syn elimination reactions of linalyl acetate, alpha-terpinyl acetate, and bornyl acetate, have been carried out. The calculations indicate activation enthalpies of around 30 kcal/mol for the retro-aldol reactions and for retro-carbonyl-ene reactions, comparable to pericyclic reactions such as the Cope rearrangement and electrocyclic reactions, and therefore important reactions at elevated temperatures (e.g., boiling aqueous solutions, gas-chromatograph injection ports). Activation enthalpies for pyrolytic eliminations are around 40 kcal/mol and are unlikely to occur during extraction or GC analysis. PMID:20734926

  12. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen production

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Reisinger; Gabor Kukorelli; Andras Bittsanszky; Tamas Komives

    2014-01-01

    Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed contr...

  13. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta;

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  14. Perceptions of the importance of different welfare issues in livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J C; Wojciechowska, J; Meng, J; Cross, N

    2009-08-01

    The opinions of seven respondent groups about the relative importance of different practices pertaining to the welfare of Australian beef cattle, sheep and goats were surveyed. Respondent groups comprised farmers, livestock transportation representatives, veterinarians, meat processors, animal welfare advocates, animal welfare scientists and government officers. The survey consisted of a web-based adaptive conjoint analysis questionnaire, which was administered to a sample population that was selected randomly for large respondent groups and comprehensively for small groups. The hierarchy of opinion concerning the importance of the different beef cattle practices was: stockmanship > ground (road and rail) transport > spaying > food supply > dehorning > stunning > shelter > identification > pretransport food and water deprivation > castration > sea transport > mustering > confinement. For sheep/goat practices the hierarchy was: parasite control > mulesing > shelter > stockmanship > tail docking > ground transport > feeding > predation > stunning > castration > pretransport food and water deprivation > sea transport > mustering. The method of performing invasive procedures was perceived as less important than the provision of pain relief. Differences in opinion were evident between respondent groups, with animal welfare advocates tending to focus on painful procedures more than those with direct involvement in the industry. PMID:22444845

  15. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  16. The importance of phytoplankton production for carbon budgets in a semiarid floodplain wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Cobelas, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton production (PP in wetlands is not measured as often as that of macrophytes. A three year-study during a period of sustained high flooding was undertaken in a central Spanish floodplain wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park to determine net PP, its spatial heterogeneity and controlling factors, and compare it with primary production in macrophyte communities. This enabled us to estimate carbon budgets for each community. All PP variables showed high spatial and temporal variability among sites, resulting in low coherence even when flooding connected all sites. Net PP corresponded to 25- 36% of submerged plant production and 3-10% of helophyte production. Net PP was controlled by different size fractions of phytoplankton biomass at different wetland sites. Neither nutrients nor zooplankton affected net PP or productivity. A high spatiotemporal variability of PP in wetlands occurs arising from complex processes that affect the underwater light field. Carbon budgets of phytoplankton often exceeded those of submerged macrophytes and attained between 4 and 37% of helophyte budgets. Although usually considered to be marginal, our study shows that PP in the open water of wetlands should be taken into account for determining accurate wetland carbon budgets, mostly in periods of high flooding, which often result in changing the carbon budget of primary producers.

    La producción de fitoplancton (PF en los humedales no se mide tan a menudo como la de los macrófitos. En este estudio se lleva a cabo un trabajo de tres años durante un periodo de gran inun dación en un humedal de llanura de inundación (Parque Nacional de Las Tablas de Daimiel a fin de determinar la producción neta del fitoplancton, su heterogeneidad espacial y los factores que la controlan. También comparamos la PF con la producción primaria de las comunidades de macrófitos, lo cual nos permite estimar las cantidades de carbono que fija cada comunidad vegetal

  17. 76 FR 7721 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ..., EU Member States may also import bovine embryos and meat and meat products from both domestic and... the Federal Register on May 30, 2002 (67 FR 37663-37664, Docket No. 01-041-2), and had listed Hungary... FR 28216-28218, Docket No. 93-172-2), and SVD in a final rule published in the Federal Register...

  18. The Importance of the Leather and Leather Product Industries in Turkey's Economy

    OpenAIRE

    UYSAL, Gül

    2002-01-01

    The leather sector in Turkey is important as it is a sector which exports final goods with high added value. The development of the leather sector and the continuation of its contribution to the economy are related to the development level of the country's livestock sector. For this reason, the leather and livestock sectors are examined together. In this research, 165 enterprises which deal with raw hide, leather tanning, leather goods and ready made clothes in Istanbul and which have a...

  19. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...... in starch concentration and an increase in crude protein concentration. Nevertheless, the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) increased with enhanced aNDFom digestibility. Milk yield and live weight gain also increased with enhanced aNDFom digestibility. A 0.01 increase in the coefficient of maize...

  20. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  1. The importance of nuclear energy in stabilizing or reducing electricity production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are characterized by their high investment cost per installed kilowatt and the financial charges associated with that investment generally represent two thirds of the cost of producing a kilowatt-hour of nuclear origin. The cost of the fuel cycle is approximately one-fourth of this cost, the balance consisting of expenditure on personnel. Although natural uranium is the raw material of this cycle, it represents only a fraction of the cost of the cycle, the bulk of which arises out of expenditures associated with a whole range of operations - enrichment, fabrication, fuel reprocessing as well as treatment and storage of waste. This high value of the ratio of investment cost to natural uranium cost is a determining factor in the stabilization of the cost of electricity generation, inasmuch as this situation actually shelters the nuclear kilowatt-hour from price fluctuations as sudden and serious as those affecting fossil fuels. Furthermore, the easy and relatively inexpensive storage of uranium provides power generation of nuclear origin with energy reserves which protect it against unforeseen supply complications due to crises and conflicts of all kinds. Of course, the kilowatt-hour production cost of a nuclear unit depends on a number of parameters whose influence has to be evaluated - in particular, the availability of the facility, itself a function of the quality of its design, construction and operation. In all countries having the technical know-how to ensure this availability, long experience has shown the definite economic advantage of the nuclear kilowatt-hour over the traditional kilowatt-hour. Countries which have staked heavily on nuclear energy have seen that this advantage has very favourable repercussions on the production cost of electric energy. (author). 6 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Crystal structures of RidA, an important enzyme for the prevention of toxic side products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiwen; Zeng, Jianhua; Chen, Xiaolei; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family proteins are highly conserved across all three domains of life, and most of them currently have no clearly defined biological roles. In vitro, these proteins were found to hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates generated from serine or threonine, and were renamed Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A (RidA). RidA was recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and by deaminating the toxic enamine/imine intermediates, it prevents the inactivation of many functionally important pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes in plants such as branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT (IlvE). In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana RidA in the apo form, as well as RidA complexed with the ligand pyruvate. RidA forms the trimeric, barrel-like quaternary structure and inter-subunit cavities, and resembles most RidA family members. Each pyruvate molecule binds to the interface between two subunits, and the recognition of pyruvate is achieved by the interactions with R165 and T167. From sequence alignment and structural superposition, we identified a series of key residues responsible for the trimer assembly, whose importance was confirmed by enzymatic assays. This study provides structural insight into RidA functions in plants. PMID:27458092

  3. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  4. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.;

    2006-01-01

    by serotypes also isolated from animal feed. Based on a modified version of a previously published risk model, we estimated that up to 1.7% of the total number of reported human cases and 2.1% of domestically acquired infections in the period 1999-2003 could be attributed to feedborne serotypes acquired......The objectives of our study were to estimate the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis in Denmark that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed and to assess whether certain serotypes can be considered of less importance to human health. The assessment...... was based on a comparison of Salmonella serotypes isolated from feedstuffs, swine, cattle, and humans, primarily collected through the Danish Salmonella surveillance programs, supplemented with international data sources. The results are presented in three different forms: a qualitative assessment of all...

  5. The importance of asphaltene origin on its behaviour in production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutters, M.; Stankiewicz, A.; Cornelisse, P.; Utech, N. [Shell Global Solutions, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    Despite much progress in characterizing asphaltenes, little is known about the relation between the size and shape of asphaltenes and their impact on flow assurance. This lack of understanding is related primarily to the fact that the asphaltenes structure found in crudes depends on many geochemical processes that are generally not included as input for flow assurance studies. The geochemical processes that are important to asphaltenes are type of source rock and deposited organic matter, maturity, migration history, and processes in the reservoir as hybridization and biodegradation. A careful examination of geochemical processes can reveal the relationship between asphaltene behaviour in fields that are seemingly very different or distant. This paper provided some examples of these relationships. Understanding the structure of asphaltenes is critical and warrants the further development of methods for more accurate characterization.

  6. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  7. Variability and Heritability of Several Important Traits for Grape Production and Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Yield capacity, quality of grapes and resistance to downy mildew attack remain the important breeding objectives for grape. For these traits were analyzed more than 2200 F1 hybrids, belonging to eight combinations of wine grape. In each combination cv. Gewurztraminer was used, both as maternal and as paternal genitor, the other genitor being represented by an interspecific selection, rated as highly resistant to diseases (derived from Saint Emilion x Rayon d'or and Seyve-Villard 12-375 x Queen of Vine combinations. The rating of susceptibility to downy mildew in the tested hybrid individuals was performed in natural conditions of infection by visual observation and scored from "0"(no infection on leaves to "5" (very severe infection, and the scale 1-5 was used for bunch number per hybrid and sugar content in grape must. Obvious differences for analysed traits were noted both among the studied combinations and within the same combination, depending on whether 'Gewurztraminer' has been used as maternal or as paternal genitor. These results suggest possible maternal effects on the phenotypic expression of these traits in grape vine. Variability indices (s% were high and very high in all combinations (22.1-39.4% for response to Plasmopara viticola attack; 24.7-29.7% for bunch number per vine; 32.4-44.0% for sugar content in must, offering a good background for an efficient selection. The characters seem to be polygenically inherited, with high and very high heritability indices in the broad sense. The low values computed for heritability in the narrow sense suggest that except additive effects, epistasis and dominance effects have an important role in the phenotypic expression of vine yield capacity, sugar content of the must and resistance to downy mildew attack.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic effects on two species of insects with economic importance to stored food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, N.; Barthakur, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system which generated air ions within a strong electric field was used to study responses of stored-product insects Tribolium confusum (du Val) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Larval mortality of both species generally increased with increased exposure time to ions of either polarity. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum suffered a higher mortality rate than the adults. The insects initially exhibited distinct avoiding motions away from regions of high towards low fluxes of air ions of both polarity. Insects moved vigorously, tumbled, flipped, curled up, and aggregated when the EHD system was turned on. The control insects not exposed to air ions survived and showed a total absence of such behaviour. For bipolar exposures, the insects occupied the neutral zone where the effects were minimal due to cancellation of the fields. Prolonged exposures of more than 20 min produced a quiescent state. EHD-enhanced mass transfer of the liquid component from physical objects established in fluid mechanics was invoked as a possible cause for insect mortality and avoiding behaviour to ions. Body fluid losses increased linearly with time of exposure ( R 2≥0.97) for all biological stages of insect growth. The larvae and pupae of T. confusum lost 12 and 15% of their body fluids, respectively, after 80 min of exposure to negative air ions. Fluid losses of such a magnitude are likely to have contributed to insect fatality.

  9. IMPACT OF MAIZE IMPORT TARIFF POLICY CHANGES ON PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIA: A MULTIMARKET MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.

  10. Worldwide dissemination of Radopholus similis and its importance in crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bannon, J H

    1977-01-01

    The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, attacks agronomic and horticultural crops and many weeds, and is reported to reproduce on more than 250 plant species. Two races of R. similis are recognized. Although one race attacks citrus and the other race does not, they are morphologically similar. At present, the citrus race is found attacking citrus only in Florida, U.S.A., but it is known to infect more than 250 species and varieties of noncitrus plants. Although it has many hosts, R. similis is probably most widely distributed on banana and is found worldwide. Although best known as a pest of Piper nigrum, Musa spp., and Citrus spp., it also attacks many crops that are important in world commerce and in subsistence-type agriculture, a factor which makes it a significant agricultural pest. Worldwide dissemination occurs primarily when parasitized plants are moved into areas where the pest could adapt. Yield losses of 12.5 tons/ha in bananas have been reported from R. similis infection. Infections suppress orange and grapefruit yields as much as 70-80%. Because of the severity of R. similis damage (particularly to banana and citrus), extensive control programs have been developed. Prevention, cultural practices, resistant varieties, and chemical pesticides interact to reduce losses. PMID:19305565

  11. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  12. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) from imported food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Khan, Ashraf A

    2015-12-01

    Food contaminated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enterica has emerged as an important global issue due to the international food-product trade. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether imported food products can serve as a reservoir for non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) that can transmit β-lactam-resistance to humans through ingestion of the contaminated food. NTS isolates (n=110) were collected from various imported food products (n=3480) from 2011 to 2013. The NTS isolates were analyzed by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and plasmid profiling. Salmonella ser. Weltevreden, Salmonella ser. Newport, Salmonella ser. Senftenberg, Salmonella ser. Virchow, Salmonella ser. Enteritidis, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium, and Salmonella ser. Bareilly were the most prevalent serovars. Nine NTS strains were resistant to ampicillin and/or one or more cephalosporins (MIC>32 μg/mL). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection revealed that all nine isolates carried the bla(TEM-1) β-lactamase gene, with or without the bla(CTX-M-9) or bla(OXA-1) genes. Two isolates, PSS_913 and PSS_988, exhibited decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and ampicillin. Plasmids ranging in size from less than 8 to over 165 kbp, from all of the 9 resistant isolates, belonged to the IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, or IncX groups. Conjugation experiments and Southern hybridization, using bla(TEM-1), confirmed the plasmid-mediated transfer of ESBL genes, which resulted in increased MICs of β-lactams for Escherichia coli transconjugants. The contamination of imported food products by NTS with conjugative plasmid-borne ESBL genes may contribute to the spread of ESBL-producing NTS and compromise the therapeutic activity of extended-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics.

  13. International Production Networks and Export/Import Responsiveness to Exchange Rates: The case of Japanese manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Mitsuyo; Akie IRIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how international production/distribution networks provide individual firms with exporting/importing responsiveness to exchange rate movements. With the micro-data of Japanese manufacturing firms from 1994 to 2004, we find that firms' exports tend to respond to exchange rate movements, in particular (1) when firms are large in size, (2) when majority-owned affiliates are dominant among their foreign affiliates, and (3) when their intra-firm trade ratio is moderately high. ...

  14. Forest cockchafer larvae as methane production hotspots in soils and their importance for net soil methane fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Murphy, Paul; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Certain groups of soil invertebrates, namely scarab beetles and millipedes, are capable of emitting considerable amounts of methane due to methanogens inhabiting their gut system. It was already pointed out in the early 1990's, that these groups of invertebrates may represent a globally important source of methane. However, apart from termites, the importance of invertebrates for the soil methane budget is still unknown. Here, we present preliminary results of a laboratory soil incubation experiment elucidating the influence of forest cockchafer larvae (Melolontha hippocastani FABRICIUS) on soil methane cycling. In January/February 2016, two soils from two different management systems - one from a pine forest (extensive use) and one from a vegetable field (intensive use) - were incubated for 56 days either with or without beetle larvae. Net soil methane fluxes and larvae methane emissions together with their stable carbon isotope signatures were quantified at regular intervals to estimate gross methane production and gross methane oxidation in the soils. The results of this experiment will contribute to testing the hypothesis of whether methane production hotspots can significantly enhance the methane oxidation capacity of soils. Forest cockchafer larvae are only found in well-aerated sandy soils where one would usually not suspect relevant gross methane production. Thus, besides quantifying their contribution to net soil methane fluxes, they are also ideal organisms to study the effect of methane production hotspots on overall soil methane cycling. Funding support: Reintegration grant of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (#57185798).

  15. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    great opportunities for a sustainable supply of energy and materials, but on the other hand it bears large ecological and economical risks, such as deforestation and competition with food production. It is therefore of the utmost importance to formulate minimum requirements for large-scale bio-energy projects and international trade in biomass energy. For international trade in biomass energy it is important to identify regions with a future biomass energy surplus, related to their own energy consumption. Exporting this surplus would have to be done as efficiently as possible, with regard to CO2 emission reduction. Transatlantic shipments of wood have to be balanced against local conversion and shipping the fuel. An important recommendation to the Netherlands government about the possible future import of biomass is therefore: increase the knowledge and insights in the possible consequences of large scale import of biomass energy. This can be done by setting up a limited number of pilot projects for the trade in bio-energy, and by monitoring these projects very carefully, supported by research activities. Such pilot projects can also provide a better understanding in how broad the support for these activities is, both in the Netherlands as well in exporting countries. In the long run much more knowledge and information is required about which regions would be most suited for a sustainable production and trade in biomass energy. It will be necessary to develop and introduce a 'FSC' type mark for biomass-based energy carriers. There are still a number of crucial research questions in areas such as: economic drivers of land use, competition of biomass with other land uses, and competition with other sources of energy and materials. These interactions need to be studied at local/regional level, taking into account the effect of technological and economical changes in time. In addition there are complex questions in the field of optimising the allocation of biomass resources

  16. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Jurij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.

  17. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals. PMID:25431012

  18. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  19. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION: IMPORTANT MANAGEMENT TOOL IN EVALUATING DECISIONS UNDER RISK. CASE STUDY: LAUNCH A NEW PRODUCT OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Vincentiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are a result of choices made between several alternatives and will affect all participants in the decision-making process. In this paper we analyze the Monte Carlo simulation as an important management tool in evaluating decisions under risk. The method is particularly useful in simulating decision problems. For example, the profit that could be achieved if a company launches a new product may depend on a number of factors (market share, advertising, production costs, launch costs, the lifetime of the product, etc. The company manager should identify all factors that could affect profit and then to consider the large number of ways in which these factors may interrelate. In such situations it is recommended company manager to divide the problem into smaller parts, asking him to estimate the probability distribution for market share, for advertising, for the cost of launch. Once they were obtained it can be determined their combined effect in order to obtain the probability distribution of profit. Through computer can generate a large number of possible combinations of situations where you choose a particular course of action. Upon completion of the simulation possible combination will be generated mostly while the least possible combination will be generated less frequently. For exemplification we selected a company producing shoes in Cluj market who wants to launch a new model for autumn-winter 2013-2014. In the current period the company has limited production capacity, has a number of additional contracts honored and general economic crisis situation makes money availability to be extremely limited. Accordingly, the company will have to choose a single product to be launched next season. The company will have to decide which of the two new products to be launched on the market: a model of boots for men in business class or a new model of women\\'s boots of the same class business. The company is not sure either production costs or

  20. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF BANK’S REPUTATION IN THE SELECTION OF BANKING PRODUCTS IN THE OPINION OF MIDDLE POMERANIAN FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmers, when choosing a bank whose services they want to use, are guided by various factors. The purpose of the research conducted was to select the most essential factors that determine the choice of a bank and an identification of connections between opinions on a bank (its reputation and the selected features that characterize farmers from the Middle Pomeranian region. The primary data obtained in the course of the empirical field research conducted and a multidimensional correspondence analysis were used in the realization of the objective accepted. The following constituted the set of operands: the status and acreage of the farm, the type and the value of production, sex, age and education of the person in charge of the farm. As is evident from the research conducted, the opinion on a bank (its reputation was the most essential determinant indicated in the selection of banks by farmers. The analysis demonstrated among others that those farmers polled who think that the opinion on the bank constitutes an important cause in the selection of banking products and services are in aged below 45, they possess secondary agricultural education and run farms with plant and animal production.

  2. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  3. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  4. TGF{beta}2-mediated production of hyaluronan is important for the induction of epicardial cell differentiation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Evisabel A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Austin, Anita F. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Vaillancourt, Richard R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Barnett, Joey V. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Camenisch, Todd D., E-mail: camenisch@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-12-10

    In the developing heart, the epicardium is a major source of progenitor cells that contribute to the formation of the coronary vessel system. These epicardial progenitors give rise to the different cellular components of the coronary vasculature by undergoing a number of morphological and physiological changes collectively known as epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT). However, the specific signaling mechanisms that regulate epicardial EMT are yet to be delineated. In this study we investigated the role of TGF{beta}2 and hyaluronan (HA) during epicardial EMT and how signals from these two molecules are integrated during this important process. Here we show that TGF{beta}2 induces MEKK3 activation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 and ERK5 phosphorylation. TGF{beta}2 also increases Has2 expression and subsequent HA production. Nevertheless, inhibition of MEKK3 kinase activity, silencing of ERK5 or pharmacological disruption of ERK1/2 activation significantly abrogates this response. Thus, TGF{beta}2 promotes Has2 expression and HA production through a MEKK3/ERK1/2/5-dependent cascade. Furthermore, TGF{beta}2 is able to induce epicardial cell invasion and differentiation but not proliferation. However, inhibition of MEKK3-dependent pathways, degradation of HA by hyaluronidases or blockade of CD44, significantly impairs the biological response to TGF{beta}2. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TGF{beta}2 activation of MEKK3/ERK1/2/5 signaling modulates Has2 expression and HA production leading to the induction of EMT events. This is an important and novel mechanism showing how TGF{beta}2 and HA signals are integrated to regulate changes in epicardial cell behavior.

  5. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jolliet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  6. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL EDUCATION ON BUSINESS UNDER THE APPEARANCE OF PRODUCTIVITY AND REDUCTION OF ACCIDENTS AT WORK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Souza Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of personal debt is becoming more present in people's lives. What was once considered a personal problem only became a problem in part of the organizations, as when the employee is indebted, he ends up bringing their problems into the company. With that financial education has become increasingly important for companies. Today, 5% of large companies in Brazil have already inserted financial education for their employees. This research shows that recurring problems with debts lead employees to lose focus in their activities, to commit more errors in the process, missing more work and, in extreme cases, to resign in order to receive the guarantee fund for the working time. With financial education, employees learn to manage their finances, repay their debts and not acquiring debts that can not repay. Employees with no financial problems, increase productivity and quality of the process also. The advantage is for the company and the employee.

