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Sample records for cber import product

  1. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  2. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CBER is the Center within FDA that regulates biological products for human use under applicable federal laws, including the Public Health Service Act and the Federal...

  3. Next generation hyper resolution wide swath and multi-channel optical payload for CBERS series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang

    2017-11-01

    The China-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) program, (also called ZY-1) the result of a space technology agreement between China and Brazil, was officially signed in 1988 after the first joint work report produced by National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). During the 26 years of its existence, the program of cooperation between China and Brazil in space has achieved the successful launch of three satellites. It has become a unique example of cooperation in cutting edge technology between emerging nations. CBERS satellite is the first generation data-transferring remote sensing satellite developed by China. CBERS satellite data are widely applied to crop yield estimation, exploration of land and resources, urban planning, environmental protection and monitoring, disaster reduction, and other fields. CBERS series is just like Landsat series of USA and SPOT series of France.

  4. Exterior orientation of CBERS-2B imagery using multi-feature control and orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato Junior, J.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2013-05-01

    The major contribution of this paper relates to the practical advantages of combining Ground Control Points (GCPs), Ground Control Lines (GCLs) and orbital data to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of images collected by CBERS-2B (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) HRC (High-resolution Camera) and CCD (High-resolution CCD Camera) sensors. Although the CBERS-2B is no longer operational, its images are still being used in Brazil, and the next generations of the CBERS satellite will have sensors with similar technical features, which motivates the study presented in this paper. The mathematical models that relate the object and image spaces are based on collinearity (for points) and coplanarity (for lines) conditions. These models were created in an in-house developed software package called TMS (Triangulation with Multiple Sensors) with multi-feature control (GCPs and GCLs). Experiments on a block of four CBERS-2B HRC images and on one CBERS-2B CCD image were performed using both models. It was observed that the combination of GCPs and GCLs provided better bundle block adjustment results than conventional bundle adjustment using only GCPs. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using primarily orbital data when the number of control entities is reduced.

  5. First in-Flight Radiometric Calibration of MUX and WFI on-Board CBERS-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and China have a long-term joint space based sensor program called China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS. The most recent satellite of this program (CBERS-4 was successfully launched on 7 December 2014. This work describes a complete procedure, along with the associated uncertainties, used to calculate the in-flight absolute calibration coefficients for the sensors Multispectral Camera (MUX and Wide-Field Imager (WFI on-board CBERS-4. Two absolute radiometric calibration techniques were applied: (i reflectance-based approach and (ii cross-calibration method. A specific site at Algodones Dunes region located in the southwestern portion of the United States of America was used as a reference surface. Radiometric ground and atmospheric measurements were carried out on 9 March 2015, when CBERS-4 passed over the region. In addition, a cross-calibration between both MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and the Operational Land Imager (OLI on-board Landsat-8 was performed using the Libya-4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site. The gain coefficients are now available: 1.68, 1.62, 1.59 and 1.42 for MUX and 0.379, 0.498, 0.360 and 0.351 for WFI spectral bands blue, green, red and NIR, respectively, in units of (W/(m2·sr·μm/DN. These coefficients were determined with uncertainties lower than 3.5%. As a validation of these radiometric coefficients, cross-calibration was also undertaken. An evaluation of radiometric consistency was performed between the two instruments (MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and with the well calibrated Landsat-7 ETM+. Results show that the reflectance values match in all the analogous spectral bands within the specified calibration uncertainties.

  6. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  7. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.

    2017-10-01

    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  8. Evaluation of land use classification accuracy based upon TM and CBERS-02B HR data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guifang; Lu, Heli

    2010-11-01

    Data fusions from SAR and TM, SPOT and TM, ASTER and TM, MODIS and ETM, etc are the common methods. But that from TM and CBERS-02B is rare. With HR camera working in September 19th 2007, Chinese-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS-02B) became the first civilian high-resolution satellite in China. It could provide 2.36m panchromatic image which is better to Landsat TM. Meanwhile the spectral resolution of TM is better than CBERS-02B. So it's a good idea to take advantage of benefits from CBERS-02B HR and TM through data fusion. In this study, images of TM and CBERS-02B HR in 2007 were used as data sources. After image registration and noiseremoval process, data fusion methods of IHS and PCA were adopted. Then unsupervised classification and supervised classification were used for land use classification. Finally, classification accuracy between original image and fusion image was compared and evaluated. The result shows: (1) Compared with original TM or CBERS-02B HR image, the fusion image not only retains abundance spectrum but also enhances the object details. Residential texture, lake morphological, the relative position between roads, industrial and mining sites, etc, was identified easily. (2) Results from IHS and PCA are different. IHS image had higher spatial resolution but more spectral distortion. Spectral differences between some objects became smaller and classification accuracy was lower. Supervised classification accuracy assessment shows that overall Kappa index and overall land use classification accuracy decreased by 0.237 and 11% respectively. Meanwhile PCA image not only had high spatial resolution, but also smaller spectral distortion. Different land use / cover types can be better distinguished. (3) Disadvantages of low spatial resolution in TM and single color in CBERS-02B HR image are overcome in PCA fusion image to a certain extent. In this research under supervised classification in PCA image Kappa index of farm land, forest land and

  9. The use of CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite to trace the dynamics of total suspended matter at an urbanized coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Colo Giannini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of organic and inorganic particles in the water column, or the total suspended matter (TSM, responds to local and remote oceanographic and meteorological processes, potentially impacting biogeochemical cycles. In shallow coastal areas, where particles have distinct origins and compositions and vary in different time scales, the use of remote sensing tools for monitoring and tracing this material is highly encouraged due to the high temporal and spatial data resolution. The objective of this work was to understand the variability of in situ TSM at Santos Bay (Southeastern Brazil and its response to oceanographic and meteorological conditions. We also aimed to verify the applicability of the satellite data from CBERS-2 sensor in order to map the dynamics of TSM in this region. Our results have shown that the distribution of TSM in Santos Bay varied consistently with winds, currents and tidal cycles, with significant relationships emphasizing the role of south-western winds and spring tides. Neap tides and eastern winds, along with rainfall, play an important role in the input of organic matter into the bay. In conclusion, our analyses showed that the main patterns observed in situ regarding the responses of TSM to the ocean-meteorological processes could be reproduced in the CBERS-2 satellite data, after simple and standard methods of images processing. TSM data retrieval from CBERS-2 or other satellite sensors were shown to be feasible, becoming an essential tool for synoptic observations of the composition and quality of water, especially at urbanized and impacted coastal areas.

  10. Radiological control of food importation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre G, J.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  11. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified seeds are produced by certain institute, under controlled conditions within a specific program, it is the best guarantee of yield. The certified seeds should be renewed every 2 or 4 yearly periods because the seed yield can reduce if they are used every year. 200-600 kg seed amount used per hectare and it can change depending on purpose, the variety, ecological conditions, the size of tubers and planting density. Seed costs are the most important item in production inputs. In Turkey the amount of certified seed production has increased and consequently there has been an increase in meeting the need of seed amount, in recent years. Turkey certified seed production was 175,397 tons and the needed amount was 230,819 tons in 2015. It has met 76% the need amount. In our country, the seed potato sector is commonly worked marketing of reproduced seed of the imported rootstocks stage within the country. in the event of insufficient seed Certified production, as producers are forced to use their seed, procured from their own products or obtained from each other. This practice, in addition to decrease in yield, it also causes the spread of many pathogens that threated the sustainability of our potato production.

  12. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  13. Buying Imported Products Online : A quantitative study about Chinese Online consumer behavior towards imported products

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qianqian; Wang, Yuren

    2015-01-01

    With the fast growing Chinese online marketplace and the increasing popularity of shopping imported products online in China, more and more practitioners and researchers are interested in understanding the cues that Chinese consumers use to evaluate imported products consumption online. Our quantitative study aims to identify what factors affect the behavior of Chinese online consumers towards imported products and the relationships between the identified factors and purchase intention, and t...

  14. Evaluation of factors important to enhance productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity as a measure for output is important to industry and academia. In this research, factors to enhance productivity have been identified from the literature by reviewing various international and national sources to explore this evergreen field of research that is “productivity,” which has always been an increasingly interesting area of research for researchers over decades or perhaps over centuries. In total, 15 number of factors have been identified to enhance productivity. Analytic hierarchy process approach has been appropriately chosen to rank these factors because of its simplicity and effectiveness. The tool has been used by taking perception of experts from the Indian manufacturing industry. Positive attitude and involvement of management, proactive employees, and good working conditions have been ranked as top three factors as per the experts’ opinion. The ranking of factors to enhance productivity, categorization of the factors into four perspectives, and hierarchy of perspective and action plan as a final outcome of the paper may help academia and operations managers toward effective management of “operations and production activities of firms/supply chains.”

  15. STRIPING NOISE REMOVAL OF IMAGES ACQUIRED BY CBERS 2 CCD CAMERA SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amraei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.

  16. Taxation of carbon intensive imported products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Fuente Sanchez, C.; Dubilly, A.L.; Lescal, N.

    2010-01-01

    It is one of the greatest challenges of our time to make the link between development issues and climate change actions. The EU has committed itself, throughout the Kyoto Protocol and the current negotiation mechanisms, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas, but the question is still pending on the possible ways to have those efforts harmonized globally, and in particular with developing countries. Why not set taxation on carbon intensive products imported, ted, in the European Union, from countries that do not provide 'green' guarantees in their fabrication process? We begin this study with a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the carbon tax. On the one hand, it is a good way of adjusting prices and rectifying a competition distortion between those paying or their emissions and those exempted of constraints. On the other hand, one can ask oneself if it is fair to discriminate developing countries when they need growth and better living standards. After going through the legal issues in which this debate is imbricated, the third and last part of this study investigates the possible implementation issues in terms of tax level and of benefits' generation and use. This study illustrates the complexity of reuniting particular interests and global interests on global warming, as well as the complexity of sharing responsibilities on a fair way between industrialized and developing countries on climate change issues. The challenge is big and complex yet it is worth the effort. (authors)

  17. Orientação de imagens CBERS-2B usando o modelo rigoroso de colinearidade com dados orbitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcato Junior

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o imageamento orbital é uma das principais técnicas de coleta de informações geoespaciais. Embora os sistemas orbitais sejam equipados com sensores de orientação direta (GNSS, giroscópios, sensores de estrelas, dentre outros, nem sempre as imagens corrigidas a partir dos dados (efemérides e atitude provenientes destes sensores apresentam a acurácia requerida para certas aplicações. Uma das alternativas para solucionar este problema é a orientação dessas imagens considerando as informações de órbita (efemérides e atitude com o uso adicional de pontos de apoio. O objetivo principal deste trabalho consiste em avaliar experimentalmente o modelo de colinearidade com dados orbitais no processo de orientação de imagens CBERS-2B. Este modelo foi implementado no programa TMS (Triangulação MultiSsensor, seguindo a abordagem de triangulação multissensor. Foram realizados experimentos com imagens do nível 1 (com apenas correção radiométrica coletadas pelos sensores CCD e HRC. Nos casos estudados verificou-se que a utilização das informações de órbita possibilita a orientação de imagens CBERS-2B com um número reduzido de pontos de apoio.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DAS IMAGENS CBERS/CCD PARA O MAPEAMENTO DE AREAIS NO SUDOESTE DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Silva Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de aplicar diferentes técnicasde transformação em duas imagens CBERS, dosperíodos seco e chuvoso, que permitissem realçar emapear as manchas de Neossolos Quartzarênicos, semcobertura vegetal (areais, da bacia do Ribeirão Sujo,município de Serranópolis/GO. Revisaram-se bibliografiassobre comportamento espectral de solos arenosose trabalhos relacionados à avaliação de áreas degradadas.Utilizaram-se três métodos de transformaçãode imagens para os dois períodos com a finalidade demapear os areais: o modelo linear de mistura espectral,o índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada (NDVI ea análise por componentes principais. Verificou-se queas imagens do período chuvoso ressaltaram melhor osareais em relação aos vários tipos de cobertura da terrae que a técnica que apresentou o melhor resultado para omapeamento dos areais foi a classificação supervisionadadas bandas 2, 3 e 4 do sensor CDD/CBERS.

  19. Importance of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Bee Products

    OpenAIRE

    OZANSOY, GÖRKEM; KÜPLÜLÜ, ÖZLEM

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidinealkaloids are one of the groups of harmful chemicals of plants, which arenatural toxins. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in about 3% of all floweringplants of widespread geographical distribution are known as one of thecomponents of the hepatotoxic group of plant origin and referred as hepatotoxicpyrrolizidine alkaloids. According to researches, bee products is regarded asone of the main food sources in the exposure of people to pyrrolizidinealkaloids. Consumption of pyrrolizidine ...

  20. 21 CFR 123.12 - Special requirements for imported products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for imported products. This section sets forth specific requirements for imported fish and fishery... fish or fishery products being offered for import; (B) Obtaining either a continuing or lot-by-lot... that the imported fish or fishery product is or was processed in accordance with the requirements of...

  1. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  2. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  3. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  4. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...] Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request for... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain categories of information in product labeling for use as terms to search repositories of approved prescription medical product structured product...

  5. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Agency's PHIS Import Component Web site. PHIS and the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Interface.... The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has developed the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE... cooked (species). Within the product categories are the product groups, e.g., ground beef, hamburger...

  6. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  7. An efficient system for the production of the medicinally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system for the production of the medicinally important plant: Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr. J Xiang-Hui, Z Gui-Ping, OL Jun, S Chao-Wen. Abstract. An in vitro cultivation protocol was developed for Asparagus cochinchinensis a species threatened by over collection due to its importance as a medicinal ...

  8. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between knowledge production and urban locations in industrial design, a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS). KIBS concentrate in urban locations. This is often explained by the co-location of client firms and market access in large cities. Recent...... research on knowledge production, however, reveals that knowledge productive networks are significant for both the competitiveness and location of KIBS. Thus, to understand the urban location of industrial design, it is important to analyse how knowledge production is organized within the industry...

  9. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY IN IMPORTED FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing public concern over marine environmental quality, a program of monitoring radionuclids in imported fishery products has been established. The analyses have been performed by gamma spectrometry allowing the rapid detection of many artificial radionuclides such as 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K. The data obtained show Cs radionuclides levels within expected limits. The detection of natural radionuclide K showed different levels in the same fishery product as they came from different sea areas.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

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    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  11. Análise de mapas de represas publicados na web usando imagens orbitais CCD/CBERS no estado de Minas Gerais Analysis of dams maps published on the web by using orbital CCD/CBERS images in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, bancos de dados públicos e gratuitos disponíveis na World Wide Web (WEB foram utilizados para avaliar as áreas das superfícies dos espelhos d'água das represas de Furnas e do Funil, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi comparar as informações obtidas nos bancos da WEB com os valores das áreas calculadas a partir de imagens do sensor CCD a bordo dos satélites CBERS2 e CBERS2B. A área da represa de Furnas obtida a partir das imagens CCD/CBERS2B, ano 2008, foi de 1.138 km², mas nos bancos de dados consultados esta área estava entre 1.182 e 1.503 km². A represa do Funil, construída em 2003, com superfície de espelho d'água de 29,37 km² e uma ilha com área de 1,93 km² não aparecem nos bancos Atlas, Geominas, IGAM e IBGE. Os resultados mostraram algumas discrepâncias nos bancos de dados publicados na WEB, tais como diferenças em áreas e supressão ou extrapolação de limites do espelho d'água. Concluiu-se que, até o momento, os responsáveis por algumas publicações de bancos de dados no Estado de Minas Gerais não tiveram rigor suficiente com as atualizações. As imagens CCD/CBERS, que também são dados públicos disponíveis na WEB, mostraram ser produtos adequados para verificar, atualizar e melhorar as informações publicadas.In this work some public databases from the World Wide Web (WEB were used to find the area of the Furnas and Funil Dams in Minas Gerais State. The purpose of this work was to compare the WEB public databases values and the real values obtained from the CCD camera images on board CBERS2 and CBERS2B satellites. The Furnas Dam area obtained from CCD/ CBERS2B images, in 2008, was 1.138 km², but in the consulted databases this area ranged from 1.182 to 1.503 km². The dam of the Funil, built in 2003, with a water surface of 29.37 km² and an island with 1.93 km² area, did not appear in Atlas, Geominas, IGAM and IBGE databases. The results revealed some problems in the WEB public

  12. Economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was specifically designed to determinethe economic importance of farmed parkland products as it sustains the farmers livelihood in Lau Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria.A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected from 45.5% of the ward, and were interviewed using a well pretested ...

  13. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    being farmed as well as land lying fallow, and does .... Result on gender of the respondents indicates that (38.75%) of the respondents were male farmers, while (61.25%). ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FARMED PARKLAND PRODUCTS TO LIVELIHOOD SUSTENANCE IN LAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA TARABA ...

  14. 9 CFR 327.4 - Imported products; foreign certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products have been handled in a sanitary manner in this country and are otherwise in compliance with... handled in a sanitary manner, and were prepared under the continuous supervision of an inspector under... delivered by the consignee, or his agent, in the United States to the Program import inspector at the place...

  15. The Economic Importance of Forest Products in Enugu State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic importance of exploiting forest products in Enugu State, Nigeria using 120 respondents. The study showed that most of the household heads were males aged between 31 and 50 years, and engaged in different forestry activities such as gathering, processing and marketing. Lack of ...

  16. Efficiency And Import Penetration On The Productivity Of Textile Industry And Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur B Rakhmawan, Djoni Hartono, Agni A Awirya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing pro-blems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.Keywords:Efficiency, Productivity, Import Penetration, DEA, Fixed Effect

  17. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  18. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  19. [Import and export of licorice and its products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Wang, Nuo; Yang, Guang; Que, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Licorice is an important harmonic drug which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. However, with the increasing demand of industrial production, the licorice resources in our country have been reduced rapidly and we have to import licorice resources from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan consequently. In order to find out the trade flow of licorice resources and evaluate the status of Chinese licorice in the world trade, the trade situation of licorice and its products from 2011 to 2015 May in Chinese customs was investigated and analyzed in this paper. The import and export volumes of licorice were declining; the import and export volumes of licorice were relatively concentrated in international trade, with greater risks of trade; and export quota management was not well executed. As one of the strategic resources of medicine, licorice resources must be based on domestic development, and we should adjust the export quota management from passive quota to active quota management and improve the intrinsic value of licorice resources to establish the international market position of our licorice and control the pricing power in international market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  1. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  2. 78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health... CDRH and CBER. FDA believes that as more wound care products containing live cells are developed such...

  3. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  4. The Importance of Phytoplankton Biomolecule Availability for Secondary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina T. Peltomaa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of animals is affected by their access to resources. In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of essential biomolecules for filter-feeding zooplankton depends greatly on phytoplankton. Here, we analyzed the biochemical composition, i.e., the fatty acid, sterol and amino acid profiles and concentrations as well as protein, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of 17 phytoplankton monocultures representing the seven most abundant phytoplankton classes in boreal and sub-arctic lakes. To examine how the differences in the biochemical composition between phytoplankton classes affect their nutritional quality for consumers, we assessed the performance of Daphnia, on these diets. Furthermore, we defined the most important biomolecules regulating the somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia, expecting that higher concentrations of certain biomolecules are needed for reproduction than for growth. Finally, we combined these results with phytoplankton field data from over 900 boreal and sub-arctic lakes in order to estimate whether the somatic growth of Daphnia is sterol-limited when the natural phytoplankton communities are cyanobacteria-dominated. Our analysis shows that Daphnia grows best with phytoplankton rich in sterols, ω-3 fatty acids, protein, and amino acids. Their reproduction follows food sterol and ω-3 concentration as well as C:P-ratio being two times higher in Daphnia feeding on cryptophytes than any other diet. Interestingly, we found that a high dietary ω-6 fatty acid concentration decreases both somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia. When combined with phytoplankton community composition field data, our results indicate that zooplankton is constantly limited by sterols in lakes dominated by cyanobacteria (≥40% of total phytoplankton biomass, and that the absence of cryptophytes can severely hinder zooplankton production in nature.

  5. The importance of forest structure to biodiversity?productivity relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; Huth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While various relationships between productivity and biodiversity are found in forests, the processes underlying these relationships remain unclear and theory struggles to coherently explain them. In this work, we analyse diversity?productivity relationships through an examination of forest structure (described by basal area and tree height heterogeneity). We use a new modelling approach, called ?forest factory?, which generates various forest stands and calculates their annual productivity (...

  6. Important Features of Probiotic Microorganisms in Pharmaceutical and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Mehrabani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotic products are matrices for delivery of beneficial live bacteria to the host. The viable bacteria are being incorporated into dairy products as well as supplements. Objectives: The aim of the present study was evaluation and validation of probiotic contents in commercial products to select the optimum matrix for protection of viability and functionality of probiotic bacteria. Materials and Methods: A total of forty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from ten pharmaceutical and ten dairy products. Their probiotic properties such as acid, salt and bile tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility tests, adherence to cell line, stability under refrigeration conditions and antagonistic activity against nine bacterial strains were assayed. Results: Results showed that the viable bacterial count of solid products were lower than stated number on their package. No difference was noticed between strains isolated from dairy and non-dairy products regarding antibiotic susceptibility and adherence properties. Pharmaceutical isolates were more potent against pathogens than dairy isolates. Conclusions: In conclusion, dairy products are better matrices for delivering bifidobacteria than non-dairy products. But, probiotic isolates from non-dairy products, showed better properties such as pathogen exclusion than dairy isolates.

  7. Importance of stability study of continuous systems for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Astudillo, Isabel Cristina; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel

    2011-01-10

    Fuel ethanol industry presents different problems during bioreactors operation. One of them is the unexpected variation in the output ethanol concentration from the bioreactor or a drastic fall in the productivity. In this paper, a compilation of concepts and relevant results of several experimental and theoretical studies about dynamic behavior of fermentation systems for bioethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis is done with the purpose of understanding the stability phenomena that could affect the productivity of industries producing fuel ethanol. It is shown that the design of high scale biochemical processes for fuel ethanol production must be done based on stability studies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  9. Product Lifecycle Management: CERN to host an important international conference

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN designs, builds and operates machines that contain millions of items of many types, such as software, electronics, and electrical, mechanical and chemical components. It is a challenge to maintain a coherent configuration of everything that has been developed and installed. To do this, CERN developed the EDMS system – an integrated Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform that enables management of all the information related to the entire lifecycle of each single component. On 5 and 6 September CERN will host an international PLM conference at which participants will exchange experience and address how best to apply PLM in their organisations.   Pictogram representation of a typical product lifecycle. Picture by the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Manufacturing Engineering via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]. PLM is the activity of managing, in the most effective way, an organisation’s products all the way through their lifecycles: from th...

  10. The importance of price for the sale of ecological products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Kirkeby; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    1993-01-01

    level for ecological products is indeed a decisive obstacle to the sale of ecological prducts. 2. The survey indicated that the market share for ecological products cannot be increased at the present price level. Hence, there is good reason to focus on the price parameter. 3. An experiment with price...... reductions produced considerable changes in customer choices and hence in the estimated market share. The change for tomatoes entails a doubling of the market share at a price reduction of DKK 2.00. For potatoes one could observe a 10% increase per DKK 1.30 price reduction. The ecological market share...

  11. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the fungus Hemileia vastatrix (Berkely and Broome), which causes an injurious rust disease, the..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all...

  12. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seq.), the Poison Prevention Packaging Act (15 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.), which were transferred to the... modern technology has brought air transport and containerized freight for rapid handling and distribution... against the customs broker even though his or her name may appear as the importer of record. However, the...

  13. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  14. The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper makes an assessment of the importance of opinion leaders in farming in three rural villages of Uganda. The basic premise is that peasant farmers in Uganda, particularly the women farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the wide change agent to client ratio. In view of ...

  15. 9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. 381.197 Section 381.197 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Products § 381.197 Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required. (a) Except as provided in...