  8. Controls on the production, incorporation and decomposition of glomalin - a novel fungal soil protein important to soil carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias C. Rillig

    2003-11-20

    OAK B263 Glomalin is an operationally defined soil protein, produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), with importance in soil carbon sequestration through its relationship with soil aggregation. The goal of the project was to further explore the natural history of glomalin and to address several questions regarding basic behavior of this compound in soil (production, incorporation, decomposition). We have obtained a significant amount of novel information on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, concerning factors controlling its production to mechanisms of incorporation and decomposition. These findings have resulted in 10 publications in peer-reviewed journals, with several more submitted or in preparation, and 16 contributed presentations at meetings. I have sought collaborative opportunities whenever they fit within the research proposed to enhance our productivity. Additionally, although not part of the original proposed work, we have made a significant effort to elucidate the molecular biology of glomalin (in response to Program Officer suggestions). In addition to peer-reviewed publications there have also been a number of invited presentations, including a keynote address delivered by the PI at the International Conference on Mycorrhizae (ICOM4) in Montreal, summer 2003. Two Master's students have been trained (and graduated), and a postdoctoral associate has been mentored, as well as numerous undergraduate researchers at UM. In this report I summarize the major findings of the project in the areas of glomalin production control (host factors, elevated CO2), incorporation, and decomposition. Section D is newly added and describes recent progress in molecular biology. Briefly, we found that glomalin production is influenced by the host, as shown by host species effects and responses to elevated CO2. We have recently made a significant breakthrough in understanding how glomalin may become deposited into soil; apparently the dominant

  9. Importance of Radiology among the Spanish medical journal dealing with radiodiagnostics: analysis of their production between 1984 and 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the publications of the journal Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 to contribute to the study of radiodiagnostics reporting in Spain and to determine the importance of Radiologia as a source of information on this subject. We have used the database of the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Espanol, IME) and the journal itself, analyzing the volume, course and distribution of publications on radiodiagnostic procedures. The journal Radiologia publishes 20.1% of the articles dealing with radiology and radiation therapy in Spain. The total number of works was 1,344, that of authors was 2,580 and that of signatures was 6.173, presenting an exponential growth with doubling times of 83.3, 8.5 and 7.4 years, respectively. The analysis shows that the journal's production not only increases over time, but also increments the proportion it contributes to the Spanish medical press as a whole. Radiologia is the most representative journal, in terms of volume of the scientific activity reported in the field of radiodiagnostics in Spain, and its production tends to adapt to the model established for other firmly consolidated scientific and medical disciplines. It alone constitutes the core of the medical journals devoted to radiology and its mean index of circulation according to the IME is 85.79/%. (Author) 34 refs

  10. 19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section 10.471 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Determinations § 10.471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products... that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate, CBP may request that the...

  11. 9 CFR 327.8 - Import products; equipment and means of conveyance used in handling to be maintained in sanitary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION... other means of conveyance transporting any product to the United States, and all trucks,...

  12. Association mapping in Scandinavian winter wheat for yield, plant height and traits important for second-generation bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBellucci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 100 wheat varieties representing more than 100 years of wheat-breeding history in Scandinavia was established in order to identify marker-trait associations for plant height, grain yield and biomass potential for bioethanol production. The field-grown material showed variations in plant height from 54 to 122 cm and in grain yield from 2 to 6.61 t ha-1. The release of monomeric sugars was determined by high-throughput enzymatic treatment of ligno-cellulosic material and varied between 0.169 and 0.312 g/g dm for glucose and 0.146 and 0.283 g/g dm for xylose. As expected, plant height and grain yield showed to be highly influenced by genetic factors with repeatability (R equal to 0.75 and 0.53 respectively, while this was reduced for glucose and xylose (R=0.09 for both . The study of trait correlations showed how old, low-yielding, tall varieties released higher amounts of monomeric sugars after straw enzymatic hydrolysis, showing reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion compared to modern varieties. 93 lines from the collection were genotyped with the DArTseq® genotypic platform and 5525 markers were used for genome-wide association mapping. Six QTLs for grain yield, plant height and glucose released from straw were mapped. One QTL for plant height was previously reported, while the remaining QTLs constituted new genomic regions linked to trait variation. This paper is one of the first studies in wheat to identify QTLs that are important for bioethanol production based on a genome-wide association approach.

  13. STIMULATION AND GOOD MANAGEMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION-A MOST IMPORTANT INDICATOR FOR A CONSTANT REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Vangjeli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “The national economic development is based on the sustainable development of the regions of the country”. Thisconfirmation is visible in the paper presented. The paper is focused on development of the agricultural sector region ofKorca mainly in the traditional farming plants of the region, and the enforcing the food-processing industry. In thepaper, it is presented the present situation of food-processing industry in the region of Korca, and the further, it isgiven the situation in conservation of vegetables, as part of the a food-processing industry. This, because of the factthat Korca has had a good tradition in cultivating traditional vegetables. The papers brings new values some of whichare :• The focus on an important sector of the economic development of the district of Korce such as the agro-elaboratinindustry.• The full treatment of the present situation of this industry in the region of Korce.• The focus on the consumer demands of the region for canned vegetable products.• The picked up conclusions will serve as a firm basement for further research work in this field.

  14. Cutting Edge: Novel Tmem173 Allele Reveals Importance of STING N Terminus in Trafficking and Type I IFN Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surpris, Guy; Chan, Jennie; Thompson, Mikayla; Ilyukha, Vladimir; Liu, Beiyun C; Atianand, Maninjay; Sharma, Shruti; Volkova, Tatyana; Smirnova, Irina; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Poltorak, Alexander

    2016-01-15

    With the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) C terminus being extensively studied, the role of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of STING remains an important subject of investigation. In this article, we identify novel mutations in NTD of Sting of the MOLF strain in response to HSV and Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in vivo. These mutations are responsible for low levels of IFN-β caused by failure of MOLF STING to translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum. These data provide evidence that the NTD of STING affects DNA responses via control of trafficking. They also show that the genetic diversity of wild-derived mice resembles the diversity observed in humans. Several human alleles of STING confer attenuated IFN-I production similar to what we observe with the MOLF Sting allele, a crucial functional difference not apparent in classical inbred mice. Thus, understanding the functional significance of polymorphisms in MOLF STING can provide basic mechanistic insights relevant to humans. PMID:26685207

  15. Genetic alterations for increased coumarin production lead to metabolic changes in the medicinally important Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, J; Groenewald, J-H; Makunga, N P

    2010-11-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is fast becoming threatened due to the overharvest of its tubers from the wild to produce a phytopharmaceutical for treating respiratory infections. The action of the coumarins is implicated in the efficacy of the commercial herbal extract with the highly oxygenated coumarins exhibiting the best anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity. Through this work we aimed at exploring the metabolic effects of Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. After confirmation of transgenesis using PCR amplification of the rol A (320 bp), rol B (400 bp) and rol C (600 bp) genes, metabolite profiles indicated a high level of variability between the different transgenic clones but these had more compounds compared to non-transgenic control cultures. This was represented by a two- to four-fold increase in detected metabolites in transgenic clones. We quantified several commercially important coumarins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. One of the clones had six out of nine of these metabolites. Overall, the concentration of these metabolites of interest were significantly changed in transgenic root cultures, for instance shikimic acid was recorded at the highest level in clone A4T-A. Production of key metabolites at significantly higher concentrations due to transgenesis and positive anti-bacterial activity exhibited by transgenic roots lends support to the idea of developing these clones as an alternative source that will allow for sustainable access to economically valuable secondary compounds of P. sidoides.

  16. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products...

  17. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  18. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    OpenAIRE

    Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...

  19. Eco-designing the use phase of products in sustainable manufacturing : the importance of maintenance and communication-to-user strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyé Mengual, Esther; Pérez López, Paula; González García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Feijoo Costa, Gumersindo; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Gabarrell i Durany, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has increasingly included design for environment methodologies with the objective of improving the environmental performance of products over their entire life cycles. Current European Union (EU) directives on eco-design focus on the use phase of energy-related products (ErPs). However, the maintenance of various household non-ErPs is performed with ErPs; therefore, the environmental impacts of product maintenance have an important role in the life cycle of non-ErPs....

  20. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, van Michiel; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Ps

  1. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  2. 9 CFR 94.19 - Restrictions on importation from BSE minimal-risk regions of meat and edible products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration at 21 CFR 589.2000; and (2) The SRMs of the bovines were removed at slaughter. (c) Meat, meat... part are met. (a) Meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products from bovines. The meat, meat byproduct, or meat food product, as defined by FSIS in 9 CFR 301.2—that those terms as applied to bison......

  3. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the country of origin as required by § 327.4, except fresh, chilled, or frozen or other product..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility of foreign countries...

  4. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  5. 77 FR 65854 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail ;D=APHIS-2012-0055... carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds,...

  6. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Jolliet; Yves Loerincik; Jean-François Ménard; Richard Pfister; Amanda Pike; Elisa Tatti; Sebastien Humbert; Anna Kounina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective c...

  7. BUGS in the Analysis of Biodiversity Experiments: Species Richness and Composition Are of Similar Importance for Grassland Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hector, A.; Bell, T.; Hautier, Y.; Isbell, F.; Kéry, M.; Reich, P.B.; Ruijven, van J.; Schmid, B.

    2011-01-01

    The idea that species diversity can influence ecosystem functioning has been controversial and its importance relative to compositional effects hotly debated. Unfortunately, assessing the relative importance of different explanatory variables in complex linear models is not simple. In this paper we

  8. The importance of urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein in animal production: The situation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of introducing urea-molasses blocks as a dry season supplementary strategy for domestic ruminants was investigated in several on-farm and on-station experiments. These studies demonstrated the obvious advantage of using the blocks as a farm package to increase milk production in dairy cows and buffaloes and growth rates in calves and lambs under village conditions in Pakistan. Positive responses in productivity to block feeding were attributed to improved rumen efficiency caused by a sustained supply of critical microbial nutrients from continuous licking of the blocks. The studies also confirmed the economic benefits of using the blocks as a complement to conventional concentrates in lactating and growing cows and buffaloes. The need for feeding bypass protein for further increasing animal productivity was also emphasized. The block package was readily accepted by local farmers and was found easy to introduce into the existing on-farm feeding practices in Pakistan. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  9. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.25 Restrictions on... Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations in § 327.2 of this title; (2) The...

  10. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Natalia Carneiro-Freire; Cristóbal Donapetry-García; Eva Rañal-Muíño; Yosua López-Pereiro

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on th...

  11. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy : Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    OpenAIRE

    Höök, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind.  This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to...

  12. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP–MDM2 pathway, in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA–protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease. PMID:27528756

  13. The valuation of finished products as an important risk factor in the distortion of financial statements 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Karwowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: 1. Is the correct valuation of products significant from the point of view of economic risk? 2. Are there situations in Polish practice of inaccurate valuations that lead to material misstatements of financial statements? 3. Is there a risk of inaccurate cost information being used by the management of Polish companies? The review of published materials on the topic has shown that inaccuracies in the calculation of indivi-dual product costs, or overlooking the issue of idle capacity, may increase the economic risk of faulty decisions. A survey conducted among Polish companies has demonstrated that, in many cases, cost accounting does not allow for the accurate calculation of individual product costs or the cost of idle capacity. In addition, the research has highlighted the issue of idle capacity in many Polish companies that hold a significant level of inventories. All of this indicates a risk of distortion in financial statements due to the faulty valua-tion of products in the reports of those companies.

  14. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat ina

  15. Importance of the in situ production of 36Cl, 36Ar and 14C in hydrology and hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper critically discusses the conditions for the in situ production of 36Cl, 36Ar and 14C. For several confined aquifers in Australia, Canada and North Africa, the 36Cl content (in atoms/L) close to recharge is about one hundred times greater than can be accounted for by reasonable evapotranspiration values. Possible additional sources of 36Cl include cosmic ray irradiation in the shallow unsaturated zone and solutions of rock chloride in environments where the in situ production of 36Cl is large. Dating of old groundwaters with 36Cl should be limited to cases where chlorinity is constant. The age of Cl-, and hence of groundwater, may then be deduced from the decay of the cosmic 36Cl input, or where the groundwater migrates into a U/Th rich environment, from the subsequent ingrowth of 36Cl because of irradiation by the high in situ neutron flux. In the case of 36Ar, after about 1.5 Ma, the accumulation rate of 36Cl is equal to the 36Cl production rate. In the uppermost few metres of continental crust and of the ocean, cosmic ray interactions enhance production by up to several orders of magnitude. Oceanic production amounts to about one-half of the total production. For Cl- rich fluid inclusions in minerals which remained exposed for a long time close to the surface, values of the 36Ar/40Ar ratio may become much higher than the atmospheric value (3.385x10-3). For 14C, in situ production reactions in both the fluid and the rock matrix and the extent to which they may interfere with the use of 14C for groundwater dating have been assessed. The reactions considered include neutron interactions, the exotic decay of radium and α particle reactions. Groundwater of very low alkalinity in high neutron flux environments (e.g. Stripa granite in central Sweden) may gain in situ produced 14C which is equivalent to a few per cent modern carbon. (author). 57 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat inactivation in milk of milk lipoprotein lipase, alkaline milk proteinase and lipases and proteinases of some Gram-negative bacteria are given.The effects of residual lipolytic and proteolytic activit...

  17. Density, diet and productivity of Long-eared Owls Asio otus in the Italian Alps: The importance of Microtus voles

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Marchesi, Luigi; Pedrini, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Capsule: Relatively large populations, feeding predominantly upon voles, were present at higher elevations. Aims: To determine the density, productivity and diet composition of Long-eared Owls breeding at higher elevations. Methods: Population census and breeding biology were investigated, and dietary analysis performed for 32 Long-eared Owl territories that were occupied over a six-year period (2000-05), in a 155 km2 study area located in the Noce Valley of the central-eastern Italian Alps. ...

  18. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria and characterization of novel enzymes for the production of industrially important compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnikunnas, Johannes Sakari

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid as their main end-product during sugar fermentation. Because the LAB are able to rapidly lower pH through acid formation and additionally produce many flavor compounds, they are commonly used in the food and feed industry. LAB are also attractive organisms for metabolic engineering because their energy metabolism is generally not connected to their biosynthetic activity. Therefore, their su...

  19. Fast product formation and slow product release are important features in a hysteretic reaction mechanism of glutathione transferase T2-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemth, P; Mannervik, B

    1999-08-01

    The reaction mechanism of rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has been studied using pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetics. Several parts of the catalytic cycle including binding of substrates, product formation, and product release were investigated. Under saturating conditions, a two-step product release was found to be rate limiting in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions between the nucleophilic substrate glutathione and either of the two electrophilic substrates 1-menaphthyl sulfate and 4-nitrobenzyl chloride. The rate constant for pre-steady-state product formation on rat glutathione transferase T2-2 has an observed pK(a) value of 5.7 apparently due to ionization of the sulfhydryl group of glutathione. This rate constant is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than k(cat) at pH values of >6. It can be predicted from the pH dependence that product formation would be the sole rate-limiting step at pH values of <3. A hysteretic mechanism of rGST T2-2 is proposed based on a slow conformational transition detected in pre-steady-state displacement experiments. PMID:10433705

  20. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quotas - A case study applied to the import of an agricultural product in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Catalin Bodea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one methodology of calculating the tariff equivalent of the tariff-rate quota as a particular case of a non-tariff barrier for an agricultural product imported in Romania based on recommendations in international literature. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quota of imports from the EU is approximately 35%, lower than the tariff outside the quota. Nonetheless this is considerable higher when compared with the Common External Tariff (CET. Elimination of the nominal protection level as consequence of the adoption the CET is expected to stimulate imports pressure especially from price competitive import partners both from EU (such as Slovakia, Belgium, Austria, Czech Republic and Italy and non EU countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Croatia. A basic model forecasts that, with the lowered protection, annual imports will rise with at least 13.5 thousand tonnes, thus an increase of 23% compared with the average annual imports during 1990-2005.

  1. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofu...

  2. Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries. (letter)

  3. The buying motives related to important supplier and product attributes: An analysis of retail buying behaviour in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Kristensen, Gitte Hvoldal; Skytte, Hans

    1999-01-01

    attributes (Dzever 1993; Johnston 1996; Möller 1985; Skytte 1998;Woodruff 1997). Skytte and Blunch (1998) identified a number of attributes that make a difference when retail buyers in the European retail industry select a new supplier. In this study we interviewed retail buyers of fish products in Denmark...... and Germany using the laddering technique and means-end theory (Reynolds & Gut-man 1988). The purpose of the interview was to identify the content and relationship between attributes, consequences and values in order to get a deeper understanding of the retail buyer's cognitive structure. Our purpose...

  4. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Basarab, J. A.; Beauchemin, K.A.; Baron, V. S.; Ominski, K H; Guan, L. L.; S. P. MILLER; Crowley, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIfat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-a...

  5. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N....... pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl- sulochrin, TR-2...

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL EDUCATION ON BUSINESS UNDER THE APPEARANCE OF PRODUCTIVITY AND REDUCTION OF ACCIDENTS AT WORK.

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Souza Santos

    2013-01-01

    The problem of personal debt is becoming more present in people's lives. What was once considered a personal problem only became a problem in part of the organizations, as when the employee is indebted, he ends up bringing their problems into the company. With that financial education has become increasingly important for companies. Today, 5% of large companies in Brazil have already inserted financial education for their employees. This research shows that recurring problems with debts...

  7. The redefinition of private import of alcohol : With focus on products purchased on the Internet and the Swedish legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The free movement of goods constitutes one of the fundamental principles of the European Union and entitles goods entrance to the internal market. Sweden had before 1995 few monopolies concerning the import, export, manufacturing, distribution and retail on alcohol, and had to as a result of entering EU abolish four of these. The monopoly on retail, Systembolaget, was retained, and is still today strictly controlled by limited number of stores as well as restricted openly-hours. Systembolaget...

  8. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  9. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofuel production. This is causing a global food crisis. The production of ethanol from corn is emerging as an alternative that may address global warming and attacking the alleged shortage of oil, which has resulted in rising prices. The point in discussion is what are the possible effects of policies to induce the production of biofuels (ethanol on the main importers of corn. That’s why the current status of the ethanol industry is analyzed, whose main protagonists on the world stage are the United States and Brazil. Then we made a brief analysis of the market of corn. Finally, based on the foregoing, we reflect on the possible implications it might have on the development of food production of etanol.

  10. The Body of Knowledge & Content Framework. Identifying the Important Knowledge Required for Productive Performance of a Plastics Machine Operator. Blow Molding, Extrusion, Injection Molding, Thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Designed to guide training and curriculum development to prepare machine operators for the national certification exam, this publication identifies the important knowledge required for productive performance by a plastics machine operator. Introductory material discusses the rationale for a national standard, uses of the Body of Knowledge,…

  11. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    . At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  12. The Importance of the Learner’s Environmental Context in the Design of M-Learning Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Guralnick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As mobile devices, such as PDAs, iPods, andmobile phones become more common, corporations areturning to mobile learning to improve employeeperformance. Today’s m-learning designers often tend toborrow design ideas from their e-learning experience; manydesigns attempt to re-fit e-learning methods—even elearningproducts—to a small screen. I suggest here thatdesigners would be better served by considering the entirecontext in which learners will use a particular m-learningprogram. In this paper I describe two examples of mlearningdesigns that go well beyond the idea of refitting elearningto a small screen and illustrate how these designsmake use of the learner’s environmental context. Finally, Ipropose a set of contextual factors designers should considerwhen designing m-learning products.

  13. Laboratory measurements of the relative permeability of cataclastic fault rocks: An important consideration for production simulation modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hinai, Suleiman; Fisher, Quentin J. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Al-Busafi, Bader [Petroleum Development of Oman, MAF, Sultanate of Oman, Muscat (Oman); Guise, Phillip; Grattoni, Carlos A. [Rock Deformation Research Limited, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    It is becoming increasingly common practice to model the impact of faults on fluid flow within petroleum reservoirs by applying transmissibility multipliers, calculated from the single-phase permeability of fault rocks, to the grid-blocks adjacent to faults in production simulations. The multi-phase flow properties (e.g. relative permeability and capillary pressure) of fault rocks are not considered because special core analysis has never previously been conducted on fault rock samples. Here, we partially fill this knowledge gap by presenting data from the first experiments that have measured the gas relative permeability (k{sub rg}) of cataclastic fault rocks. The cataclastic faults were collected from an outcrop of Permo-Triassic sandstone in the Moray Firth, Scotland; the fault rocks are similar to those found within Rotliegend gas reservoirs in the UK southern North Sea. The relative permeability measurements were made using a gas pulse-decay technique on samples whose water saturation was varied using vapour chambers. The measurements indicate that if the same fault rocks were present in gas reservoirs from the southern Permian Basin they would have k{sub rg} values of <0.02. Failure to take into account relative permeability effects could therefore lead to an overestimation of the transmissibility of faults within gas reservoirs by several orders of magnitude. Incorporation of these new results into a simplified production simulation model can explain the pressure evolution from a compartmentalised Rotliegend gas reservoir from the southern North Sea, offshore Netherlands, which could not easily be explained using only single-phase permeability data from fault rocks. (author)

  14. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood was extracted using the milled wood enzyme lignin isolation method. Slow pyrolysis using a microscope with hot-stage captured the liquid formation (>150 °C), shrinking, swelling (foaming), and evaporation behavior of lignin intermediates. The activation energy (Ea) for 5–80% conversions was 213 kJ mol−1, and the pre-exponential factor (log A) was 24.34. Fast pyrolysis tests in a wire mesh reactor were conducted (300–650 °C). The formation of the liquid intermediate was visualized with a fast speed camera (250 Hz), showing the existence of three well defined steps: formation of lignin liquid intermediates, foaming and liquid intermediate swelling, and evaporation and droplet shrinking. GC/MS and UV-Fluorescence of the mesh reactor condensate revealed lignin oligomer formation but no mono-phenols were seen. An increase in pyrolytic lignin yield was observed as temperature increased. The molar mass determined by ESI-MS was not affected by pyrolysis temperature. SEM of the char showed a smooth surface with holes, evidence of a liquid intermediate with foaming; bursting from these foams could be responsible for the removal of lignin oligomers. Py-GC/MS studies showed the highest yield of guaiacol compounds at 450–550 °C. - Highlights: • The formation of a liquid intermediate phase is a critical step during lignin pyrolysis. • The lignin oligomers are thermally ejected from the liquid intermediate phase. • The mono-phenols are formed mainly from the secondary reactions of lignin oligomers

  15. The importance of urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein in animal production: The situation in tropical Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grasslands of Latin America sustain 25% of the world cattle population. Most of the cattle are located in tropical Latin America. There are two predominant systems of production, dual purpose and beef, with diets based primarily on cultivated or native pastures and to a minor extent on conserved feeds and fibrous agricultural by-products. Urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein supplements are recently introduced technologies that could contribute to solution of some of the feeding constraints of the systems. The use of bypass protein has been mainly studied using fish meal as a supplement to medium quality basal feeds. Large live weight gain responses have been obtained with growing animals, but the influence on milk yield of dual purpose animals is small or non-existent. Supplements with fish meal offered once a day did not increase the utilization of basal fibrous diets in the rumen and were not able to sustain adequate levels of ammonia nitrogen throughout the day. Lower responses have been obtained with other bypass protein sources. The use of urea-molasses blocks has been investigated less. The major impact of this technology should be in extensive grazing systems with diets based on native pastures low in nitrogen. The scarce evidence available indicates that the sporadic consumption of blocks in these conditions prevents them from fulfilling the main objective, which is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day. But there is still a positive effect on live weight change and reproduction during the dry season. The blocks should be adapted to this situation by incorporation of sources of slow nitrogen release. (author). 45 refs, 7 tabs

  16. The Emerging Role of Eicosapentaenoic Acid as an Important Psychoactive Natural Product: Some Answers but a Lot more Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in both the structure and communication processes of cells. Dietary deficiences of these fatty acids have been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, cancer and mood disorders. In the latter, clinical trials have strongly suggested that not all types of omega-3 PUFA are equally efficacious. In particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA appears to be the most useful in ameliorating the symptoms of major depressive disorder. The mechanism by which omega-3 PUFA have these effects, and why EPA is apparently more effective in this role than the much more abundant brain lipid docosahexaenoic acid, is unclear. The available data do suggest various biologically plausible mechanisms all of which are amenable to study using straightforward experimental approaches. To progress further, a better understanding of how EPA and other omega-3 PUFA effect neurophysiological and neurosignalling processes is required.

  17. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. PMID:26920274

  18. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  19. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. PMID:26890030

  20. Productivity cycles in the coastal upwelling area off Concepción: The importance of diatoms and bacterioplankton in the organic carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Paulina; Daneri, Giovanni; Cuevas, L. Antonio; González, Humberto E.; Jacob, Bárbara; Lizárraga, Lorena; Menschel, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent coastal upwelling is recognized as one of the main factors promoting the exceptionally high productivity of the Humboldt Current System. Herein, we study time series data of gross primary production (2003-2006) and its fluctuation in relation to seasonal changes in the light and nutrient field of the Concepción upwelling ecosystem. Concurrent measurements of gross primary production, community respiration, bacterial secondary production, and sedimentation rates allowed a characterization of the main carbon fluxes and pathways in the study area. The integrated values of gross primary production were higher during the upwelling period (>1 g C m -2 d -1; October-April; that is, early spring to early austral fall). Seasonal changes in the system were also reflected in community respiration, organic matter sedimentation, and bacterial production rates, which varied along with the gross primary production. The significant correlation between gross primary production and community respiration (Spearman, r = 0.7; p 6 g C m -2 d -1) were consistently associated with maximum biomass levels of Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira subtilis. We observed a positive correlation between gross primary production and the sedimentation of intact diatom cells (Spearman, r = 0.5, p < 0.05, n = 17). Our data suggest that, in the Concepción upwelling ecosystem, bacteria utilize an important fraction of the gross primary production. If our interpretations are correct, they leave unanswered the question of how the system supports the extremely high fish biomass levels, therein pointing out the system’s limited capacity to buffer the evasion of CO 2 following upwelling.

  1. Evidence of the Importance of Nox4 in Production of Hypertension in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Allen W; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P; Skelton, Meredith M; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 4 (Nox4) on the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single-cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4, resulting in a loss of the ≈68 kDa band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the knock out of Nox4 in the SS rat (SS(Nox4-/-)) rats. SS(Nox4-/-) rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared with SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 versus 151±3 mm Hg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3-dimensional cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD [reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/flavin adenine dinucleotide]) in the kidneys of SS(Nox4-/-) rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet, indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared with SS rats. Before the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of Nox subunits Nox2, p67(phox), and p22(phox) were found to be significantly lower (Pblood pressure response to high salt in the SS(Nox4-/-) rat could be the result of multiple pathways, including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4.

  2. The importance of urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein in animal production: The situation in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses remains underutilized as an animal feed in Bangladesh. Urea and molasses are used for supplementation of fibrous feeds in many countries. Used in sprayed form on straw or in liquid form, urea-molasses caused practical problems in village farming conditions owing to urea toxicity from higher intake by livestock, as well as difficulties in handling, storage and transport to remote villages. To overcome these problems and to produce a supply of easily available energy and nitrogen to ruminants, a simple method has been developed for making urea-molasses blocks with locally available ingredients and equipment at the farm level in the villages. To evaluate the nutritional potential of urea-molasses blocks fed to livestock on a straw based diet, a study has been conducted on the performance of livestock under on-farm conditions. Results from experiments on the nutritional value of the block are reported. Daily live weight gain, milk yield and draught output of cattle increased significantly. A similar positive response in the performance of sheep and goats was also observed. Once the supply of rumen fermentable nitrogen and energy is ensured to optimize the rate of degradation of fibrous substrate with supplementation of urea-molasses block lick, the next limitation to production is the availability of amino acids absorbed from the intestine. To overcome this limitation, protein with a low rate of degradation, such as fish meal, could be used as bypass protein. Several experiments were conducted on the effect of supplementation of bypass protein on the performance of cattle, sheep and goats in both on-station and on-farm conditions. Results indicated a positive response in daily live weight gain, milk yield and draught power output. 31 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of the silkworm middle silk gland reveals the importance of ribosome biogenesis in silk protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ying; Ye, Lu-peng; Che, Jia-qian; Song, Jia; You, Zheng-ying; Yun, Ki-chan; Wang, Shao-hua; Zhong, Bo-xiong

    2015-08-01

    The silkworm middle silk gland (MSG) is the sericin synthesis and secretion unique sub-organ. The molecular mechanisms of regulating MSG protein synthesis are largely unknown. Here, we performed shotgun proteomic analysis on the three MSG subsections: the anterior (MSG-A), middle (MSG-M), and posterior (MSG-P) regions. The results showed that more strongly expressed proteins in the MSG-A were involved in multiple processes, such as silk gland development and silk protein protection. The proteins that were highly expressed in the MSG-M were enriched in the ribosome pathway. MSG-P proteins with stronger expression were mainly involved in the oxidative phosphorylation and citrate cycle pathways. These results suggest that the MSG-M is the most active region in the sericin synthesis. Furthermore, comparing the proteome of the MSG with the posterior silk gland (PSG) revealed that the specific and highly expressed proteins in the MSG were primarily involved in the ribosome and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathways. These results indicate that silk protein synthesis is much more active as a result of the enhancement of translation-related pathways in the MSG. These results also suggest that enhancing ribosome biogenesis is important to the efficient synthesis of silk proteins. PMID:26051239

  4. Feeding ecology of Liza spp. in a tidal flat: Evidence of the importance of primary production (biofilm) and associated meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Como, Serena; Dupuy, Christine; Lefrançois, Christel; Feunteun, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Grey mullets are unique among temperate-region fish species in their ability to feed on mudflat biofilm. In this study, we examined mullet feeding strategies on biofilm and associated meiofauna by using a diet study and stable isotope analysis to explore functional interactions between mullets and tidal flats. A stomach vacuity investigation showed that mullets did not import any materials from subtidal areas into the mudflat but exported mud, biofilm, and associated meiofauna. The results of mullet stomach content and fecal analyses, when compared to the availability of tidal flat resources, showed evidence of mullets' ability to ingest and assimilate biofilm and to concentrate major meiofauna grazers such as nematodes, copepods and, secondarily, foraminifers and ostracods. Isotopic ratios confirmed diet investigations, and as recently shown in salt marsh habitats, mullets exhibited an intermediate trophic position, supporting the hypothesis that they can assimilate both biofilm and major meiofauna grazers. The function of the tidal flat as a feeding habitat for gray mullets and the role of mullets as the main export pathway of biofilm from tidal flat ecosystems are discussed.

  5. What comes first, origin or production method? An investigation into the relative importance of different attributes in the demand for eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lopez-Galan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses consumer preferences for different eggs attributes to assess the importance placed by consumers on the origin and method of production when shopping. The data comes from an experiment conducted in Spain during 2009. An Error Component Random Parameter Logit model is used to estimate the effect of different eggs characteristics on consumers’ utility and derive their willingness to pay. Results suggest that consumers positively value the free-range and organic method of production and the local and regional origin and that they are willing to pay an additional € 0.85 for each package of six free-range or organic eggs, € 0.77 for locally produced and € 0.27 for regional produced eggs. Hence, the least valued eggs for consumers are those produced in cages and outside the region. Relative to this product, the highest willingness to pay corresponds to free-range or organic eggs followed by locally produced eggs and finally, by the regional eggs. Thus, we can conclude that Spanish consumers give more importance when shopping for eggs to the method of production than to the origin of production.

  6. Bee Disease Risk Analysis for Importation of Bee Products%进口蜂产品传入蜂类疫病风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 张体银; 郑欣

    2015-01-01

    本研究应用OIE风险分析的基本原理,借鉴欧美、澳新等发达国家的经验,针对OIE规定的6种蜂类疫病通过进口蜂产品传入风险的评估,得出在进口蜂产品时需关注的传入蜂类疫病的风险,提出市场准入、产地要求、进口检疫、实验室检测等关键环节的风险管理措施,降低我国进口蜂产品所带来的疫病传入风险。%By means of the OIE basic risk analysis principles, based on the experience of the developed countries such as Europe, America, Australia, and in view of the OIE regulations, the risks were assessed for six bee diseases due to im-portation of bee products and it was concluded that the bee disease risk had to be taken into account in the importation of bee products, and risk management measures were proposed, involving the market access, producing area requirement, import quarantine, and laboratory tests, so as to reduce risks brought by the importation of bee products in China.

  7. ANALYSING THE IMPACT OF THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ON THE IMPORTANCE OF OUTSOURCING DECISION-MAKING CRITERIA: A MANUFACTURING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cheshmberah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study has been carried out to discover the impact of the product life cycle (PLC on the importance of outsourcing decision-making criteria in a manufacturing firm. The four dimensions of outsourcing decision-making were identified, based on a literature review and on the conditions of the firm: (1 core competencies, (2 information leakage risk, (3 technological capability, and (4 cost. A case study and survey research were used, along with two non-parametric tests (Friedman’s test and Kendall’s W. The results show in particular that the importance of ‘technological capability’ and ‘strategic information leakage risk’ does not differ across the various PLC stages. The importance of ‘leakage risk of product volume information’ and ‘total cost’ change over different stages of the product life cycle are also addressed. For the latter two criteria, the probabilities of each rating related to each criterion importance have been estimated by ordinal logistic regression, and the weights of these criteria have been calculated at each stage of the product life cycle.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing ondersoek die invloed van produklewensiklus op die gebruik van buite leweransiers deur ’n vervaardigingsonderneming. ’n Besluitvormingsmetode word ontwerp en getoets deur skepping van ’n boeket van wiskundige gereedskap soos, onder andere, ordinale logistiese regressie en die logistieke funksie. Die metode word ten slotte afgerond met ’n keurige gebruik van die Wasigheidsleer.

  8. Quantitative analysis of some important metals and metalloids in tobacco products by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale usage of tobacco causes a lot of health troubles in human. Various formulations of tobacco are extensively used by the people particularly in developing world. Besides several toxic tobacco constituents some metals and metalloids are also believed to pose health risks. This paper describes inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (ICP-MS quantification of some important metals and metalloids in various brands of smoked, sniffed, dipped and chewed tobacco products. Results A microwave-assisted digestion method was used for sample preparation. The method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material. Percentage relative standard deviation (% R.S.D. between recovered and certified values was  r > 0.999. Improved limits of detection (LODs were in range of ng/L for all elements. Fe, Al and Mn were found to be in the highest concentration in all types of tobacco products, while Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were below the average concentration of 40 μg/g, and Pb, Co, As, Se and Cd were below 5 μg/g. All elements, apart from Pb, were high in concentration in dipping tobacco in comparison to other tobacco products. Generally, the order of all elemental concentration can be expressed in different tobacco products as chewing  Conclusions The present study highlights the quantification of some important metals and metalloids in a wide spectrum of tobacco formulations. The outcome of this study would be beneficial for health authorities and individuals.

  9. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  10. The Quantity and Quality of Illegally Imported Products of Animal Origin in Personal Consignments into the European Union Seized at Two German Airports between 2010 And 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wiebke; Merkle, Majella; Daun, Anna; Flor, Matthias; Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The import of products of animal origin (POAO) in travellers' personal consignments presents a considerable risk of introducing animal diseases and emerging zoonoses into the European Union. The current regulation (EU) 206/2009 implements strict measures for illegally imported POAO, whereupon non-complying products have to be seized and destroyed regardless. Especially airports serve as global bottlenecks for illegally imported POAO where passenger controls of non-European flights are performed by customs and veterinary services in collaboration. Results of these control measures have to be submitted in the form of annual reports to the European Commission. However, few data on qualities and quantities of seizures have been published so far. In this study, POAO seized at two German airports between 2010 and 2014 were analysed in terms of quantities, qualitative categories and region of origin. In most years considered, more than 20 tonnes POAO were seized at each airport. However, reported amounts of seizures seem to be only the tip of the iceberg as an all-passenger control is not feasible and therefore travellers are only spot-checked. The analysis suggests that the organisational structures of both customs and official veterinary services and their different risk perceptions interfere in completing an effective ban on the illegal import of POAO. PMID:26901158

  11. The Quantity and Quality of Illegally Imported Products of Animal Origin in Personal Consignments into the European Union Seized at Two German Airports between 2010 And 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wiebke; Merkle, Majella; Daun, Anna; Flor, Matthias; Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The import of products of animal origin (POAO) in travellers' personal consignments presents a considerable risk of introducing animal diseases and emerging zoonoses into the European Union. The current regulation (EU) 206/2009 implements strict measures for illegally imported POAO, whereupon non-complying products have to be seized and destroyed regardless. Especially airports serve as global bottlenecks for illegally imported POAO where passenger controls of non-European flights are performed by customs and veterinary services in collaboration. Results of these control measures have to be submitted in the form of annual reports to the European Commission. However, few data on qualities and quantities of seizures have been published so far. In this study, POAO seized at two German airports between 2010 and 2014 were analysed in terms of quantities, qualitative categories and region of origin. In most years considered, more than 20 tonnes POAO were seized at each airport. However, reported amounts of seizures seem to be only the tip of the iceberg as an all-passenger control is not feasible and therefore travellers are only spot-checked. The analysis suggests that the organisational structures of both customs and official veterinary services and their different risk perceptions interfere in completing an effective ban on the illegal import of POAO.

  12. The Quantity and Quality of Illegally Imported Products of Animal Origin in Personal Consignments into the European Union Seized at Two German Airports between 2010 And 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Jansen

    Full Text Available The import of products of animal origin (POAO in travellers' personal consignments presents a considerable risk of introducing animal diseases and emerging zoonoses into the European Union. The current regulation (EU 206/2009 implements strict measures for illegally imported POAO, whereupon non-complying products have to be seized and destroyed regardless. Especially airports serve as global bottlenecks for illegally imported POAO where passenger controls of non-European flights are performed by customs and veterinary services in collaboration. Results of these control measures have to be submitted in the form of annual reports to the European Commission. However, few data on qualities and quantities of seizures have been published so far. In this study, POAO seized at two German airports between 2010 and 2014 were analysed in terms of quantities, qualitative categories and region of origin. In most years considered, more than 20 tonnes POAO were seized at each airport. However, reported amounts of seizures seem to be only the tip of the iceberg as an all-passenger control is not feasible and therefore travellers are only spot-checked. The analysis suggests that the organisational structures of both customs and official veterinary services and their different risk perceptions interfere in completing an effective ban on the illegal import of POAO.

  13. Relative importance of phosphorus, invasive mussels and climate for patterns in chlorophyll a and primary production in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David M.; Lesht, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Lakes Michigan and Huron, which are undergoing oligotrophication after reduction of phosphorus loading, invasion by dreissenid mussels and variation in climate, provide an opportunity to conduct large-scale evaluation of the relative importance of these changes for lake productivity. We used remote sensing, field data and an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that showed statistical relationships with observed changes in chlorophyll a (chla) and primary production (PP). 2. Spring phosphorus (TP), annual mean chla and PP have all declined significantly in both lakes since the late 1990s. Additionally, monthly mean values of chla have decreased in many but not all months, indicating altered seasonal patterns. The most striking change has been the decrease in chla concentration during the spring bloom. 3. Mean chlorophyll a concentration was 17% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron, and total production for 2008 in Lake Michigan (9.5 tg year 1 ) was 10% greater than in Lake Huron (7.8 tg year 1 ), even though Lake Michigan is slightly smaller (by 3%) than Lake Huron. Differences between the lakes in the early 1970s evidently persisted to 2008. 4. Invasive mussels influenced temporal trends in spring chla and annual primary production. However, TP had a greater effect on chla and primary production than did the mussels, and TP varied independently from them. Two climatic variables (precipitation and air temperature in the basins) influenced annual chla and annual PP, while the extent of ice cover influenced TP but not chla or primary production. Our results demonstrate that observed temporal patterns in chla and PP are the result of complex interactions of P, climate and invasive mussels.

  14. Valuation and importance of the extrinsic attributes of the product from the firms´ perspective in a Spanish wine protected designation of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Garcia-Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Designations of origin (DOs are commercial brands of wide use in the agro-food sector. Its use in Spain has taken place for more than three decades and although wineries managers have incorporated these new forms of protection, little is known about their opinion and their point of view during the DO implementation process. In fact, the consumers’ point of view has been the one most often analyzed in the literature. In the present study we analyzed extrinsic attributes of a wine with DO from the company point of view. In particular, we analyzed brand, product, price, packaging and label, and origin of the product following a qualitative analysis on interviews carried out with winemakers of the DO wine Ribera del Guadiana during the last decade. The qualitative analysis of the interviews was performed using the software package ATLAS/ti, designed for this type of data analysis in the form of large blocks of text. The results indicated that winemakers consider that they offer a good product to the market, and try to promote their brands using the origin of the product as a marketing strategy. From the company point of view, this protected DO (PDO has important opportunities for positioning to create a sustainable competitive advantage, focusing on quality and the territorial differentiation.