  16. Cacao diseases: important threats to chocolate production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Theobroma cacao, cacao, is an ancient, neotropical domesticate. It is now grown throughout the humid, lowland tropics and is the basis of a multibillion dollar confectionary trade. Diverse diseases impact production of the crop. They reduce yields by ca. 20%, but could cause far greater losses if certain highly damaging diseases were to become more widely distributed. Among the most potentially dangerous of these diseases are frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches' broom, caused by M. perniciosa (previously Crinipellis perniciosa). These two diseases occur only in the Western Hemisphere, and severe losses would follow their introduction to West Africa and Asia, where ca. 86% of all cacao production occurs. Elsewhere, Cacao swollen shoot virus and the damaging black pod agent, Phytophthora megakarya, are found in Western Africa; whereas vascular streak dieback, caused by Oncobasidium theobromae, is present only in Asia. Breeding programs are challenged by minimal resistance to some of the diseases. Progress that has been made is threatened by the "emergence" of other serious diseases, such as Ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis cacaofunesta). During this symposium, new insights are discussed on the biology, origins, pathology and phylogeny of the pathogens; as well as the biological, chemical and genetic management of the diseases that they cause.

  17. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclusions.

  18. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  19. [The acerola fruit: composition, productive characteristics and economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, Tatiana; Fernández-Pachón, Ma Soledad; Villaño, Débora; García-Parrilla, Ma Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    The acerola (Malpighia emarginata Sessé y Mociño ex DC) is a wild plant grown in zones of tropical and subtropical climate. Acerola is origin from South of Mexico, Central America and Septentrional area of South America. Its scientific name was adopted in 1986 by the International Council of Vegetable Genetic Resources. Malpighia emarginata has a subglobulose drupa fruit with three seeds which account between the 19 - 25% of the total weight. The diameter and weight of the fruit varies between 1 - 4 cm and 2 - 15 g, respectively. The fruit shows green color when it is developing, which changes to yellow and red tones when it is mature. Each plant produces annually 20 - 30 kg of fruits. This fruit contents macro and micronutrients: proteins (0.21-0.80 g/100 g), fats (0.23-0.80 g/100 g), carbohydrates (3.6-7.80 g/100 g), mineral salts (iron 0.24, calcium 11.7, phosphorus 17.1 mg/100 g) and vitamins (thiamine 0.02, riboflavine 0.07, piridoxine 8.7 mg/100 g). Its high content in vitamin C (695 a 4827 mg/100 g) is remarkable, therefore acerola has an increasing economic value by its great consume during last years. Acerola also presents carotenoids and bioflavonoids which provide important nutritive value and its potential use as antioxidant. Brazil has a climate and soil appropriate for the culture of acerola, thus this country is the main mundial productor. Acerola is commercialised as juices, jams, ices, gelatins, sweets or liquors. Bibliographical data have been mainly supplied by Electronic Resources of the University of Seville and the University do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, Brazil).

  20. Criterion 6, indicator 32 : exports as a share of wood and wood products production and imports as a share of wood and wood products production

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    The United States has become progressively more reliant on imports to meet consumption needs. In roundwood equivalents, imports of wood and paper products as a share of consumption increased from 13% to 30% between 1965 and 2005. This increase is due largely to increased softwood lumber import share, which increased from 15% in 1965 to 38% in 2006. The import share for...

  1. Food Import Demand: Meat, Dairy Products, Eggs and Live Animals in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Chomo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop effective food import policies, it is necessary to understand the responsiveness of consumers to factors affecting import demand. These factors include consumer response to changes in import prices and income. In this study the authors develop economic models of import demand for three main product groups in Oman: meats, dairy and eggs, and live animals. These product groups have been identified as major sources of protein for the Omani population. In addition, these products have a history of domestic production and potential for reducing dependence on food imports. The results indicate that the estimated price elasticity of demand for meat products is elastic, which implies that an increase in price Will result in a decrease in revenues for meat import businesses However, the estimated price elasticity for imported dairy and egg products is inelastic. This implies that an increase in import price will result in an increase in revenues for dairy and egg import businesses. The estimated income elasticities for meat products and dairy and egg products were found to be less than one, suggesting that they are normal goods. A one percent increase in per capita incomes Will result in a less than one percent increase in demand for imported meat, dairy, and egg products These results have economic implications for growth and development of businesses in these important food import sectors.

  2. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  3. Focus adjustment method for CBERS 3 and 4 satellites Mux camera to be performed in air condition and its experimental verification for best performance in orbital vacuum condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, Lucimara C. N.; Malavolta, Alexandre T.; Modugno, Rodrigo G.; Vales, Luiz F.; Carvalho, Erica G.; Evangelista, Sérgio; Stefani, Mario A.; de Castro Neto, Jarbas C.

    2017-11-01

    The first Brazilian remote sensing multispectral camera (MUX) is currently under development at Opto Eletronica S.A. It consists of a four-spectral-band sensor covering a 450nm to 890nm wavelength range. This camera will provide images within a 20m ground resolution at nadir. The MUX camera is part of the payload of the upcoming Sino-Brazilian satellites CBERS 3&4 (China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellite). The preliminary alignment between the optical system and the CCD sensor, which is located at the focal plane assembly, was obtained in air condition, clean room environment. A collimator was used for the performance evaluation of the camera. The preliminary performance evaluation of the optical channel was registered by compensating the collimator focus position due to changes in the test environment, as an air-to-vacuum environment transition leads to a defocus process in this camera. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm that the alignment of the camera must always be attained ensuring that its best performance is reached for an orbital vacuum condition. For this reason and as a further step on the development process, the MUX camera Qualification Model was tested and evaluated inside a thermo-vacuum chamber and submitted to an as-orbit vacuum environment. In this study, the influence of temperature fields was neglected. This paper reports on the performance evaluation and discusses the results for this camera when operating within those mentioned test conditions. The overall optical tests and results show that the "in air" adjustment method was suitable to be performed, as a critical activity, to guarantee the equipment according to its design requirements.

  4. Determinants of import demand for non-renewable energy (petroleum) products: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewuyi, Adeolu O.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated determinants of import demand for refined petroleum products in Nigeria for the period 1984–2013. It employed the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test cointegration method and analysed both long-run and short-run determinants of import demand for total and specific petroleum products. In the long-run, aggregate and sectoral incomes are significant determinants of import of refined kerosene. Further, real effective exchange rate (REER), aggregate income (GDP), manufacturing sector's income, domestic energy production (DEP) and population growth rate (PGR) are drivers of import of refined motor spirit Moreover, REER, DEP and manufacturing sector's income are propellers of import of refined distillate fuel. Also, REER and total output of petroleum products are major drivers of total import of refined petroleum products. Short-run results show that previous period GDP, PGR and manufacturing and service sectors' incomes are determinants of import demand for refined kerosene. Moreover, REER, GDP, previous PGR and manufacturing sector's income exert significant effects on the import of refined motor spirit. Further, significant effects of REER, DEP, previous PGR, domestic output of the product and manufacturing and service sectors' incomes on the import demand for distillate fuel were found. Policy implications of the foregoing are articulated in the paper. - Highlights: •Long-run and short-run drivers of import demand for petroleum products were estimated. •kerosene import is income elastic, gasoline import is income and relative price inelastic. •Exchange rate policies may have diverse effects on import of various petroleum product. •Expanding market size has implication for import demand for petroleum product varieties. •Import demand for petroleum products responds differently to various sectoral incomes.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF AND ECONOMIC MOTIVATION FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LICENSING OF BRANDED FOOD AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Dennis R.; Sheldon, Ian M.

    1991-01-01

    Casual empiricism suggests that the international licensing of the production and marketing of branded food and related products may become an increasingly important aspect of the globalization of the food industry, particularly in sectors such as soft drinks, brewing and confectionery products. For example, Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola both license the canning and distribution of their final products in overseas markets, Anheuser-Busch and Miller license production of various of their beer brand...

  6. Tariff escalation and EU agricultural imports: An assessment of selected products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether tariff escalation does occur in the EU's agricultural imports for ten selected product groups, for which developing countries are the main source of imports in the Union. Key findings are that tariff escalation does occur, but not for all ten product categories

  7. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  8. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  9. [Economic determinants of the demand for importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides Dos; Tejada, César Augusto Oviedo; Jacinto, Paulo de Andrade

    2017-09-28

    : This article analyzes the relationship between the demand for importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products and economic variables (exchange rate, import prices, and aggregate income) in Brazil, using monthly data from 1997-2014. The main results showed that increases in aggregate income and price reductions in imports have a positive and significant impact (elastic and inelastic, respectively) on imports. Exchange rate was only significant in the more aggregate model. Thus, aggregate income was a robust variable with strong impact on the importation of pharmacochemical and pharmaceutical products. The arguments in the literature that this industry's international trade deficit is related to a deficit in knowledge and technology and the current study's results provide evidence that as economic activity grows, there is a greater demand for this type of product. Additionally, if domestic production is insufficient, there is a need for imports, which can generate pressure on the trade deficit in the industry and contribute to Brazil's dependence on other countries.

  10. ON THE ISSUE OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF DEEP PROCESSING PRODUCTS FROM GRAIN AND POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Andreev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The analysis of structure of starch containing raw materials processing in Russia Federation is provided in the article. There was noted an increase in volumes of corn and wheat processing, however the share of processed potato is still low (below 4%. It was established that Russian starch products and starch sweeteners are on the same level on quality as best European samples and they are very competitive. Market demand in crystalline glucose for food and medical purposes (over 30 thous. tons is fully covered by import. The volume of import of modified starches exceeds 80 % of total consumption. The biggest volume of import among native starches belongs to potato starch – over 60 %. The article provides suggestions on import substitution of mentioned starch products. The growth of starch production in Russia was accompanied by concentration of production at large enterprises. So, in 2013 over 90 % of glucose syrup was produced at six enterprises, over 80 % of dry starch – at five enterprises. Efficiency of corn and wheat processing into starch and starch products is achieved by production and selling of co-products (dry gluten, gluten, corn germ or corn oil, corn extract, feed products.Development of starch sweeteners production from starch could be achieved by expanding the consumption areas of different kinds of glucose syrup and production of glucose-fructose syrups as full substitute of sugar, providing import substitution of sugar, crystalline glucose of food and medicine purpose, deep processing of glucose into polyols (sorbit, maltit, polylactites, aminoacids.

  11. The importance of usability in product choice: a mobile phone case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Zoë; Sharples, Sarah

    2009-12-01

    Usability has become established as an important aspect of product design. This paper describes an investigation that was carried out to identify the importance of usability in product choice related to other product attributes. Interviews were initially carried out to identify possible attributes that contribute to product choice. Experiments were then undertaken using the methods of active information search, structured preference elicitation, ranking and interviews in order to find out what attributes were important to people when choosing an example product - mobile phones. It was found that usability is indeed important in product choice but perhaps not as much as users themselves believe. Other attributes that were found to be more important were features, aesthetics and cost. The process of product choice was found to be complex and it may be the case that people have come to expect usability in their products. Further research is needed to understand more fully the changing role of usability in product choice and to further improve the quality of the user-product relationship.

  12. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  13. Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international tr...

  14. Different Perspectives Between Product and Marketing Division towards Product Critical Success Factors and Its Strategic Importance in Telecommunication Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmi Rida Utami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays situations force telecomunication company to continuously evaluate, select and prioritize its product portfolio in order to determine the strategically important products. An analysis of critical success factors that determine product’s strategic importance acts as a good introduction to review and manage the product portfolio as well as to seek ways to develop the product. To achieve this, the company is required to have good alliances and collaborations between departments, develop a clear focus and seek innovative ways of doing business, particularly between marketing and product divisions. This study analyzed the alignment between product and marketing divisions of a telecommunication company in Indonesia, in determining the company’s strategic products. The results indicated that both divisions agreed on using financial performance and revenue as the most important criteria and sub-criteria for identifying strategic product. However, the divisions also faced some different visions in selecting alternative criteria. The Product divisions were more focused on technical spesification of product, while the Marketing division were more oriented on customer and market conditions. The study reported the consequences of these difference in practice.

  15. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of.... importers and brokers on the electronic filing of import inspection applications for certain meat, poultry...

  16. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupka Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car, medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (TV, and low risk and low level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (confectionery products. Also, this paper investigates importance of country of manufacturing for purchase decision-making process in relation to country of origin’s importance. Research was conducted on 215 respondents from Belgium and Republic of Croatia. Results have shown that country of origin is important only for car purchase, but not for TV and confectionery products. For all product categories, country of origin has been shown to be more important in the decision-making process than country of manufacturing.

  17. Radiological control of food importation products; Control radiologico de productos alimenticios de importacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  18. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  19. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  20. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  1. 14 CFR 21.29 - Issue of type certificate: import products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and instrument markings required by the applicable airworthiness (and noise, where applicable) requirements are presented in the English language. (b) A product type certificated under this section is... imported into the United States if— (1) The applicable State of Design certifies that the product has been...

  2. Imported Input Varieties and Product Innovation : Evidence from Five Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke; Vannoorenberghe, Gonzague

    We examine how access to imported intermediate inputs affects firm-level product innovation in five developing counties. We combine trade data with survey data on innovation and develop a method to determine whether new inputs were essential for the product innovation. We find evidence that the

  3. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate...

  4. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  5. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  6. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    products from Thailand – especially if they were a part of the ”Thai Royal Project”. In both Thailand and China many of the consumers perceived products’ COO as important, but price, brands and familiarity with the product also influenced their decision. COO was especially considered when evaluating......Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner......-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-established in Thailand and China, import is needed to satisfy consumer demand. Hence, there is a huge potential for export...

  7. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  8. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N N; Okusanya, A A

    2008-01-01

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as 137 Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of 137 Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from 226 Ra and 228 Th were found to be low. Although 40 K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. (note)

  9. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  10. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Aghaiypour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp, NOS terminator (253 bp, NPT (470 bp and GUS (443 bp for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the identification of GMO in food has become an important issue in food control, and Iranian Government has not adopted to import any GMO products into Iran. Therefore, this could indicate the significance of food safety and low confidence of people on the safety of these products in Iran. In fact, this protocol can be used for detection of GM products and for the labeling GM samples in order to ensure human health safety and protect the environment.

  11. Role of the tunisian central pharmacy in the import of radio-pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi Jaziri, Camelia; Moulahi, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia the centralized organization of the medicine sector has a strategic and economic importance. It presents particular characteristics concerning the importation and the control of drugs. Tcp has a monopoly on the importation of drugs for the country, which enters in the state policy for the control of drug purchasing costs, their availability in different region of the country and their guarantee and quality. The Tcp has a crucial role in the availability of drugs and in the holding safety stock and strategic reserve of the imported pharmaceutical products, either for the public or private sector. The Tcp has to stock up medicaments, chemical and pharmaceutical products, objects of bandages, instruments, accessory tools and other supplies necessary for the human and veterinary medicine. The Tcp packages any specialized or not medicament and all other products or supplies. The Tcp provides medicaments and products entering within the framework of its task to different health groups and hospitals. The Tcp provides distributors, laboratories and pharmacies over the country. In Tunisia the import of radioisotopes used in the medical domain is attributed to the Tcp. The objective is to centralize purchases and to guarantee: the security, the availability as well as the traceability. The Tcp supply radiopharmaceutical products for diagnostic and therapy purposes according to an authorization delivered annually by the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). An authorization of removal used at the customs allows the clearance of products at the level of the air freights by the transit service of the Tcp. Regarding the evolution of purchases of radio-pharmaceutical products, their importation remained stable during the last three years. Indeed, it is approximately around 1MDT annually (954 121 DT in 2010, 939 956 in 2011 and 1047 967 in 2012). Sources of supply are divided between 4 suppliers: International IBA-CISBIO (49.9 pour cent), COVIDIEN EX (TYCO

  12. The importance of modular product design in the sustainable development of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorkapić Miloš D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is shown importance of modular architecture in the sustainable development of enterprises. The application of modular design enables the development of the production program based on the results of its own development. At the illustrated example, the production of transmitters it was concluded that modular architecture enables the production of independent entities, provides the realization of products in inaccessible places, enables to precisely defined technical documentation of modules, enabling easy maintenance, repair and improvement. This paper describes an algorithm for material reuse which indicates the importance of the customer in a closed material flow. In this connection, PLC includes protection of the environment as a strategic decision in the sustainable development of enterprises.

  13. Impact of U.S. forest products consumption, imports, and exports on foreign timber harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Durbak; Ken. Skog

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. has historically been a net importer of wood and paper products. During the 1990’s, the U.S. trade deficit widened, implying an increasing U.S. impact on timber harvests in foreign supply regions. An analysis was made of historical and projected trends in U.S. consumption and trade in terms of the roundwood volume required to make products consumed and traded...

  14. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-establi...

  15. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  16. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection to the Chief, Poultry Grading Branch, Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S... destination, the quantity and class of product, whether fresh, frozen, or dried, and the point of first...

  17. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs: processes, precursors and relative importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone H; Svenningsen, Nanna B; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2 O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces are important sites of N2 O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2 O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2 O in shell biofilms as revealed by (15) N-stable isotope experiments with dissected shells. Microsensor measurements confirmed that both nitrification and denitrification can occur in shell biofilms due to a heterogeneous oxygen distribution. Accordingly, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were important drivers of N2 O production in the shell biofilm of the three mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2 O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2 O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation was demonstrated in a long-term microcosm experiment with the snail H. reticulata, where shell biofilms exhibited the highest N2 O emission rates when the animal was still living inside the shell. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The Importance of Non-Timber Forest Products in Tackling Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Importance of Non-Timber Forest Products in Tackling Poverty and Hunger. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... The sustainable utilization and management of NTFPs will go a long way in tackling the problem of poverty, unemployment, malnutrition and diseases especially ...

  19. Socio-Economic importance o non-timber forest products among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the availability, importance and prospects of Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs) among rural residents of Shaki Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study concentrated on the flora, a greater number of which have disappeared over time. A number of the remaining plants were found to have ...

  20. The Importance of Production Frequency in Therapy for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeal, Denice Michelle; Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina Elke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the importance of production frequency during speech therapy to determine whether more practice of speech targets leads to increased performance within a treatment session, as well as to motor learning, in the form of generalization to untrained words. Method: Two children with childhood apraxia of speech were treated…

  1. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  2. Importance of bee pollination for cotton production in conventional and organic farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of wild bee and feral honeybee visits for cotton production on conventional and organic farms. Experiments were conducted in Brazil, on a conventional cotton farm in Mato Grosso state in the Amazon biome and on an organic farm in Paraíba state in the Caatinga biome. On the conventional farm, bee assemblage and cotton production were measured near to and far from natural vegetation. Bee richness, fibre fraction, seed number and yield (Kg/ha were higher by 57.14, 1.95, 17.77 and 18.44% respectively in plots near natural vegetation, but bee abundance did not vary with distance to natural vegetation. On the organic farm, because the cropping area is surrounded by natural vegetation, pollination deficit was evaluated using an exclusion experiment where cotton production of flowers bagged to prevent bee visitation (spontaneous self-pollination was compared to production of flowers open to bee visitation (open pollination. Open pollinated flowers had higher average boll weight, fibre weight and seed number. Although cotton is not directly dependent on bee pollination, bees increased cotton production on the organic farm by more than 12% for fibre weight and over 17% for seed number. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining communities of pollinators on cotton farms, especially for organic production.

  3. [THE ACTUAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEM OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN TH FIELD OF PRODUCTION GROWTH MEDIUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelin, A P; Domotenko, L V; Diatlov, I A; Mironov, A Yu; Aleshkin, V A

    2015-06-01

    The import substitution becomes one of strategic tasks of Russian economy as a result of imposition of economic sanctions on part of the USA, EU countries, Japan and number of other states. The development of structure and technology of production of national import substituted growth mediums permits satisfying needs of laboratory service of Russia inactive storage and to secure appropriate response to occurring challenges and new biological menaces and support bio-security of state at proper level. The presented data concerning substantiation of nomenclature of growth mediums and transport system permit satisfying in fullness the needs of clinical and sanitary microbiology in growth mediums of national production and to give up of import deliveries without decreasing of quality of microbiological studies.

  4. The ecologic products and the importance of their consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanța Sîrbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to analyze the perception of young people regarding the ecologic products, their consumption and implicitly the awareness of their effect on the human health. The geographic area where we realized the study wasTimisoaraby distributing a questionnaire in different places: universities, super-markets, mall. After analyzing the results, we noticed that 80% of the young people consider that the food is very important for a healthy life. The majority of the young people questioned, even knowing the characteristics of the bio products, consumed fruits and vegetables bought from stores specialized in ecologic products. From our study, we can say that the young people are interested in the ecologic products sold inTimisoaraand they are aware about their impact on the human health.

  5. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  6. METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papagianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.

  7. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papagianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.

  8. The importance of asking "how and why?" in natural product structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick D; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2017-10-18

    Covering: up to 2017This review highlights why careful consideration of the biosynthetic origin (the how) and the biological function (the why) of a natural product can be so useful during the determination of its structure. Recent examples of structural reassignments inspired by biosynthetic and functional insights will be presented. This review will demonstrate the importance of viewing the origin, structure and function of a natural product as intertwined threads of a single story, best viewed as a whole rather than as discrete topics.

  9. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  10. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  11. Gas Strategy of China: Developing competition between national production and imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    The Chinese gas market is facing four key challenges and the government is elaborating responses which will have implications for the Chinese and world energy markets: - Enabling the development of gas demand in order to fight against the issue of air pollution which is particularly strong in the big coast cities of the East and South-East of the country. This means replacing coal and oil by cleaner energy sources, including natural gas for which demand is booming. In such a young market, everything needs to be put in place: from the construction of LNG terminals to the sale and installation of gas stoves. The price of gas needs to be competitive for the market to develop. - Securing supplies: As national production is struggling to follow the rise in demand and as shale gas - of which China owns the second largest reserves in the world - is still a distant dream, this country is more and more reliant on imports. For evident energy security reasons, China diversifies its supplies at the maximum level and develops new energy partnerships. Four importing routes are favoured: LNG transported by ships, the West axis with Central Asia, the South axis with Burma and the new North-East axis with Russia. These imports, which amounted to 53 bcm in 2013, may triple by 2020. Even though China managed to negotiate a favourable price with Russia and its LNG importing price is lower than the one of Japan - thanks to its first LNG importing contracts signed in the early 2000 - imports are expensive, in particular for a country used to producing or importing coal at a very low cost. Up to now, the price at which gas is sold could not cover the import price and this system is not sustainable. - Developing national production: Despite important gas reserves - in particular for unconventional gas (shale gas, tight gas, CBM) - production in China is still not much developed in comparison with its potential and the growth opportunities are significant. Making the best of this potential

  12. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  13. Importance of copper for nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt

    nitrification during drinking water production provided the motivation to investigate if a lack of copper could be responsible for the problems in nitrifying biofilters. Copper is believed to be an essential cofactor in the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), which catalyzes the first essential step...... be supplied in a controlled fashion, and that little maintenance and no chemicals are required. Copper dosing through the novel electrolysis method, as well as through passive dosing from solid copper and active dosing of copper solution, was studied at nine more DWTPs, which all shared a long history...... were the main active ammonium oxidizers during the dosing. This PhD project revealed that copper is of vital importance for efficient nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production. The results of this study have important practical implications for biofilters currently...

  14. [Official experimental testing of biomedical products. Regulatory frame and importance of for quality, safety and efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieths, S; Seitz, R

    2014-10-01

    The official experimental testing of biomedicinal products provides a very significant contribution to ensuring quality, safety and efficacy of these indispensable medicines. Already in the prelicensing phase or to elucidate clusters of increased adverse effects, official medicinal control laboratories are committed to perform experimental testing. The official batch release can be seen as external quality control of the manufacturer's release testing. For proficient performance in these tasks, scientific research is required, in particular on the development and refinement of test methods, and considering the continuous development of innovative biomedicinal products. This article is aimed at introducing the present thematic issue and in particular the regulatory basis of experimental product testing, and illustrates by means of several examples its great importance for the sake of the patients.

  15. The Relative Importance of Relationships and Knowledge Flows in New Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Praest Knudsen, Mette

    2004-01-01

    The relationship and network literature has primarily focused on particular partner types e.g. buyer-supplier relationships or competitor interaction. This paper explores the relative importance of different international relationships for New Product Development processes. The paper is based on the KNOW survey1, which was carried out in 2000 in seven European countries. The analyses highlight two apparently contradictory findings, first, that relationships with customers are used...