  15. Import price analysis of shrimp products in international market%虾产品国际市场进口价格分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁夏; 孙琛

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Import and export status of shrimp products and its influencing factors were analyzed in order to provide references for government and corporate decision-making on shrimp product productions and sales. [Method] Through analyzing the supply and demand of major importing countries and their competitors regarding production factors that are affecting international shrimp import price, improvement measures and suggestions for the development of Chinese shrimp industry were put forward. [Result]Import price of shrimp products in the United States and Japan, despite being impacted by trade barrier, financial crisis, human errors, and natural disasters, slowly went through the normal business cycle with peaks and dips; on the other hand, the import price of shrimp products in Spain gradually descended with little fluctuation due to its significantly horrendous economic crisis. Regarding shrimp exports to different countries, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and India were the predominant producers and shrimp exports increased year by year. [Suggestion] In order to strengthen positive and stable growth of the Chinese shrimp trade, quality and quantity of shrimp products should be improved; export structure should be adjusted and industry organization should be promoted.%[目的]分析虾产品的贸易情况及影响因素,为我国政府及企业制定决策提供参考.[方法]通过对主要进口国的需求状况和生产国的竞争状况进行分析,探讨影响国际虾产品进口价格变动因素,并为我国虾产业的发展提供对策建议.[结果]美国和日本的虾产品进口价格呈缓慢下降至一定区域后再缓慢上升的趋势,影响因素包括贸易壁垒、金融危机及各种人为或自然灾害;西班牙则是呈缓慢下降至一定区域后呈小范围波动的趋势,受金融危机的影响较大.从各国的虾类产量来看,中国、泰国、印度尼西亚与印度是主要生产国,且产量呈逐年增加的趋势.[

  16. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  17. Monitoring and determination of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine) in imported Pangasius catfish products in Thailand using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansomboon, Worawat; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak; Thi Da, Chau

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to monitor the concentrations of sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) in imported Pangasius catfish products in Thailand. The residues of the four sulfonamides (SAs) were analyzed by extraction process and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest concentrations found were 10.97ng/g for SMD, 6.23ng/g for SMT, 11.13ng/g for SDZ and 245.91ng/g for SMX, which was higher than the European Union (EU) standard (100ng/g). Moreover, all samples contaminated with SMX also contained SMT, indicating that more than one antibiotic was used for production in the country of origin. Because Thai standards for antibiotics in food have not been completely set, all contaminated discovered would not be considered to be an illegal food, in which antibiotic residues may affect human health in the long term. Therefore, antibiotic residues in Pangasius catfish products should be continually regulated and monitored. PMID:27374578

  18. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  19. 中间产品进口对中国高技术产品出口技术含量的影响%Import of Intermediate Products Impact on Exports Technology of China's High-tech Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖浩; 胡小娟; 辛丽萍

    2015-01-01

    在新贸易理论的指导下,国际贸易模式不断发展与创新,产品内贸易盛行。本文根据2000—2013年高技术产品五大行业面板数据,基于豪斯曼构建的产品出口复杂度指标对中国高技术产品的出口技术含量进行测度,得出这期间其出口技术含量呈现逐年上升的趋势。本文引入虚拟变量,实证分析 FDI、R&D 及中间产品进口五大行业对其出口技术含量的影响。结果表明,总体来说 FDI、R&D 和中间产品进口均有助于提升产品的出口技术含量;但对细分行业来说,中间产品进口与出口技术含量的关系是不确定的,需要区分不同类型的产品,电子及通信设备、电子计算机及办公设备和医疗设备及仪器仪表三类产品的中间产品进口会促进高技术产品出口技术含量的提升,而医药和航空航天器产品的中间产品进口则会阻碍其出口技术含量的提升。%Under the guidance of the new trade theory,the modes of international trade are developing and in-novating,and trades in products are popular.In this paper,according to the five industry panel data from 2000 to 2013,and export complexity index based on Hausmann,it is concluded that the export technical content showed a trend of rising year by year.This paper introduces virtual variables,analyzing FDI,R&D and import of intermediate products,and the results show that the overall FDI,R&D and the import of intermediate products can promote the export of the product technology content,but for niche business,the import and export of intermediate product tech-nology content are not quite related,which need to distinguish among different types of products.Importing in terme-diate products of electronic and communication equipment,computers and office equipment,and medical equipment and instrumentation can promote the export of high-tech products,while importing intermediate products of pharma-ceutical and aerial will

  20. 2011年中国钨品进出口分析%The Import and Export Analysis of China's Tungsten Products in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良先

    2012-01-01

    2011年尽管受到欧债危机、世界经济增长放缓、国际贸易增速回落以及国际金融市场剧烈动荡的影响,但是中国钨品进出口贸易量继续保持增长态势,钨市场价格创历史最好水平.%The import and export volume of China's tungsten products continued to maintain the growing trend in 2011 in spite of the unfavorable factors, such as Euro debt crisis, slowing world economic and trade growth, and the upheaval of world financial market. The tungsten price has reached the highest record.

  1. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Lopez-Hilfiker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer, but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products. Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing

  2. Ha83, a Chitin Binding Domain Encoding Gene, Is Important to Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus Budded Virus Production and Occlusion Body Assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Xu, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Helicoerpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ha83 is a late expressed gene that encodes a chitin binding protein. Chitin domain truncation studies revealed that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position probably played an important role in both chitin binding ability and protein transmission of Ha83. In order to study the function of ha83 in the HearNPV infection cycle, an ha83 knockout HearNPV (Ha83KO) was constructed via homologous recombination. Viral growth and viral DNA replication curves showed that fewer budded virions were produced in Ha83KO transfected cells, while viral DNA replication was increased. Electron microscopy revealed that fewer nucleocapsids were transmitted from virogenic stroma in the Ha83KO transfected cell nucleus, and the morphology of occlusion bodies was prominently larger and cube-shaped. Furthermore, DNA quantity in occlusion bodies of Ha83KO was significantly lower than the occlusion bodies of HaWT. The transcription analysis indicated that these changes may be due to the decreased expression level of viral structural associated genes, such as polyhedrin, p10, pif-2, or cg30 in Ha83KO infected cells. Above results demonstrated that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position in Ha83 might be the key amino acid, and Ha83 plays an important role in BVs production and OBs assembling. PMID:26057202

  3. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  4. Explaining diversity of livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders: importance of level of production objectives and role of farming in the household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, C; Dedieu, B; Pailleux, J-Y

    2007-09-01

    We characterised the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders and identified which variables contributed most to the differentiation of these strategies. We hypothesised that they would mainly be differentiated by the contribution of the farming income to the total household income and the availability of the household members for farming. The multiple-job holding livestock-farmer's motivations, decisions and actions about both multiple-job holding and livestock farming were obtained in semi-directed interviews of 35 sheep farmers who held multiple jobs, on farm and off farm. They were synthesised into six variables characterising the diversity of the livestock-farming objectives and management guidelines. Thanks to a multiple factorial analysis, we showed that the diversity of the sheep-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders was better explained by two factors 'level of motivation of the farmer to get high technical results' and 'more personal fulfilling v. the family business conception of farming', than the factors we hypothesised. Within our sample, the performances ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 weaned lambs per ewe per year. Six sheep-farming management strategies were identified. They illustrated the importance of the level of production objectives and of farming income expectation, which were found to be independent, in explaining diversity. No direct relationship between farm work organisation and sheep-farming management strategy was identified. Explaining the diversity of the livestock-farming management strategies of multiple-job holders appears to require that all the benefits expected from farming and their hierarchy be identified before analysing how they are translated into production objectives and management guidelines.

  5. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  6. Transitioning from brand to generic with topical products and the importance of maintaining the formulation and therapeutic profiles of the original product: focus on clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2014-07-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are a major part of the foundation of treatment for a wide variety of eczematous and inflammatory skin disorders in both adults and children. Mid-potency TCSs represent an important category as they are often used to treat eczematous dermatoses, such as atopic dermatitis. The TCS product must effectively release the active ingredient and promote cutaneous penetration so that therapeutic activity can occur. As many topical products eventually become available as generic formulations, it is important to recognize that although the active ingredient and its concentration are the same, the vehicle excipients may differ significantly, occasionally leading to potential differences in irritancy, in allergenicity, in effects on epidermal permeability barrier function, and, possibly, in efficacy. Clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream is a mid-potency TCS formulated in an emollient formulation that has been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in the management of several corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. This article outlines the pharmacologic and clinical data achieved with the original brand formulation of clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream, and discusses the establishment of an authorized generic formulation that is identical in formulation to the original brand.

  7. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522 of a commercial herd of the State of São Paulo, had your health and nutritional status accompanied since the beginning of the period pre-calving to the end of the lactation. Occurrence of diseases, score of body condition (at the dry off and calving, daily milk productions and milk compositions, were recorded. For statistical analysis of the data, the logistics regression and the analysis of multiple regression were used. The obtained results demonstrated that the diseases of the peripartum and your risk factors affected the milk production with different effects in function of the lactation numbers, demanding this way, larger care with the prophylactic measures to avoid the diseases, and to maximize the production of milk and the reproduction of the animals.Este estudo correlacional investigou os efeitos das ocorrências sanitárias do periparto e seus respectivos fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite, no pico e aos 305 dias em lactação. Vacas Holandesas (n = 522 de um rebanho comercial do Estado de São Paulo tiveram seu desempenho sanitário e nutricional acompanhados desde o início do período pré-parto até o final da lactação. A ocorrência de doenças, os escores de condição corporal (no pré-parto e parto, as produções de leite e as composições do leite foram registradas. Para análise estatística dos dados, foram utilizadas a regressão logística e a análise de regressão múltipla. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as doenças do periparto e seus fatores de risco afetaram a produção de leite com efeitos diferentes em função do número de lactações, exigindo desta maneira maior cuidado com adoção de medidas profiláticas para se evitar as doenças e maximizar a produção de leite dos

  8. 27 CFR 478.112 - Importation by a licensed importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... importer. 478.112 Section 478.112 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... Importation § 478.112 Importation by a licensed importer. (a) No firearm, firearm barrel, or ammunition shall be imported or brought into the United States by a licensed importer (as defined in § 478.11)...

  9. The difference in agricultural production cost among European and non-European countries – potato and tomato – market challenges for import-export

    OpenAIRE

    Valogiannis, Elias

    2012-01-01

    The complicated world of fresh fruits and vegetables commerce has inspired me to proceed with this project. The main topic of this research is the production cost of tomato and potato which are the highest- in consumption -vegetables in the Greek market. The study is focused on Greek production versus rest countries around it (European and non European countries) which export these products under specific circumstances. By stating European countries, it is implied that the countries are laid ...

  10. Benefits of chemical fibre industry down evidently in the first half of 2008 Industrial production growth rate dropped slightly, imports decreased evidently while exports grew steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gracie; Guo

    2008-01-01

    Production From January to May, China’s chemical fiber production rose 7.4 percent from a year earlier to 10.04 million tons, but that was 10.49 percentage points less than the growth rate during the same five- month period last year,the China National Textile and Apparel

  11. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi, and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance or certain inherent characteristics of the

  12. Why Is Seed Production So Variable among Individuals? A Ten-Year Study with Oaks Reveals the Importance of Soil Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V.; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species – the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  13. Import of textile machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In 2007,the total importation of our textile machinery amounts to US$4.948 billion,increased by 20.62%over the same period of the previous year,which turns out to be a new high in the year of textile machinery.Among the imported produc ts in 2007,different impor ted produc ts witness growths of various degrees. The large-scale impor t increase of tex tile machiner y indicates the acceleration of textile technology and upgrading of textile industry,and demonstrates that our textile machinery industry still keeps distance from the international advanced technology in terms of product level,product stability as well as the product reliability although the rapid improvement was made in manufacturing in Chinese textile machinery industry in the last few years.In addition,the possibility of RMB appreciation still exists.Import increase of textile machinery brings a new historical high in 2007.

  14. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  15. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  16. A laboratory flow reactor with gas particle separation and on-line MS/MS for product identification in atmospherically important reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bennett

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to study the gas and particle phase products from gas phase hydrocarbon oxidation is described. It consists of a gas phase photochemical flow reactor followed by a diffusion membrane denuder to remove gases from the reacted products, or a filter to remove the particles. Chemical analysis is performed by an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. A diffusion membrane denuder is shown to remove trace gases to below detectable limits so the particle phase can be studied. The system was tested by examining the products of the oxidation of m-xylene initiated by HO radicals. Dimethylphenol was observed in both the gas and particle phases although individual isomers could not be identified. Two furanone isomers, 5-methyl-2(3Hfuranone and 3-methyl-2(5Hfuranone were identified in the particulate phase, but the isobaric product 2,5 furandione was not observed. One isomer of dimethyl-nitrophenol was identified in the particle phase but not in the gas phase.

  17. The Important Considerations in Management of Cleanroom for OLED Trial Production Line%OLED实验线洁净室工程管理要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽军; 李国钰

    2012-01-01

    说明为保证OLED的洁净生产环境所采取的各种措施及良好效果。%The measurements implemented to ensure the clean environment for an OLED Production line and their results were described.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF MAIZE CROPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Dhary Yousif EL-JUBOURI

    2012-01-01

    The Corn, wheat and rice together are the main crops. It is a plant that responds well to chemical and organic fertilization and the irrigation. But compliance is sensitive to optimum sowing time and integrated control of weeds, pests and diseases (2). The maize is the most important plant product, from the point of view commercially and is used primarily as fodder. The maize is an important source of vegetable oil and has many applications in industry, the manufacture of diverse items: cosme...

  19. Transcription factor σB plays an important role in the production of extracellular membrane-derived vesicles in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria produce extracellular outer membrane vesicles (OMVs that interact with host cells. Unlike Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about the production and role of extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs in Gram-positive bacteria. The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can survive under extreme environmental and energy stress conditions and the transcription factor σ(B is involved in this survival ability. Here, we first determined the production of MVs from L. monocytogenes and evaluated whether general stress transcription factor σ(B affected production of MVs in L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes secreted MVs during in vitro broth culture. The wild-type strain actively produced MVs approximately nine times more and also produced more intact shapes of MVs than those of the isogenic ΔsigB mutant. A proteomic analysis showed that 130 and 89 MV proteins were identified in the wild-type and ΔsigB mutant strains, respectively. Wild-type strain-derived MVs contained proteins regulated by σ(B such as transporters (OpuCA and OpuCC, stress response (Kat, metabolism (LacD, translation (InfC, and cell division protein (FtsZ. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis showed that wild-type-derived MV proteins corresponded to several GO terms, including response to stress (heat, acid, and bile resistance and extracellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process, but not the ΔsigB mutant. Internalin B (InlB was almost three times more contained in MVs derived from the wild-type strain than in MVs derived from the ΔsigB mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that σ(B plays a pivotal role in the production of MVs and protein profiles contained in MVs. L. monocytogenes MVs may contribute to host infection and survival ability under various stressful conditions.

  20. Importance of vector-borne infections in different production systems: bovine trypanosomosis and the innovation dynamics of livestock producers in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, F; Bouyer, J; Seck, M T; Sall, B; Dicko, A H; Lancelot, R; Chia, E

    2015-04-01

    In Senegal, a project has been undertaken to eradicate a population of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) from a prime area for intensifying livestock production--the coastal region of Niayes. The project is intended to remove the constraint of trypanosomosis and allow the ecological intensification of cattle production. A cross-sectional analysis of ten case studies was the inductive phase of an assessment to gauge the impact of removing trypanosomosis on livestock production strategies. The methodology used was comprehensive analysis, with participatory epidemiology tools to understand farmers' rationales. The authors analysed the strategies of three main types of livestock producer (agro-pastoralists, mixed crop/livestock farmers and intensive dairy farmers). The strategies were in line with the farmers' goals and their ability to mobilise the socio-technical network. The risk management of trypanosomosis has been incorporated into livestock management practices through the use of trypanotolerant breeds, medical prophylaxis or placing livestock in low-risk areas. Removing the risk of disease would therefore have a major impact on decisions about the composition and strategic direction of herds. This change in the animal health environment would steer livestock production along different routes of intensification in a highly competitive environment. The indicators of innovation capacity revealed by this study will be used to quantitatively monitor various change scenarios, taking livestock producers' reasoning into account, in order to assess the socio-economic impact of eradicating the tsetse fly population in this area. The methodology presented in the study can be used to understand the impact of controlling other vector-borne infections on the innovation dynamics of livestock producers. PMID:26470458

  1. Correlation of different spectral lights with biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of medicinally important Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Syed Shujait; Akbar, Fazal; Kanwal, Farina

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key elicitors that directly fluctuates plant developmental processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of Prunella vulgaris were investigated. Among different spectral lights, green light induced the maximum callogenic response (95%). Enhanced fresh biomass accumulation was observed in log phases on day-35, when callus cultures were exposed to yellow and violet lights. Yellow light induced maximum biomass accumulation (3.67g/100ml) from leaf explants as compared to control (1.27g/100ml). In contrast, violet lights enhanced biomass accumulation (3.49g/100ml) from petiole explant. Maximum total phenolics content (TPC; 23.9mg/g-DW) and total flavonoids content (TFC; 1.65mg/g-DW) were observed when cultures were grown under blue lights. In contrast, green and yellow lights enhanced total phenolics production (TPP; 112.52g/100ml) and total flavonoids production (TFP; 9.64g/100ml) as compared to control. The calli grown under green, red and blue lights enhanced DPPH-free radical scavenging activity (DFRSA; 91.3%, 93.1% and 93%) than control (56.44%) respectively. The DFRSA was correlated either with TPC and TFC or TPP and TFP. Furthermore, yellow lights enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and protease activities, however, the content of total protein (CTP) was higher in control cultures (186μg BSAE/mg FW) as compared to spectral lights. These results suggest that the exposure of callus cultures to various spectral lights have shown a key role in biomass accumulation and production of antioxidant secondary metabolites. PMID:26995670

  2. Validation of SMOS L1C and L2 Products and Important Parameters of the Retrieval Algorithm in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band radiometer monitors surface soil moisture. In addition to soil moisture, vegetation optical thickness tau(NAD) is retrieved (L2 product) from brightness temperatures (T-B, L1C product) using an algorithm based on the L......-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model with initial guesses on the two parameters (derived from ECMWF products and ECOCLIMAP Leaf Area Index, respectively) and other auxiliary input. This paper presents the validation work carried out in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. L1C/L2 data......) still present RFI; 2) potential link between high retrieved tau(NAD) and other L-MEB parameters, e. g., low roughness parameter (H-R); 3) similar to 18% lower sand and similar to 8% higher clay fractions while similar to 0.35 g/cm(3) lower bulk density in SMOS algorithm than in situ; and 4) caveats...

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  4. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  5. Model Estimates Of Gross Domestic Product In Relation to Export And Import Of Fuels, Focused on the Elasticity and Determination Of Directly and Indirectly Associated Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on several interrogative assumptions related to the positive impact of the crises and the recession on determinations in the econometric models of Romania’s GDP as a variable dependent in relation to the export and import of fuels. After a short introductory section, which details, in a relative manner, the overall goal and the objectives of the paper, a first section makes use of elasticity and the modern solutions of building the coefficient of elasticity, proposing an original alternative to existing variants, and afterwards the next section builds on these statistical tools in the econometric modeling of Romania’s GDP, starting from the ratios and value indicators and offering a few original models where the export and import of fuels are the key initial explanatory factors. The final remarks reinterpret the role of the energy resources, as well as that of the related flows, in enhancing statistical connections, and especially the role of crises and recessions in validating econometric models, by raising their degree of predictability.

  6. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:26168138

  7. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies for the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Powers, J. H.; Chiller, T. M.;

    2009-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals creates an important source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that can spread to humans through the food supply. Improved management of the use of antimicrobials in food animals, particularly reducing the usage of those that are "critically important......" for human medicine, is an important step toward preserving the benefits of antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization has developed and applied criteria to rank antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine. Clinicians, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and other...... stakeholders can use this ranking when developing risk management strategies for the use of antimicrobials in food production animals. The ranking allows stakeholders to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine and, thus, need to be addressed...

  8. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently.

  9. Domestication, Conservation, and Livelihoods: A Case Study of Piper peepuloides Roxb.—An Important Nontimber Forest Product in South Meghalaya, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tynsong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild pepper (Piper peepuloides Roxb., family: Piperaceae is an evergreen climber which grows wild in tropical evergreen forests and subtropical evergreen forests of northeast India. This plant grows luxuriantly in the areas with high rainfall at lower elevations ranging from 100 to 800 m above mean sea level. In Meghalaya, to meet the market demand, farmers have domesticated it in arecanut agroforests and betel leaf agroforests. We found that the mean density of wild pepper in arecanut agroforest is 585 stem/ha and only 85 stem/ha in natural forest. In India, wild pepper is used in a variety of Ayurvedic medicines. Local people of Meghalaya uses powdered dry seeds mixed with honey and egg yolk for the treatment of severe cough. The study reveals that the average gross annual production of wild pepper is 7 quintals/ha, and final market price fetches Rs. 336,000/ha, out of which 42% of the money goes to the grower, 16% to local trader, 23% to dealer, 17% to retailer, 1.2% to wages of labourers, and 0.6% to transport.

  10. Receptor for advanced glycation end products plays a more important role in cellular survival than in neurite outgrowth during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajithlal, Gangadharan; Huttunen, Henri; Rauvala, Heikki; Munch, Gerald

    2002-03-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is known to interact with amphoterin. This interaction has been proposed to play a role in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neurodifferentiation. However, there is as yet no direct evidence of the relevance of this pathway to neurodifferentiation under physiological conditions. In this study we have investigated a possible role of RAGE and amphoterin in the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. The functional inactivation of RAGE by dominant negative and antisense strategies showed that RAGE is not required for process outgrowth or differentiation, although overexpression of RAGE accelerates the elongation of neuritic processes. Using the antisense strategy, amphoterin was shown to be essential for process outgrowth and differentiation, suggesting that amphoterin may interact with other molecules to exert its effect in this context. Interestingly, the survival of the neuroblastoma cells treated with retinoic acid was partly dependent on the expression of RAGE, and inhibition of RAGE function partially blocked the increase in anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following retinoic acid treatment. Based on these results we propose that a combination therapy using RAGE blockers and retinoic acid may prove as a useful approach for chemotherapy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  11. Cytomegalovirus vaccines and methods of production (WO20009049138): the emerging recognition of the importance of virus neutralization at the epithelial/endothelial interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, Mark R

    2010-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital viral infection in the developed world. Approximately 40,000 congenitally infected infants are born in the US each year. Congenital CMV infection is responsible for a wide range of neurodevelopmental disabilities and is the most common infectious cause of hearing loss in children. The significant public health impact of congenital CMV has led the Institute of Medicine to rank development of a CMV vaccine as a top priority. Vaccine development has been ongoing; however, there is no licensed CMV vaccine currently available. Before vaccines can be optimized, a better understanding of how CMV infects the host is required. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CMV enters epithelial and endothelial cells by different pathways than those used for entry into fibroblasts, and that a recently described complex of CMV proteins, the gH/gL/UL128/130/131 complex, is essential for this process to occur. This discovery has allowed identification of a novel, heretofore unexplored, potential CMV vaccine targets, and provides the basis for the patent, 'Cytomegalovirus Vaccines and Methods of Production - WO2009049138.' In this patent evaluation, the basis for this patent is reviewed. The potential application of this discovery for future CMV vaccine design is discussed.

  12. Reassessing the importance of the colour-singlet contributions to direct J/psi+W production at the LHC and the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, we show that there are two kinds of colour-singlet contributions to the hadroproduction of J/psi in association with a W boson at orders alpha^3_S alpha and alpha^3 and that they are sizable, if not dominant over the colour-octet contributions. They come from the partonic processes s+g-> J/psi + c +W and q+q'-bar -> gamma* W -> J/psi W, which have systematically been overlooked in the literature until now. Our conclusion is that the hadroproduction of a J/psi in association with a W boson cannot be claimed as a clean probe of the colour-octet mechanism --and in turn of the NRQCD universality-- because of the sizable colour-singlet contribution and because of the small rate for this process at the LHC. During this analysis, we have also noted that, for reactions such as the production of a J/psi by light quark-antiquark fusion, the colour-singlet contribution via an off-shell photon is of the order of the expectation from the colour-octet contribution via an off-shell gluon. This is...

  13. Study of important parameters on the irradiation of 124Xe, to improve the production of 123I with high purity using the Cyclone-30 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly 18F, 67Ga, 201Tl and 123I. The 123I production is the aim of the present work. With the 123I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree 123I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of 123I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: 124Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain 123I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)

  14. The gpsX gene encoding a glycosyltransferase is important for polysaccharide production and required for full virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac causes citrus canker, one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In our previous work, a transposon mutant of Xac strain 306 with an insertion in the XAC3110 locus was isolated in a screening that aimed at identifying genes related to biofilm formation. The XAC3110 locus was named as bdp24 for biofilm-defective phenotype and the mutant was observed to be affected in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS biosynthesis and cell motility. In this study, we further characterized the bdp24 (XAC3110 gene (designated as gpsX using genetic complementation assays and expanded the knowledge about the function of the gpsX gene in Xac pathogenesis by investigating the roles of gpsX in EPS and LPS production, cell motility, biofilm formation on host leaves, stress tolerance, growth in planta, and host virulence of the citrus canker bacterium. Results The gpsX gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase, which is highly conserved in the sequenced strains of Xanthomonas. Mutation of gpsX resulted in a significant reduction of the amount of EPS and loss of two LPS bands visualized on sodium dodecylsulphate- polyacrylamide gels. Biofilm assays revealed that the gpsX mutation affected biofilm formation by Xac on abiotic and biotic surfaces. The gpsX mutant showed delayed bacterial growth and caused reduced development of disease symptoms in susceptible citrus leaves. The gpsX mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type strain to various stresses, including the H2O2 oxidative stress. The mutant also showed attenuated ability in cell motility but not in flagellar formation. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays indicated that mutation of gpsX did not affect the expression of virulence genes such as pthA in Xac strain 306. The affected phenotypes of the gpsX mutant could be complemented to wild-type levels by the intact gpsX gene

  15. Study of the fermentative activity of Hansenula anomala and production of chemical compounds of sensory importance Estudio de la actividad fermentativa de Hansenula anomala y producción de compuestos químicos de importancia sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Estela Escalante; Mojmír Rychtera; Karel Melzoch; Elena Quillama Polo; Beatriz Hatta Sakoda

    2012-01-01

    The fermentative behaviour of Hansenula anomala RIVE 7-1-5 was studied in order to evaluate the production of chemical compounds of sensory importance. The results demonstrated that the strain ferments very well monosaccharides and also sucrose and maltose. Its fermentative activity was inhibited at concentrations of 100 mg/L of sodium metabisulphite in the medium. Furthermore, it was able to produce 5,81±0,1% (v/v) of ethanol. Agitation of the culture medium increases the production of highe...

  16. The importance and measurement of new production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Platt, T.; Jauhari, P.; Sathyendranath, S.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Primary_Prod_Biogeochem_Cycle_Sea_1992_273.pdf.txt stream_source_info Primary_Prod_Biogeochem_Cycle_Sea_1992_273.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  17. 进出口产品追溯监管系统的建立及其在进口食品监管中的应用%Establishment of traceability and supervision system for import and export products and its application on import food supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泳; 张曦; 谭若君; 阿骊

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究进出口追溯监管系统在进口食品监管中的应用。方法本次建设“进出口产品追溯监管系统”的实例,对业务管理平台和手机客户端软件进行了设计开发,同时为不同产品使用了不同的追溯防伪标签。结果该系统可收集产品从生产、进出口、仓储到物流、销售的全过程信息,可以帮助进口食品快速通关,对其进行有效地防伪和追溯,并可直接记录产品生产日期。结论该系统可促进进口食品监管模式的创新,形成可供工作参考的大数据,成为联结检验检疫部门、企业和消费者的一条纽带。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the application of traceability and supervision system for import and export products on import food supervision.MethodsAn example of the “traceability and supervision system for import and export products” was established, which contained the design and development of platform for business supervision and mobile phone application, and applied different traceability and anti-fake labels ac-cording to products.ResultsThe system could collect information of produce, import-export, preservation, distribution, and sales. Import food could finish inspection and quarantine quickly, as well as anti-fake and be traced effectively using the system. Besides, produce date of the products could also be recorded automatically by the system.ConclusionThe system will promote the innovation of supervision mode for import foods, provide useful big data, and make a closer relationship between bureau, enterprise and consumer.

  18. 矿产品进出口关税及相关政策分析%Analysis on the Import and Export Tariffs of Mineral Products and the Relevant Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈甲斌; 范继涛

    2011-01-01

    In view of the concrete situation of rapid demand growth of bulk mineral products and the scale export of high - energy - consumption, high - pollution and resource - related products in China, according to China's resources endowment and needs of social and economic development, this paper makes suggestions on promoting the trade structure of resources prod- ucts by taking advantage of import and export tariffs and the relevant policies. According to the requirements of WTO rules and China's current import and export policies of resource - based products, the principle and basic trend of adjustment of the relative policies are discussed from the aspects of import and export tariffs ,import and export value - added taxes, export rebate and export quota, and the management of export amount.%针对我国大宗矿产品需求规模空前增长及“两高一资”产品规模出口的实际情况,立足国内资源禀赋及社会经济发展的需要。提出了利用好进出口关税及相关政策促进资源产品贸易结构升级的建议。根据WTO规则要求及我国资源型产品进出口政策的实况,分别从进出口关税、进口环节增值税、出口退税及配额与出口数量管理等方面提出了政策调整的原则及基本趋势。

  19. 乳制品进口对我国乳业发展的影响及有关政策建议%Impact, Reasons and Policy Recommendations of Dairy Products Imports to China Dairy Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀芬; 郑世艳; 赵宇红

    2013-01-01

    Dairy product imports played an important role in meeting domestic demand,improving dairy industry level and adjusting production structure.With the effect of frequent dairy quality and safety incidents,increasing domestic demand and international trade environment,in recent years,China dairy imports value has growed rapidly,which brought pressure on the dairy farming.Many dairy companies undergoes survive crisis,which damages the interests of dairy producers and consumers.This article analyzed the reasons and impact on China dairy industry of dairy products import,and then proposed some policy recom mendations to support and protect China dairy industry.%乳制品进口对满足国内需求、促进我国乳业整体水平的提高和生产结构调整起到一定作用.受乳品质量安全事件频发、生鲜乳标准降低、国内需求不断增加和国际贸易环境的影响,近年来乳制品进口量增加,对我国奶牛养殖业形成压力,使众多乳制品企业出现生存危机,侵害了乳业广大生产者和消费者的利益.本文分析了乳制品进口对我国乳业影响,并提出了有关支持和保护我国乳业发展的政策建议.

  20. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products' importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straede, Steffen; Treue, Thorsten

    2006-02-01

    Even after 30 years of strict de jure protection, today's de facto extraction of products from Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) and their great economic importance to local households suggests that this reality should be explicitly internalised in managing this world heritage park. Several studies have quantified local people's use of protected areas and estimated the value of such areas to them. However, few studies incorporate economic analyses to investigate the effect of management interventions on local communities' resource use and collection behaviour. In Nepal, buffer zones and especially buffer zone community forestry are seen as means to define and demarcate places, where local people may legally extract goods that are either identical to or relevant substitutes for products that are collected in protected areas. The intention is to resolve park-people conflicts over resource use. This article presents the findings of an in-depth study of the importance of natural resources to the livelihoods of 18 households. One village was located inside RCNP with no realistic alternatives to Park resources, while the other is located in the buffer zone with equal distance to the Park, a national forest and their community forest. For each household, the collection of products, allocation of time, and purchase and sale of goods were recorded daily through 12 consecutive months and economic values were calculated on the basis of local market prices and recorded quantities. The study shows that products from RCNP are of great importance to the livelihoods of local people. Furthermore, we find that products collected in the national forest substitute products from the Park, while the substitution effect of the community forest is small. Accordingly, the study illustrates that, irrespective of buffer zone community forestry, there is still a gap between local people's need for supplementing natural resources and their rights to satisfy them on a legal basis

  1. Safety concerns on food products imported from Japan following Fukushima nuclear accident%福岛核事故后日本输华食品的安全考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长安

    2011-01-01

    Following Fukushima nuclear accident, some food products sampled at sites both within the Fukushima Prefecture and in adjacent areas have been contaminated by radioactive materials. Safety Concerns on food products imported from Japan following the present emergency, relevant standards and recommendations are discussed.%日本福岛核事故发生后,从福岛县内及其邻近地区的抽样点上获得的某些食品已经受到放射性物质污染.本文讨论了事故后日本输华食品的安全考虑,介绍了相关标准并提出建议.

  2. How important is importance for prospective memory?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan eWalter; Beat eMeier

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover...

  3. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  4. 气管切开插管不良事件及相关进口产品召回简析%Analysis of Adverse Events of Tracheostomy Tube and Imported Products Recall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆庆峰; 叶成红; 邓洁

    2013-01-01

    气管切开插管发生不良事件将严重影响临床抢救和治疗.本文介绍了产品结构,简述其常见不良事件.回顾我国近期相关进口产品召回行动,以及企业采取的纠正措施.简要分析导致产品召回的可能原因,提出降低气管切开插管风险的对策,向企业、医护人员、监管部门提出建议,明确完善产品注册申报资料的具体要求.希望能够为生产、监管和技术审评相关人员提供参考.%The adverse events of tracheostomy tube will seriously affect the clinical rescue and treatment.This paper describes product structure and common adverse events,reviews the recall action of imported product and corrective measures of enterprises.This paper also briefly analyzes the possible causes leading to product recalls,advances the measure to reduce the risk of tracheostomy tube,then makes recommendations to the enterprises,health care workers,regulatory authorities,proposes the specific requirements of the product registration documentation.This article intends to provide reference for personnel engaged in production,and technical review,and so on.

  5. GLOBALIZATION AND IMPORT RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ioan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Delocalization of production and diversification of the sources of offer in the global market place the issue of protection of consumer rights in major consumption centres, namely the European Union in a new light. A review of policies for the protection of consumer rights in the EU, USA and China, reveals major differences regarding the protection of consumer rights and the existence of gaps, and in particular the implementation of effective legislation in this regard. As such, the risks associated with imports have become a major concern in the European Union. The consumer has – one can say – a central role in the globalization process, which justifies the measures aimed at its protection. Although worldwide there are major differences in the degree of market regulation in matters of protection of consumer rights, the trend is the continuous adaptation of the offer to the requirements of global demand. However, one can still find significant gaps which translate into risks specific to the consumers in developed countries, namely in the EU. An important issue arises from this radical change of the localization of production centres in relation to the main consumption centres. While in the developed world, consumer rights protection has reached high levels both by creating an appropriate legislative framework and through consumer awareness and activism regarding their rights, in areas where much of the offer comes from the Western market (China, India, etc. modern mentality on the protection of consumer rights is just emerging. A major requirement is therefore the provision of a status of the consumer compatible with the benefits and risks of globalization, a status defined by safety and protection of imports. This paper confirms the thesis that, ultimately, the main factor counteracting the risks in matters of protection of consumer rights is the consumer, its awareness of its rights.

  6. TOM1L Is Involved in a Novel Signaling Pathway Important for the IL-2 Production in Jurkat T Cells Stimulated by CD3/CD28 CoLigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elmarghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TOM1L (target of Myb-1 Like was identified as a binding partner for the full length and catalytically-active Lck in a yeast 2-hybrid screening assay. Here we show that in Jurkat T cells stimulated by CD3/CD28 coligation where the expression of TOM1L is reduced by lenti virus mediated-siRNA results in a dramatically lower IL-2 production. The production of IL-2 in siRNA treated cells stimulated with PMA/ionomycin was not affected indicating an involvement of TOM1L in a pathway proximal of TCR and CD28. The coexpression of Fyn with TOM1L increased the level of the phosphorylated form of Fyn indicating that TOM1L has the ability to activate Fyn. The ability of TOM1L to activate Fyn was further shown in a kinase assay using angiotensin II as a substrate. By confocal microscopy, we show that the expression of TOM1L in non-treated HeLa and SK-N-SH cells colocalizes with the mitochondrial membrane but not with lysosomal compartments or the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, we show that the over-expression of TOM1L in Jurkat cells causes an increase of the STAT3 expression . Based on our results, we here propose that TOM1L is involved in a novel signaling pathway that is important for the IL-2 production in T cells.

  7. Normalization of NDVI from Different Sensor System using MODIS Products as Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium Resolution NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from different sensor systems such as Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, CBERS and HJ-1A/1B satellites provide detailed spatial information for studies of ecosystems, vegetation biophysics, and land cover. Limitation of sensor designs, cloud contamination, and sensor failure highlighted the need to normalize and integrate NDVI from multiple sensor system in order to create a consistent, long-term NDVI data set. In this paper, we used a reference-based method for NDVI normalization. And present an application of this approach which covert Landsat ETM+ NDVI calculated by digital number (NDVIDN) to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance (NDVISR) using MODIS products as reference, and different cluster was treated differently. Result shows that this approach can produce NDVI with highly agreement to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance from physical approaches based on 6S (Second Simulation of the satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). Although some variability exists, the cluster specified reference based approach shows considerable potential for NDVI normalization. Therefore, NDVI products in MODIS era from different sources can be combined for time-series analysis, biophysical parameter retrievals, and other downstream analysis

  8. 水质分析仪表国内自主品牌与进口品牌产品对比%Comparison of Import and Home Products of Water Quality Analysis Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昊

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes and compares in detail the application,market share,price,technical index of different kinds of water quality analysis instrument of import and home products,in order to provide the guideline for the selection of water quality analysis instrument.%本文分别对进口和国产品牌不同种类的水质分析仪表的市场应用、市场份额、价格、技术指标等进行详细调研和比较,旨在为电站运行选用经济适用的水质分析仪表提供选择指导。

  9. 9 CFR 327.16 - Small importations for importer's own consumption; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small importations for importer's own... importations for importer's own consumption; requirements. Any product in a quantity of 50 pounds or less which was purchased by the importer outside the United States for his/her own consumption, is eligible to...

  10. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil increased by 8.4% in China in 2007, hitting the record of 183.48 million tons (Fig.l).The net imports of crude oil and other oil products including paraffin wax, oil coke, and asphalt increased and balanced out the decrease of the net imports of product oil and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  11. Efecto de PROCAMPO sobre la producción y las importaciones de granos forrajeros en México The effect of PROCAMPO on the production and imports of forage grain in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nery Molina-Gómez

    Full Text Available Para medir los efectos PROCAMPO sobre la producción e importaciones de maíz (Zea mays L. y sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. se estimaron dos funciones de oferta usando series de 1980 a 2009, y se construyó un sistema de ecuaciones en 2007 a 2009. Los resultados indican que el maíz y el sorgo tienen una respuesta inelástica ante el pago de PROCAMPO con elasticidades de 0.24 y 0.22 para maíz y sorgo. Si PROCAMPO no hubiera existido, la producción de maíz y sorgo hubiera sido menor en 17 y 9.1%, respecto al nivel observado en 2007-2009. Un aumento de 50% en el pago de PROCAMPO aumentaría la producción de maíz y sorgo en 1 924 y 286 mil toneladas, y disminuiría las importaciones en esa cantidad. La evolución de los precios internacionales del sorgo y maíz y del precio del fertilizante en el periodo 1993 -1995 y de 2007- 2009 permiten concluir que el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN no ha beneficiado a los productores ya que oferta de maíz y sorgo observada en 2007 a 2009 fue menor en 1 656 y 27 mil toneladas por la disminución en los precios internacionales de ambos granos. De manera similar, la producción de maíz y sorgo observada en 2007 a 2009 fue menor en 455 y 254 mil toneladas por efecto del aumento en el precio del fertilizante. Debido a los efectos positivos del PROCAMPO, y a los efectos negativos que ha tenido el TLCAN sobre el mercado de los dos granos, se recomienda que el programa continúe, y se aumente el apoyo otorgado.To measure the effects of PROCAMPO on the production and importation of maizemaiz (Zea mays L. and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench., two supply functions were estimated using the series 1980 to 2009, and constructing a system of equations from 2007 to 2009. The results indicated that maize and sorghum have an inelastic response when faced with the PROCAMPO payment and with elasticity of 0.24 and 0.22 for maize and sorghum. If PROCAMPO would not have existed, the production

  12. Product choice and product switching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Redding, Stephen; Peter K. Schott

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a model of endogenous product selection by firms. The theory is motivated by new evidence we present on the importance of product switching by U.S. manufacturers. Two-thirds of continuing firms change their product mix every five years, and product switches involve more than 40% of firm output and almost half of existing products. The theoretical model incorporates heterogeneous firms, heterogeneous products, and ongoing entry and exit. In equilibrium, firm productivity is...

  13. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  14. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the

  15. 7 CFR 1230.12 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1230.12 Section 1230.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Importer. Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.609 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 1230.609 Section 1230.609 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.609 Importer. The term Importer means a person who imports porcine animals, pork, or pork products into the United States....

  17. 进出口水产品中霍乱弧菌的检测与分析%Detection and analysis of Vibrio cholerae from import and export aquatic products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正义; 贾俊涛; 梁成珠; 卢丽丽; 姜英辉; 祝素珍; 赵丽青; 房保海; 雷质文

    2011-01-01

    目的 监测并分析进出口水产品中的霍乱弧菌.方法 采用传统两步增菌,平板划线,分离可疑单菌落,VITEK 2 Compact全自动微生物鉴定仪、普通PCR、实时荧光定量PCR和血清凝集试验确认分离菌株.结果 从水产品样品分离的菌株全自动微生物鉴定仪鉴定结果相似度达97%,普通PCR和实时荧光定量PCR检测为霍乱弧菌,ctx毒素基因检测为阴性,血清凝集试验为非O1非O139群霍乱弧菌.结论 从水产品中检出霍乱弧菌非流行株,但仍需要加强主动监测,预防疫情的暴发.%Objective To monitor and analysis Vibrio cholerae from import and export aquatic products. Methods The suspicious single colonies by traditional two step enrichment and flat crossed separation was adopted. After isolation, the suspicious single colonies were identified by VITEK 2 Compact automated microbe identification analyzer, common PCR, real-time PCR and serological tests. Results The probability of the isolated strain was 97% by VITEK 2 Compact automated microbe identification analyzer. It was detected as Vibrio cholera by common PCR and real-time PCR and the primer and fluorescent probe were from industrial standard. The virulence gene ctx in the isolated strain was not : detected by common PCR. It was confirmed as non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholera by serum agglutination test. Conclusion Although one non-epidemic strain of Vibrio chloerae was detected from the monitoring aquatic products, the monitoring work should be strengthened for epidemic prevention.

  18. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  19. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  20. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  1. Technical report of EFSA prepared by the Assessment Methodology Unit on Quantitative pathway analysis of the exposure of the wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores one year after importation of US wheat for grain into the EU and desert durum wheat into Italy. Appendix B, to the Scientific Opinion on a quantitative pathway analysis of the likelihood of Tilletia indica M. introduction into EU with importation of US wheat of EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    The EFSA Plant Health Unit asked the Assessment Methodology Unit to recalculate and update the Quantitative Pathway Analysis of the exposure of the EU wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores provided by USDA APHIS. Simulations were computed, for importations of US wheat into EU....... This technical report contains a full description of the calculations and results. The description and discussion of the scenario and model can be found in the Scientific Opinion on a quantitative pathway analysis of the likelihood of Tilletia indica M. introduction into EU with importation of US wheat of EFSA...

  2. Information analysis of scales on imported plant and plant products%中国进境植物及植物产品携带蚧虫疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾渝娟; 梁帆; 马骏

    2015-01-01

    Background]Scales are a group of insects belonging to Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea. They are small and po-lyphagous pests, easily transferred with plant products. It is possible to use data from the China Inspection and Quarantine ( CIQ) to determine entre points and rate of spread of high risk species. [Method]In this paper, we analyzed the information of scales inter-cepted by CIQ from 2005 to 2014 including scale category, country of origin, product category, and entry date. We also analyzed the scales excluded from the quarantine list. [Result]The results showed that 171978 batches of scales were inspected on imported plants and plant products during this period, including 7071 batches that were quarantined pests from 12 species. Planococcus lilaci-nus, Planococcus minor, and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes were the top 3 pests with 2848 batches, 2442 batches, and 1714 batches in-tercepted, respectively. Asian countries, especially Southeast Asia, were the main countries of origin and where the main three spe-cies came from. Fruits are the main carrier of scales, accounting for 99.0% of the total amount of scales. There was a gradual de-crease from 2006 to 2010, followed by a huge increase in 2011. P. lilacinus was the main pest from 2005 to 2008, and then P. minor became dominant. D. neobrevipes became the most important pest in 2011. There were 68797 batches scale pests not included in the quarantine list of China since 2005, among them 68712 batches were identified as belonging to 105 species and 46 genera. There were 23 species unreported in mainland China with high risk to invade. [Conclusion and significance]The analysis of the intercepted data from CIQ helped better understand pest dynamics and improve targeted quarantine and monitoring. At the same time, it can help the research institute to understand the needs of port application and cooperation, to prevent the invasion of exotic pests.%【背景】蚧虫是半翅目胸喙亚目蚧总科下的一类

  3. PERSONNEL TRAINING - AN IMPORTANT LINK OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubilin A. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Import substitution - a process at the level of the national economy, which is provided at the release of the necessary domestic consumer goods manufacturers forces, leading activities in the country. At present, Russian farmers have an incentive to carry out a largescale import substitution because of the food embargo on the West European suppliers of agricultural products. An important problem that accompanies the processes of import substitution in Russia is the lack of qualified personnel in a number of industries, as a prerequisite for the growth of agricultural production in Russia is full staffing agriculture. The article has identified the causes of insufficient practical training of graduates of agricultural universities. The role of Kuban State Agrarian University in the personnel matters of the village. Grounded following directions of improvement of training: the formation of the federal and regional forecasts provide human resources for the future of the village; the creation of organizations and municipalities comfortable social environment for young professionals; promotion of public – private partnership for the training of personnel for rural areas; improving infrastructure to support the system of financing higher education institutions; protection of the region's interest in defending the rights of agrarian university on training for other sectors of the economy in rural areas, except for agricultural commodity production; empowerment of the target form of training specialists; allocation of resources (possibly in the form of grants to prepare doctors to foreign training, access to foreign sources of scientific information, cooperation of universities to gain access to the Web of Science and Scopus' resources

  4. Novos produtos naturais capazes de atuar na estabilização de microtúbulos, um importante alvo no combate ao câncer New natural products able to act on the stabilization of microtubules, an important target against cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora de Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are involved in many aspects of cellular biology and represent an important target of anticancer chemotherapeutics. In the past five years, novel natural products such as epothilones, discodermolide, sarcodictyin, eleutherobin, and laulimalide, all of which have biological activities similar to those of paclitaxel (Taxolâ, have been discovered. Taxolâ is an important antitumor drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of ovarian, breast and non-small-cell lung carcinomas and became the first natural product described that stabilized microtubules avoiding the cellular replication. The present article reports new natural products that are able to act on the stabilization of microtubules.