  16. Are agricultural and natural sources of bio-products important for modern regenerative medicine? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Maciej; Nowacka, Katarzyna; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Tyloch, Dominik; Rasmus, Marta; Warda, Karolina; Drewa, Tomasz

    2017-05-11

    [b] Abstract Introduction and objectives[/b]. As tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have continued to evolve within the field of biomedicine, the fundamental importance of bio-products has become increasingly apparent. This true not only in cases where they are derived directly from the natural environment, but also when animals and plants are specially bred and cultivated for their production. [b]Objective.[/b] The study aims to present and assess the global influence and importance of selected bio-products in current regenerative medicine via a broad review of the existing literature. In particular, attention is paid to the matrices, substances and grafts created from plants and animals which could potentially be used in experimental and clinical regeneration, or in reconstructive procedures. [b]Summary.[/b] Evolving trends in agriculture are likely to play a key role in the future development of a number of systemic and local medical procedures within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This is in addition to the use of bio-products derived from the natural environment which are found to deliver positive results in the treatment of prospective patients.

  17. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Egbuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51, fatty acids (four, and phenolics (six, were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  18. THE PRODUCTION OF MEDICINES IN ROMANIA AFTER 1990. WHAT'S THE REASON FOR IMPORTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Romania turned itself slowly but surely, from a large drugs producer, which has used to supplydrugs to the whole former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Member States, and with a net positive trade balance in medicine sector, into a large drugs importer, trying hardly to attract investors which could produce medicines not only for the Romanian domestic market, but also for all other Eastern European markets, Ukraine, Russia and Turkey. This paper focuses on the empirical analisys of the medicines production sector in Romania after 1990, aiming to emphasises the factors which have mostly affected this industry, in correlation with different interests and reasons which determined the increasing imports of drugs during the last years, by underlying at the same time, the role of the new public authority in charge of supervising the distribution and import of medicines in Romania, The National Medicines Administration (NMA. The paper relevance relies in the fact that Romania registered during the last years drug imports of an average of 1.7 billion euros, while the drug exports were only around 0,1 billions euros, according to the computations made on the data provided by the Romanian Institute of National Statistics (INS. The most imported products are patent drugs, which are more expensive than those produced by the domestic manufactured. At the same time, Romania registered an increase of the pharmaceutical market of around 20% only since its EU integration, this market proven to be largely driven by expensive products. Our research conducted to the conclusion that the Romanian resort authorities have to immediately adopt measures meant to limit consumption of expensive drugs, on the one side, and to reinforce the domestic manufacturers on the other side, even by attracting major investors in this sector. We have also identified that there is a large competitiveness for Romanian medicine products on the international market, due

  19. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  20. Development of import subtituting technologies for increasing productivity of sintering machines and strength of agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of industrial fluxed agglomerates self-destruction in the process of cooling after sintering has been examined. It has been revealed that the main reason of strength degradation is polymorphism of dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 (or short designation С2S: β-Ca2SiO4 ® γ-Ca2SiO4. Ways for increasing the  agglomerate  strength by physical and crystal-chemical stabilization of the high temperature modification of C2S have been proposed and tested. Physical stabilization of C2S agglomerate is increased with its structure reinforcement due to thickening of walls between large pores that is achieved by increasing height of the sintered layer through improvement of its gas permeability. The task is addressed by substituting the previously used import sintering ore with the  polydisperse ore from the Yakovlevo field, which improves the charge  pelletizing by 3-4 times and helps to bring the  height of the sintered layer and the strength of the domestic agglomerate up to the international best practice standards, while eliminating a need to purchase import high-vacuum   exhausters. In practice crystal-chemical stabilization of C2S within iron-ore  agglomerate is ensured by adding an  opti- mal multicomponent additive in the form of the    waste product  generated in production  of alumina  from bauxites, i.e. the red mud, to the initial sinter charge. Thus mechanical strength of agglomerates and pellets is increased by 5-10 % and their hot strength improves by 20-40 %. The productivity of sintering machines and blast furnaces improves by 5-10 %. Specific coke consumption reduces by 2-2.5 %. In production of iron-ore pellets red mud is substituting the import  bentonite.

  1. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    The 3–11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. - Highlights: • About 20,000 food products imported from Japan were tested by low-background HPGe detectors. • In total, 46 food products had been found to be contaminated by I-131, Cs-134 or Cs-137, however, the radiation levels were all below the limit of Taiwanese regulations. • The measurement techniques described in this study can be used as a fast screening tool to ensure safety of food supplied

  2. Importance of nuclear technology in the conservation and production of nutritional fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.

  3. USE OF IMPORT REVOLVING LEVERAGE LEASING IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE RISKS IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Muftahova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the financing form in case of import revolving leverage leasing is described to modernize of fixed assets.In the research process the methods of mathematical modeling are applied.The mathematical model of the generalized method of calculation leasing payments proposed by the authors is represented according to the results of the research.The presented method includes several forms of leasing utilized both in the domestic and in the foreign practice.The novelty of this method consists in the fact that on the basis of the proposed forms of leasing is calculated the sum of leasing payment, which considers with the calculation insu-rance, financial and currency component to minimize losses from downtime due to the limited using of basic production assets of the enterprise in the organization of the production process.The method presented by authors is intended to minimize the risk of downtime of production equipment. This fact will enable us to provide high qualitative and quantitative indicators of the enterprise, stability and continuity of the production process.

  4. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized. ...

  5. Serovar 4b complex predominates among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Jianjun; Hu, Hongxia; Ye, Jiangbo; Fang, Weihuan

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative organism of listeriosis, is primarily transmitted to humans through contaminated food. In this study, we examined 1275 batches of aquatic products imported from 29 countries and found that 36 batches from 8 countries were contaminated by Listeria (2.8%), with L. monocytogenes accounting for 2.6% (33/1275) and L. innocua for 0.2% (3/1275). Of the 23 selected L. monocytogenes isolates (from the 33 identified), 15 (65.2%) were of serovar 4b complex (4b, 4d, or 4e), three (13.0%) of 1/2a or 3a, four (17.4%) of 1/2b or 3b, and one (4.4%) of 1/2c or 3c. Notably, four of the 23 isolates belonged to epidemic clone I (ECI) and another four were associated with epidemic clone II (ECII), two highly clonal 4b clusters responsible for most of the documented listeriosis outbreaks. In the multilocus sequence typing scheme based on the concatenated genes gyrB-dapE-hisJ-sigB-ribC-purM-betL-gap-tuf, serovar 4b complex isolates from imported aquatic products exhibited significant genetic diversity. While the four ECI isolates were genetically related to those from Chinese diseased animals, both lacking one proline-rich repeat of ActA, the four ECII isolates were located between 1/2b or 3b strains. As the L. monocytogenes isolates from imported aquatic products possessed a nearly complete set of major infection-related genes, they demonstrated virulence potential in mouse model.

  6. PLANT BREEDING IS A SOLUTION FOR IMPORT SUBSTITUTION IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Pivovarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable production  is one of the economic sectors  that  provides  the  population  with  foodstuff  products with high biological values. To achieve independence in production  of the agricultural foodstuffs,  the part of imported  products should not be beyond 25 % from total volume of foodstuffs  fabricated. As a result of national breeding program, the varieties and hybrids adapted to different growing conditions, with resistance to  local races of pathogens, temperature stresses, and ground frosts were developed to provide the sustainable production of vegetables with high nutritional and medicinal qualities. The varieties and hybrids F1  of white  head cabbage that have been created for the last 5 years are distinguished from foreign ones by taste qualities, appropriate pickling characteristics with increased  sugar,  and  decreased  cellulose  contents. The local onion varieties combine long shelf life, early maturing, well bulb formation, high dry matter content (18-20% and ability to form the bulb for one year. The cucumber  is  the  traditional  vegetable crop  in  Russia and very profitable for greenhouse enterprises. Breeders have developed bee-pollinated and parthenocarpic hybrids well adapted to local growing conditions and  suitable  for   open  field   cultivation   in  different regions of Russia. Parthenocarpic heterotic hybrids of the  multi-propose  use, corresponding  to  the  modern variety model with high productivity, early-ripening, bunch ovary disposition, resistance to abiotic stresses, and  most  harmful  diseases. The carrot  and  red  beet varieties with  high nutritional  qualities, long shelf-life, ecological plasticity that are widely used for seed production have been created. The varieties of nightshade crops have been developed to cultivate in NonChernozem zone, Far East, Western Siberia, the Middle Belt of Russia and the south of Russia, are also

  7. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    , all originating from shrimp produced in aquaculture. Six isolated strains agglutinated in polyvalent O antisera, but did not agglutinate in Ogawa or Inaba antisera. The six strains were resistant to colistin and sulfisoxazole; three strains also showed resistance to ampicillin. None of the strains...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  8. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... for imports of fish and fish products. On April 30, 2010, NMFS published the advance notice of...: Director, Office of International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West...

  10. Hydrogen peroxide production and myo-inositol metabolism as important traits for virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, M G; Mucha, S G; Parrot, D; Meiffren, G; Bachega, J F R; Comte, G; Zaha, A; Sagot, M F

    2018-04-06

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia. In our previous work, we reconstructed the metabolic models of this species along with two other mycoplasmas from the respiratory tract of swine: Mycoplasma hyorhinis, considered less pathogenic but which nonetheless causes disease and Mycoplasma flocculare, a commensal bacterium. We identified metabolic differences that partially explained their different levels of pathogenicity. One important trait was the production of hydrogen peroxide from the glycerol metabolism only in the pathogenic species. Another important feature was a pathway for the metabolism of myo-inositol in M. hyopneumoniae. Here, we tested these traits to understand their relation to the different levels of pathogenicity, comparing not only the species but also pathogenic and attenuated strains of M. hyopneumoniae. Regarding the myo-inositol metabolism, we show that only M. hyopneumoniae assimilated this carbohydrate and remained viable when myo-inositol was the primary energy source. Strikingly, only the two pathogenic strains of M. hyopneumoniae produced hydrogen peroxide in complex medium. We also show that this production was dependent on the presence of glycerol. Although further functional tests are needed, we present in this work two interesting metabolic traits of M. hyopneumoniae that might be directly related to its enhanced virulence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  12. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  13. Product or waste? Importation and end-of-life processing of computers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahhat, Ramzy; Williams, Eric

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the importation of used personal computers (PCs) in Peru and domestic practices in their production, reuse, and end-of-life processing. The empirical pillars of this study are analysis of government data describing trade in used and new computers and surveys and interviews of computer sellers, refurbishers, and recyclers. The United States is the primary source of used PCs imported to Peru. Analysis of shipment value (as measured by trade statistics) shows that 87-88% of imported used computers had a price higher than the ideal recycle value of constituent materials. The official trade in end-of-life computers is thus driven by reuse as opposed to recycling. The domestic reverse supply chain of PCs is well developed with extensive collection, reuse, and recycling. Environmental problems identified include open burning of copper-bearing wires to remove insulation and landfilling of CRT glass. Distinct from informal recycling in China and India, printed circuit boards are usually not recycled domestically but exported to Europe for advanced recycling or to China for (presumably) informal recycling. It is notable that purely economic considerations lead to circuit boards being exported to Europe where environmental standards are stringent, presumably due to higher recovery of precious metals.

  14. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  15. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  16. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  17. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M.

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h -1 with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  18. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  19. Importance of oil overlay for production of porcine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C A; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2018-04-01

    Technologies to edit the zygote genome have revolutionized biomedical research not only for the creation of animal models for the study of human disease but also for the generation of functional human cells and tissues through interspecies blastocyst complementation technology. The pig is the ideal species for these purposes due to its great similarity in anatomy and physiology to humans. Emerging biotechnologies require the use of oocytes and/or embryos of good quality, which might be obtained using in vitro production (IVP) techniques. However, the current porcine embryo IVP systems are still suboptimal and result in low monospermic fertilization and blastocyst formation rates and poor embryo quality. During recent years, intensive investigations have been performed to evaluate the influence of specific compounds on gametes and embryos and to avoid the use of undefined supplements (serum and serum derivate) in the incubation media. However, little consideration has been given to the use of the mineral oil (MO) to overlay incubation droplets, which, albeit being a routine component of the IVP systems, is a totally undefined and thus problematic product for the safety of gametes and embryos. In this review, we provide an overview on the advantages and disadvantages of using MO to cover the incubation media. We also review one important concern in IVP laboratories: the use of oils containing undetected contamination. Finally, we discuss the effects of different types of oils on the in vitro embryo production outcomes and the transfer of compounds from oil into the culture media. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  1. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  2. Embracing the Importance of FAIR Research Products - Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stall, S.

    2017-12-01

    Integrity and transparency within research is solidified by a complete set of research products that are findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. In other words, they follow the FAIR Guidelines developed by FORCE11.org. Your datasets, images, video, software, scripts, models, physical samples, and other tools and technology are an integral part of the narrative you tell about your research. These research products increasingly are being captured through workflow tools and preserved and connected through persistent identifiers across multiple repositories that keep them safe. They help secure, with your publications, the supporting evidence and integrity of the scientific record. This is the direction that Earth and space science as well as other disciplines is moving. Within our community, some science domains are further along, and others are taking more measured steps. AGU as a publisher is working to support the full scientific record with peer reviewed publications. Working with our community and all the Earth and space science journals, AGU is developing new policies to encourage researchers to plan for proper data preservation and provide data citations along with their research submission and to encourage adoption of best practices throughout the research workflow and data life cycle. Providing incentives, community standards, and easy-to-use tools are some important factors for helping researchers embrace the FAIR Guidelines and support transparency and integrity.

  3. Import substitution and food security (at the example of fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of indicators of import and consumption of fish products in Russia and its European part has been made. The basic factors determining the level of food security and consumption of fishery products, their impact on changes in the studied parameters have been considered. Some measures aimed at reducing import dependence and increasing the consumption of fish products in the European part of Russia have been proposed. Проведен анализ показателей импортозамещения и потребления рыбопродукции в России и ее Европейской части. Показаны основные факторы, определяющие уровень продовольственной безопасности и потребления рыбопродукции, их воздействие на изменения исследуемых показателей. Предложены меры, направленные на снижение импортозависимости и повышение потребления рыбопродукции в Европейской части России

  4. Gamma irradiation of medicinally important plants and the enhancement of secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, P Vivek; Shukla, Lata I

    2017-09-01

    The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites. A comparison of yield improvement with biotic and abiotic stresses was made. Phenolic compounds increase with γ-irradiation in whole plants/plant parts; psoralen content in the common herb babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) was increased as high as 32-fold with γ-irradiation of seeds at 20 kGy. The capsaicinoids, a phenolic compound increased about 10% with 10 kGy in paprika (Capsicum annum L.). The in vitro studies show all the three types of secondary metabolites are reported to increase with γ-irradiation. Stevioside, total phenolic and flavonoids content were slightly increased in 15 Gy-treated callus cultures of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.). In terpenoids, total saponin and ginsenosides content were increased 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, with 100 Gy for wild ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) hairy root cultures. In alkaloids, camptothecin yield increased as high as 20-fold with 20 Gy in callus cultures of ghanera (Nothapodytes foetida). Shikonins increased up to 4-fold with 16 Gy in suspension cultures of purple gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon S.). The enzymes associated with secondary metabolite production were increased with γ-irradiation of 20 Gy; namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) for phenolics, chalcone synthase (CHS) for flavonoids, squalene synthase (SS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) for ginsenosides and PHB (p-hydroxylbenzoic acid) geranyl transferase for shikonins. An increase in secondary

  5. Best broiler husbandry system and perceived importance of production aspects by Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and veterinarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kemp, B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the views of Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians regarding: (1) best broiler husbandry systems; (2) the importance of production aspects of broiler production and (3) the relation between best husbandry system and the importance of

  6. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or timber...

  7. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, poultry meat and other poultry products from the States of Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico, may be imported into the United States...

  8. Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The importance of uranium can be examined from several perspectives. First, natural uranium is a strategic energy resource because it is a key ingredient for the generation of nuclear power and, therefore, it can affect the energy security of a state. Second, natural uranium is also a raw material in relative abundance throughout the world, which can, through certain steps, be transformed into nuclear explosive devices. Thus, there is both an interest in the trade of uranium resources and a need for their regulatory control. The importance of uranium to the worldwide civilian nuclear industry means that its extraction and processing - the so-called 'front end' of the nuclear fuel cycle - is of regulatory interest. Like 'ordinary' metal mining, which is generally regulated within a country, uranium mining must also be considered from the more particular perspective of regulation and control, as part of the international nuclear law regime that is applied to the entire nuclear fuel cycle. The present overview of the regulatory role in overseeing and controlling uranium mining and production will outline the regulation of this resource from an international level, both from early days to the present day. Uranium mining is not regulated internationally; rather, it is a state responsibility. However, developments at the international level have, over time, led to better national regulation. One can note several changes in the approach to the uranium industry since the time that uranium was first mined on a significant scale, so that today the mining and trade of uranium is a well-established and regulated industry much less marked by secrecy and Cold War sentiment. At the same time, it is informed by international standards and conventions, proliferation concerns and a modern regard for environmental protection and the health and safety of workers and the public. (author)

  9. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  10. Importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (RAF/9/053) untitled S trengthening of the technical capacity for the protection patients and worker . The goal of this work is to highlight the importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and the Dose Length product (DLP). Measures were done at Polyclinic of Ilafy and CRDT Anosivavaka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Doses were evaluated by use of pencil ionization chamber model 6000-10 connected with an electrometer RAD-CHECK model 06-256. Knowledge of dose indicator and Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) allow the monitoring of scanner within the appropriate average dosimeter. It also insures the progressive determination for the most adapted dose requirements by choice of parameters available on scanner device. Measurements confirmed that doses from scanner devices of the two centers were under DRL requirements proposed by the IAEA, the European Commission (EC) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The present results confirm that the patient delivered doses for the two centers are optimized. [fr

  11. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  12. Importance of spatial and spectral data reduction in the detection of internal defects in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuechen; Nansen, Christian; Aryamanesh, Nader; Yan, Guijun; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-04-01

    Despite the importance of data reduction as part of the processing of reflection-based classifications, this study represents one of the first in which the effects of both spatial and spectral data reductions on classification accuracies are quantified. Furthermore, the effects of approaches to data reduction were quantified for two separate classification methods, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM). As the model dataset, reflection data were acquired using a hyperspectral camera in 230 spectral channels from 401 to 879 nm (spectral resolution of 2.1 nm) from field pea (Pisum sativum) samples with and without internal pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) infestation. We deployed five levels of spatial data reduction (binning) and eight levels of spectral data reduction (40 datasets). Forward stepwise LDA was used to select and include only spectral channels contributing the most to the separation of pixels from non-infested and infested field peas. Classification accuracies obtained with LDA and SVM were based on the classification of independent validation datasets. Overall, SVMs had significantly higher classification accuracies than LDAs (P food products with internal defects, and it highlights that spatial and spectral data reductions can (1) improve classification accuracies, (2) vastly decrease computer constraints, and (3) reduce analytical concerns associated with classifications of large and high-dimensional datasets.

  13. Biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of palmitoleate production, an important contributor to human health and sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmei; Li, Runzhi; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-10-01

    Palmitoleate (cis-Δ9-16:1) shows numerous health benefits such as increased cell membrane fluidity, reduced inflammation, protection of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of oncogenesis. Plant oils containing this unusual fatty acid can also be sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important and high-demand 1-octene. Vegetable oils rich in palmitoleate are the ideal candidates for biodiesel production. Several wild plants are known that can synthesize high levels of palmitoleate in seeds. However, low yields and poor agronomic characteristics of these plants limit their commercialization. Metabolic engineering has been developed to create oilseed crops that accumulate high levels of palmitoleate or other unusual fatty acids, and significant advances have been made recently in this field, particularly using the model plant Arabidopsis as the host. The engineered targets for enhancing palmitoleate synthesis include overexpression of Δ9 desaturase from mammals, yeast, fungi, and plants, down-regulating KASII, coexpression of an ACP-Δ9 desaturase in plastids and CoA-Δ9 desaturase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and optimizing the metabolic flux into triacylglycerols (TAGs). This review will mainly describe the recent progress towards producing palmitoleate in transgenic plants by metabolic engineering along with our current understanding of palmitoleate biosynthesis and its regulation, as well as highlighting the bottlenecks that require additional investigation by combining lipidomics, transgenics and other "-omics" tools. A brief review of reported health benefits and non-food uses of palmitoleate will also be covered. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-04-01

    How electronic cigarettes and similar products (e-cigarettes) are defined affects how they are regulated, particularly whether existing laws for cigarettes apply, including sales and marketing, youth access, smoke-free and taxation laws. We examined the text of 46 bills that define e-cigarettes enacted in 40 states and characterised how e-cigarettes and similar products were defined. States enact laws creating new product categories for e-cigarettes separate from the 'tobacco product' category (eg, 'alternative nicotine product,' 'vapour product,' 'electronic nicotine device'), with four states explicitly excluding e-cigarettes from 'tobacco products.' Twenty-eight states do not include e-cigarettes in their definitions of 'tobacco products' or 'smoking,' eight include e-cigarettes as 'tobacco products,' three include e-cigarettes in 'smoking.' Sixteen states' definitions of e-cigarettes require nicotine, and five states pre-empt more stringent local laws. Tobacco and e-cigarette industry representatives tried to shape laws that benefit their interests. Definitions separating e-cigarettes from other tobacco products are common. Similar to past 'Trojan horse' policies, e-cigarette policies that initially appear to restrict sales (eg, limit youth access) may actually undermine regulation if they establish local pre-emption or create definitions that divide e-cigarettes from other tobacco products. Comparable issues are raised by the European Union Tobacco Products Directive and e-cigarette regulations in other countries. Policymakers should carefully draft legislation with definitions of e-cigarettes that broadly define the products, do not require nicotine or tobacco, do not pre-empt stronger regulations and explicitly include e-cigarettes in smoke-free and taxation laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Alternative pathways for angiotensin II production as an important determinant of kidney damage in endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodolfo Mattar; Colucci, Juliana Almada; Yokota, Rodrigo; Moreira, Roseli Peres; Aragão, Danielle Sanches; Ribeiro, Amanda Aparecida; Arita, Danielle Yuri; Watanabe, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno; Palomino, Zaira; Cunha, Tatiana Sousa; Casarini, Dulce Elena

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response against an infection and a major public health issue worldwide. This condition affects several organs, and, when caused by Gram-negative bacteria, kidneys are particularly damaged. Due to the importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulating renal function, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of endotoxemia over the renal RAS. Wistar rats were injected with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (4 mg/kg), mimicking the endotoxemia induced by Gram-negative bacteria. Three days after treatment, body mass, blood pressure, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) were reduced, indicating that endotoxemia triggered cardiovascular and metabolic consequences and that hypotension was maintained by NO-independent mechanisms. Regarding the effects in renal tissue, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was diminished, but no changes in the renal level of NO were detected. RAS was also highly affected by endotoxemia, since renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and ACE2 activities were altered in renal tissue. Although these enzymes were modulated, only angiotensin (ANG) II was augmented in kidneys; ANG I and ANG 1-7 levels were not influenced by LPS. Cathepsin G and chymase activities were increased in the endotoxemia group, suggesting alternative pathways for ANG II formation. Taken together, our data suggest the activation of noncanonical pathways for ANG II production and the presence of renal vasoconstriction and tissue damage in our animal model. In summary, the systemic administration of LPS affects renal RAS, what may contribute for several deleterious effects of endotoxemia over kidneys. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in milk production on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is gaining importance as a forage legume in the Republic of Croatia. Pea seed contains 20-30 percent of protein, it is utilized without thermal treatment in feeding different types and categories of livestock, and with stable yield it provides an appreciable income per hectare. Two-year field trials (2005-2006 were carried out to determine the effect of winter pea seed inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on the number and mass (g/plant-1 of root nodules and also on the yield and quality of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in a mixture with wheat cv. Sana. Just before sowing, pea seeds were inoculated with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 from the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb. The highest number of root nodules (43 nodules/plant, as well as the highest nodule mass (0.219 g/plant-1 were determined in the inoculated variant. The highest number of pods (19.0 and seeds per plant (60 were determined in the inoculated variant as well. The highest 1000-seed mass (132 g and seed mass per plant (7.93 g were also determined in the inoculated variant. Average pea seed yield ranged from 2949 kg ha-1 (control up to 3353 kg ha-1 (inoculation. The conclusion of this research is that the highest seed (3353 kg ha-1 and crude protein yields (833 kg ha-1 were obtained with inoculated forage winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani. Seed inoculation of the studied pea cultivar Maksimirski rani with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 influenced also higher milk production per hectare compared to the control and the nitrogen top-dressed variant.

  17. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS (PCDDs AND FURANS (PCDFs AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs and furans (PCDFs, by product of chlorinated chemical compounds production and chemical processes including combustion, are virtually ubiquitous in the environment. Because of this, PCDDs and PCDFs occur potantial risk for human health. PCDDs and PCDFs are known to exist at higher levels in fatty foods such as full-fat milk and dairy products, meat and eggs. They can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals and humans. In this review, structure, contamination sources, toxic effects of PCDDs and PCDFs, milk, dairy products and mother's milk as contamination source and preventive measures against PCDDs and PCDFs were discussed.

  18. Estimation of Import Demand for Fishery Products in the U.S. Using the Source-Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojin; Reed, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fishery product imports by the U.S. have been gradually increasing in recent years. The leading exporting countries include Canada, Chile, China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A source-differentiated Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model and its Error Correction Model (ECM) version are employed to investigate the static and dynamic U.S. import demand for fishery products from the top seven countries using monthly data from January 1999 to September 2012. Long-run and short-run ...

  19. 7 CFR 57.945 - Foreign eggs offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... findings to customs; handling of products refused entry. 57.945 Section 57.945 Agriculture Regulations of... importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of products refused entry. (a) Inspectors shall report... notice thereof to the District Director of Customs. (b) Consignees shall, at their own expense, return...

  20. Profile of the Illegal Import of Products of Animal Origin to Brazilian Cities at the Border with Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J G; Soares, V M; Santos, E A R; Tadielo, L E; Pellegrini, D C P; Duval, E H; Silva, W P

    2017-10-01

    International food transit is a risk to public and animal health when not subject to legal importation sanitation procedures. Due to the extensive border area, illegal food import in Brazil is a common practice, especially in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), a state that borders with Argentina and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of Brazilians living in cities in RS that border with Argentina (BR-AR) or Uruguay (BR-UR) regarding the practice of illegal import of products of animal origin and to determine associations between the population characteristics and illegal import. A questionnaire with information related to the personal profile, habits of acquisition of imported food, and knowledge of health risks deriving from the consumption of the imported products was elaborated. The questionnaire was administered in six cities in RS (three cities bordering Argentina and three cities bordering Uruguay) and responses were obtained from 744 individuals. The variables city, sex, level of education, and knowledge were subjected to the chi-square test to verify the association between these variables and food import. Part of the interviewees admitted to illegally importing products of animal origin at both BR-AR (65.17%) and BR-UR (76.28%) borders. Dairy products were the main imported goods, followed by raw and processed meat. The study revealed that illegal import is common at the frontier region of RS, especially that of products of animal origin, dairy, and raw and processed meat. Although illegal importation occurs at all the cities under study, it was higher at the BR-UR border. Also, knowledge of the health risks influences the decision to import food or not.

  1. Thirty-nine years of U.S. wood furniture importing: sources and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze changes in United States imports of wood furniture over the 39-year period from 1972 to 2010. In 1972, Canada and the former Yugoslavia were the most important sources of imported wood furniture, and Europe accounted for nearly 60 percent of total imports. Shipments of low-cost wood furniture from Taiwan started to increase in the 1970s, and by...

  2. The importance of reallocation for productivity growth: Evidence from European and US banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.W.B.; van Santen, P.C.; Schilp, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effect of reallocation dynamics on aggregate productivity developments in the banking sectors of Europe and the United States. We document an increase in productivity over the period 1995-2009, on the order of 11% in the US and 19% in Europe. At an annual frequency,

  3. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  4. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    at high light depended on community density. Therefore, while the determination of the production of individual algal thalli is useful for evaluating differences in acclimatisation and adaptation between species and stands, it is not useful for evaluating production rates for entire plants and communities......Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE AND POSSIBILITY OF CARCASS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN HUNGARIAN PORK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Csató

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter data of the National pig database was analysed by the authors. The authors investigated the results of the (SEUROP grade scheme, which showed the connection between the pig proportions fell into the various grade classes and their prices. The analyses started when the introduction of the (SEUROP grade scheme took place in 1997 and was based on the official database published each week. For the sake of better overview the results were summed up to monthly intervals. The authors found that in the first period (shortly after the introduction of the grade scheme the prices of the slaughtered pigs fell into the various grade classes differed from each other by 6-7 %. As a result of the (SEUROP grade scheme’s introduction the proportion of the slaughtered pigs fell in the grade classes E and U increased from 18% to 27% and from 37% to 44% respectively. The proportions in the R, O, and P classes consequently decreased. Following the first period no changing pattern was found concerning these proportions which means that the improvement of the graded slaughter pigs stopped. Investigating the possible explanations the authors realised that the price differences between the grade classes decreased from 6-7% to 4-5%. Thus the meat processing industry in fact was paying more for one unit lean content of slaughtered pigs when fell into the worst categories than for those which can be found in the best categories. This however does not provide any motivation for the producers for improving carcass quality, which can only be obtained through higher costs. It can be concluded that carcass quality improvement is an important requirement for Hungary. Concerning the EU members the graded slaughter pigs can be found in the E and U categories almost exclusively. The same ratio is only 65% in Hungary. Therefore the modification of slaughtered pig prices of the E and U grade classes is vital in order to motivate the production of slaughtered pigs

  6. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  7. PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTIONS IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: IMPORTANCE OF FRESHWATER FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationships between phytoplankton productivity, nutrient distributions, and freshwater flow were examined in a seasonal study conducted in Escambia Bay, Florida, USA, located in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Five sites oriented along the salinity gradient were sampled 24...

  8. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-09-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  9. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  10. How Important is Presenteeism for the Value of Lost Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Questionnaire were applied in a cross-sectional study of 3,704 patients with RA. The costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the Human Capital approach, and the impact of including multipliers adjusting for the productivity effect of a workers’ absence or impaired presenteeism on societal...... days with a resulting cost of €168 (SD, 203) and €203 (SD, 245), again depending on whether a multiplier was included. Overall, this article demonstrates that the value of lost production due to RA could be subject to an almost factor 2 increase if productivity effects of presenteeism and general...... productivity was demonstrated. RA-related absenteeism over the last 14 days was 22.31 hours (standard deviation [SD], 26.51) with a resulting cost of €473 (SD, 575) and €762 (SD, 926) depending on whether a multiplier was included. Presenteeism was found to affect 7.98 (SD, 3.24) working days over the last 14...

  11. 9 CFR 327.3 - No product to be imported without compliance with applicable regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be submitted by the exporter or his authorized agent to the Administrator and determined by the... showing that the product has been prepared and handled in a sanitary manner. (c) [Reserved] [35 FR 15610...

  12. [Bacteria of Lactobacillus casei group: characterization, viability as probiotic in food products and their importance for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriti, Flávia Carolina Alonso; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2007-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous lactic acid bacteria, able to colonize various natural and man-made environments. Strains of the Lactobacillus casei group have been widely studied with respect to their health-promoting properties. Several beneficial functions for the human organism have been attributed to regular consumption of food products containing these strains. Bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group are of great interest for the food industry to improve food quality. A number of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the viability of strains of Lactobacillus casei group as probiotic in dairy products, desserts, among others food products. Despite its importance for the food industry, the taxonomy of the Lactobacillus casei group is still unclear. This review discusses important studies related to characterization of strains of Lactobacillus casei group, the application of these bacteria as probiotic in different food products and the main beneficial effects attributed to regular consumption of products containing such microorganisms.

  13. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    important as a resource and where collaboration partners are important. Hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative analysis of a data set containing information about 4842 domestic and international inter-firm linkages of Danish firms in manufacturing industries. The findings in this analysis exhibit...

  14. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  15. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer...... trust as a distinct volition factor influencing the likelihood that consumers will act on green intentions and strongly emphasizes the needs to manage consumer trust as a prerequisite for the development of a market for green products. Specifically, based on a mixture of qualitative and quantitative...... methods, it is found that lack of consumer trust is a barrier for the development of a market for organic food in Thailand. Two focus groups and ten in-depth interviews revealed low knowledge about and low trust in organic food, certification, control and labeling. Further, a mall-intercept survey (N=177...

  16. Important Regulatory Aspects in the Receipt of Animal Products by Food Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials.

  17. Technologically important characteristics of Enterococcus isolates from milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, D; Jooste, P J; Mostert, J F

    1990-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium (54 strains), E. faecalis (40 strains), and E. durans (14) were isolated from various dairy products (raw milk, cream, butter and fermented milk products) during a previous study (Wessels et al., 1988). In this article various characteristics of these isolates, which may have a bearing on their significance in dairy products, have been studied. A large percentage of the identified strains of all three species were able to grow at 7 degrees C. Seventy-six percent of the E. faecium strains, 62% E. faecalis and 50% E. durans strains also showed proteolytic activity at psychrotrophic temperatures. The fact that proteolytic activity could be detected within 2 days at 7 degrees C is significant, since bulk cooled milk is normally held for 3 to 4 days at temperatures between 4 and 7 degrees C at farms or factories prior to processing. This examination confirmed that enterococci are proteolytic rather than lipolytic.

  18. [Dietary exposure assessment of some important Fusarium toxins in cereal-based products in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Bing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yu, Hongxia; Li, Fengqin

    2010-11-01

    To elucidate the dietary exposure of Chinese populations to deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN). Ten Fusarium toxins including DON, NIV, ZEN in domestic wheat flour and corn-based products harvested and collected in 2009 were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Dietary intake assessments of human exposure to DON, NIV and ZEN were carried out in combination of national food consumption data with toxin concentration data by deterministic estimate method. (1) There are 2.5% adults and 10% children with the dietary exposure to DON exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI) on the basis of the average food consumption. At the 75th percentile food consumption level, the dietary exposure of populations to DON was higher than its TDI, 1.72 and 2.02 times (adults) as well as 1.19 and 1.09 times higher than TDI (children), respectively, based on the higher DON exposure (adults : P90 for wheat flour and P97. 5 for corn-based products, children: P50 for wheat flour and P75 for corn-based products). At the average toxin concentration, children with the high consumption level (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) of either wheat flour or corn-based products, the dietary exposure to DON exceed the TDI, 1.81 to 3.17 times (wheat flour) and 1.47 - 3.97 times (corn-based products) higher than TDI, respectively. The dietary exposure of adults to ZEN exceed the TDI, based on the average food consumption data and higher ZEN level (P99), the 75th consumption data combined with P97. 5th toxin concentration, as well as 90th percentile of both food consumption data and ZEN concentration, respectively. There are 1%, 2.5%, 25%, 25% and 50% populations of children exposed ZEN higher than TDI, respectively at the 50th, 75th, 90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile of food consumption data. (2) The level of concern (LOC) of DON in wheat flour calculated with high consumption data (90th, 97. 5th and 99th percentile) for all populations as well as DON and ZEN in corn-based products calculated

  19. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...

  20. Usage patterns of personal care products: Important factors for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Dudzina, T.; Delmaar, C.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Russel, F.G.M.; Goetz, N. von; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2013-01-01

    Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is limited, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, a database was created with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for

  1. Labour productivity and innovation performance: the importance of internal labour flexibility practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vergeer, R.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article develops and examines the idea that internal labour flexibility practices are beneficial for labour productivity and innovation performance of companies. This is tested in two studies using unique company level datasets. In Study 1, results obtained from 377 independent companies

  2. 78 FR 11725 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia Importation of Horticultural Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Dispute No. WT/DS455] WTO Dispute Settlement... (``Indonesia'') under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement... animal products. That request may be found at www.wto.org , contained in a document designated as WT...

  3. Supply Selection and Supply Chain Maturity - important areas of the quality production assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Koblen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper pays attention to selected information focused on the key requirements and criteria used in both the conventional supplier selection and sustainable supplier selection processes. The authors introduce the supply chain maturity levels, which, together with the supplier selection and assessment issue, is the essential area for the assurance of the high quality, safety and dependability of the products.

  4. Importing, productivity and SMEs: firm-level evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297206710

    2013-01-01

    Constructing a comprehensive data set covering Dutch firms over the years 2002-2008 I am the first to investigate the relationship between trade status, firm size and firm-level productivity in the Netherlands, thereby focusing particularly on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The empirical

  5. Collectin-11 Is an Important Modulator of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Phagocytosis and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xia; Wu, Weiju; Ma, Liang; Liu, Chengfei; Bhuckory, Mohajeet B; Wang, Liping; Nandrot, Emeline F; Xu, Heping; Li, Ke; Liu, Yizhi; Zhou, Wuding

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report previously unknown roles for collectin-11 (CL-11, a soluble C-type lectin) in modulating the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell functions of phagocytosis and cytokine production. We found that CL-11 and its carbohydrate ligand are expressed in both the murine and human neural retina; these resemble each other in terms of RPE and photoreceptor cells. Functional analysis of murine RPE cells showed that CL-11 facilitates the opsonophagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments and apoptotic cells, and also upregulates IL-10 production. Mechanistic analysis revealed that calreticulin on the RPE cells is required for CL-11-mediated opsonophagocytosis whereas signal-regulatory protein α and mannosyl residues on the cells are involved in the CL-11-mediated upregulation of IL-10 production. This study is the first to demonstrate the role of CL-11 and the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating RPE cell phagocytosis and cytokine production. It provides a new insight into retinal health and disease and has implications for other phagocytic cells. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Are agricultural and natural sources of bio-products important for modern regenerative medicine? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2017-05-01

    Evolving trends in agriculture are likely to play a key role in the future development of a number of systemic and local medical procedures within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This is in addition to the use of bio-products derived from the natural environment which are found to deliver positive results in the treatment of prospective patients.

  7. Importance of Foliar Nitrogen Concentration to Predict Forest Productivity in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; John Hom; Jennifer Jenkins; Richard Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    To assess what difference it might make to include spatially defined estimates of foliar nitrogen in the regional application of a forest ecosystem model (PnET-II), we composed model predictions of wood production from extensive ground-based forest inventory analysis data across the Mid-Atlantic region. Spatial variation in foliar N concentration was assigned based on...

  8. The Importance of Method Selection in Determining Product Integrity for Nutrition Research1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Brown, Paula N

    2016-01-01

    The American Herbal Products Association estimates that there as many as 3000 plant species in commerce. The FDA estimates that there are about 85,000 dietary supplement products in the marketplace. The pace of product innovation far exceeds that of analytical methods development and validation, with new ingredients, matrixes, and combinations resulting in an analytical community that has been unable to keep up. This has led to a lack of validated analytical methods for dietary supplements and to inappropriate method selection where methods do exist. Only after rigorous validation procedures to ensure that methods are fit for purpose should they be used in a routine setting to verify product authenticity and quality. By following systematic procedures and establishing performance requirements for analytical methods before method development and validation, methods can be developed that are both valid and fit for purpose. This review summarizes advances in method selection, development, and validation regarding herbal supplement analysis and provides several documented examples of inappropriate method selection and application. PMID:26980823

  9. The Importance of Method Selection in Determining Product Integrity for Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Betz, Joseph M; Brown, Paula N

    2016-03-01

    The American Herbal Products Association estimates that there as many as 3000 plant species in commerce. The FDA estimates that there are about 85,000 dietary supplement products in the marketplace. The pace of product innovation far exceeds that of analytical methods development and validation, with new ingredients, matrixes, and combinations resulting in an analytical community that has been unable to keep up. This has led to a lack of validated analytical methods for dietary supplements and to inappropriate method selection where methods do exist. Only after rigorous validation procedures to ensure that methods are fit for purpose should they be used in a routine setting to verify product authenticity and quality. By following systematic procedures and establishing performance requirements for analytical methods before method development and validation, methods can be developed that are both valid and fit for purpose. This review summarizes advances in method selection, development, and validation regarding herbal supplement analysis and provides several documented examples of inappropriate method selection and application. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Sustainable Product Innovation : The Importance of the Front-End Stage in the Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    With an overpopulated planet, hungry for electricity and resources, sustainability will be one of the biggest challenges in the future. Present production and consumption patterns are causing serious environmental and human problems and cannot be sustained in a world with rising human aspirations.

  11. Hobi emergent pestivirus: Its impact in animal health and importance as a contaminant in biotechnological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Hobi-like” viruses are a group of emerging Pestiviruses which affect cattle and water buffaloes and are common contaminants of biological products. After the first detection from Brazilian samples in Germany in 2004, several Hobi-like isolates have been reported in Italy and some countries of Asia....

  12. Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-13

    dace (related to carp), and eel from China after antimicrobial agents, which are not approved in the United States for use in farm-raised aquatic...raw materials had been used in the production of flour, candy, pickles, biscuits, black fungus , melon seeds, bean curd, and seafood. As a result

  13. Importance of iron complexation for Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical production at circumneutral pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Miller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between Fe(II and H2O2 to yield hydroxyl radicals (HO•, the Fenton reaction, is of interest due to its role in trace metal and natural organic matter biogeochemistry, its utility in water treatment and its role in oxidative cell degradation and associated human disease. There is significant dispute over whether HO•, the most reactive of the so-called reactive oxygen species, is formed in this reaction, particularly under circumneutral conditions relevant to natural systems. In this work we have studied the oxidation kinetics of Fe(II complexed by L = citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA and also measured HO• production using phthalhydrazide as a probe compound at pH 8.2. It is shown that HO• is the sole product of the Fe(IIL-H2O2 reaction for L = EDTA and DTPA, with kinetic modelling of the full reaction pathway utilized to confirm this finding. Quantitative HO• production also appears likely for L = citrate, although uncertainties with the speciation of Fe(II-citrate complexes as well as difficulties in modelling the oxidation kinetics of these complexes has prevented a definitive conclusion. In the absence of ligands at circumneutral pH, inorganic Fe(II reacts with H2O2 to yield a species other than HO•, contrary to the well-established production of HO• from inorganic Fe(II at low pH. Our results suggest that at high pH Fe(II must be complexed for HO• production to occur.

  14. The structure, function, and importance of ceramides in skin and their use as therapeutic agents in skin-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Matthew H; Brandt, Staci

    2014-07-01

    Ceramides (CERs) are epidermal lipids that are important for skin barrier function. Much research has been devoted to identifying the numerous CERs found in human skin and their function. Alterations in CER content are associated with a number of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Newer formulations of skin-care products have incorporated CERs into their formulations with the goal of exogenously applying CERs to help skin barrier function. CERs are a complex class of molecules and because of their growing ubiquity in skin-care products, a clear understanding of their role in skin and use in skin-care products is essential for clinicians treating patients with skin diseases. This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and importance of skin CERs in diseased skin and how CERs are being used in skin-care products to improve or restore skin barrier function. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI; Mohammad Ali FALAHI; Seyyed Mohsen Seyyed Agha HOSSEINI

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been t...

  16. The importance of circulating tumor products as „liquid biopsies” in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miscoci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid biopsies represent an array of plasma analysis tests that are studied to evaluate and identify circulating tumor products, especially circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA. Examining such biomarkers in the plasma of colorectal cancer patients has attracted attention due to its clinical significance in the treatment of malignant diseases. Given that tissue samples are sometimes challenging to procure or unsatisfactory for genomic profiling from patients with colorectal cancer, trustworthy biomarkers are mandatory for guiding treatment, monitoring therapeutic response, and detecting recurrence. This review considers the relevance of flowing tumor products like circulating tumor cells (CTCs, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, circulating messenger RNA (mRNA, circulating micro RNA (miRNA, circulating exosomes, and tumor educated platelets (TEPs for patients with colorectal cancer.

  17. Towards a sustainable livestock production in developing countries and the importance of animal health strategy therein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasschieter, G A; de Jong, R; Schiere, J B; Zwart, D

    1992-04-01

    Livestock and animal health development projects have not always led to substantial increases in animal productivity or in farmers' welfare. Some have even resulted in unsustainable systems, when they were not based on an understanding of (livestock) production systems. The multipurpose functions of livestock and complex relationships between the biological, technical and social components require a systems approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, biotechnology knowhow, inputs and technologies are used to optimise resource use. The challenge for developed and developing countries is to reverse the current degradation of the environment, and arrive at sustainable increases in crop and livestock production to secure present and future food supplies. For rural development, governments should show long term commitment and political will to support the rural population in development programmes, because smallholders (including women and landless livestock keepers) represent a large labour force in developing countries. Different systems need different approaches. Pastoral systems must focus on effective management of grazing pressure of the rangelands. Communal rangelands management involves not only the development and application of technologies (e.g. feedlots, vaccination campaigns), but also land tenure policies, institutional development, economic return and a reduction in the number of people depending upon livestock. Smallholder mixed farms must aim at intensification of the total production system, in which external inputs are indispensable, but with the emphasis on optimum input-output relationships by reducing resource losses due to poor management. Resource-poor farming systems must aim at the improved management of the various livestock species in backyards and very small farms, and proper packages for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, rabbits and poultry should be developed. Specialised commercial livestock farming systems (poultry, pigs, dairy

  18. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    important as a resource and where collaboration partners are important. Hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative analysis of a data set containing information about 4842 domestic and international inter-firm linkages of Danish firms in manufacturing industries. The findings in this analysis exhibit...... for international linkages. It is further suggested closer geographical distance for inter-firm linkages with medium and high level of interaction, suppliers or customers accounting for more than one third of total purchases or sales, and for linkages lasting for at least 10 years.Key words: capabilities, economics...

  19. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  20. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... base importation conditions on the inherent risk of BSE infectivity in specified commodities, as well as on the BSE risk status of the region from which the commodities originate. We are proposing to establish a system for classifying regions as to BSE risk that is consistent with the system employed by the...

  1. Human health impact of Salmonella contamination in imported soybean products: A semiquantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Brondsted, T.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to estimate the number of reported cases of human salmonellosis in Denmark that can be attributed to the occurrence of Salmonella in soy-based animal feed and to assess whether certain serotypes can be considered of less importance to human health. The assessment ...

  2. Development of export and import operations in the market of poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the current trends in the development of the poultry industry in Ukraine in the context of the deepening of European integration; the priorities of export and import operations in the world food markets are examined. In recent years, Ukraine has officially changed the vector of foreign policy and economy.

  3. Seeking the Important Nodes of Complex Networks in Product R&D Team Based on Fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available How to seek the important nodes of complex networks in product research and development (R&D team is particularly important for companies engaged in creativity and innovation. The previous literature mainly uses several single indicators to assess the node importance; this paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making model to tentatively solve these problems. Firstly, choose eight indicators as the evaluation criteria, four from centralization of complex networks: degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and eigenvector centrality and four from structural holes of complex networks: effective size, efficiency, constraint, and hierarchy. Then, use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP to obtain the weights of these indicators and use technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS to assess the importance degree of each node of complex networks. Finally, taking a product R&D team of a game software company as a research example, test the effectiveness, operability, and efficiency of the method we established.

  4. The importance of water transit time and mineral dissolution kinetics for the flux of weathering products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandsson, Martin; Bishop, Kevin; Köhler, Stephan; Amvrosiadi, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Soil mineral weathering is one of the major sources of base cations (BC), which play a dual role for a forest ecosystem; they function both as plant nutrients, and for buffering against acidification of catchment runoff. On a long-term basis, the soil weathering rates will determine the highest sustainable forest productivity without causing acidification. It is believed that the hydrologic residence time play a key role in determining weathering rates on a landscape scale. In this study, we investigate the significance of the water transit residence time (WTT) distribution for the transport of base cations to catchment runoff. By modelling hillslope flowpaths with different transit times, using the geochemical computing code PHREEQC, we demonstrate how in-stream dynamics as exemplified by elemental ratios can be explained by mineral dissolution kinetics and equilibria. Specifically, we hypothesize that equilibrium of plagioclase regulates the delivery of base cations and silica to catchment runoff. These patters can be seen in field data from 10 years of sampling from a nested-catchment, where the Na+/BC and the Si/BC-ratios vary systematically with WTT on both a temporal and a spatial scale. This behavior has implications for the total transport of products from mineral dissolution to catchment runoff. As the water entering the stream is a mixture of water with different transit times, the composition of stream water will not only be dependent on the average WTT, but also on the shape of the WTT distribution. For the base cations associated with minerals that becomes supersaturated or with precipitating secondary phases within the range of WTT, i.e. Na+ and K+, the tails of "old water" of the WRT-distribution will not contribute to any extra transport of these elements. Finally, we use the derived relationships to estimate the transport of weathering products from a forested hillslope, given the modelled WRT distribution.