  5. 7 CFR 926.15 - Importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importer. 926.15 Section 926.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Importer. Importer means any person who causes cranberries or cranberry products produced outside...

  6. 75 FR 62692 - Dairy Import Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA65 Dairy Import Licensing Program... the historical license reduction provisions of the Dairy Import Licensing Program, 7 CFR part 6, for a... ongoing changes in the markets for cheese and other dairy products subject to import...

  7. Importance of Family Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  8. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...... of the origin of imports and the destination of exports. We find that both imports from countries with abundant and cheap labor like China and from countries with similar level of development matter, although the mechanism through which productivity is affected is likely to be different. In addition, exporting...

  9. Importation and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank R Lichtenberg

    2006-01-01

    Importation of drugs into the U.S. would result in a decline in U.S. drug prices. The purpose of this paper is to assess the consequences of importation for new drug development. A simple theoretical model of drug development suggests that the elasticity of innovation with respect to the expected price of drugs should be at least as great as the elasticity of innovation with respect to expected market size (disease incidence). I examine the cross-sectional relationship between pharmaceutical ...

  10. Import vs. Imitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölcze, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    in producing, maintaining and reproducing social identities, communicating new ideas and technological innovations and creating ideologies and cosmologies. Our understanding of material culture has obtained a social dimension, and we as archaeologists have become aware of the importance of making this aspect....... Instead, we have to focus on the social life and role of an artifact - whether it is an original object, imported from a different cultural sphere, or an imitation, produced locally. Through my presentation I would like to stimulate the debate about this new approach, starting off with the hoard finds...

  11. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor......A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...

  12. QUALITY, REPUTATION, AND IMPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Worth, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a model of how firms determine the quality of their output in a setting of asymmetric information. In this framework, the few lowest-cost firms produce high quality output and the rest produce at low quality due to a free-rider problem. The presence of imports exacerbates this problem.

  13. Importance of Gait Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Importance of Gait Training by Scott Cummings, PT, CPO, FAAOP It is the goal of most every lower-limb amputee to walk “normally” again. ... all lower-limb amputees will benefit from gait training at some point in their recovery to help ...

  14. Exports to Imports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China covers ground as it attempts to balance imports and exports after a trade deficit in the first quarter As China gears up to rebalance its economy,a key factor will be weaning its reliance on exports.The vigorous efforts are paying off as the country reported a trade deficit in the first

  15. Partner Performs More Important

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Reporter: Would you please offer an introduction to exhibition development of Frankfurt? Michael von Zitzewitz: Mess Frankfurt GmbH has made great achievements in despite of dissatisfying economy in Europe. 364 million Euro of sales volume has made Mess Frankfurt GmbH become the 2nd largest world’s exhibition corporation, overseas sales is an important fortune resource for

  16. Back/joint pain, illness perceptions and coping are important predictors of quality of life and work productivity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease : a 12-month longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, Mike; Brakenhoff, Lianne K P M; van Erp, Sanne J H; Kaptein, Ad A; Leenders, Max; Scharloo, Margreet; Veenendaal, Roeland A; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Hommes, Daan W; Fidder, Herma H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Back and joint pain are the most common extraintestinal symptoms reported by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the impact of back/joint pain, illness perceptions, and coping on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity in patients with IBD. METHODS: O

  17. The importance of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2004-03-15

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, wheat straw and hazelnut shell are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. The total forest potential of Turkey is around 935 million m3 with an annual growth of about 28 million m{sup 3}. Turkey's annual biomass potential in 2001 was million tons of oil equivalent. (author)

  18. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  19. Imported Wines Widen Appeal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ "There are many factors contributing to the healthy growth of the wine market in China,"says Don St. Pierre, Jr., managing partner of ASC Fine Wines (Shanghai) Co Ltd, one of China's largest importers and distributors of fine wines. "The reduction in tariffs has helped - it has made wines more affordable. But also driving growth is the rise in Chinese people's incomes and their increasing interest in enjoying what is perceived as a socially and culturally sophisticated lifestyle."

  20. Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiresan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove forests are extremely important coastal resources, which are vital to our socio-economic development. Much of the ecological service of mangroves lies in protecting the coast from solar UV-B radiation, “green house” effects, and fury of cyclones, floods, sea level rise, wave action and coastal erosion. Mangroves contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle and produce large amounts of litter in the form of falling leaves, branches and other debris. Besides, mangrove habitats c...

  1. Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kathiresan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are extremely important coastal resources, which are vital to our socio-economic development. Much of the ecological service of mangroves lies in protecting the coast from solar UV-B radiation, “green house” effects, and fury of cyclones, floods, sea level rise, wave action and coastal erosion. Mangroves contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle and produce large amounts of litter in the form of falling leaves, branches and other debris. Besides, mangrove habitats contribute to complex food webs and energy transfers.

  2. China Depends More on Imported Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qian

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's oil imports will continue to see solid growth in 2010,with more than half of the country's total oil consumption coming from abroad.It is inevitable for the country-the world's second largest oil consumer-to see a robust increase of imports,as domestic production cannot keep up with rising demand.

  3. US definitions, current use, and FDA stance on use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Knut; Allen, Donald; Apostolakos, John; Russell, Ryan P; McCarthy, Mary Beth; Gallo, Gregory J; Cote, Mark P; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2015-02-01

    With increased utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), it is important for clinicians to understand the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory role and stance on PRP. Blood products such as PRP fall under the prevue of FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). CBER is responsible for regulating human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products. The regulatory process for these products is described in the FDA's 21 CFR 1271 of the Code of Regulations. Under these regulations, certain products including blood products such as PRP are exempt and therefore do not follow the FDA's traditional regulatory pathway that includes animal studies and clinical trials. The 510(k) application is the pathway used to bring PRP preparation systems to the market. The 510(k) application allows devices that are "substantially equivalent" to a currently marketed device to come to the market. There are numerous PRP preparation systems on the market today with FDA clearance; however, nearly all of these systems have 510(k) clearance for producing platelet-rich preparations intended to be used to mix with bone graft materials to enhance bone graft handling properties in orthopedic practices. The use of PRP outside this setting, for example, an office injection, would be considered "off label." Clinicians are free to use a product off-label as long as certain responsibilities are met. Per CBER, when the intent is the practice of medicine, clinicians "have the responsibility to be well informed about the product, to base its use on firm scientific rationale and on sound medical evidence, and to maintain records of the product's use and effects." Finally, despite PRP being exempted, the language in 21 CFR 1271 has caused some recent concern over activated PRP; however to date, the FDA has not attempted to regulate activated PRP. Clinicians using activated PRP should be mindful of these concerns and continued to stay informed. PMID

  4. Why is Astronomy Important?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Marissa; Bladon, Georgia; Christensen, Lars Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    For a long time astronomers and other scientists believed that the importance of their work was evident to society. But in these difficult days of financial austerity, even the most obvious benefits of science have to undergo careful scrutiny. Eradicating poverty and hunger is a worldwide priority, and activities that do not directly attempt to resolve these issues can be hard to justify and support. However, several studies have told us that investing in science education, research and technology provides a great return (not only economically, but culturally and indirectly for the population in general and has helped countries to face and overcome crises. The scientific and technological development of a country or region is closely linked to its human development index) a statistic that is a measure of life expectancy, education and income.

  5. Most important human aluminoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtsyn, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.

  6. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2009-01-01

    @@ The net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 9.5% in 2008 and rose to 200.67 million tons from 183.28 million tons in 2007 (Fig.1,Fig.2).The net imports of crude oil reached 175.16 million tons,up by 9.9%.According to the statistics of State Customs Administration,the net imports of oil products,including gasoline,kerosene,diesel and fuel oil increased by 19.4% and rose to 21.84 million tons.

  7. China's Oil Imports and Exports in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2010-01-01

    @@ The so-called imported oil dependence degree commonly refers to the proportion of oil imported to China's oil consumption,which hit 56% in 2009 and has exceeded 50% in 2007.In the past two years,the net imports of oil,including crude oil,refined oil,LPG and other oil products,increased by 8.8% and rose to218.38 million tons.

  8. Origin of a chloroplast protein importer

    OpenAIRE

    Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Schulz, Alexander; Hinnah, Silke; Wagner, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During evolution, chloroplasts have relinquished the majority of their genes to the nucleus. The products of transferred genes are imported into the organelle with the help of an import machinery that is distributed across the inner and outer plastid membranes. The evolutionary origin of this machinery is puzzling because, in the putative predecessors, the cyanobacteria, the outer two membranes, the plasma membrane, and the lipopolysaccharide layer lack a functionally similar protein import s...

  9. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jianhua; Zuo Xichao

    2008-01-01

    @@ 4. Increasing import of rare earth resources products As a big producer and an important export country of rare earth products for years, rare earths import is in an auxiliary position in China. import volume is rather small. However, since the strengthened macro control measures and restriction of mining scale in 2007, domestic rare earth supply was tight in China.

  10. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel mill products are subject to the import licensing requirements. These products are listed in Annex...

  11. 9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of foreign inedible fats... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United States...

  12. Importance et rôle du zooplancton dans une lagune tropicale, la lagune Ebrié (Côte d'Ivoire) : peuplements, biomasse, production et bilan métabolique

    OpenAIRE

    PAGANO, Marc; Saint-Jean, L.

    1991-01-01

    Le programme a été axé sur l'étude au cours de deux cycles annuels de cinq stations représentatives de l'éventail des conditions écologiques. Des analyses sur le seston permettent de caractériser l'environnement trophique. Le zooplancton est dominé par #Acartia clausi$, #Oithona brevicornis$, #Pseudodiaptomus hessei$, les rotifères et les larves de lamellibranches. En termes de biomasse les copépodes forment le groupe dominant (89%). L'importance pondérale du macroplancton dominé par les mysi...

  13. Core Noise - Increasing Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core-noise area, with additional details given about the development of a high-fidelity combustor-noise prediction capability as well as activities supporting the development of improved reduced-order, physics-based models for combustor-noise prediction. The need for benchmark data for validation of high-fidelity and modeling work and the value of a potential future diagnostic facility for testing of core-noise-reduction concepts are indicated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The SFW Reduced-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries. This reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. Noise generated in the jet engine core, by sources such as the compressor, combustor, and turbine, can be a significant contribution to the overall noise signature at low-power conditions, typical of approach flight. At high engine power during takeoff, jet and fan noise have traditionally dominated over core noise. However, current design trends and expected technological advances in engine-cycle design as well as noise-reduction methods are likely to reduce non-core noise even at engine-power points higher than approach. In addition, future low-emission combustor

  14. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals and metallic products are fundamental to a large number of modern industries and steel is certainly one of the most significant metallurgical products. Steel and steel castings as universal production material, that provided the grounds for the contemporary industrialization process,will have a continuously irreplaceable role in the future, regardless of the fact that nowadays steel materials are often replaced by other materials (ceramics, polymers, etc., whenever it is technically required and cost-justified.The development of metallurgy and metallurgical processes is accompanied by pollution of the environment that directly or indirectly endangered the health of humans, certain animal and plant species, water resources systems, and soil. It also lead to increased erosion of material goodsand caused many other adverse social and economy-related effects.The integral steelworks concept has, for example, set off a significant increase in the number of emission sources and the increase of harmful substances concentration in the environment. The largest polluters have always been coking plants, iron ore agglomeration facilities, blast furnaces, steel mills, foundries and thermal energy plants.Numerous fundamental scientific research works have proven a series of adverse effects caused by uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances from these plants. Beside the considerable quantities of usual and well-known polluting substances such as sulfur and carbon oxides, fluorides,ammonia, benzene, heavy metals, phenols, cyanides, oil and grease, slag, used refractory material, metallic scrapings, sludge, dust, and scale, there are also relatively small pollutions with long-lasting effects that are hazardous even in their low concentrations and they rarely receivedue attention.This polluting substance group consists of persistent organic pollutions represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated

  15. Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies ? Pharmaceutical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Muntha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics has now emerged as an important part of drug development especially in the development of new drugs. The combined studies of Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics present a thorough understanding on how the drug affects the body and how the body affects the drug.Bioavailability is the study of the rate and extent to which the active ingredient is absorbed from a dosage form and it is available at the required action site. Bioequivalence is that there should not be any significant difference in bioavailability between two products.Bioavailability (BA and bioequivalence (BE studies play a key role during the phase of drug development for both innovator drugs and generic drugs and thus have gained great attention over the past few decades. BE is used to introduce generic drugs of innovator drugs at a lower cost. So a thorough understanding of these BA/BE studies is required

  16. Structural and textural properties of Fe2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts and their importance in the catalytic reforming of CH4 with H2S for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Hernández, Félix; Domínguez, J. M.; Portales, Benjamín

    2015-08-01

    Newer catalysts for the methane reforming with H2S are designed, which are based on Fe2O3/γ-Al2O3, nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 supports, and 1.0 to 6.0 wt% Fe. The main phases are identified as hematite and γ-Al2O3, with sizes of about 2-4 nm. The structural features are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld's Refinement and Radial Distribution Function analysis. The textural properties of these catalysts are determined by N2 sorption and surface fractal dimension calculations. Also, the electronic states are inferred by Mössbauer and UV-Vis (diffuse reflectance) spectroscopies. The activity of Fe2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts in the methane reforming is tested in a fixed bed type reactor. Further calculations indicate that Fe2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts go through a charge transfer decrease, which depends on the iron content, i.e., from 1.08 to 0.88 eV; Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals that Fe3+ ions adopt a tetrahedral coordination, which coincides with their higher activity for hydrogen production, with respect to catalysts having octahedral coordination. The specific surface area of these catalysts is about 84 m2 g-1, with a mean pore diameter of 2.5 nm. A mechanism for the methane reforming with H2S is proposed herein.

  17. Review of China's Petroleum Imports & Exports in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2006-01-01

    @@ After having increased greatly for three consecutive years, the net import of crude oil dropped by 5.2% in 2005 in China.The price inversion between the prices of major product oil in Chinese market with the international market leads to a great decrease of imported fuel and diesel oil and an increase of gasoline and diesel exportation. Except crude oil, the net import volumes of oil products including product oil, LPG and other oil products dropped obviously last year.

  18. Study of important parameters on the irradiation of {sup 124}Xe, to improve the production of {sup 123}I with high purity using the Cyclone-30 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP; Estudo de parametros relevantes na irradiacao de {sup 124}Xe, visando a otimizacao na obtencao de {sup 123}I ultra puro no ciclotron Cyclone-30 do IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiya, Luiz Carlos do Amaral

    2006-07-01

    The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I. The {sup 123}I production is the aim of the present work. With the {sup 123}I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree {sup 123}I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of {sup 123}I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: {sup 124}Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain {sup 123}I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)

  19. Employer Learning and the "Importance" of Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Audrey; McGee, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We ask whether the role of employer learning in the wage-setting process depends on skill type and skill importance to productivity. Combining data from the NLSY79 with O*NET data, we use Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores to measure seven distinct types of pre-market skills that employers cannot readily observe, and O*NET importance scores to measure the importance of each skill for the worker's current three-digit occupation. Before bringing importance measures into the analy...

  20. Prediction of (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of dissolution products of H2 [Pt(OH)6 ] in nitric acid solutions by DFT methods: how important are the counter-ion effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, Athanassios C; Karapetsas, Ioannis N

    2016-08-01

    (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of octahedral Pt(IV) complexes with general formula [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) , [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 1-6), and [Pt(NO3 )6 - n  - m (OH)m (OH2 )n ](-2 + n - m) formed by dissolution of platinic acid, H2 [Pt(OH)6 ], in aqueous nitric acid solutions are calculated employing density functional theory methods. Particularly, the gauge-including atomic orbitals (GIAO)-PBE0/segmented all-electron relativistically contracted-zeroth-order regular approximation (SARC-ZORA)(Pt) ∪ 6-31G(d,p)(E)/Polarizable Continuum Model computational protocol performs the best. Excellent second-order polynomial plots of δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus δexptl ((195) Pt) chemical shifts and δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus the natural atomic charge QPt are obtained. Despite of neglecting relativistic and spin orbit effects the good agreement of the calculated δ (195) Pt chemical shifts with experimental values is probably because of the fact that the contribution of relativistic and spin orbit effects to computed σ(iso) (195) Pt magnetic shielding of Pt(IV) coordination compounds is effectively cancelled in the computed δ (195) Pt chemical shifts, because the relativistic corrections are expected to be similar in the complexes and the proper reference standard used. To probe the counter-ion effects on the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) and cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 0-3) complexes we calculated the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the neutral (PyH)2 [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ] (n = 1-6; PyH = pyridinium cation, C5 H5 NH(+) ) and [Pt(NO3 )n (H2 O)6 - n ](NO3 )4 - n (n = 0-3) complexes. Counter-anion effects are very important for the accurate prediction of the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) complexes, while counter-cation effects are less important for the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6

  1. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  2. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  3. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  4. China's Petroleum Imports and Exports in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2011-01-01

    @@ Net imports of crude oil, product oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and other oil products rose by 16.2% and hit a historic high of 253.7 million tons in 2010.Among these, net imports of crude oil reached 236.3 million tons, 93% of the total, and the growth rate was as high as 19.0% (see Fig.1).As the demand for oil products maintained a robust growth and the scale of oil refineries was expanded further, China's processing quantity of crude oil rose by 50 million tons in 2010, 13.4% higher than the figure in 2009.Sales of oil products were brisk, in particular diesel demand was increased suddenly in the fourth quarter of 2009.Therefore, China's apparent need (production + net imports) of seven kinds of main oil products including gasoline, kerosene, diesel, lubricant oil, fuel oil, LPG and chemical light oil was increased by 11.6% in 2010 (Table 1 and Table 2).

  5. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  6. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  7. Import Demand Elasticities and Trade Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic estimation of import demand elasticities for a broad group of countries at a very disaggregated level of product detail. We use a semiflexible translog GDP function approach to formally derive import demands and their elasticities, which are estimated with data on prices and endowments. Within a theoretically consistent framework, we use the estimated elasticities to construct Feenstra's (1995) simplification of Anderson and Neary's trade restrictiveness index...

  8. Importance and Functions of Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien CARLIER

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands, mixture of grass, clover and other leguminous species, dicotyledonous, herbs and shrubs, contribute to a high degree to the struggle against erosion and to the regularizing of water regimes, to the purification of fertilizers and pesticides and to biodiversity and they have aesthetic role and recreational function as far as they provide public access that other agricultural uses do not allow. Grassland will continue to be an important form of land use in Europe, but with increased diversity in management objectives and systems used. Besides its role as basic nutrient for herbivores and ruminants, grasslands have opportunities for an adding value by exploiting positive health characteristics in animal products from grassland and through the delivery of environmental benefits. But even for grassland it is very difficult to create a good frame for its different tasks (1 the provision of forage for livestock, (2 protection and conservation of soil and water resources, (3 furnishing a habitat for wildlife, both flora and fauna and (4 contribution to the attractiveness of the landscape. Nevertheless it is the only crop able to fulfil so many tasks and to fit so many requirements. In this article the focus is limited to the grass and clover components of the grasslands.

  9. ECOPHARMACOVIGILANCE: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Bhavana Srivastava

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV. It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. EPV has become a research hotspot in Europe and North America. Environmental Risk assessment (ERA is now a regulatory requirement prior to launch of any new drug. The biggest difference and greatest challenge concerns signal detection in the environment and the dilemma of identifying cause and effect. In the background of growing Indian pharmaceutical industry and drug consumption, India should shoulder responsibility for its own environment and people along with the world ecosystem. Compared to the west EPV in India is in infancy ERA is now a regulatory requirement prior to launch of any new drug. However there is no formal frame-work to monitor for potential adverse effects in the environment, once a product has been launched. There should be laws and regulations on EPV, rational medication, drug take back programs, strengthening policy guided and scientific researches on EPV by pharmaceutical firms and academia.

  10. Japanese import survey : descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeshima, Kaoru; Michida, Etsuyo; 鍋嶋, 郁; 道田, 悦代

    2016-01-01

    Food importers, such as wholesalers and food processing firms, play an important role in sourcing food from abroad. They are also responsible for ensuring that imported food meets the food safety standards of the importing country. Often, assurance of conformity is done in collaboration with exporters. Thus, importers can influence how supply chains in developing countries are organized. This paper uses a unique dataset obtained from the Japanese market to examine how importers select supplie...