  5. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Importance of peripheral insulin levels for insulin-induced suppression of glucose production in depancreatized dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Giacca, A; Fisher, S J; Shi, Z Q; Gupta, R; Lickley, H L; Vranic, M

    1992-01-01

    It is generally believed that glucose production (GP) cannot be adequately suppressed in insulin-treated diabetes because the portal-peripheral insulin gradient is absent. To determine whether suppression of GP in diabetes depends on portal insulin levels, we performed 3-h glucose and specific activity clamps in moderately hyperglycemic (10 mM) depancreatized dogs, using three protocols: (a) 54 pmol.kg-1 bolus + 5.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1 portal insulin infusion (n = 7; peripheral insulin = 170 +/- ...

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME FOR MANAGERS IN A PRODUCTION ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main parameters of the evaluation of financial position of entity is the level of total comprehensive income reported in financial reports. The study contains an overview of the other comprehensive income as the part of total comprehensive income. The research problem related to the significance of dates about the other comprehensive income ingredients for production entity management. The essence, arise reasons and main principles of the other comprehensive income in relating to the changes in own capital of entity was explained within the scope of law‐regulated accounting. The paper concentrated on the producing tangible fixed assets problems.

  8. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  9. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  10. The importance of phytoplankton production for carbon budgets in a semiarid floodplain wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Cobelas, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton production (PP in wetlands is not measured as often as that of macrophytes. A three year-study during a period of sustained high flooding was undertaken in a central Spanish floodplain wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park to determine net PP, its spatial heterogeneity and controlling factors, and compare it with primary production in macrophyte communities. This enabled us to estimate carbon budgets for each community. All PP variables showed high spatial and temporal variability among sites, resulting in low coherence even when flooding connected all sites. Net PP corresponded to 25- 36% of submerged plant production and 3-10% of helophyte production. Net PP was controlled by different size fractions of phytoplankton biomass at different wetland sites. Neither nutrients nor zooplankton affected net PP or productivity. A high spatiotemporal variability of PP in wetlands occurs arising from complex processes that affect the underwater light field. Carbon budgets of phytoplankton often exceeded those of submerged macrophytes and attained between 4 and 37% of helophyte budgets. Although usually considered to be marginal, our study shows that PP in the open water of wetlands should be taken into account for determining accurate wetland carbon budgets, mostly in periods of high flooding, which often result in changing the carbon budget of primary producers.

    La producción de fitoplancton (PF en los humedales no se mide tan a menudo como la de los macrófitos. En este estudio se lleva a cabo un trabajo de tres años durante un periodo de gran inun dación en un humedal de llanura de inundación (Parque Nacional de Las Tablas de Daimiel a fin de determinar la producción neta del fitoplancton, su heterogeneidad espacial y los factores que la controlan. También comparamos la PF con la producción primaria de las comunidades de macrófitos, lo cual nos permite estimar las cantidades de carbono que fija cada comunidad vegetal

  11. Lutetium-177 - Broad Production Capabilities are Expected to Stimulate Clinical Applications of this Important Therapeutic Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Lutetium-177 (Lu-177) is of broad interest for therapeutic applications where the deposition of localized radiation can benefit from the limited soft tissue penetration of the 0.497 MeV beta particle (max. = 2.76 mm). Examples of Lu-177 therapeutic strategies include treatment of small SS2/SS5-expressing tumors with targeted peptides and radiosynovectomy. Emission of a 208 keV gamma photon (11 %) allows imaging for evaluation of localization and biokinetics, and for targeting applications, correlation of uptake with therapeutic response. A broad spectrum of research reactors with even modest thermal neutron flux (e.g. > 1 x 10 14 ) can produce carrier-added Lu-177 with sufficient specific activity (SA) > 10 Ci/mg Lu by the 'direct' approach by irradiation of Lu-176. For low SA applications, thermal flux of > 10 13 in low-medium flux reactors provides sufficient SA (> 0.5 mCi Lu-177/mg) for preparation of Lu-EDTMP for synovectomy. Although relative Lu-177m/Lu-177 activity levels from 'direct' production can be very low (> 10 -5 ), the Lu-177m impurity levels can present an issue with radioactive waste storage requirements at some institutions. The alternative 'indirect' approach using decay of reactor produced ytterbium-177 available from by neutron irradiation of enriched Yb-176 targets provides no-carrier-added (nca) Lu-177 (theoretical SA = 109 Ci/mg Lu). Purification of the microscopic levels of nca Lu-177 from macroscopic Yb levels at the high multi Curie production level is a more challenging approach, since production yields are relatively low even at high thermal flux (e.g. 2 x 10 15 neutrons/cm 2 /sec). In addition, high mass Lu/Yb separation is especially time consuming, can generate significant waste, and the relatively expensive Yb-176 target material (> 97%, ∼ $ 20/mg) must be recovered, re-purified and used for subsequent target preparation. However, a number of effective methods for the Lu/Yb separation and Yb recovery have been reported, and even

  12. The most important structures utilizing primary and secondary hydroenergetic potential for electric energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharovsky, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the construction, technological parameters and operation of Gabcikovo (primary hydro energy power) and Cierny Vah (secondary hydro energy power) are described. Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) Gabcikovo started in 1978 as a part of a system of hydro power projects Gabcikovo-Nagymaros. Basic technical data are: installed capacity 8 x 90 MW, production in an average aqueous year 2.650 GWh, number of hydroelectric generating sets (HGS) 8, turbine flow 8 x 413-636 m 3 /s, head 12.9-24 m.The Gabcikovo plant produced 9.163 GWh of electricity from the beginning of its operation till the end of 1966. The construction of the pumped storage plant (PSP) Cierny Vah started in 1976 and it was put into operation at the end of 1980. The main goal of the PSP Cierny Vah is to meet the control functions of an electrification system of the Slovak Republic, a substitute function in the cases of unexpected power outages and a planned electricity production from re-pumping. Technological parts are: six re-pumping vertical HGS in a three machine arrangement - a motor-generator, a turbine, a pump - are located in three double-blocks. Basic technical data: installed capacity 6 x 122.4 MW + 0.768 MW, yearly production 1,281 GWh, number of HGS 6, number of domestic hydroelectric generating sets 1, turbine flow 3 x 30 m / s, pump flow 6 x 22 m 3 /s, upper reservoir volume 3.7 mil. m 3 , max. head 434 m, peak time 5.71 hour, pumping time 7.78 hour, re-pumping cycle efficiency 74.36%. From putting the PSP into operation till the end of 1996, the HGS in operation 145,269 hours in total, including 53,332 hours in a turbine mode of operation, 70,293 hours in a pumping mode operation and 21,644 hours in a compensation mode operation. Whereas they supplied 5,346 GWh in the mains and the consumed 6,933 GWh of electricity for pumping. Hydroenergetic potential is a primary source of energy which is recyclable, i.e. unexhaustible and also ecologically the most tolerable

  13. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  14. 9 CFR 94.18 - Restrictions on importation of meat and edible products from ruminants due to bovine spongiform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Oman, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom...) The gelatin must be imported for use in human food, human pharmaceutical products, photography, or some other use that will not result in the gelatin coming in contact with ruminants in the United...

  15. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...... as most uncertain aspect in characterization modeling. We analyzed measured half-lives (n=4513) with 95% falling between 0.6 and 29 days. With ~500 pesticides authorized alone in the EU for several hundred crops, however, experimental stud-ies only cover few possible pesticide-crop combinations. Therefore......, we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  16. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  17. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  18. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  19. Effect of Medium Composition on Commercially Important Alkaline Protease Production by Bacillus licheniformis N-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal Qazi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by alkalophilic B. licheniformis N-2 was investigated in 50 mL of the growth medium consisting of (in g/L: glucose 10.0, soybean meal 10.0, K2HPO4 3.0, MgSO4·7H2O 0.5, NaCl 0.5 and CaCl2·2H2O 0.5 at pH=10. Different carbon and nitrogen sources in the form of fine powder of organic, inorganic and defatted meals were studied to select the suitable substrate for alkaline protease production. The highest level of alkaline protease (677.64 U/mL was obtained in the medium containing glucose followed by soluble starch and wheat bran. Among various nitrogen sources, defatted soybean meal was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease, while inorganic nitrogen sources in the form of ammonium salts repressed the enzyme activity up to 96 %. Thermostability studies showed that the enzyme in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ ions retained its residual activity up to 80 % even after incubation at 40 °C for 12 h. The enzyme was found stable over a broad range of pH (8–11 and lost 52 % of its residual activity at pH=12. After the treatment with Tween 20, Tween 45, Tween 65, Triton X-405, H2O2 and sodium perborate, each at 1.0 % concentration, the enzyme showed residual activity of 105, 82, 116, 109, 135 and 126 %, respectively. The application of alkaline protease for removal of blood stains from cotton fabric also indicates its potential use in detergent formulations.

  20. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  1. Growth potential in gas plant ethane production and the impact on propane import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    In varying degrees in most ethylene plants, ethane and propane are used interchangeably as feedstocks. During the next five years, several new ethylene plants will be built in the Gulf Coast area. Most of these plants will be based on LPG feedstocks and will have some flexibility to operate with ethane and propane feedstocks. The completion of new ethylene plants will increase feedstock demand for ethane by 65--90 Mbpd by 1998 and by an additional 50--80 Mbpd by 2000. Thus, the availability of ethane will have a significant impact on Gulf Coast waterborne propane import requirements. Sustained growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability will effectively minimize waterborne propane import requirements for the next five to ten years. Petral Worldwide's approach to feedstock supply analysis highlights investment opportunities in domestic supply sources. Projects of these types will also limit a growth dependence on NGL feedstock supplies from politically unstable supply sources in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the potential for growth in the gas processing industry's ethane recovery capability and the impact on Gulf Coast feedstock markets

  2. The importance of grasslands for animal production and other functions: a review on management and methodological progress in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boval, M; Dixon, R M

    2012-05-01

    The global importance of grasslands is indicated by their extent; they comprise some 26% of total land area and 80% of agriculturally productive land. The majority of grasslands are located in tropical developing countries where they are particularly important to the livelihoods of some one billion poor peoples. Grasslands clearly provide the feed base for grazing livestock and thus numerous high-quality foods, but such livestock also provide products such as fertilizer, transport, traction, fibre and leather. In addition, grasslands provide important services and roles including as water catchments, biodiversity reserves, for cultural and recreational needs, and potentially a carbon sink to alleviate greenhouse gas emissions. Inevitably, such functions may conflict with management for production of livestock products. Much of the increasing global demand for meat and milk, particularly from developing countries, will have to be supplied from grassland ecosystems, and this will provide difficult challenges. Increased production of meat and milk generally requires increased intake of metabolizable energy, and thus increased voluntary intake and/or digestibility of diets selected by grazing animals. These will require more widespread and effective application of improved management. Strategies to improve productivity include fertilizer application, grazing management, greater use of crop by-products, legumes and supplements and manipulation of stocking rate and herbage allowance. However, it is often difficult to predict the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of such strategies, particularly in tropical developing country production systems. Evaluation and on-going adjustment of grazing systems require appropriate and reliable assessment criteria, but these are often lacking. A number of emerging technologies may contribute to timely low-cost acquisition of quantitative information to better understand the soil-pasture-animal interactions and animal management in

  3. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  4. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on importance of cleanliness in manufacturing reliable products for automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzetzit Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality is ultimately defined by the client and is near the result of requirements and customer expectations. Currently the molten aluminum has known a huge increase in demands. Once with the enlarged volumes is also expected a high purity of the raw material which starts with the initial state of aluminum alloy. In the presented paper one of the methods that can assure the necessary quality is presented, with focus on particles and how this final result can be improved. What is even more important, in addition for the detection method is the effective and appropriate method of reducing them. The final results, the beneficial effects of filtering die casting metal with the bonded particle filter media, are presented in different aspects in order to achieve reduction of machining defects that in the ends achieves financial and casting marketability realizations.

  6. The importance of asphaltene origin on its behaviour in production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutters, M.; Stankiewicz, A.; Cornelisse, P.; Utech, N. [Shell Global Solutions, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    Despite much progress in characterizing asphaltenes, little is known about the relation between the size and shape of asphaltenes and their impact on flow assurance. This lack of understanding is related primarily to the fact that the asphaltenes structure found in crudes depends on many geochemical processes that are generally not included as input for flow assurance studies. The geochemical processes that are important to asphaltenes are type of source rock and deposited organic matter, maturity, migration history, and processes in the reservoir as hybridization and biodegradation. A careful examination of geochemical processes can reveal the relationship between asphaltene behaviour in fields that are seemingly very different or distant. This paper provided some examples of these relationships. Understanding the structure of asphaltenes is critical and warrants the further development of methods for more accurate characterization.

  7. Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Patrik R; Erlandsson, Per; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-08-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller's Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptation pathways of global wheat production: Importance of strategic adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masutomi, Yuji; Hanasaki, Naota; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Shiogama, Hideo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-16

    Agricultural adaptation is necessary to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on crop yields and to maintain food production. However, few studies have assessed the course of adaptation along with the progress of climate change in each of the current major food producing countries. Adaptation pathways, which describe the temporal sequences of adaptations, are helpful for illustrating the timing and intensity of the adaptation required. Here we present adaptation pathways in the current major wheat-producing countries, based on sequential introduction of the minimum adaptation measures necessary to maintain current wheat yields through the 21st century. We considered two adaptation options: (i) expanding irrigation infrastructure; and (ii) switching crop varieties and developing new heat-tolerant varieties. We find that the adaptation pathways differ markedly among the countries. The adaptation pathways are sensitive to both the climate model uncertainty and natural variability of the climate system, and the degree of sensitivity differs among countries. Finally, the negative impacts of climate change could be moderated by implementing adaptations steadily according to forecasts of the necessary future adaptations, as compared to missing the appropriate timing to implement adaptations.

  9. Importance of peripheral insulin levels for insulin-induced suppression of glucose production in depancreatized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacca, A; Fisher, S J; Shi, Z Q; Gupta, R; Lickley, H L; Vranic, M

    1992-01-01

    It is generally believed that glucose production (GP) cannot be adequately suppressed in insulin-treated diabetes because the portal-peripheral insulin gradient is absent. To determine whether suppression of GP in diabetes depends on portal insulin levels, we performed 3-h glucose and specific activity clamps in moderately hyperglycemic (10 mM) depancreatized dogs, using three protocols: (a) 54 pmol.kg-1 bolus + 5.4 pmol.kg-1.min-1 portal insulin infusion (n = 7; peripheral insulin = 170 +/- 51 pM); (b) an equimolar peripheral infusion (n = 7; peripheral insulin = 294 +/- 28 pM, P dogs at 10 mM glucose, GC was threefold higher than normal but failed to decrease with insulin infusion by either route. Glycerol, alanine, FFA, and glucagon levels decreased proportionally to peripheral insulinemia. However, the decrease in glucagon was not significantly greater in protocol 2 than in 1 or 3. When we combined all protocols, we found a correlation between the decrements in glycerol and FFAs and the decrease in GP (r = 0.6, P dogs, suppression of GP appears to be more dependent on peripheral than portal insulin concentrations and may be mainly mediated by limitation of the flow of precursors and energy substrates for gluconeogenesis and by the suppressive effect of insulin on glucagon secretion. These results suggest that a portal-peripheral insulin gradient might not be necessary to effectively suppress postprandial GP in insulin-treated diabetics. PMID:1430203

  10. The dilemma for lipid productivity in green microalgae: importance of substrate provision in improving oil yield without sacrificing growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kenneth Wei Min; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns over climate change have resulted in more emphasis on research into renewable biofuels from microalgae. Unlike plants, green microalgae have higher biomass productivity, will not compete with food and agriculture, and do not require fertile land for cultivation. However, microalgae biofuels currently suffer from high capital and operating costs due to low yields and costly extraction methods. Microalgae grown under optimal conditions produce large amounts of biomass but with low neutral lipid content, while microalgae grown in nutrient starvation accumulate high levels of neutral lipids but are slow growing. Producing lipids while maintaining high growth rates is vital for biofuel production because high biomass productivity increases yield per harvest volume while high lipid content decreases the cost of extraction per unit product. Therefore, there is a need for metabolic engineering of microalgae to constitutively produce high amounts of lipids without sacrificing growth. Substrate availability is a rate-limiting step in balancing growth and fatty acid (FA) production because both biomass and FA synthesis pathways compete for the same substrates, namely acetyl-CoA and NADPH. In this review, we discuss the efforts made for improving biofuel production in plants and microorganisms, the challenges faced in achieving lipid productivity, and the important role of precursor supply for FA synthesis. The main focus is placed on the enzymes which catalyzed the reactions supplying acetyl-CoA and NADPH.

  11. Simple, rapid, and inexpensive cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Victor S

    2007-03-21

    A chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with MeOH/H2O (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step on a minicolumn packed with Florisil, aflatoxins were quantified by HPLC equipped with a C18 column, a photochemical reactor, and a fluorescence detector. Water/MeOH (63:37, v/v) served as the mobile phase. Recoveries of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 from peanuts spiked at 5, 1.7, 5, and 1.7 ng/g were 89.5+/-2.2, 94.7+/-2.5, 90.4+/-1.0, and 98.2+/-1.1, respectively (mean+/-SD, %, n=3). Similar recoveries, precision, and accuracy were achieved for corn, brown and white rice, cottonseed, almonds, Brazil nuts, pistachios, walnuts, and hazelnuts. The quantitation limits for aflatoxins in peanuts were 50 pg/g for aflatoxin B1 and 17 pg/g for aflatoxin B2. The minimal cost of the minicolumn allows for substantial savings compared with available commercial aflatoxin cleanup devices.

  12. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  13. The Relationship between Major Oil Products Consumption and Efficiency of Industry Sector in Selected Oil Exporting and Importing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Naji MEIDANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the realization of the law of diminishing returns in usage of major oil products in the industry sector of some oil exporting and importing countries during 2002- 2008. To achieve this aim, in a first stage the efficiency of industry sector of countries has been calculated using DEA window analysis and then in the second stag the existence of an inverted U' shape relationship between major oil product consumption and efficiency has been tested in the context of dynamic panel data (GMM approach. The results confirm this relationship in each group of countries except that the turning point in the case of oil importing countries is much higher than oil exporting countries. This firstly suggests that oil dependence in oil importing countries is more than oil exporting countries and secondly indicates that the industry sector of oil importing countries have advanced technology and high scale and capacity so that they can take benefits of oil products consumption without decrease in efficiency.

  14. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthy, Lay; Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-01-01

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  15. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Sijian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qian; Ma, Yanmin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs). Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound-multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs.

  16. Availability of biomass for energy production. GRAIN: Global Restrictions on biomass Availability for Import to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysen, E.H.

    2000-08-01

    great opportunities for a sustainable supply of energy and materials, but on the other hand it bears large ecological and economical risks, such as deforestation and competition with food production. It is therefore of the utmost importance to formulate minimum requirements for large-scale bio-energy projects and international trade in biomass energy. For international trade in biomass energy it is important to identify regions with a future biomass energy surplus, related to their own energy consumption. Exporting this surplus would have to be done as efficiently as possible, with regard to CO2 emission reduction. Transatlantic shipments of wood have to be balanced against local conversion and shipping the fuel. An important recommendation to the Netherlands government about the possible future import of biomass is therefore: increase the knowledge and insights in the possible consequences of large scale import of biomass energy. This can be done by setting up a limited number of pilot projects for the trade in bio-energy, and by monitoring these projects very carefully, supported by research activities. Such pilot projects can also provide a better understanding in how broad the support for these activities is, both in the Netherlands as well in exporting countries. In the long run much more knowledge and information is required about which regions would be most suited for a sustainable production and trade in biomass energy. It will be necessary to develop and introduce a 'FSC' type mark for biomass-based energy carriers. There are still a number of crucial research questions in areas such as: economic drivers of land use, competition of biomass with other land uses, and competition with other sources of energy and materials. These interactions need to be studied at local/regional level, taking into account the effect of technological and economical changes in time. In addition there are complex questions in the field of optimising the allocation of biomass resources

  17. The calculation of specific heats for some important solid components in hydrogen production process based on CuCl cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avsec Jurij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is one of the most promising energy sources of the future enabling direct production of power and heat in fuel cells, hydrogen engines or furnaces with hydrogen burners. One of the last remainder problems in hydrogen technology is how to produce a sufficient amount of cheap hydrogen. One of the best options is large scale thermochemical production of hydrogen in combination with nuclear power plant. copper-chlorine (CuCl cycle is the most promissible thermochemical cycle to produce cheap hydrogen.This paper focuses on a CuCl cycle, and the describes the models how to calculate thermodynamic properties. Unfortunately, for many components in CuCl cycle the thermochemical functions of state have never been measured. This is the reason that we have tried to calculate some very important thermophysical properties. This paper discusses the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamic properties for pure substances and their mixtures such as CuCl, HCl, Cu2OCl2 important in CuCl hydrogen production in their fluid and solid phase with an aid of statistical thermodynamics. For the solid phase, we have developed the mathematical model for the calculation of thermodynamic properties for polyatomic crystals. In this way, we have used Debye functions and Einstein function for acoustical modes and optical modes of vibrations to take into account vibration of atoms. The influence of intermolecular energy we have solved on the basis of Murnaghan equation of state and statistical thermodynamics.

  18. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  19. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in import food products of China from 8 provinces between 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Hairong; Hu, Yue; Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Guiming; Zhao, Yongsheng; Chen, Ying

    2012-04-01

    A total of 48 Listeria monocytogenes isolates of different import food products from 8 provinces between 2005 and 2008 were characterized. The serotype and virulence were confirmed for each strain and molecular subtyping were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Twenty five strains were assigned to serotype 1/2a, and 11 isolates to serotype 1/2b, serotype 4b were found in 7 isolate, and the remaining 5 strains were grouped into serotypes 1/2c, 4a, and 4e. Molecular subtyping schemes found thirty two sequence types (STs) among these isolates and the majority of L. monocytogenes strains belonged to lineage II (56%), followed by lineage I (38%), lineage III (6%). Two molecular subtype clusters, cluster A included all isolates of lineage II, while cluster B contained the isolates of lineages I and lineages III. Two L. monocytogenes strains were not grouped in either of the two clusters. Fifty three isolates were as virulent as L. monocytogenes reference strain EGD in mouse virulence assay, while the isolates 22213 and 22265 had low pathogenicity. These results provide the first molecular insight into the L. monocytogenes strains isolated from import food products of 8 provinces in China and indicate the potential risk to cause human disease if intake by contaminated foods. MLST could be used as a routine subtyping method of L. monocytogenes isolates. In China, inspection and quarantine strategies of imported foods should be strengthened. There is a potential risk of listeriosis in China and routine subtyping of L. monocytogenes isolates is important. It is necessary for food hygiene management to strengthen the supervision of imported foods. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Quality of omeprazole purchased via the Internet and personally imported into Japan: comparison with products sampled in other Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Sofiqur; Yoshida, Naoko; Sugiura, Sakura; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Keila, Tep; Kiet, Heng Bun; Zin, Theingi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of omeprazole personally imported into Japan via the Internet and to compare the quality of these samples with previously collected samples from two other Asian countries. The samples were evaluated by observation, authenticity investigation and pharmacopoeial quality analysis. Quality comparison of some selected samples was carried out by dissolution profiling, Raman spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA). Observation of the Internet sites and samples revealed some discrepancies including the delivery of a wrong sample and the selling of omeprazole without a prescription, although it is a prescription medicine. Among the 28 samples analysed, all passed the identification test, 26 (93%) passed the quantity and content uniformity tests and all passed the dissolution test. Dissolution profiling confirmed that all the personally imported omeprazole samples remained intact in the acid medium. On the other hand, six samples from two of the same manufacturers, previously collected during surveys in Cambodia and Myanmar, frequently showed premature omeprazole release in acid. Raman spectroscopy and PCA showed significant variation between omeprazole formulations in personally imported samples and the samples from Cambodia and Myanmar. Our results indicate that the pharmaceutical quality of omeprazole purchased through the Internet was sufficient, as determined by pharmacopeial tests. However, omeprazole formulations distributed in different market segments by the same manufacturers were of diverse quality. Measures are needed to ensure consistent quality of products and to prevent entry of substandard products into the legitimate supply chain. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian Li,1,* Haiyang Yu,2,* Sijian Wang,1 Wei Wang,3 Qian Chen,1 Yanmin Ma,2 Yi Zhang,1 Tao Wang1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 2Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China; 3Internal Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs. Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound–multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs. Keywords: hepatic glucose metabolism, natural products, multitarget, metabolic syndromes, drug and functional food development integrative medicine

  2. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only...... respiration, suggesting that spatial variations in maximum snowdepth may be a primary determinant of regional patterns of wintertime CO2 release. Together, our results have important implications for predictions of how the distribution of tundra vegetation types and the carbon balances of arctic ecosystems...

  3. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  4. Probing the importance of clonality: Single cell subcloning of clonally derived CHO cell lines yields widely diverse clones differing in growth, productivity, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Peggy; Misaghi, Shahram; Hu, Zhilan; Zhan, Dejin; Tsukuda, Joni; Yim, Mandy; Sanford, Mark; Shaw, David; Shiratori, Masaru; Snedecor, Brad; Laird, Michael; Shen, Amy

    2017-12-11

    In the past few decades, a large variety of therapeutic antibodies and proteins have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This mammalian expression system is robust, scalable, relatively inexpensive, and importantly allows for post-translational modifications that are important for some therapeutic proteins. Historically, CHO cell lines were derived from colonies of cells grown in semi-solid or liquid plates using either serum-containing or serum-free media. Current advancements in cell sorting and imaging technologies have allowed for isolating and imaging single cell progenitors at the seeding step, significantly increasing the probability of isolating clonally derived cell lines. However, it is debatable how much population heterogeneity can be eliminated when clonally derived cell lines, originated from a single cell progenitor, are scaled up. To further investigate this phenomenon, we subcloned two different clonally derived (day 0 imaged and visually inspected) cell lines expressing antibody-X. The results showed that when six randomly chosen subclones of each line were evaluated in a production assay, these subclones displayed a range of variation in titer, specific productivity, growth, and product quality attributes. Some subclones displayed variations in transgene copy numbers. Additionally, clonal derivation did not assure stability of the derived cell lines. Our findings show that cell heterogeneity exists in a population even when derived from a single cell progenitor. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF BANK’S REPUTATION IN THE SELECTION OF BANKING PRODUCTS IN THE OPINION OF MIDDLE POMERANIAN FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Farmers, when choosing a bank whose services they want to use, are guided by various factors. The purpose of the research conducted was to select the most essential factors that determine the choice of a bank and an identification of connections between opinions on a bank (its reputation and the selected features that characterize farmers from the Middle Pomeranian region. The primary data obtained in the course of the empirical field research conducted and a multidimensional correspondence analysis were used in the realization of the objective accepted. The following constituted the set of operands: the status and acreage of the farm, the type and the value of production, sex, age and education of the person in charge of the farm. As is evident from the research conducted, the opinion on a bank (its reputation was the most essential determinant indicated in the selection of banks by farmers. The analysis demonstrated among others that those farmers polled who think that the opinion on the bank constitutes an important cause in the selection of banking products and services are in aged below 45, they possess secondary agricultural education and run farms with plant and animal production.

  7. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  8. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  9. Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen in the north Atlantic Ocean in sustaining primary production: a 3-D modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Charria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An eddy-permitting coupled ecosystem-circulation model including dissolved organic matter is used to estimate the dissolved organic nitrogen (DON supply sustaining primary production in the subtropical north Atlantic Ocean.

    After an analysis of the coupled model performances compared to the data, a sensitivity study demonstrates the strong impact of parameter values linked to the hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrogen and remineralisation of dissolved organic nitrogen on surface biogeochemical concentrations.

    The physical transport of dissolved organic nitrogen contributes to maintain the level of primary production in this subtropical gyre. It is dominated by the meridional component. We estimate a meridional net input of 0.039 molN m−2 yr−1 over the domain (13–35° N and 71–40° W in the subtropical gyre. This supply is driven by the Ekman transport in the southern part and by non-Ekman transport (meridional current components, eddies, meanders and fronts in the northern part of the subtropical gyre. At 12° N, our estimate (18 kmolN s−1 confirms the estimation (17.9 kmolN s−1 made by Roussenov et al. (2006 using a simplified biogeochemical model in a large scale model. This DON meridional input is within the range (from 0.05 up to 0.24 molN m−2 yr−1 (McGillicuddy and Robinson, 1997; Oschlies, 2002 of all other possible mechanisms (mesoscale activity, nitrogen fixation, atmospheric deposition fuelling primary production in the subtropical gyre. The present study confirms that the lateral supply of dissolved organic nitrogen might be important in closing the N budget over the north Atlantic Ocean and quantifies the importance of meridional input of dissolved organic nitrogen.

  10. The Importance of Considering Product Loss Rates in Life Cycle Assessment: The Example of Closure Systems for Bottled Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jolliet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to discuss the implications of product loss rates in terms of the environmental performance of bottled wine. Wine loss refers to loss occurring when the consumer does not consume the wine contained in the bottle and disposes of it because of taste alteration, which is caused by inadequate product protection rendering the wine unpalatable to a knowledgeable consumer. The decision of whether or not to drink the wine in such cases is guided by subjective consumer taste perception and wine quality expectation (drinking the bottle or disposing of the wine down the drain and replacing it with a new bottle. This study aims to illustrate the importance of accurately defining system boundaries related to wine packaging systems. Methods: The environmental impacts resulting from wine loss rates as related to two types of wine bottle closures—natural cork stoppers and screw caps—have been estimated based on literature review data and compared to the impact of the respective closure system. The system studied relates to the functional unit “a 750 mL bottle of drinkable wine” and includes bottled wine, bottle and closure production, wine production, wine loss and wine poured down the drain. Results: The range of wine alteration rates due to corked wine is estimated to be 2–5% based on interviews with wine experts. Consumer behavior was assessed through a sensitivity study on replacement rates. When the increase in loss rate with the cork stopper is higher than 1.2% (corresponding to 3.5% corked wine multiplied by a consumer replacement rate of 35%, the influence of losses on the impact results is higher than that of the closure material itself. The different closures and associated wine losses represent less than 5% of the total life cycle impact of bottled wine.

  11. Importance of Selecting Appropriate Wavelength, While Quantifying Growth and Production of Quorum Sensing Regulated Pigments in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chinmayi; Kothari, Vijay; Patel, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Pigment production is regulated by quorum-sensing (QS) in certain bacteria which are being widely used as model organisms in different QS labs. This paper emphasizes importance of selecting an appropriate wavelength for quantification of bacterial growth and pigmentation. While screening different natural/synthetic preparations for their possible QSmodulating potential, it becomes very much necessary to establish that the observed effect is truly QS-associated, and not falsely inflated owing to inaccurate quantification of bacterial cell density/ pigment intensity. Pigments were extracted in suitable organic solvents, whereas quantification of bacterial growth and extracted pigments was done photometrically. Findings reported in this paper, suggest that while quantifying cell density in a pigmented bacterial suspension, such a wavelength (e.g. 764 nm) should be selected at which pigment interference is either absent or minimum. Additionally, importance of appropriate dilution of the bacterial cell suspensions, prior to photometric measurement has been highlighted. This work indicates that while working with pigmented bacteria, it is important to pay attention to the absorption spectrum of the pigment(s) involved, and also to dilute the dense bacterial suspensions appropriately prior to measuring optical density, so as to avoid any major deviation of OD from the proportionality to the cell density. Besides presenting the experimental data in this paper, patents regarding measurement of cell growth, as well as those indicating the potential of commercialization of various aspects of QS research have been mentioned.

  12. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  13. Controls on the production, incorporation and decomposition of glomalin - a novel fungal soil protein important to soil carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias C. Rillig

    2003-11-20

    OAK B263 Glomalin is an operationally defined soil protein, produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), with importance in soil carbon sequestration through its relationship with soil aggregation. The goal of the project was to further explore the natural history of glomalin and to address several questions regarding basic behavior of this compound in soil (production, incorporation, decomposition). We have obtained a significant amount of novel information on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, concerning factors controlling its production to mechanisms of incorporation and decomposition. These findings have resulted in 10 publications in peer-reviewed journals, with several more submitted or in preparation, and 16 contributed presentations at meetings. I have sought collaborative opportunities whenever they fit within the research proposed to enhance our productivity. Additionally, although not part of the original proposed work, we have made a significant effort to elucidate the molecular biology of glomalin (in response to Program Officer suggestions). In addition to peer-reviewed publications there have also been a number of invited presentations, including a keynote address delivered by the PI at the International Conference on Mycorrhizae (ICOM4) in Montreal, summer 2003. Two Master's students have been trained (and graduated), and a postdoctoral associate has been mentored, as well as numerous undergraduate researchers at UM. In this report I summarize the major findings of the project in the areas of glomalin production control (host factors, elevated CO2), incorporation, and decomposition. Section D is newly added and describes recent progress in molecular biology. Briefly, we found that glomalin production is influenced by the host, as shown by host species effects and responses to elevated CO2. We have recently made a significant breakthrough in understanding how glomalin may become deposited into soil; apparently the dominant

  14. The important role of microwave receptors in bio-fuel production by microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Ren, Nanqi

    2011-06-01

    Microwave receptor plays an important role in the microwave pyrolysis of sewage sludge in view of its significant influence on the yield and property of bio-fuel products. The yield and the chemical compositions of bio-fuels (gases and oils) obtained from sewage sludge mixed with different receptors (graphite, residue char, active carbon or silicon carbide) were investigated in this study by Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the use of silicon carbide gave rise to the highest final temperature of 1130°C, resulting in the highest yield of gas fraction (up to 63.2 wt.%). The low heating rate (200°C/min) which was attributed to the addition of residue char promoted condensation reactions and resulted in an increase in solid yield. The existence of active carbon could prolong the resistance time of volatiles in the hot zone owing to its porous structure, generating the maximum concentration of H(2)+CO (60%) in the pyrolysis gas. When graphite was used, the final low temperature favoured the cyclization of the alkenes, giving rise to a higher concentration of mononuclear aromatics in the pyrolysis oils. The model established in this study revealed that the quantity and quality of the products obtained from the microwave pyrolysis highly depended on the process conditions, which were influenced by the receptor significantly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enantiomeric separation of pharmaceutically important drug intermediates using a Metagenomic lipase and optimization of its large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Banoth, Linga; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Kaur, Jagdeep

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, efficient enzymatic methods were developed using a recombinant metagenomic lipase (LipR1) for the synthesis of corresponding esters by the transesterification of five different pharmaceutically important secondary alcohols. The recombinant lipase (specific activity=87m6U/mg) showed maximum conversion in presence of ionic liquid with Naphthyl-ethanol (eeP=99%), Indanol and Methyl-4 pyridine methanol (eeS of 98% and 99%) respectively in 1h. Vinyl acetate was found as suitable acyl donor in transesterification reactions. It was interesting to observe that maximum eeP of 85% was observed in just 15min with 1-indanol. As this enzyme demonstrated pharmaceutical applications, attempts were made to scale up the enzyme production on a pilot scale in a 5litre bioreactor. Different physical parameters affecting enzyme production and biomass concentration such as agitation rate, aeration rate and inoculum concentration were evaluated. Maximum lipase activity of 8463U/ml was obtained at 7h of cultivation at 1 lpm, 300rpm and 1.5% inoculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Importance of Radiology among the Spanish medical journal dealing with radiodiagnostics: analysis of their production between 1984 and 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.; Saez, J.M.; Garcia-Medina, V.

    1997-01-01

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the publications of the journal Radiologia between 1984 and 1993 to contribute to the study of radiodiagnostics reporting in Spain and to determine the importance of Radiologia as a source of information on this subject. We have used the database of the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Espanol, IME) and the journal itself, analyzing the volume, course and distribution of publications on radiodiagnostic procedures. The journal Radiologia publishes 20.1% of the articles dealing with radiology and radiation therapy in Spain. The total number of works was 1,344, that of authors was 2,580 and that of signatures was 6.173, presenting an exponential growth with doubling times of 83.3, 8.5 and 7.4 years, respectively. The analysis shows that the journal's production not only increases over time, but also increments the proportion it contributes to the Spanish medical press as a whole. Radiologia is the most representative journal, in terms of volume of the scientific activity reported in the field of radiodiagnostics in Spain, and its production tends to adapt to the model established for other firmly consolidated scientific and medical disciplines. It alone constitutes the core of the medical journals devoted to radiology and its mean index of circulation according to the IME is 85.79/%. (Author) 34 refs

  17. On the Importance of Lateral Nutrient Transport: A Shift in the New Production Paradigm for the Subtropical Ocean Gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, R. T.; Primeau, F.; Moore, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    A widely used assumption for estimating the strength of the organic carbon export flux is that one-dimensional vertical processes dominate the supply and loss of nutrients to the euphotic zone. However, for the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, lateral inputs of nutrients by convergent Ekman transport have been suggested to be important. Here we use a biogeochemical ocean circulation model constrained by dissolved organic matter concentration measurements to show that on annual timescales, lateral transport of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the gyre margins and its subsequent biological utilization supplies a flux that can exceed vertical nutrient supply across all subtropical gyre systems. Lateral nutrient transport supplies 25-40% of the N and 40-70% of the P necessary to balance new and export production in these regions. We also find that the proportion of the nutrient supply sustained by lateral transport in the gyres is strongly correlated with ecosystem stoichiometry, exhibiting high N:P and C:P within the gyres receiving the most nutrients laterally. Our results suggest that the predicted future decline in biological carbon export due to decreasing vertical inputs of nutrients to surface waters might be partly offset by a concomitant increase in ecosystem carbon to nutrient ratios accompanying a shift to an increased importance of lateral nutrient inputs in the subtropical gyres.

  18. Importance of the quality of pig carcass sides for economical efficiency in production and processing of pork

    OpenAIRE

    Okanović Đ.; Petrović Lj.; Zekić V.; Živković B.; Džinić N.; Tomović V.; Tasić T.; Ikonić P.

    2008-01-01

    Intensive, market oriented pork and pork meat production requires detailed view of production prices, besides required quality and production parameters. This is required for meat-by products production to be economic in later phases. Previous results show that production price of fatteners does not vary during the year (around 1 E/kg) because feed price does not very significantly. During the year supply and demand may change, so the price of fatteners changes. In conclusion, the position of...

  19. Optimization of important production factors of a non-alcoholic beverage from roselle calyx, sorghum stem sheath and local spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekanye, B.R.,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RSM was used to optimize the important processing variables for a non-alcoholic beverage (NAB from roselle calyx, sorghum stem sheath and two local spices. A CCRD consisting of six variables reduced to five for mathematical convenience [Roselle Calyx/Sorghum Stem Sheath, (RC/SSS, 0-75/25-100 g, ginger (0-1.50 g/100ml, Alligator Pepper (AP, 0-1.50 g/100ml, Extraction Temperature (ET, 80-100oC and Time of Extraction (TOE, 20-40 min] with five coded levels (-2,-1, 0, +1, +2 were studied with two replications, making 54 experiments. Mathematical models were developed for the responses [Vitamin C (VC, Total Carotenoids (TC, 1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Total Phenols (TP, pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA] for making a prediction during NAB production. Storage stability indices [pH, VC, TTA, Total Viable (TVC and coliform counts] of the beverage were monitored for 28 days. The optimum processing variables were RC/SSS, 66.67 g/33.33 g; ginger, 0.375 g/100ml; AP, 0.375 g/100ml; ET, 85°C; and TOE, 35 min, yielding actual values of 15.33, 1757.2, 0.306 (mg/100ml, 89.21% for VC, TC, TP and DPPH respectively. The developed mathematical models for the measured responses could be successfully used for their prediction during non-alcoholic beverage production with a correlation coefficient (R2 ranging from 0.84-0.99. Reduction in pH (4.98-2.66 and VC (15.33 -12.69 mg/100 ml were observed while TTA increased (1.70-5.02% during storage. There was no coliform growth throughout the storage period, however, after 7 days, TVC was 7x102 CFU/ml.

  20. Glass import and production in Hispania during the early medieval period: The glass from Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan Ares, Jorge; Schibille, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one glass fragments from medieval Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo, Spain) were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The glasses fall into three types according to the fluxing agents used: mineral natron, soda-rich plant ash, and a combination of soda ash and lead. The natron glasses can be assigned to various established primary production groups of eastern Mediterranean provenance. Different types of plant ash glasses indicate differences in the silica source as well as the plant ash component, reflecting changing supply mechanisms. While the earlier plant ash groups can be related to Islamic glasses from the Near East, both in terms of typology and composition, the chemical signature of the later samples appear to be specific to glass from the Iberian Peninsula. This has important implications for our understanding of the emerging glass industry in Spain and the distribution patterns of glass groups and raw materials. The plant ash that was used for the Vascos glasses is rich in soda with low levels of potash, similar to ash produced in the eastern Mediterranean. It could therefore be possible that Levantine plant ash was imported and used in Islamic period glass workshops in Spain. Unlike central and northern Europe where an independent glass industry based on potassium-rich wood ash developed during the Carolingian period, the prevalence of soda ash and soda ash lead glass on the Iberian Peninsula indicates its commercial and technological interconnection with the Islamic east. Our study thus traces several stages leading to the development of a specifically Spanish primary glassmaking industry.

  1. Importance and Implications of the Production of Phenolic Secondary Metabolites by Endophytic Fungi: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros de Carvalho, Patrícia Lunardelli; Silva, Eliane de Oliveira; Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Hortolan Luiz, Jaine Honorata; Ikegaki, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    In the natural products research, a valuable approach is the prospection of uncommon sources and unexplored habitat. Special attention has been given to endophytic fungi because of their ability to produce new and interesting secondary metabolites, which have several biological applications. The endophytes establish exclusive symbiotic relationships with plants and the metabolic interactions may support the synthesis of some similar valuables compounds. Among secondary metabolites, phenol-derived structures are responsible for several bioactivities such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, among others. Phenolic compounds might be biosynthesized from the shikimate pathway. Although shikimic acid is a common precursor in plants, it is described as rare in microorganisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review about phenolic compounds produced by endophytic fungi and a comparison has been made with those produced by the plant host. This review covers 124 phenolic secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi. Considering the data analyzed by us, only seven of such compounds were isolated from fungi and from their hosts. These observations claim for more attention to phenolic compounds produced by endophytic fungi with a view to understand the real importance of these compounds to endophytes survival.

  2. The Production of Low-energy Neutrons in Solar Flares and the Importance of Their Detection in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G. H.

    2012-09-01

    Neutron detectors on spacecraft in the inner heliosphere can observe the low-energy (computer code incorporating updated neutron-production cross sections for the proton and α-particle reactions with heavier elements at all ion energies, especially at low energies (E ion Mercury has such a detector. We conclude that a full understanding of ion acceleration, transport, and interaction at the Sun requires observation of both neutrons and gamma rays with detectors of comparable sensitivity. We find that the neutron-capture line fluence at 1 AU is comparable to the 1-10 MeV neutron fluence at 0.5 AU, and therefore as effective for revealing low-energy ion acceleration. However, as the distance from the Sun to the neutron detector decreases, the tremendous increase of the low-energy neutron flux allows exploration of ion acceleration in weak flares not previously observable and may reveal acceleration at other sites not previously detected where low-energy neutrons could be the only high-energy signature of ion acceleration. Also, a measurement of the low-energy neutron spectrum will provide important information about the accelerated-ion spectrum that is not available from the capture line fluence measurement alone.

  3. Criterion 6, indicator 30 : value and volume in round wood equivalents of exports and imports of wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth Skog

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a wide range of specific and statistical information on forest products markets in terms of production, trade, prices and consumption, employment, and other factors influencing forest sustainability.

  4. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  5. A survey of selected neutron-activation reactions with short-lived products of importance to fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    The status of the cross sections for production of short-lived radioactivities in the intense high-energy neutron fields associated with D-T fusion reactors is investigated. The main concerns relative to these very radioactive isotopes are with radiation damage to sensitive components such as superconducting magnets, the decay-heat problem and the safety of personnel during operation of the facility. The present report surveys the status of nuclear data required to assess these problems. The study is limited to a few high-priority nuclear reactions which appear to be of critical concern in this context. Other reactions of lesser concern are listed but are not treated in the present work. Among the factors that were considered in defining the relevant reactions and setting priorities are: quantities of the elemental materials in a fusion reactor, isotopic abundances within elemental categories, the decay properties of the induced radioactive byproducts, the reaction cross sections, and the nature of the decay radiations. Attention has been focused on radioactive species with half lives in the range from about 1 second to 15 minutes. Available cross-section and reaction-product decay information from the literature has been compiled and included in the report. Uncertainties have been estimated by examining several sets of experimental as well as evaluated data. Comments on the general status of data for various high-priority reactions are offered. On the basis of this investigation, it has been found that the nuclear data are in reasonably good shape for some of the most important reactions but are unacceptable for others. Based on this investigation, the reactions which should be given the greatest attention are: 16 O(n,p) 16 N, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr, 57 Fe(n,p) 57 Mn, 186 W(n,2n) 185m W, and 207 Pb(n,n') 207m Pb. However, the development of fusion power would benefit from an across-the-board refinement in these nuclear data so that a more accurate quantitative

  6. Fate of two important radionuclides in the coastal seas of Japan and resultant dose from intake through fishery products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Matsuba, Mitsue; Yokosuka, Setsuko [Laboratory for Radioecology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The relationship between the inflow of two important radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, and their concentrations in seawater was investigated by introducing a simplified mathematical model which expressed the course of time of the concentration of radionuclides in seawater in the first order kinetics. The comparison of the fate was made between two radionuclides for three regions in Japan by comparing the respective two parameters, retention time in the sea and the effective mixing depth, which were derived by regression analyses of the radioactivity survey data reported since 1960. Generally speaking, there were not so great differences in the fate in the coastal seas of Japan between two radionuclides, although the effective mixing depth was slightly shallower for {sup 90}Sr than for {sup 137}Cs. The effective retention time was obtained as 7.1, 6.9 and 3.1 years in terms of a half value period for {sup 90}Sr in the coastal sea near the prefectures, Ibaraki, Niigata And Fukui, respectively, whereas 7.2, 6.4 and 8.7 years for {sup 137}Cs in the same order. On the other hand, the respective effective mixing depth which was defined here as the depth within radionuclides were virtually distributed uniformly was 29, 44 and 24 m for {sup 90}Sr, whereas 47, 47 and 85 m for {sup 137}Cs. These results suggested that radionuclides flowing into the surface of the sea in the same mode as the atmospheric fallout principally be associated into the existing dispersion system in the water body dispersed rather independently of species of radionuclide. The contribution of chemical and biological fractionation to the distribution in the sea would be not so critical between {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. The radiological impacts in the case of the event of inflow of radionuclides into the sea would be evaluated by determining the dose commitment. The dose commitment would be given as the multiplication of the integrated concentration in seawater, the concentration

  7. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Christoph A; Richardson, Anthony J; Jaine, Fabrice R A; Bennett, Michael B; Weeks, Scarla J; Cliff, Geremy; Robinson, David P; Reeve-Arnold, Katie E; Pierce, Simon J

    2018-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004-2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2-88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km) at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day -1 . While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll- a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll- a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat to regional

  8. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... at high light depended on community density. Therefore, while the determination of the production of individual algal thalli is useful for evaluating differences in acclimatisation and adaptation between species and stands, it is not useful for evaluating production rates for entire plants and communities...... production in the communities, implying that canopy structure had a profound influence on community production and that a non-optimal distribution of light is likely to be the main reason for the lower maximum gross production rates in aquatic than terrestrial plant communities....

  9. Habitat heterogeneity: importance of salt marsh pools and high marsh surfaces to fish production in two Gulf of Maine salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. MacKenzie; M. Dionne

    2008-01-01

    Both permanent high marsh pools and the intertidal surfaces of Spartina patens high marshes in southern Maine, USA, proved to be important habitat for resident mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus production. Manipulations of fish movement onto high marsh Surfaces revealed similar growth rates and production among fish that were (1) restricted to pools, (2) had access to...

  10. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...) poultry meat from regions designated in § 94.6(a) as regions where END is considered to exist, have a...

  11. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Robinson, David P.; Reeve-Arnold, Katie E.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2018-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004–2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2–88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km) at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day−1. While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat to regional

  12. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  13. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Rohner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004–2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2–88 days (mean = 27 days as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day−1. While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat

  14. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P and trace elements (Zn, Fe were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products from goat milk also had higher concentration of P, whereas the concentration of Ca was equally in goat and cow milk. However, significantly lower concentrations of Zn in goat milk and goat milk products were determined. Levels of analyzed major and trace minerals were higher in fermented dairy products and cheeses than in liquid milk. The levels of major and trace minerals in White Slice cheese were greater than those in fermented milk products. High content of phosphorus in White Slice goat cheese than in White Slice cow cheese was determined.