  11. The Method to Determine the Degree of Technical Requirements Important Research ---Based on the Product Attribute Value in QFD%技术需求重要度确定方法研究--基于产品属性价值的QFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国洪; 王秀丽

    2013-01-01

    针对QFD中技术需求重要分析方法的不足,提出结合产品属性价值判断的产品技术需求重要度的集成质量屋方法,通过分析客户需求和产品的属性价值及产品属性之间的相关关系,运用产品价值属性判断和模糊综合评价的方法,将客户需求、市场竞争和产品质量需求特性的属性价值作为输入,构建质量屋,得出技术需求的重要度。该方法以对技术特性的现存量化数据分析取代了对技术需求的微观调查和判断,有效避免了微观调查数据模糊和难以处理,同时避免技术竞争数据中存在的主观性,而使产品属性权重的获取更加符合市场实际需求。最后以某电源开关企业客户需求分析为例,验证了该方法的可行性和有效性。%Aiming at the deficiencies of technical requirements importance analysis in Quality Function Deployment (QFD) , integration of product attribute value judgment and the importance of product technology needs of quality house method is presented, through the analysis of customer needs and product attribute value and the relationship between product attributes, used product value attribute judgment and fuzzy comprehensive statement method, the customer demand, market competition and the product quality demand characteristics of attribute value as input, constructing quality house, we conclude that importance of technology requirements. This method takes analysis the existing quantitative data of the technology characteristics replaced the micro investigation and judgment of technology requirements , effectively avoid the microscopic investigation data fuzzy and hard to deal with, and at the same time avoid subjectivity of the data existing in technology competition analysis, and make the product attribute weight more in line with the actual demand of the market. Finally feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were proved by requirements analysis of a

  12. Import tariffs enforcement with low administrative capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Tonin, Mirco

    2010-01-01

    Import tariff receipts represent an important share of government revenues in many developing countries and there has recently been a surge in empirical studies showing how evasion in this field is a pervasive phenomenon. In the case of import tariffs, the tax base is the product of quantity and unit value, both of which have to be reported and need to be assessed by the custom authority during an audit. I show that when the fiscal authority has an imperfect detection technology, there is an ...

  13. ENHANCED: IMPORTING TIMBER, EXPORTING ECOLOGICAL IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covering 32% of the planet, boreal forests are one of the last relatively intact terrestrial biomes, and are a critical carbon sink in global climate dynamics. Mature and old growth boreal forests provide a large number of products that are culturally and economically important, ...

  14. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  15. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    . Industrial design is concentrated in urban locations, but most of its clients are located elsewhere. Hence, it seems that industrial design firms concentrate in urban locations mainly because their knowledge networks include specific types of formal and informal local social networks....

  16. 26 CFR 52.4682-3 - Imported taxable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affect tax liability. (iv) Example. The application of this paragraph (c)(3) may be illustrated by the...-113 0.0022 Telephone answering machines 8520.20 CFC-113 0.1 Color video recording/reproducing... 9401 CFC-11 0.30 Foam sofas 9401 CFC-11 0.75 Foam mattresses 9404.21 CFC-11 1.60 Electronic games...

  17. Importance of multimesonic fusion processes on (strange) antibaryon production

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, C

    2002-01-01

    Sufficiently fast chemical equilibration of (strange) antibaryons in an environment of nucleons, pions and kaons during the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision can be understood by a `clustering' of mesons to built up baryon-antibaryon pairs. This multimesonic (fusion-type) process has to exist in medium due to the principle of detailed balance. Novel numerical calculations for a dynamical setup are presented. They show that at maximum SPS energies - yields of each antihyperon specie are obtained which are consistent with chemical saturated populations of T approximately=150-160 MeV, in line with popular chemical freeze-out parameters extracted from thermal model analyses. (17 refs).

  18. The Importance of Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria During Reservoir Production and Drilling Operations Nouveaux défis liés à la présence d'équilibres eau-hydrocarbures lors des opérations de production et de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable presence of water in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs leads to a number of new challenges for petroleum engineers. A brief state of the art on water-hydrocarbon phase equilibria is presented. It appears that large amounts of water may be present in the hydrocarbon phase (up to 10% molar, and non negligible amounts of gas can dissolve in water. Based on experimental data, a large number of models have been developed. However, concerning the limitations of the data, caution is expressed about the correctness of some models. Recent studies have proven the usefulness of Henry's constants to predict hydrocarbon solubilities in water. The new challenges that are raised by this problem are discussed based on a number of recent publications. The water present in the hydrocarbon may lead to salt deposits downwell, and it must be taken into account in order to estimate the amount of gas in place. It can also result in modifications of the saturation pressure. Due to the presence of water, additional treatment is needed for pipe transport. On the other hand, the large amount of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase may result in a modification of the hydrocarbon composition, especially when reservoir pressure becomes very low. The increased toxicity of the water, containing either H2S or aromatics, can become a real burden for gas reservoirs in contact with aquifers or when disposing of production water. During drilling, large amounts of dissolved gas can become very hazardous, increasing the risk of eruption. A particular attention must be paid to acid gas injection in reservoirs, as the true effect of the injected gas may not be straightforward to predict. In conclusion, in light of the industrial importance of this information, some general guidelines are provided concerning additional data to be gathered and ideas for improving current models. La présence inévitable d'eau dans les réservoirs à hautes pression et temp

  19. The Importance of Kinetic Metastability: Some Common Everyday Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of kinetic metastability is illustrated in detail using several common household products and recommendations are made for how this important and widespread, but often neglected, phenomenon can be more effectively presented in the introductory chemistry textbook.

  20. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  2. Explore the Electric Power Enterprise Culture in Production Safety and the Important Role of Team Stability%探讨电力企业文化在安全生产及队伍稳定中的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱建军

    2014-01-01

    Electricity corporate culture plays an important role in the safe production and team stability. Analyzes the importance of the power of corporate culture, pointing out some of the problems that exist in current business culture, and to addresses these issues put forward corresponding measures.%电力企业文化在企业安全生产和队伍稳定中发挥着重要的作用。分析了电力企业文化的重要性,指出当前企业文化建设中存在的一些问题,并针对这些问题提出了相应的措施。

  3. 2007 China Rare Earths Import & Export Analysis and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Chinese rare earth import & export status in 2007 China further strengthened regulations on import & export of rare earth products in 2007. Firstly, NDRC changed the guidance for rare earth production from guiding plan into mandatory plan at the year beginning.

  4. Importance of macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, M; Pavičić-Baldani, D; Stanić, P; Orešković, S; Sarić, J-M; Blajić, J; Juras, J

    2014-12-01

    Macroprolactin is an antigen-antibody complex of higher molecular mass than prolactin (>150kDa), consisting of monomeric prolactin and immunoglobulin G. The term 'macroprolactinemia' is used when the concentration of macroprolactin exceeds 60% of the total serum prolactin concentration determined by polyethylene glycol precipitation. The gold standard technique for the diagnosis of macroprolactinemia is gel filtration chromatography. The prevalence of macroprolactinemia in hyperprolactinemic populations varies between 15% and 35%. Although the pathogenesis of these antibodies is not clear, it is possible that changes in the pituitary prolactin molecule represent increased antigenicity to the immune system, leading to the production of anti-prolactin antibodies. Mild hyperprolactinemia usually occurs because macroprolactin is not cleared readily from the circulation due to its higher molecular weight. Moreover, the hypothalamic negative feedback mechanism for autoantibody-bound prolactin is inactive because macroprolactin cannot access the hypothalamus, resulting in hyperprolactinemia. Reduced in-vivo bioactivity of macroprolactin may be the reason for the lack of hyperprolactinemic symptoms. It also seems that anti-prolactin autoantibodies may compete with prolactin molecules for receptor binding, resulting in low bioactivity. Additionally, the large molecular size of macroprolactin confined in the intravascular compartment prevents its passage through the capillary endothelium to the target cells, which may be the reason for the lack of symptoms. Macroprolactinemia is considered to be a benign clinical condition in patients with normal concentrations of bioactive monomeric prolactin, with a lack, or low incidence, of hyperprolactinemic symptoms and negative pituitary imaging. In such cases with resistance to anti-prolactinaemic drugs, no pharmacological treatment, diagnostic investigations or prolonged follow-up are required. However, macroprolactinemia may also

  5. Industry Competition is an Important Way to Combine the Major of Advertising Design and Production of Higher Vocational College with the Personnel Cultivation%行业大赛是高职广告设计与制作专业工学结合人才培养的重要路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗振举

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the condition of teaching resources of the advertising industry and the advertising design and production of Tianjin City as well as the importance of the advertising compe-tition to the personnel cultivation of “work-study combination” .It puts forward an idea that the adver-tising competition is an important way for the “work-study combination” personnel cultivation of the major of advertising design and production of higher vocational college ,combined with the practice of teaching reform in education .%文本分析了目前天津市广告行业与高职广告设计与制作专业的教学资源状况、广告大赛对“工学结合”人才培养的作用,结合专业教育教学改革实践,提出了广告大赛是当前高职广告设计与制作专业“工学结合”人才培养的重要路径的观点。

  6. Industry Competition is an Important Way to Combine the Major of Advertising Design and Production of Higher Vocational College with the Personnel Cultivation%行业大赛是高职广告设计与制作专业工学结合人才培养的重要路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗振举

    2014-01-01

    文本分析了目前天津市广告行业与高职广告设计与制作专业的教学资源状况、广告大赛对“工学结合”人才培养的作用,结合专业教育教学改革实践,提出了广告大赛是当前高职广告设计与制作专业“工学结合”人才培养的重要路径的观点。%This paper analyzes the condition of teaching resources of the advertising industry and the advertising design and production of Tianjin City as well as the importance of the advertising compe-tition to the personnel cultivation of “work-study combination” .It puts forward an idea that the adver-tising competition is an important way for the “work-study combination” personnel cultivation of the major of advertising design and production of higher vocational college ,combined with the practice of teaching reform in education .

  7. Africa's Growing Dependence on Imported Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mahendra; Fischer, Gunther; Kromer, Gerhard; Parikh, Kirit

    1987-01-01

    Food production in many African countnes has in recent years not expanded fast enough to keep up with population growth. Dimimshmgself-sufficiency and food security and the consequent increase in food imports of many African countnes are causing great concern. Amongst all food items, wheat stands out as the one commodity whose influence in consumption seems to be growing rapidly This paper highlights the results of a detailed study investigating the underlying causes of past trends, estimatin...

  8. Importing Educational Services from Finland to Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Tajzan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on importing educational services from Finland to Kurdistan. The thesis first introduces the topic and the case company. After that it will briefly discuss the Kurdistan Region and then looks into the educational systems in the Kurdistan Region and Finland, finds problems and offers solutions based on the Finnish education system. After this, the thesis presents a product that will serve as an solution: the Future Leaders Educational Plan. Future Leaders is a non-profi...

  9. Enformasyon Yönetimi Sistemi Tasarımının Üretim Yapan İşletmelerde Faaliyet Temelli Maliyet Muhasebesi İçin Önemi = The Importance of Information Management System Design for Cost Accounting in Production Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satır, Benhür

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ürün maliyetlerinin gerçek değerlerine yakın tahmini, ürün kârlılıkları ve işletmelerin pazarda rekabetçi olabilmeleri için çok önemlidir. İşletme bir üretim işletmesi ise, özellikle siparişe dayalı üretim yapıyor veya çok çeşitli tipte ürün üretiyorsa maliyet tahmini zorlaşmaktadır. Bunlara ek olarak, üretim koşulları zorlu birişletme ise, ürün maliyeti için üretim sürecinden gelmesi gereken üretim enformasyonunun sağlıklı olması zorlaşmakta ve işletme için maliyet tahmini gerçek değerinden oldukça farklı olabilmektedir. Bazı ürünleriçin üretim ve teslimat süreci bittikten sonra, tahmini maliyete göre kâr beklenirken, gerçekleşen maliyetin fiyattan bile yüksek çıktığı ve aslında bu üretimden zarar edildiği çok geç olarak anlaşılabilmektedir. Bütün bu zorluklar aşılarak doğru bir maliyet tahmini yapılması için, enformasyon yönetim sisteminin maliyet muhasebesi sistemine uygun tasarlanmasının yanı sıra, sistemin sağlıklı ve güncel tutulması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada üretim koşullarının en zor olduğu işletmelerden birisi olan dökümhâneler için Faaliyet Temelli Maliyetlendirme Yöntemi uygulamaları esas alınarak, Enformasyon Yönetimi Sisteminin buna uygun nasıl tasarlanması gerektiği anlatılmıştır. / Estimating product cost close to their real values is very important for companies in order to know product profits and be competitive in the market. Cost estimation becomes harder for a production company, especially if it produces for order or has a wide rage product variety. In addition to these, if the company hastough production conditions, it becomes harder to obtain healthy information that comes from production processes and the estimated product costs might be very different than its real value. For some products, after the completion of production and distribution, it might be lately understood that although profit was

  10. Panorama of China's Petroleum Imports and Exports in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Year 2004 can be entitled as a breaking-record year.China's economy continued to develop at a high rate.When prices of crude oil and oil products were roaring to the highest level in the world's history, China's oil import also hit a record high with the total import of crude oil exceeding 120 million tons for the first time,and the total import of oil products exceeding 37 million tons.

  11. Intra-firm trade, exporting, importing, and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Stefanie A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines firm heterogeneity in terms of size, wages, capital intensity, and productivity between domestic and foreign-owned firms that engage in intra-firm trade, firms that export and import, firms that import only, and firms that export only. As previously documented, heterogeneity between different groups of trading firms is substantial. Taking into account intra-firm trade in addition to exporting and importing yields new insights into the productivity advantage previously esta...

  12. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  13. Textile Machinery: Imports Rebound Again

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the year of 2006, the general situation of China's textile machinery equipment imports had shown a clear sign of revival from the downward trend of two years ago, with a total annual import of 4.1 billion USD, an increase of 19.05% against the same period of 2005.

  14. Tumbling Auto Import and Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yantai Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The seemingly rebound global financial crisis has seriously eroded world economy from 2008,of which China's tumbling auto imports and exports business is a good example.At the beginning of 2008 it kicked off as an excellent year for the Chinese automotive market,but ended with the onset of a recession in last quarter both from the perspective of import and export.

  15. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  16. Measuring importance in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Dudte, Levi; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-03-01

    A variety of centrality measures can be defined on a network to determine the global `importance' of a node i. However, the inhomogeneity of complex networks implies that not all nodes j will consider i equally important. In this talk, we use a linearized form of the Generalized Erdos numbers [Morrison and Mahadevan EPL 93 40002 (2011)] to define a pairwise measure of the importance of a node i from the perspective of node j which incorporates the global network topology. This localized importance can be used to define a global measure of centrality that is consistent with other well-known centrality measures. We illustrate the use of the localized importance in both artificial and real-world networks with a complex global topology.

  17. Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Karaaslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.

  18. 75 FR 44015 - Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and Products Containing... importation of certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques and products containing... certain semiconductor products made by advanced lithography techniques or products containing same...

  19. Product Design in Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Laureti, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The poor need a range of financial services to cope with shocks, to manage day-to-day transactions, and to grasp business opportunities, among others. To be successful in reaching the poor, microfinance institutions should offer products that meet the poor’s needs. Product design, therefore, is becoming a very important topic. “Behavioral” product design pinpoints the importance of individuals’ behavioral anomalies, such as procrastination behavior and lack of self-control. Financial products...

  20. China's imports Up 15 Percent in 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the latest statistical figure released from China Customs, China's total imports rose 15 percent in 2002 as compared to the previous year. The spending for China's crude oil import rose 9.4 percent to 12.757 billion yuan in 2002 while the importing volume of oil products dropped 4.9 percent to 20.34

  1. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    between importance and performance. Findings: The result of this analysis showed that the assumption of independence between the importance and performance is invalid in certain situations. Research limitations/implications: The subsets in the analysis are not all independent since a respondent may appear...... in more than one subset. This is a problem with the data generating process that to some extent might influence the analysis. Practical implications: Profound impact on the way that the importance/performance map should be interpreted since non-proportional attributes will move both vertically as well...

  2. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  3. EFFECTS OF IMPORTED GOODS ON EXPORT AND IMPORT OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT SARI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analysing effects of intermediate goods, capital goods and consumer goods on both import and export, and at determining the subsector led to deficits of balance of payments. To achieve this, various statistical techniques have been applied. To carry out the present study, data reported by the Central Bank of Turkey were used in the time period of 2000–2013.These results revealed that the economic factors (intermediate, capital, consumer goods are significantly effective on the deficits of balance of payments. The analysis also showed that the corresponding imported goods are effective parameters onboth import and export. Contrary to common expectation, it is concluded that the deficits of balance of payments in the external trade of Turkey stem from the imports of the consumer goods. This study reveals that the policies should be created to encourage the decreasing of the items caused the deficits. It is important to note that our findings are usually in agreement with the literature. Possibility of countries’ involvement into economic crises can be determined before the crises take place and the countries will be therefore warned according to the results obtained. All graphical and statistical results here have been produced by the authors through EViews 7.1.

  4. Quantization based recursive Importance Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Frikha, Noufel

    2011-01-01

    We investigate in this paper an alternative method to simulation based recursive importance sampling procedure to estimate the optimal change of measure for Monte Carlo simulations. We propose an algorithm which combines (vector and functional) optimal quantization with Newton-Raphson zero search procedure. Our approach can be seen as a robust and automatic deterministic counterpart of recursive importance sampling by means of stochastic approximation algorithm which, in practice, may require tuning and a good knowledge of the payoff function in practice. Moreover, unlike recursive importance sampling procedures, the proposed methodology does not rely on simulations so it is quite generic and can come along on the top of Monte Carlo simulations. We first emphasize on the consistency of quantization for designing an importance sampling algorithm for both multi-dimensional distributions and diffusion processes. We show that the induced error on the optimal change of measure is controlled by the mean quantizatio...

  5. IMPORT FREIGHT FORWARDER WORK DESCRIPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkilä, Mauno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to research and create a general work description for an import freight forwarder in company X. Description can be converted generally to any freight forwarding company, excluding functions that are characteristic to company X’s role also as a port operator. Thesis emphasizes a viewpoint of an import freight forwarder in international sea logistics since company X is a port operator and has business in stevedoring, freight forwarding, warehousing and ship ag...

  6. Nuclear Import of Yeast Proteasomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Burcoglu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are highly conserved protease complexes responsible for the degradation of aberrant and short-lived proteins. In highly proliferating yeast and mammalian cells, proteasomes are predominantly nuclear. During quiescence and cell cycle arrest, proteasomes accumulate in granules in close proximity to the nuclear envelope/ER. With prolonged quiescence in yeast, these proteasome granules pinch off as membraneless organelles, and migrate as stable entities through the cytoplasm. Upon exit from quiescence, the proteasome granules clear and the proteasomes are rapidly transported into the nucleus, a process reflecting the dynamic nature of these multisubunit complexes. Due to the scarcity of studies on the nuclear transport of mammalian proteasomes, we summarised the current knowledge on the nuclear import of yeast proteasomes. This pathway uses canonical nuclear localisation signals within proteasomal subunits and Srp1/Kap95, and the canonical import receptor, named importin/karyopherin αβ. Blm10, a conserved 240 kDa protein, which is structurally related to Kap95, provides an alternative import pathway. Two models exist upon which either inactive precursor complexes or active holo-enzymes serve as the import cargo. Here, we reconcile both models and suggest that the import of inactive precursor complexes predominates in dividing cells, while the import of mature enzymes mainly occurs upon exit from quiescence.

  7. Importance of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Cho, S.-Y.; Tsay, R.-P.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A physical-chemical model which is an extension of that of Hong and Carmichael (1983) is used to investigate the role of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry. This model takes into account the mass transfer of SO2, O3, NH3, HNO3, H2O2, CO2, HCl, HCHO, O2, OH and HO2 into cloud droplets and their subsequent chemical reactions. The model is used to assess the importance of S(IV)-HCHO adduct formation, the reduction of H2O2 by HCHO, HCHO-free radical interactions, and the formation of HCOOH in the presence of HCHO in cloud droplets. Illustrative calculations indicate that the presence of HCHO inhibits sulfate production rate in cloud droplets. The direct inhibition of sulfate production rate in cloudwater due to nucleophilic addition of HSO3(-) to HCHO(aq) to form hydroxymethanesulfonate is generally low for concentrations of HCHO typical of ambient air. However, inhibition of sulfate production due to formaldehyde-free radical interactions in solution can be important. These formaldehyde-free radical reactions can also generate appreciable quantities of formic acid.

  8. Adipic Acid: Vigorous Import Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Adipic acid is mainly used to manufacture nylon 6,6, plasticizers, grease, polyurethane etc. There are three major commercial production processes: cyclohexane process, cyclohexanol process, butadiene carbonylation process, and the air oxidation of cyclohexane process constitute 93% of the total.

  9. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  10. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  11. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  12. Determinants of China’s Energy Imports: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xingjun Zhao; Yanrui Wu

    2007-01-01

    Sustained economic growth in China has triggered a surge of energy imports, especially oil imports. This paper investigates the determinants of China’s energy import demand by using cointegraiton and VECM techniques. The findings suggest that, in the long run, growth of industrial production and expansion of transport sectors affect China’s oil imports, while domestic energy output has a substitution effect. Thus, as the Chinese economy industrializes and the automotive sector expands, China’...

  13. Economic Importance, Environmental and Supply Risks on Imported Resources in Lithuanian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Knašytė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Secure raw material supply is one of the most important topics for industry. Growing economies such as China, India, Brazil and others increase the global demand and in the same time the competition for resources. In order to undertake appropriate actions the most important raw materials should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify the most important raw materials for Lithuanian economy in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental risks. The methodology used in the study relies on three sustainability dimensions accordingly expressed by three indicators: Economic Importance (Economic dimension; Supply Risk (Social dimension; Environmental Country Risk (Environmental dimension. The methodology used to define these indicators on imported resources for Lithuanian industry was adapted from report on critical raw materials for European Union (Report of the Ad-hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials 2010 published by European Commission in June 2010. Critical raw materials are considered to be economically important and the subject to a higher risk of supply interruption. All materials investigated in this study were combined into five groups: chemicals, metals, building materials, paper, paperboard and wood, other materials. Only the imported raw materials were selected for further analysis. The significance of raw material import was considered as important according to the ratio of production and consumption of certain material. After the analysis of statistical information about raw materials import in Lithuania and the actual countries of origin of these resources twenty one raw material was selected for further investigation. According to the results of assessment the list of critical raw materials for Lithuania was indentified. Results of the investigation showed that top five materials in terms of economic importance, supply and environmental country risks for Lithuanian economy are: crude oil, natural

  14. Import of biofuels and peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas neighbouring Sweden, i.e., foremost the Baltic States, it is probable that a large part of the available amounts will be consumed on the domestic market. Studies of the possible use of wood fuel in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are being made by the World Bank. Considerable investments will probably be made in the near future to replace existing coal- and oil-fired boiler plants with plants burning wood fuel. Consequently, the opportunities for exports of wood fuel will probably be small. In a global perspective, peat is used only to a limited extent as fuel. In the former Soviet Union alone it is estimated that the amount of peat that is economically feasible to extract is about 166x109 tonnes at a moisture content of 40%. Among the most interesting bio products that can be used in energy production from different food processing industries are nut-shells and fruit stones. Some stones, such as those in olives, plums and peaches, are excellent as fuels. The advantage with olive stones, in comparison with chips is that the bulk weight is high and the moisture content is low. Olive stones are thus similar to processed biofuels such as pellets. Due to their high energy content the olive stones can replace coal, which cannot be done by unprocessed fuels without expensive investments in materials handling equipment. Our survey shows that processed forest fuels and crushed olive stones are the products of greatest interest for the Swedish market. It also shows that both chips and peat-based products from the Baltic States are competitive

  15. AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE AND INDONESIAN RICE IMPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Dini Yuniarti

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian economy has been long supported by its agriculture sector. This paper analyzes the influence of the World Trade Organization’s Agreement-on-Agriculture (AoA) to In-donesia’s rice import using a Partial Adjustment Model. The independent variables included in the model are domestic production of rice, domestic income, world rice price, domestic rice price, and a dummy variable of AoA implementation. It estimates secondary annual data from 1979 to 2007. The result suggests that domest...

  16. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack o

  17. Writing: Importance, Development, and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Gillespie, Amy; McKeown, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine why writing is important, how it develops, and effective writing practices. We situate the 5 articles in this special issue of "Reading and Writing" in this literature, providing a context for the contribution of each paper.

  18. Important projects of the Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter important projects of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management has successfully carried out variety of significant projects. The most significant projects that were realised, are implemented and possible future projects are introduced in the following part of presentation.

  19. The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of our lesson in this module is for you to become acquainted with the importance of es- tablishing and maintaining a shared vision of positive professional interpersonal relationship practices among all stakeholders on your campus. This module introduces the use of administrative tools designed to help you document and measure progress…

  20. Aplicabilidade do Teste de Ativação de Monócitos (MAT no Brasil: importância da sua utilização como teste para detecção de pirogênios no controle da qualidade de produtos injetáveis | Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT in Brazil: the importance of its use as a test for the detection of pyrogens in the quality control of injectable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O MAT (sigla do inglês Monocyte Activation Test é considerado um potencial substituto do Teste de Pirogênios, entretanto: i. não foi avaliado para um número suficiente de produtos; ii. faltam dados que possam garantir sua capacidade em detectar pirogênios não endotoxinas; e iii. deve ser realizada a validação do método para cada classe de produtos. O objetivo foi identificar as monografias que requerem testes de pirogenicidade e propor os produtos que têm por base somente o teste de pirogênios como um ponto de partida para futuros estudos. As monografias específicas nas Farmacopeias Americana, Europeia e Brasileira que recomendam o Teste de Pirogênios ou Teste de Endotoxina Bacteriana ou LAL (sigla do inglês Limulus Amebocyte Lysate foram: Teste de Pirogênios: 20 monografias na Americana, 37 na Europeia e 28 na Brasileira. LAL: 619 monografias na Americana, 157 na Europeia e 41 na Brasileira. Somente quatro produtos requerem testes de pirogenicidade nas três farmacopeias analisadas. O Teste de Pirogênios e LAL são recomendados em seis monografias na Brasileira e 15 na Europeia. Na Brasileira, a maior parte dessas monografias é referente a produtos biológicos, sugerindo, assim, que estes devam ser os primeiros a ser testados, uma vez que são ensaiados em animais. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Monocyte Activation Test (MAT is thought to be a good replacement for rabbit pyrogen test (RPT; however, MAT remains controversial. MAT was not adequately evaluated in a sufficient number of products, and there is no sufficient data that support the ability of MAT to detect non-endotoxin pyrogens. Furthermore, MAT was used subject to validation for each specific product. The aim of this study was to identify in main pharmacopoeias, whose monographs require pyrogenicity tests, and propose those products for which only the rabbit pyrogen test is required to be used as a

  1. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  2. Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation o...

  3. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  4. The Importance of Operational Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Davcev, Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different types of risk and general approaches to analyze risk in a company, and to describe the importance of implementing a formal risk management policy in a company. Business risks are diversifiable and specific to the industry and the market in which a firm operates. Part of the business risk is operational risk which incorporates the direct or indirect loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal process, people and systems or form extern...

  5. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In China, applicants for flight attendant job voluntarily visit the hospital to break the tibia bone, into which is inserted gradually the expanding facility to ultimately adds the necessary centimeters to them to have chase to become flight attendants. The physical appearance seems to play in our lives increasingly greater role. How far we can go and what we can do to make us look better? Bachelor's work "The Marekting Importance of Body Image" introduces the reader with a theoretical part o...

  6. ECOPHARMACOVIGILANCE: ITS IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Bhavana Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV). It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. ...

  7. The Importance of Peer Reviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Franklin

    2000-01-01

    The importance of peer reviewing articles submitted to scientific journals is a subject that conferences and journals regularly revisit. In general such visits are brief. Although a few horror stories abound: ‘competitor holds up acceptance of paper to submit his own and so get priority’ or ‘competitor pours sufficient scorn on a good paper to darken its worth.’

  8. Opisthorchiasis from Imported Raw Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gotesman, Tamar; Assous, Mark; Marva, Esther; Zimlichman, Reuven; Dan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchiidae is a major public health problem in many parts of the Far East, Southeast Asia, and eastern Europe. However, with the growing volume of international travel and population migration, the infection is increasingly diagnosed in countries where the disease is not endemic, particularly in North America. We report an outbreak of acute opisthorchiasis in a family that was infected in a non–disease-endemic area after eating raw carp illegally imported ...

  9. Importing and firm performance: New evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lawrence; SANFILIPPO, Marco; Sundaram, Asha

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses firm-level data from company tax declarations to analyse the complementary relationship between direct access to imported intermediate inputs and manufacturing firm performance in South Africa. There are three main findings. The first is on firm heterogeneity, showing that importers consistently demonstrate premiums in terms of productivity, employment, wages, and capital intensity in production compared to firms that do not trade. The second supports the hypothesis of firm le...

  10. Importance of Engineering History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  11. Why are biofilms important to industrial sanitation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm research in the environment of the poultry production and processing industries and other wet processing industries is important for food safety and security. Sites of occurrence and causes of biofilm formation in these environments are specific for each product type. Regulations and testin...

  12. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  13. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  14. Product portfolio management requirements for product data management

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, A. (Antti)

    2014-01-01

    In large organisations today the amount of products is numerous and it is challenging for senior management to have proper control and understanding over all products. As the product is the most important aspect for an organisation to consider, senior management must have ability to manage investments on products and follow development of product related indicators. Managing products as investment on portfolio level, where products are divided into a limited amount of portfolios is a solution...

  15. Export and Import Situation of Refractories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China has been the biggest country in production and exporting of refractories. The article describes the problems in the export and import and suggestions on development of refractories. In the future, China will expand its cooperation with world refractories community in science, technology, economy and trade to play a more important role in the international and domestic markets.

  16. Impacts of seaborne trade on coal importing countries: Atlantic market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    In recent years, there has been a convergence of international trade with traditional domestic markets. With imports increasing in many coal-producing regions, the influence of trade on domestic markets has been twofold: firstly, imported coal displaces domestic production, and in doing so, and secondly international price trends may drive prices of what remains of the indigenous market for coal.

  17. Sinopec and CNOOC Join Hands for Oil Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec and CNOOC, two of China's big-three oil companies, have set up a joint venture to import crude oil.The joint venture makes CNOOC the fifth largest crude oil importer in China. Following the move, CNOOC is also likely to gain government approval to build a large refinery and market oil products this year, company executives said.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL SOILS UNDER OLIVE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive production is important and intensive agricultural activity in this region. Generally, olive trees occur coastal side of the region under brown forest soils. Ten olive tree plantations were selected in this research. The some important physical, chemical and morphological properties were investigated and classifi ed according to USDA Soil Taxonomy as Typic Xerochrepts.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL SOILS UNDER OLIVE TREES

    OpenAIRE

    CUMHUR AYDINALP; MALCOLM CRESSER; Colin MCCLEAN

    2004-01-01

    Olive production is important and intensive agricultural activity in this region. Generally, olive trees occur coastal side of the region under brown forest soils. Ten olive tree plantations were selected in this research. The some important physical, chemical and morphological properties were investigated and classifi ed according to USDA Soil Taxonomy as Typic Xerochrepts.

  20. Improving Attribute-Importance Measurement : a Reference-Point Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the importance of identifying the hierarchy of product attributes that drive judgment and choice, the many available methods remain limited regarding their convergent validity and test-retest reliability. To increase the validity and reliability of attribute-importance measurement, we focus

  1. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  2. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada; Antonio Miguel Vieira Monteiro; Silvana Amaral; Newton Brigatti; Ana Paula Dal’Asta

    2012-01-01

    Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5) image (30m spatial resolution). High-spatial-...

  3. Analysis of the observation of particle detector inside ‘CBERS-1’ satellite under solar quiet conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU; Hong; XIAO; Zuo; HAO; Yongqiang; ZOU; Jiqing; ZHU; Wenming; WU; Zhongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Based on the knowledge and related theory of earth's radiation belt, the data chronous orbit were analyzed. It is proved that the observational results are in agreement with the theoretical description of the radiation belt structures. Analysis of more than 3years' data showed clearly that under quiet solar conditions, at a height of about 800 km the energetic particles were mainly located in three regions: northern auroral belt (40°-80°), southern auroral belt (-40°- -80°) and South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly Region (SAA). Actually, this is for the global distribution, at each longitude the latitudinal coverage is much narrower and particles are along the geomagnetic latitude of about ±60°.The species of particles in different regions and their counting rates are different. In SAA,usually both electrons and protons are observed, which should come from inner radiation belt; in polar regions only energetic electrons are observed under the quiet condition,which belongs to the outer radiation belt. The distribution of outer radiation electrons is asymmetrical for longitudes as well as northern and southern polar regions. These asymmetries can be explained with the reflecting altitudes of the mirror points of charged particles at the same L shell.

  4. The Most Important Maglev Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Yaghoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The name maglev is derived from magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation is a highly advanced technology. It has various uses. The common point in all applications is the lack of contact and thus no wear and friction. This increases efficiency, reduces maintenance costs, and increases the useful life of the system. The magnetic levitation technology can be used as an efficient technology in the various industries. There are already many countries that are attracted to maglev systems. Many systems have been proposed in different parts of the worlds. This paper tries to study the most important uses of magnetic levitation technology. The results clearly reflect that the maglev can be conveniently considered as a solution for the future engineering needs of the world.

  5. Loneliness: clinical import and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-03-01

    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President's Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments.

  6. Terminology, the importance of defining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, J W Foppe; Henman, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multiple terms and definitions exist to describe specific aspects of pharmacy practice and service provision. This commentary explores the reasons for different interpretations of words and concepts in pharmaceutical care and pharmacy practice research. Reasons for this variation can be found in language, culture, profession and may also depend on developments over time. A list of words is provided where the authors think that currently multiple interpretations are possible. To make sure that the reader understands the essence, it seems imperative that authors include a definition of the topics that they actually study in their papers, and that they clearly cite existing definitions or refer to collections of definitions such as existing glossaries. It is important that presenters, authors and reviewers of pharmacy practice papers pay more attention to this aspect of describing studies. PMID:27073076

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF CSR IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Križanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century were marked by the expansion of managerial ethics and social responsibility of business. Business ceased to be perceived in terms of profit being the sole interest of management, and ethical aspects were stressed more so in connection with the company’s management. Specific managerial ethical initiatives and activities leading from outside and inside the organization constitutes the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, which comprises many factors. The aim of this paper is to summarize the positive impact of corporate social responsibility for business activities using secondary data from global surveys and then confirm the importance and benefits of corporate social responsibility for enterprises in the Slovak Republic using primary data.

  8. The importance of being informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Tamara

    2013-04-01

    "Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts

  9. The Importance of the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Montobbio

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia has now woken up. Its huge economic development is proof of this. The Asian-Pacific nations have known how to adopt Western means of production and have incorporated them into their own culture and tradition. However, this does not mean that they are not undergoing profound transformations both at a domestic and external level, as can be highlighted, with regard to the latter, by the desire to establish a new order in the Asia-Pacific region. In this context, the present article analyses whether this dynamic presents a reformation of the world order: the fundamental role that the US plays in this region after the Cold War; the new actors and power relations that are emerging such as Japan, China and ASEAN (Association of South East Nations; and forums such as APEC (AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation, EAEC (East Asian Economic Conference, ASEAN and the ASEAN Security Forum, created and empowered among other things in order to keep a check on the reappearance of those old “ghosts” (nationalisms, territorial disputes pending solution which could triumph over the growing prosperity.Finally, the author draws to attention the Europe of the EU which is too busy in its own self-construction and puts before it the challenge of knowing how to shape itself into the third great actor of the region, after the U.S. and Japan and he speaks of the necessityfor Spain to be more present in the Pacific given that it is vital for its economy.

  10. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Protozoan Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar S. S. and Brahmbhatt M.N.

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 436-439

  11. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF ORAL HEALTH IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy constitutes a special physiological state characterized by a series of temporary adaptive changes in body structure as the result of an increased production of various hormones such as estrogens , progesterone , gonadotropins and relaxin 1 . The oral cavity is also affected by such endocrine actions and may present both transient and irreversible changes as well as modifications that are considered pathological. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to gingival and periodontal disease as also ca rries and erosions because of such biochemical and hormonal changes of pregnancy 1 . Patients , Obstetricians & Gynecologists and Dentists are cautious often avoiding treatment of Oral health issues during pregnancy as a result of two very important factors: 1. Lack of clinical guidelines for the management of common oral conditions in pregnancy. 2. Fear of medico legal actions based on negligent or substandard treatment

  12. The importance of recent results from epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground miner radon epidemiology reported in the past 15 years has led to modeling of the lung cancer risk from 222Rn exposure, quantitating the risk in present day mines, extrapolating the risk to environmental 222Rn exposure, and relating effects of low and high LET radiation. Many countries have occupational guidelines that now better conform to the actual risks experienced in mining and some have governmental guidelines regarding environmental exposure which, when fully implemented, can impose substantial benefit but also substantial cost to society. For this reason it important to follow the health of underground mining populations to better understand the risk that has been deduced, inferred or calculated. The purpose of this report is to describe the most recent results and advances. In this examination a biological basis for a new model for 222Rn decay product risk is developed

  13. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  14. Evaluation of Hospimp (Hospital Import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahinfar

    2009-01-01

    level, than its specified properties. In order to improve and develop useable software’s in the health and medical arenas, we will recommend the development of international standards in designing, production, testing, measuring and software conservation. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(69: 68-72 (Persian

  15. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T may become increasingly important because recent data from fast reactors (of the nonproliferative type) have confirmed production rates up to 12 times greater than previous estimates. Present radwaste systems do not selectively remove T. Recent projections indicate that releases of 14C by the global nuclear industry could exceed the natural production rate of 2.7 x 104 Ci/year by the year 1998 and could eventually stabilize at two times that rate. Recent experiments on the uptake of 99Tc reveal that soil-to-plant concentration factors for Tc appear to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than the value of 0.25 which is currently used in radiological assessments. Research is needed to determine reliable 99Tc soil-plant concentration factors because this radionuclide is released to the environment from fuel reprocessing and enrichment facilities. New calculations for certain reactors indicate that 232U may be formed in concentrations up to 4000 ppm. If these estimates are accurate, careful analysis should be made of possible releases of 232U which could result in external dose and food chain exposures. The environmental health aspects of these four radionuclides are discussed, as well as the potential for their release to the environment from nonproliferative fuel cycles. (orig./HP)

  16. Importance of Soil Quality in Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Birkás

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality can be characterised by the harmony between it’s physical and biological state and the fertility. From the practical crop production viewpoint, some important contrasting factors of soil quality are: (1 soil looseness – compaction; (2 aggregation – clod and dust formation; friable structure – smeared or cracked structure; (3 organic material: conservation – decrease; (4 soil moisture: conservation – loss; water transmission – water-logging; (5 at least soil condition as a result of the long term effect of land use moderates or strengthens climatic harm. In our long-term research project practical soil quality factors were examined in arable field and experimental conditions. We state that prevention of the soil quality deterioration can be done by the developing and maintaining harmony between land use and environment. Elements of the soil quality conditions such as looseness, aggregation, workability, organic matter, water transport are examined and the improving methods are suggested. Tillage and production factors which can be adopted to alleviate the harmful climatic impacts are also summarised.

  17. [The importance of early diagnosis in acromegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Tóth, Miklós; Boda, Judit; Nagy, Endre; Julesz, János

    2011-05-01

    The authors review the historical and epidemiological aspects, clinical features and complications of acromegaly while emphasizing the importance of the early diagnosis and treatment. Acromegaly is a rare and mostly sporadic disorder due to excessive production of growth hormone. It is characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement (mainly involving the face and extremities) and systemic manifestations. The prevalence is estimated between 40 and 125 cases/million. Generally, it is diagnosed in middle-aged adults (mean age 40 years, men and women equally affected). Due to its insidious onset and slow progression, acromegaly is often diagnosed 7 to more than 10 years after its onset. The disease has cardiovascular, rheumatological, respiratory and metabolic consequences which highly determine its prognosis. Acromegaly is associated with a number of complications resulting in a two- or four-fold increase of mortality and a decrease of life expectancy by about 10 years. The major causes of death include cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, respiratory diseases and malignancies. The duration of the disease before the introduction of effective therapy may be a major predictor of increased mortality mainly due to complications . The early diagnosis is important for timely commencement of treatment and for prevention of serious complications of the disease.

  18. Postradiation sarcomas: importance of surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ) and 31 mo for Surgery+chemotherapy. The differences of survival for the 3 groups are highly significant (p=0,0001, Mantel-Cox). There was no difference between Surgery or Surgery + Chemotherapy (p=0.56). The quality of surgery is known for 57 patients (complete 44p, partial 13 p). The survival was 43 mo VS 16 mo (p=0.08, Mantle-Cox, p=0.036, Breslow) Conclusion. This series confirmed the poor prognosis of post radiation sarcomas even though some have long survived for long periods but Surgery play a very important role in the survival of the patients

  19. Import risk analysis: the experience of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, V; Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A

    1999-12-01

    The authors propose a contribution to the possible revision of Chapters 1.4.1. and 1.4.2. of the International Animal Health Code (Code) of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). In particular, data are presented to illustrate some of the inadequacies of both the rationale and the results of the method for risk assessment reported in the Code. The method suggested by the Code for risk assessment is based on the calculation of the 'probability of the occurrence of at least one outbreak' of a given disease following the importation of a given quantity of either live animals or animal products (unrestricted risk estimate). This is usually undertaken when dealing with rare events. For a country such as Italy, this method may not be particularly useful as the frequency of disease outbreaks is what should be estimated, so as to provide decision makers with appropriate and relevant information. Practical use of risk information generated by the use of the OIE risk assessment method for swine vesicular disease (SVD) would have encouraged the Chief Veterinary Officer of Italy to prohibit all imports of swine from the Netherlands and Belgium for at least two years in the early 1990s, with the consequential heavy economic losses for both Italy and the exporting countries. On the contrary, the number of actual outbreaks of the disease due to direct imports of swine from Member States of the European Union (EU), which occurred in Italy in 1992, 1993 and 1994 was very low (two to five outbreaks due to direct imports of swine from the Netherlands and one to two from Belgium). An example of a method for assessing the risks associated with high volumes of trade in commodities is also described. This method is based on the Monte Carlo simulation and provides the information required to evaluate the costs of the strategies compared. The method can be used to predict the number of outbreaks which are likely to occur following importation and enables a comparison to be made of

  20. Importance of Input and Interaction in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦英

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, SLA (Second Language Acquisition) is a hot topic and is attached great importance at both home and abroad. Input and interaction are taken as two very important factors have great impact On the leamers'L2 acquisition level and quality. The former research on the above two factors is productive and a lot of research on the importance of input and interaction in SLA is being conducted. Krashen's Input Hypothesis and Long's Interaction Hypothesis are the two most influential ones. This thesis first gives a general introduction of the two hypothesis, then a detailed explanation of their importance in SLA is presented, finally a conclusion is drawn.