  15. The importance of productive patient–professional interaction for the well-being of chronically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective To investigate patient–professional interactions and identify the association between quality of care, productivity of patient–professional interaction, and chronically ill patients’ well-being. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to chronically ill

  16. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Norway, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, which are... chapter. (b) All meat or other animal product from such regions, whether in personal-use amounts or...

  17. Imported biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieurin, J.

    1992-01-01

    No import of biofuels to Sweden for energy production existed before 1991. That year, import of wood chips from Latvia and olive wastes (pits) from the Mediterranean region started, with volumes corresponding to 100 GWh each. This fuels were used in district heating plants, with converted coal boilers. The price was about 120 SEK/MWh (∼ 18 USD/MWh) at the plant. Small amounts of wood pellets were imported from Poland, Canada and Denmark, totalling less than 100 GWh. This fuel was used by small heating centrals and the import was caused by a shortage of swedish pellets. Potentially important export countries, if a large scale biofuel use starts in Sweden, are Russia, the Baltic states, USA, and Canada. Technical possibilities for converting coal-fired boilers to biofuel firing are discussed in a four page section of this paper. (2 refs., 2 tabs.)

  18. Improving non-communicable disease remediation outcomes in Tonga: the importance of domestic fruit production systems: an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. R. Underhill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of mortality in the Pacific Island nation of Tonga. Current remedial strategies have focused on promoting healthy food choices based on increased intake of fruits and vegetables. While researchers seek to overcome complex social, gender and cultural practices that impede dietary transition, discontinuous domestic fruit supply chains undermine this effort. With the view to supporting a more holistic approach to NCD remediation in Tonga, this paper provides a preliminary assessment of domestic horticultural supply chains constraints, in support of diversification and expansion of local fruit production. Current impediments and constraints to enhanced local fruit production are presented and possible strategies to increased domestic fruit supply discussed. We present a case for a more consumer-centric approach to industry development, with an emphasis on production systems that are compatible with existing social structures, customary land ownership constraints, and local nutritional needs.

  19. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy : Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    OpenAIRE

    Höök, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind.  This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to...

  20. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on th...

  1. 9 CFR 327.6 - Products for importation; program inspection, time and place; application for approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., except as provided in 327.5(d)(1). (3) The computerized Automated Import Information System (AIIS) shall... the sealing of cars, trucks, or other means of conveyance, and the sealing or identification of...

  2. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for... free of or low-risk for CSF. Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not currently listed in these sections...

  3. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guodoong Liu; Yuncong Li; Kati W. Migliaccio; Ying Ouyang; Ashok K. Alva

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from fertilized soils are a costly problem that is undermining agricultural and ecological sustainability worldwide. Ammonia emissions from crop production have been reliably documented in recent years. However, insufficient efforts have been made to determine the factors most influential in facilitating NH3 emissions. The goal of this study was...

  4. The valuation of finished products as an important risk factor in the distortion of financial statements 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Karwowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: 1. Is the correct valuation of products significant from the point of view of economic risk? 2. Are there situations in Polish practice of inaccurate valuations that lead to material misstatements of financial statements? 3. Is there a risk of inaccurate cost information being used by the management of Polish companies? The review of published materials on the topic has shown that inaccuracies in the calculation of indivi-dual product costs, or overlooking the issue of idle capacity, may increase the economic risk of faulty decisions. A survey conducted among Polish companies has demonstrated that, in many cases, cost accounting does not allow for the accurate calculation of individual product costs or the cost of idle capacity. In addition, the research has highlighted the issue of idle capacity in many Polish companies that hold a significant level of inventories. All of this indicates a risk of distortion in financial statements due to the faulty valua-tion of products in the reports of those companies.

  5. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 53, 71, 82, 93... poultry meat and poultry products pose more of a potential disease threat to the U.S. poultry industry...), New Zealand, and Switzerland. * * * * * Sec. 94.23 [Amended] 20. Section 94.23 is amended by removing...

  6. The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.V. Hilderbrand; C.C. Schwartz; C.T. Robbins; M.E. Hanley Jacoby; S.M. Arthur; C. Servheen

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesized that the relative availability of meat, indicated by contribution to the diet, would be positively related to body size and population productivity of North American brown, or grizzly, bears (Ursus arctos). Dietary contributions of plant matter and meat derived from both terrestrial and marine sources were quantified by stable-...

  7. Forest-Product Imports and Exports Via the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Through Upper Lakes Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1966-01-01

    The expanded Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway system was opened in the early spring of 1959, and for the first time deep-draft ocean-going vessels could visit inland Great Lakes ports. In 1963 the Station published a Research Note reporting what effect this expansion may have had on the volume of forest products moving through Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan ports;...

  8. Modeling below-ground biomass to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal forest product

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine J. Small; Simon J. Bonner; Elizabeth B. Hiebert

    2013-01-01

    Non-timber forest products, particularly herbaceous understory plants, support a multi-billion dollar industry and are extracted from forests worldwide for their therapeutic value. Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of...

  9. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.

    Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth

  10. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  11. The Importance of using Discounted Cash Flow Methodology in Techno-economic Analyses of Energy and Chemical Production Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorka Novak Pintarič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the correct application of discounted cash flow methodology forevaluating and designing energy and chemical production plants. Such processes usuallycorrespond to capital intensive long-term projects. Simple economic criteria, like theprofit or production cost are insufficient for this type of decision making because they donot take into account the time value of money and underestimate the profitabilities of theevaluated plants. This paper shows that some of those criteria based on the discountedcash flows establish suitable compromises between long-term cash flow generation andprofitability. As several alternative options are usually evaluated in parallel, it is shownhow to rank mutually exclusive alternatives properly and how to select the best optionfrom among them. Two large-scale case studies demonstrate that using discounted cashflow methodology can result in substantially different decisions than non-discountedcriteria, however, these decisions are affected by several input parameters.

  12. Importance sampling and histogrammic representations of reactivity functions and product distributions in Monte Carlo quasiclassical trajectory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faist, M.B.; Muckerman, J.T.; Schubert, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The application of importance sampling as a variance reduction technique in Monte Carlo quasiclassical trajectory calculations is discussed. Two measures are proposed which quantify the quality of the importance sampling used, and indicate whether further improvements may be obtained by some other choice of importance sampling function. A general procedure for constructing standardized histogrammic representations of differential functions which integrate to the appropriate integral value obtained from a trajectory calculation is presented. Two criteria for ''optimum'' binning of these histogrammic representations of differential functions are suggested. These are (1) that each bin makes an equal contribution to the integral value, and (2) each bin has the same relative error. Numerical examples illustrating these sampling and binning concepts are provided

  13. Statistical analysis of responses concerning the importance of human and production or services issues in various companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Knop

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of statistical analysis is presented with the use of basic statistical parameters and box and whisker plot conducted for the dataset, containing answers to the question E9 from BOST survey. Measures of central tendency and variation were em-ployed for analysis of the data connected with the assessment of human problems and production-related issues in three analysed companies: a steel company, a plastics processing company and a retail chain.

  14. The importance of mucus production in slugs' reaction to molluscicides and the impact of molluscicides on the mucus producing system

    OpenAIRE

    Triebskorn, R.; Ebert, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Deroceras reticulatum, mucus cell ultrastructure and the histochemistry of the epidermis and the digestive tract epithelia were shown to be influenced by carbamate and metaldehyde, two molluscicides used as both contact and oral toxins. After carbamate poisoning mucus production is increased and the chemical composition of the slime is modified. Ultrastructural damage is less intense than after metaldehyde poisoning. After metaldehyde application mucus secretion is activated immediately an...

  15. COMPARISON OF PRODUCTION PARAMETERS BETWEEN THE FIRST GENERATION OF A-LINE IMPORTED AND BRED GILTS ON THE NUCLEUS FARM VELIKA BRANJEVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Dubravac

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of productive parameters of two analyzed groups (the first generation of imported gilts and the gilts born on the domestic farm was conducted on a nucleus farm that imported the gilt lines from the TOPIGS breeding program. For the purposes of the nucleus pig farm, TOPIGS gilts were imported from Netherlands. The nucleus farm where the analysis of the two groups’ productive parameters was conducted imported the ancestral and grandfather lines to produce the parenting generation TOPIGS 40 sows which are bred with a Pietrain line of boars. The TOPIGS 40 sow is an animal based on A-line and B-line characterized by high fertility rate, excellent maternal characteristics, good capacity for growth, and quality meaty body. The analysis of productive parameters of the two observed groups of gilts (the first generation of 105 imported gilts and 88 gilts born on the domestic farm resulted in significantly higher number of total born, born alive and weaned piglets after the first farrowing (P<0.001 as well as significantly higher number of total born and born alive piglets at third farrowing (P<0.05. The results of the observed qualities confirm the fact that, apart from the unquestionable genetic potential, other factors such as adaptation, accommodation conditions, microclimate, nutrition, and management have a significant effect on the increase of production results.

  16. production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    answered satisfactorily. An additional important factor in discouraging collaborative work in animal and grassland production is, without doubt, the complexity of work in this field compared with much of that in the individual discipline and, in particular, the com- plexity of work on forage as a source of nutrients for live- stock.

  17. Pollination by the locally endangered island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) enhances fruit production of the economically important durian (Durio zibethinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sheema A; Clements, Gopalasamy R; McConkey, Kim R; Sritongchuay, Tuanjit; Pathil, Saifful; Abu Yazid, Muhammad Nur Hafizi; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Bumrungsri, Sara

    2017-11-01

    Fruit bats provide valuable pollination services to humans through a unique coevolutionary relationship with chiropterophilous plants. However, chiropterophily in the Old World and the pollination roles of large bats, such as flying foxes ( Pteropus spp., Acerodon spp., Desmalopex spp.), are still poorly understood and require further elucidation. Efforts to protect these bats have been hampered by a lack of basic quantitative information on their role as ecosystem service providers. Here, we investigate the role of the locally endangered island flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus in the pollination ecology of durian ( Durio zibethinus ), an economically important crop in Southeast Asia. On Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia, we deployed 19 stations of paired infrared camera and video traps across varying heights at four individual flowering trees in a durian orchard. We detected at least nine species of animal visitors, but only bats had mutualistic interactions with durian flowers. There was a clear vertical stratification in the feeding niches of flying foxes and nectar bats, with flying foxes feeding at greater heights in the trees. Flying foxes had a positive effect on mature fruit set and therefore serve as important pollinators for durian trees. As such, semi-wild durian trees-particularly tall ones-may be dependent on flying foxes for enhancing reproductive success. Our study is the first to quantify the role of flying foxes in durian pollination, demonstrating that these giant fruit bats may have far more important ecological, evolutionary, and economic roles than previously thought. This has important implications and can aid efforts to promote flying fox conservation, especially in Southeast Asian countries.

  18. Presence of pathogenic enteric viruses in illegally imported meat and meat products to EU by international air travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Montes-Briones, Rebeca; Gallego, David; Hernández, Marta; Rovira, Jordi

    2015-09-16

    One hundred twenty two meat samples confiscated from passengers on flights from non-European countries at the International Airport of Bilbao (Spain) were tested for the presence of the main foodborne viral pathogens (human noroviruses genogroups I and II, hepatitis A and E viruses) during 2012 and 2013. A sample process control virus, murine norovirus, was used to evaluate the correct performance of the method. Overall, 67 samples were positive for at least one enteric viruses, 65 being positive for hepatitis E virus (53.3%), 3 for human norovirus genogroup I (2.5%) and 1 for human norovirus genogroup II (0.8%), whereas hepatitis A virus was not detected in any sample. The type of positive meat samples was diverse, but mainly was pork meat products (64.2%). The geographical origin of the positive samples was wide and diverse; samples from 15 out 19 countries tested were positive for at least one virus. However, the estimated virus load was low, ranging from 55 to 9.0 × 10(4) PDU per gram of product. The results obtained showed the potential introduction of viral agents in travelers' luggage, which constitute a neglected route of introduction and transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-Energy Neutron Production in Solar Flares and the Importance of their Detection in the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ronald; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G.

    2012-05-01

    Neutron detectors on spacecraft in the inner-heliosphere can observe the low-energy (computer code incorporating up-dated neutron-production cross sections of the accelerated proton and alpha-particle reactions with heavier elements at low ion energies (Mercury. We conclude that a full understanding of ion acceleration, transport, and interaction at the Sun requires observations of both neutrons and gamma rays. We find that a measurement of the 2.223 MeV neutron-capture line, even with a modest instrument at 1 AU, is as sensitive to the presence of low-energy interacting ions at the Sun as a 1-10 MeV neutron detector at 0.5 AU. However, as the distance from the Sun to the neutron detector decreases, the tremendous increase of the low-energy neutron flux will allow exploration of ion acceleration in weak flares not previously observable and may reveal ion acceleration at other sites not previously detected where low-energy neutron production could be the only high-energy signature of ion acceleration.

  20. Most-important data and methods of production of some ioparaffins with special regard to their use as motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkels

    1944-03-16

    This table gives a listing of the formula, structure, melting point, boiling point, density, vapor pressure, octane rating without (and sometimes with) lead additive, and production procedure for several isoparaffins (branched paraffins). The substance included 2-methylbutane (isopentane), 2,2-dimethylpropane (neopentane), 2,2-dimethylbutane (neohexane), 2,3-dimethylbutane, 2,2-dimetnylpentane, 3,3-dimethylpentane, 2,3-dimethylpentane, 2,4-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane (Triptan), 2,2,3-trimethylpentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (iso-octane), 2,3,3-trimethylpentane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane, 3-methyl-3-ethylpentane, 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane, 3,3,4,4-tetramethylhexane, and 2,4,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane (isododecane). The substances in the list which were said to have octane number of 100 or more without addition of lead were Triptan (101 or more), 2,2,3-trimethylpentane (100.2), iso-octane (100), 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (103), and isododecane (100). The various methods of production given in the table included (1) chlorination of a ketone, followed by conversion (involving rearrangement) of the chlorinated substance to an acid, and subsequent hyrogenation, (2) alkylation processes of condensation of a paraffin with an olefin, (3) hydrogenation of a ketone or an olefin, (4) polymerization of an olefin, (5) isomerization of a paraffin, and (6) condensation of two molecules of an alkyl magnesium bromide with iodine. 1 table, 1 graph.

  1. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacko, I.

    1997-01-01

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  2. Possible effects of the Worldwide production of ethanol in two of the main countries that imports corn. South Korea and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Martínez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is the second largest importer of corn and Mexico is the third. Although the corn has its origin in this country, since 1994 Mexico has become one of the major importers in the world. This essay examines the possible economic implications for Mexico and Korea for the increased production of ethanol from corn. The analysis parts of the close relationship of three interconnected problems, which are at the root of the current energy crisis: global warming, oil crisis and biofuel production. This is causing a global food crisis. The production of ethanol from corn is emerging as an alternative that may address global warming and attacking the alleged shortage of oil, which has resulted in rising prices. The point in discussion is what are the possible effects of policies to induce the production of biofuels (ethanol on the main importers of corn. That’s why the current status of the ethanol industry is analyzed, whose main protagonists on the world stage are the United States and Brazil. Then we made a brief analysis of the market of corn. Finally, based on the foregoing, we reflect on the possible implications it might have on the development of food production of etanol.

  3. High Technology Development and Creation of Experimental Industrial Area of High-Performance Precision Diamond Dress Tool Production for Engineering Needs and Import Substitution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing design of high-precision diamond tool for special applications carried out at V. M Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials of NAS of Ukraine is described. Presented developments open up scientific and technological capabilities of special dress diamond tool production for mechanical engineering and substitution of imported tools at Ukrainian enterprises by home-produced.

  4. African fermented dairy products - Overview of predominant technologically important microorganisms focusing on African Streptococcus infantarius variants and potential future applications for enhanced food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lamuka, Peter; Renault, Pierre; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lacroix, Christophe; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Fokou, Gilbert; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-06-05

    Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture. Knowledge of microbiota and predominant, technologically important microorganisms is critical in developing products with enhanced quality and safety, as well as sustainable interventions for these products, including Africa-specific starter culture development. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge of technologically-important microorganisms of African fermented dairy products (FDP) and raw milk, taking into consideration novel findings and taxonomy when re-analyzing data of 29 publications covering 25 products from 17 African countries. Technologically-important lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts predominated in raw milk and FDP across Africa. Re-analysis of data also suggests a much wider distribution of Sii and thus a potentially longer history of use than previously expected. Therefore, evaluating the role and safety of African Sii lineages is important when developing interventions and starter cultures for FDP in Africa to enhance food safety and food security. In-depth functional genomics, epidemiologic investigations and latest identification approaches coupled with stakeholder involvement will be required to evaluate the possibility of African Sii lineages as novel food-grade Streptococcus lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  5. A Conservation Approach of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS: Improving Traditional Agricultural Patterns and Promoting Scale-Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heritage conservation is an important recurring research theme on agricultural heritage systems. Improving the income of farmers from agriculture is regarded as an effective conservation approach. This study examined how the improved rice-fish-duck coculture (IRFDC promotes the protection of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraced System (HHRTS by keeping farmers farming in their hometowns. A semi-structural interview and a questionnaire survey were used to collect data on agricultural input–outputs and household employment in HHRTS. As a result, a fairly large proportion of HHRTS rice terraces were used for the hybrid rice monoculture (HRM with chemical inputs, and most of these rice terraces were wasted for half a year on account of being left unused; the IRFDC requires considerable time input for farming and breeding, but barely needs any chemical inputs. IRFDC entails a higher cost than HRM, but also has a higher return than HRM. Driving a family to do full-time farming requires extra more than 0.71 ha rice terraces for IRFDC. In conclusion, Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHSs can be used for protecting terraces from abandonment and destruction by improving agricultural economic benefits for farmers. At present, a shortage of laborers in HHRTS sites is false. Agricultural heritage sites do not actual need so many people if peasant households can do large-scale farming.

  6. Crystal structure ofClostridium acetobutylicumAspartate kinase (CaAK): An important allosteric enzyme for amino acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Chance, Mark R; Burley, Stephen K; Panjikar, Santosh; Almo, Steven C

    2014-09-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK) is an enzyme which is tightly regulated through feedback control and responsible for the synthesis of 4-phospho-L-aspartate from L-aspartate. This intermediate step is at an important branch point where one path leads to the synthesis of lysine and the other to threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Concerted feedback inhibition of AK is mediated by threonine and lysine and varies between the species. The crystal structure of biotechnologically important Clostridium acetobutylicum aspartate kinase ( Ca AK; E.C. 2.7.2.4; Mw =48,030Da; 437aa; SwissProt: Q97MC0) has been determined to 3Å resolution. Ca AK acquires a protein fold similar to the other known structures of AKs despite the low sequence identity (Clostridium tetani (64% sequence identity) suggesting the potential of the structure solved here to be applied for modeling drug interactions. Ca AK structure may serve as a guide to better understand and engineer lysine biosynthesis for the biotechnology industry.

  7. Importance of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on rates of hydrogen production from galvanized steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyola, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the known sources of hydrogen gas within a nuclear plant containment building during a LOCA is the high temperature corrosion of galvanized steel yielding hydrogen gas. The importance of this source of hydrogen will vary depending on the severity of the accident. In an accident which resulted in core degradation, for example, the major source of hydrogen would probably be the metal-water reaction of the zircaloy cladding, and the corrosion of galvanized steel would then become a relatively minor source of hydrogen. However, in an accident in which core degradation is avoided or limited to minor damage, the corrosion of galvanized steel, and presumably of other materials as well, would then become a major contributor to the buildup of hydrogen within containment. The purpose of this paper is to present the overall effects of temperature, pH, and boric acid concentration on the rate of hydrogen generation over a broad range of each parameter

  8. Crystal structure of Clostridium acetobutylicum aspartate kinase (CaAk: An important allosteric enzyme for amino acids production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu A. Manjasetty

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspartate kinase (AK is an enzyme which is tightly regulated through feedback control and responsible for the synthesis of 4-phospho-l-aspartate from l-aspartate. This intermediate step is at an important branch point where one path leads to the synthesis of lysine and the other to threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Concerted feedback inhibition of AK is mediated by threonine and lysine and varies between the species. The crystal structure of biotechnologically important Clostridium acetobutylicum aspartate kinase (CaAK; E.C. 2.7.2.4; Mw = 48,030 Da; 437aa; SwissProt: Q97MC0 has been determined to 3 Å resolution. CaAK acquires a protein fold similar to the other known structures of AKs despite the low sequence identity (<30%. It is composed of two domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (kinase domain and a C-terminal regulatory domain further comprised of two small domains belonging to the ACT domain family. Pairwise comparison of 12 molecules in the asymmetric unit helped to identify the bending regions which are in the vicinity of ATP binding site involved in domain movements between the catalytic and regulatory domains. All 12 CaAK molecules adopt fully open T-state conformation leading to the formation of three tetramers unique among other similar AK structures. On the basis of comparative structural analysis, we discuss tetramer formation based on the large conformational changes in the catalytic domain associated with the lysine binding at the regulatory domains. The structure described herein is homologous to a target in wide-spread pathogenic (toxin producing bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (64% sequence identity suggesting the potential of the structure solved here to be applied for modeling drug interactions. CaAK structure may serve as a guide to better understand and engineer lysine biosynthesis for the biotechnology industry.

  9. Importance of benthic production to fish populations in Lake Mead prior to the establishment of quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, John; Chandra, Sudeep; Rosen, Michael; Wittmann, Marion; Sullivan, Joe; Orsak, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Limnologists recently have developed an interest in quantifying benthic resource contributions to higher-level consumers. Much of this research focuses on natural lakes with very little research in reservoirs. In this study, we provide a contemporary snapshot of the food web structure of Lake Mead to evaluate the contribution of benthic resources to fish consumers. In addition, we document the available food to fishes on soft sediments and changes to the invertebrate community over 2 time periods. Benthic invertebrate food availability for fishes is greater in Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Las Vegas Bay is dominated by oligochaetes, whose biomass increased with depth, while Overton Arm is dominated by chironomids, whose biomass did not change with depth. Diet and isotopic measurements indicate the fish community largely relies on benthic resources regardless of basin (Las Vegas Bay >80%; Overton Arm >92%); however, the threadfin shad likely contribute more to largemouth and striped bass production in Overton Arm versus Las Vegas Bay. A 2-time period analysis, pre and post quagga mussel establishment and during lake level declines, suggests there is no change in the density of benthic invertebrates in Boulder Basin, but there were greater abundances of select taxa in this basin by season and depth than in other basins. Given the potential of alterations as a result of the expansion of quagga mussel and the reliance of the fishery on benthic resources, future investigation of basin specific, benthic processes is recommended.

  10. Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: the importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Guillaume; Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zuo, Hui; Kröger, Edeltraut; Sirois, Caroline; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Taylor, Anne W

    2014-06-01

    Multimorbidity is a common health status. The impact of nutrition on the development of multimorbidity remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to determine the association between foods, macronutrients and micronutrients and the evolution of multimorbidity. Data from 1020 Chinese who participated in the Jiangsu longitudinal Nutrition Study (JIN) were collected in 2002 (baseline) and 2007 (follow-up). Three-day weighted food records and status for 11 chronic diseases was determined using biomedical measures (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and anemia) or self-reports (coronary heart disease, asthma, stroke, cancer, fracture, arthritis and hepatitis). Participants were divided in six categories of stage of evolution of multimorbidity. Association of foods, macronutrients and micronutrients at baseline with stages in the evolution of multimorbidity were determined. Data were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, marital status, sedentary lifestyle, smoking status, annual income, education and energy intake. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 14% to 34%. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables (p nutrition and evolution towards multimorbidity. More precisely, greater consumption of fruits and vegetable and whole grain products consumption appear to lower the risk of multimorbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  12. EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF NOX4 IN PRODUCTION OF HYPERTENSION IN DAHL SALT-SENSITIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Allen W.; Yang, Chun; Zheleznova, Nadezhda N.; Staruschenko, Alexander; Kurth, Theresa; Rein, Lisa; Kumar, Vikash; Sadovnikov, Katherine; Dayton, Alex; Hoffman, Matthew; Ryan, Robert P.; Skelton, Meredith M.; Salehpour, Fahimeh; Ranji, Mahsa; Geurts, Aron

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the consequences of knocking out NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upon the development of hypertension and kidney injury in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. Zinc finger nuclease injection of single cell SS embryos was used to create an 8 base-pair frame-shift deletion of Nox4 resulting in a loss of the ~68 kD band in Western blot analysis of renal cortical tissue of the SSNox4−/− rats. SSNox4−/− rats exhibited a significant reduction of salt-induced hypertension compared to SS rats after 21 days of 4.0% NaCl diet (134±5 vs 151±3 mmHg in SS) and a significant reduction of albuminuria, tubular casts, and glomerular injury. Optical fluorescence 3D cryoimaging revealed significantly higher redox ratios (NADH/FAD) in the kidneys of SSNox4−/− rats even when fed the 0.4% NaCl diet indicating greater levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain metabolic activity and reduced oxidative stress compared to SS rats. Prior to the development of hypertension, RNA expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits Nox2, p67phox, and p22phox were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) in SSNox4−/− compared to SS rats in the renal cortex. Thus the mutation of Nox4 appears to modify transcription of a number of genes in ways that contribute to the protective effects observed in the SSNox4−/− rats. We conclude that the reduced renal injury and attenuated blood pressure response to high salt in the SSNox4−/− rat could be the result of multiple pathways including gene transcription, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress, and protein matrix production impacted by the knock out of Nox4. PMID:26644237

  13. DNA barcoding reveals mislabeling of imported fish products in Nansha new port of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Lai, Guiyan; Li, Li; Xiao, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Ming

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we employed a DNA barcoding approach to authenticate the species of fish imported via one port in China. The fish were identified as smallmouth scad based on morphological characteristics, Alepes apercna (Perciformes, Carangidae), but were labeled as Rastrelliger brachysoma (Perciformes, Scombridae). Fragments of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene were sequenced from 12 specimens, and their phylogenetic relationship was subsequently examined. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all of the individuals formed a monophyletic cluster with high bootstrap values and were placed in a sister group with the ancestor of Alepes vari and Alepes melanoptera. The K2P genetic distances at an intraspecific level were significantly smaller than those at an interspecific level. Our results indicated that the fish were A. apercna, rather than R. brachysoma, which confirms the morphological analysis. This study presents a practical demonstration of the use of DNA barcoding to prevent fraud in international trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ibatá, Diana María; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Quijada, Darla; Burton, Kenneth; Mur, Lina

    2017-01-01

    The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs). Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF) and Classical swine fever (CSF) introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine) to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3). Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF) higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF). This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products). The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products), is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  15. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'urban bias’ in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed policy interest in the potential benefits of local pharmaceutical production and supply. However, there is a shortage of evidence on the role of locally produced medicines in African markets, and on potential benefits of local production for access to medicines. This article contributes to filling that gap. Methods This article uses WHO/HAI data from Tanzania for 2006 and 2009 on prices and sources of a set of tracer essential medicines. It employs innovative graphical methods of analysis alongside conventional statistical testing. Results Medicines produced in Tanzania were equally likely to be found in rural and in urban areas. Imported medicines, especially those imported from countries other than Kenya (mainly from India) displayed 'urban bias’: that is, they were significantly more likely to be available in urban than in rural areas. This finding holds across the range of sample medicines studied, and cannot be explained by price differences alone. While different private distribution networks for essential medicines may provide part of the explanation, this cannot explain why the urban bias in availability of imported medicines is also found in the public sector. Conclusions The findings suggest that enhanced local production may improve rural access to medicines. The potential benefits of local production and scope for their improvement are an important field for further research, and indicate a key policy area in which economic development and health care objectives may reinforce each other. PMID:24612518

  16. Temporal changes in secondary production of a population of the subtidal sand snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan: importance of annual change in age structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takashi

    1997-05-01

    Year-to-year changes in age structure, biomass ( B), annual secondary production ( P) and {P}/{overlineB} ratio are described of a population of the subtidal snail Umbonium costatum in Hakodate Bay, northern Japan, during a 6-y period (1982-1988). Population structure and values of biomass and production were highly variable from year to year; the ranges of the annual mean biomass, annual production and {P}/{overlineB} ratio were 3.71-9.22 g dry tissue m -2, 1.01-4.92 g dry tissue m -2 y -1 and 0.13-1.33 y -1 respectively. Change in the age structure was the most important single factor affecting temporal changes in annual production in this population. The annual production of the population was high when young individuals, which have a small body size and high growth rate, dominated the population. While annual {P}/{overlineB} ratios in 1983 and 1984 fell within the range of values reported for various other gastropods, those in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were markedly lower, if the relation between the population {P}/{overlineB} ratio and life span is taken into account. This demonstrates that production estimates from annual biomass and life-span values may lead to incorrect results in a recruitment-limited population.

  17. The Role of Logistics Service Providers in the Distribution Channel of Imported Perishable and Processed Food Product to Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuputri, Megita Ryanjani; Chaveesuk, Ravipim; Guritno, Adi Djoko

    2017-01-01

    Today fierce competition has highly enforced the company to focus more on their core competency and has encouraged them to strengthen competitive advantage. This condition reinforces the role of logistics service providers (LSP) to help company run their supporting activities. This research aims to identify the characteristics of LSP and to analyze their role in the distribution channel of imported perishable and processed food products in Indonesia. Convenience sampling was employed as sampl...

  18. A Novel Synthesis of 1-Acetyl-4-Isopropenyl-1-Cyclopentene by Chemoselective Cyclization of 4-Methyl-3-(Oxobutyl-4-Pentenal: An Important Intermediate for Natural Product Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Fernando de Lima

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the direct oxidation of limonene-oxide 1 with KIO4 in water, which is the best way to obtain the keto-aldehyde 3, an important intermediate in natural product synthesis. The cyclization of keto-aldehyde 3 with acidic Al2O3 proceeds chemoselectively to give ketone 4. These two reactions together increase the overall yield of ketone 4 to about 70% compared to 8% previously reported in the literature¹.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of imported and exported meat and fish products in Switzerland, 1992-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmi, Thomas; Pak, Son-Il; Salman, Mo D

    2002-05-30

    A total of 2053 import and 164 export samples from 425 production plants were examined over a 9-year period (1992-2000) for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in Switzerland. Overall, 282 samples (12.2%) and 85 plants (20.5%) harbored the pathogen. The highest isolation risk was for marinated fish (38%); the lowest was in cured- and dried-meat products. Unconditional fixed-effect logistic regression was used to identify the main hazards associated with the presence of L. monocytogenes. The plant-level model considered potential risk factors for a positive culture operating at the production-plant level by including a random effect of plant and year. Food category was the only significant factor; sampling site, country of origin and season were not significant. Marinated fish was a strong predictor for positive culture, whereas cooked- and cured-meat products were protective. Plant and year effects were significant. Control measures should be focused on specific food items in each production plant.

  20. The Quantity and Quality of Illegally Imported Products of Animal Origin in Personal Consignments into the European Union Seized at Two German Airports between 2010 And 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Jansen

    Full Text Available The import of products of animal origin (POAO in travellers' personal consignments presents a considerable risk of introducing animal diseases and emerging zoonoses into the European Union. The current regulation (EU 206/2009 implements strict measures for illegally imported POAO, whereupon non-complying products have to be seized and destroyed regardless. Especially airports serve as global bottlenecks for illegally imported POAO where passenger controls of non-European flights are performed by customs and veterinary services in collaboration. Results of these control measures have to be submitted in the form of annual reports to the European Commission. However, few data on qualities and quantities of seizures have been published so far. In this study, POAO seized at two German airports between 2010 and 2014 were analysed in terms of quantities, qualitative categories and region of origin. In most years considered, more than 20 tonnes POAO were seized at each airport. However, reported amounts of seizures seem to be only the tip of the iceberg as an all-passenger control is not feasible and therefore travellers are only spot-checked. The analysis suggests that the organisational structures of both customs and official veterinary services and their different risk perceptions interfere in completing an effective ban on the illegal import of POAO.

  1. The Quantity and Quality of Illegally Imported Products of Animal Origin in Personal Consignments into the European Union Seized at Two German Airports between 2010 And 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Wiebke; Merkle, Majella; Daun, Anna; Flor, Matthias; Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The import of products of animal origin (POAO) in travellers' personal consignments presents a considerable risk of introducing animal diseases and emerging zoonoses into the European Union. The current regulation (EU) 206/2009 implements strict measures for illegally imported POAO, whereupon non-complying products have to be seized and destroyed regardless. Especially airports serve as global bottlenecks for illegally imported POAO where passenger controls of non-European flights are performed by customs and veterinary services in collaboration. Results of these control measures have to be submitted in the form of annual reports to the European Commission. However, few data on qualities and quantities of seizures have been published so far. In this study, POAO seized at two German airports between 2010 and 2014 were analysed in terms of quantities, qualitative categories and region of origin. In most years considered, more than 20 tonnes POAO were seized at each airport. However, reported amounts of seizures seem to be only the tip of the iceberg as an all-passenger control is not feasible and therefore travellers are only spot-checked. The analysis suggests that the organisational structures of both customs and official veterinary services and their different risk perceptions interfere in completing an effective ban on the illegal import of POAO.

  2. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S AGRO-FOOD EXPORT AND IMPORT BY EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRY GROUP AND AGRO-FOOD PRODUCT GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of Romania’s the agro-food export, import and trade balance by the EU country group and agro-food product group based on the statistical data in the year 2010 in order to identify the commercial relationships with a positive and respectively a negative impact of the trade balance. The EU trade partners were divided into 4 groups: Central Eastern (CE, Western (W, Northern (N and Southern (S EU countries and the agro-food product groups were: Live animals and preparations of animal origin, Vegetal products, Fats and oils of vegetal and animal origin, Food, beverages and tobacco. The data were processed using the share and comparison methods. In 2010, Romania registered a negative agro-food trade balance with a deficit of Euro thousand 903,148.This was due to the unefficient commerce with the CE and W EU countries, which together recorded Euro Thousand 1,400,298 deficit. The balance was positively influenced by the Southern EU trade partners whose contribution accounted for Euro thousand 513,953. Therefore, the agro-food trade has to be intensified with the Southern EU countries and to become more relaxed with the CE and W EU countries, especially regarding imports. Live animals are mainly required in the CE and W EU countries, vegetal products in the W and S EU countries, fats and oils in the CE and S EU countries, and finally, food, beverages and tobacco in the S and the CE EU countries. Agro-food imports have to be substantially diminished as long as Romania’ s agriculture is able to produce for the internal market and export has to be intensified especially with the countries with a positive impact on the trade balance.

  4. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  5. A quantitative risk assessment of bovine theileriosis entering Luapula Province from Central Province in Zambia via live cattle imports from traditional and commercial production sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K

    2014-09-01

    Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. Copyright

  6. Endogenous levels of Echinacea alkylamides and ketones are important contributors to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in cultured macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLone, Carlie A; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hammer, Kimberly D P; Wu, Lankun; Solco, Avery K S; Yum, Manyu; Nikolau, Basil J; Wurtele, Eve S; Murphy, Patricia A; Kim, Meehye; Birt, Diane F

    2009-10-14

    Because of the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immune-modulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea tennesseensis, identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharide-induced PGE(2) production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed to substantiate an anti-inflammatory response. E. pallida showed significant inhibition of PGE(2) with a first round fraction, containing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) peaks for Bauer ketones 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, with 23 and 24 identified as significant contributors to this PGE(2) inhibition. Chemically synthesized Bauer ketones 21 and 23 at 1 microM each significantly inhibited both PGE(2) and NO production. Three rounds of fractionation were produced from an E. angustifolia extract. GC-MS analysis identified the presence of Bauer ketone 23 in third round fraction 3D32 and Bauer alkylamide 11 making up 96% of third round fraction 3E40. Synthetic Bauer ketone 23 inhibited PGE(2) production to 83% of control, and synthetic Bauer alkylamide 11 significantly inhibited PGE(2) and NO production at the endogenous concentrations determined to be present in their respective fraction; thus, each constituent partially explained the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of their respective fraction. From this study, two key contributors to the anti-inflammatory properties of E. angustifolia were identified as Bauer alkylamide 11 and

  7. Relative importance of phosphorus, invasive mussels and climate for patterns in chlorophyll a and primary production in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David M.; Lesht, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Lakes Michigan and Huron, which are undergoing oligotrophication after reduction of phosphorus loading, invasion by dreissenid mussels and variation in climate, provide an opportunity to conduct large-scale evaluation of the relative importance of these changes for lake productivity. We used remote sensing, field data and an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that showed statistical relationships with observed changes in chlorophyll a (chla) and primary production (PP). 2. Spring phosphorus (TP), annual mean chla and PP have all declined significantly in both lakes since the late 1990s. Additionally, monthly mean values of chla have decreased in many but not all months, indicating altered seasonal patterns. The most striking change has been the decrease in chla concentration during the spring bloom. 3. Mean chlorophyll a concentration was 17% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron, and total production for 2008 in Lake Michigan (9.5 tg year 1 ) was 10% greater than in Lake Huron (7.8 tg year 1 ), even though Lake Michigan is slightly smaller (by 3%) than Lake Huron. Differences between the lakes in the early 1970s evidently persisted to 2008. 4. Invasive mussels influenced temporal trends in spring chla and annual primary production. However, TP had a greater effect on chla and primary production than did the mussels, and TP varied independently from them. Two climatic variables (precipitation and air temperature in the basins) influenced annual chla and annual PP, while the extent of ice cover influenced TP but not chla or primary production. Our results demonstrate that observed temporal patterns in chla and PP are the result of complex interactions of P, climate and invasive mussels.

  8. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  9. Valuation and importance of the extrinsic attributes of the product from the firms´ perspective in a Spanish wine protected designation of origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Garcia-Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Designations of origin (DOs are commercial brands of wide use in the agro-food sector. Its use in Spain has taken place for more than three decades and although wineries managers have incorporated these new forms of protection, little is known about their opinion and their point of view during the DO implementation process. In fact, the consumers’ point of view has been the one most often analyzed in the literature. In the present study we analyzed extrinsic attributes of a wine with DO from the company point of view. In particular, we analyzed brand, product, price, packaging and label, and origin of the product following a qualitative analysis on interviews carried out with winemakers of the DO wine Ribera del Guadiana during the last decade. The qualitative analysis of the interviews was performed using the software package ATLAS/ti, designed for this type of data analysis in the form of large blocks of text. The results indicated that winemakers consider that they offer a good product to the market, and try to promote their brands using the origin of the product as a marketing strategy. From the company point of view, this protected DO (PDO has important opportunities for positioning to create a sustainable competitive advantage, focusing on quality and the territorial differentiation.

  10. Biosurfactant production by Aureobasidium pullulans in stirred tank bioreactor: New approach to understand the influence of important variables in the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumano, Larissa Pereira; Antunes, Felipe Antonio Fernandes; Souto, Sara Galeno; Dos Santos, Júlio Cesar; Venus, Joachim; Schneider, Roland; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2017-11-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic molecules with large industrial applications produced currently by chemical routes mainly derived from oil industry. However, biotechnological process, aimed to develop new sustainable process configurations by using favorable microorganisms, already requires investigations in more details. Thus, we present a novel approach for biosurfactant production using the promising yeast Aureobasidium pullulans LB 83, in stirred tank reactor. A central composite face-centered design was carried out to evaluate the effect of the aeration rate (0.1-1.1min -1 ) and sucrose concentration (20-80g.L -1 ) in the biosurfactant maximum tensoactivity and productivity. Statistical analysis showed that the use of variables at high levels enhanced tensoactivity, showing 8.05cm in the oil spread test and productivity of 0.0838cm.h -1 . Also, unprecedented investigation of aeration rate and sucrose concentration relevance in biosurfactant production by A. pullulans in stirred tank reactor was detailed, demonstrating the importance to establish adequate conditions in bioreactors, aimed to scale-up process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  12. Productive, physiological and biochemical changes in imported and locally born Friesian and holstein lactating cow under hot summer conditions of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Marai, I.F.M.; Gabr, H.; Farghaly, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of 20 of each of healthy lactating friesian and holstein cows similar age and body weight, non-pregnant at the 3 rd lactation season, 80-100 days postpartum, were used in the present study. The investigation was carried out in two farms at the same time during the hot summer season of egypt and lasted 8 weeks. The first farm was in damietta (North east of the nile delta, 31 degree 40 N) including 20 friesian cows and the second one was in Fakous (East of the Nile delta 30 degree 40 N) including 20 holstein cows. In each of the two farms, 10 cows were newly imported and other 10 ones were born in egypt. The results showed that the newly imported cows were significantly (P <0.01) higher than the locally born cows in average daily milk yield, as well as, milk production in both friesian and holstein strains at the same time, the newly imported cows were significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower than the locally born in T4, T3, urea-N, blood picture values and GPT enzyme activity in the two strains of cattle, while the locally born cows showed significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower values in rectal temperature and respiration rate, as well as, Got and ALK-P enzymes activities than in the newly imported cows either in friesian or holstein cattle. Holstein cows surpassed friesian ones (P < 0.01 or 0.05) in milk production, thyroid hormones content, cholesterol, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte count values. The opposite was true in serum total protein, urea-N, creatinine concentrations, leucocyte counts, Got, GPT and ALK-P enzymes activities

  13. Monitoring and determination of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxydiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine) in imported Pangasius catfish products in Thailand using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansomboon, Worawat; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin; Polprasert, Chongrak; Thi Da, Chau

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to monitor the concentrations of sulfamethoxydiazine (SMD), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) in imported Pangasius catfish products in Thailand. The residues of the four sulfonamides (SAs) were analyzed by extraction process and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The highest concentrations found were 10.97ng/g for SMD, 6.23ng/g for SMT, 11.13ng/g for SDZ and 245.91ng/g for SMX, which was higher than the European Union (EU) standard (100ng/g). Moreover, all samples contaminated with SMX also contained SMT, indicating that more than one antibiotic was used for production in the country of origin. Because Thai standards for antibiotics in food have not been completely set, all contaminated discovered would not be considered to be an illegal food, in which antibiotic residues may affect human health in the long term. Therefore, antibiotic residues in Pangasius catfish products should be continually regulated and monitored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  15. Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekeunou, Sévilor; Weise, Stephan; Messi, Jean; Tamò, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks) of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA). In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries. PMID:16573815

  16. Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L. in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messi Jean

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. Methods Research was carried out in 5 villages of each of three Agro-Ecological, Cultural and Demographic Blocks (AECD-Blocks of the Forest Margin Benchmark Area (FMBA. In each village, a semi-structured survey was used; male and female groups of farmers were interviewed separately. Results Z. variegatus is present throughout the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon, where it is ranked as the third most economically important insect pest of agriculture. In the farmers' opinion, Z. variegatus is a polyphagous insect with little impact on young perennial crops. The length of the pre-farming fallow does not affect Z. variegatus pest pressure in the following crops. The increased impact of the grasshopper observed today in the fields, compared to what existed 10 years ago is as a result of deforestation and increase in surface of herbaceous fallow. The damage caused by Z. variegatus is higher in fields adjacent to C. odorata and herbaceous fallows than in those adjacent to forests and shrubby fallows. The fight against this grasshopper is often done through physical methods carried out by hand, for human consumption. The farmers highlight low usage of the chemical methods and a total absence of biological and ecological methods. Conclusion Farmers' perception have contributed to understanding the status of Z. variegatus in the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. The results are in general similar to those obtained in other countries.

  17. Important updates introduced by the new regulation on the industrial and sanitary inspection of products of animal origin: Decree no. 9.013 of March 29, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Modesto Júnior

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various legal devices regulate the food hygiene inspections of animals origin in Brazil. Among the most important legislation was Decree no. 30,691, of March 29, 1952, which was replaced on March 29, 2017, by Decree no. 9,013. Objective: Thus, considering the relevant importance of this regulation for national agribusiness and consumer health, the present work aimed to evaluate the updates and changes of the new regulation in comparison to its predecessor. Method: For this purpose, a revision of the legislation on health inspection published by the federal government was carried out, through the search of databases in federal government portals for a better understanding of the subject and as a comparative form. Results: The new regulation is less robust than its previous one, presenting 542 articles. The main updates innovations were the insertion of degrees of risk in establishments, simplification of labels and stamps, more modern laboratorial analysis such as molecular biology, distinction of requirements according to the size of production, more severe penalties for companies which break the law, concern for animal welfare and the environment. Conclusions: In this way, updating the regulation was necessary, and brought important innovations with modern concepts, new technological processes and food safety, better suited to the current reality of Brazil.

  18. Chloride intracellular channel 1 identified using proteomic analysis plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of HEp-2 cells via reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Chang, Jong Wook; Yun, Hong Shik; Yang, Kyung Mi; Hong, Eun-Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Um, Hong-Duck; Lee, Kee-Ho; Lee, Su-Jae; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2010-07-01

    The nature of the molecules underlying the radioresistance phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells remains to be established. We initially generated radioresistant laryngeal cancer cell lines from human HEp-2 cells with fractionated radiation. These RR-HEp-2 cells and isolated clones displayed more radioresistant and anti-apoptotic phenotypes than parental HEp-2 cells after radiation. Characteristics of RR-Hep-2 cell lines were confirmed by upregulation of radioresistance-related genes, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, Hsp90, and Bcl-xl. Subsequently, we examined proteome changes between HEp-2 and RR-HEp-2 cells and identified 16 proteins showing significantly altered expression levels. Interestingly, protein expression of chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) was markedly suppressed in RR-HEp-2 cells, compared with non-irradiated control cells. Suppression of CLIC1 with an indanyloxyacetic acid-94 or small interfering RNA led to radioresistance in HEp-2 cells by suppressing the radiation-induced cellular ROS level. However, ectopic overexpression of CLIC1 induced radiosensitivity in RR-HEp-2 cells via induction of ROS level after radiation, suggesting that the protein acts as a positive regulator of ROS production. Our results collectively indicate that suppression of CLIC1 contributes to acquisition of the radioresistance phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells via inhibition of ROS production, implying that this protein is an important candidate molecule for radiotherapy in radioresistant laryngeal cancer cells.

  19. Sensorially important aldehyde production from amino acids in model wine systems: impact of ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Fang, Hongjuan; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2013-11-01

    The efficiency of different white wine antioxidant systems in preventing aldehyde production from amino acids by oxidative processes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphur dioxide alone and in combination with either glutathione, ascorbic acid or its stereoisomer erythorbic acid, in preventing formation of the sensorially important compounds methional and phenylacetaldehyde from methionine and phenylalanine in model white wine. UHPLC, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS, flow injection analysis and luminescence sensors determined both compositional changes during storage, and sulphur dioxide-aldehyde apparent equilibrium constants. Depending on temperature (25 or 45°C) or extent of oxygen supply, sulphur dioxide was equally or more efficient in impeding the production of methional compared to the other antioxidant systems. For phenylacetaldehyde, erythorbic acid or glutathione with sulphur dioxide provided improved inhibition compared to sulphur dioxide alone, in conditions of limited oxygen consumption. The results also demonstrate the extent to which sulphur dioxide addition can lower the free aldehyde concentrations to below their aroma thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanics Reveal the Importance of Ring Entropy in the Biosynthesis and Activity of a Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai L; Lexa, Katrina W; Julien, Olivier; Young, Travis S; Walsh, Christopher T; Jacobson, Matthew P; Wells, James A

    2017-02-22

    Macrocycles are appealing drug candidates due to their high affinity, specificity, and favorable pharmacological properties. In this study, we explored the effects of chemical modifications to a natural product macrocycle upon its activity, 3D geometry, and conformational entropy. We chose thiocillin as a model system, a thiopeptide in the ribosomally encoded family of natural products that exhibits potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Since thiocillin is derived from a genetically encoded peptide scaffold, site-directed mutagenesis allows for rapid generation of analogues. To understand thiocillin's structure-activity relationship, we generated a site-saturation mutagenesis library covering each position along thiocillin's macrocyclic ring. We report the identification of eight unique compounds more potent than wild-type thiocillin, the best having an 8-fold improvement in potency. Computational modeling of thiocillin's macrocyclic structure revealed a striking requirement for a low-entropy macrocycle for activity. The populated ensembles of the active mutants showed a rigid structure with few adoptable conformations while inactive mutants showed a more flexible macrocycle which is unfavorable for binding. This finding highlights the importance of macrocyclization in combination with rigidifying post-translational modifications to achieve high-potency binding.

  1. Drivers of contaminant levels in surface water of China during 2000-2030: Relative importance for illustrative home and personal care product chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Kilgallon, John; Qi, Yi; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2018-03-21

    Water pollution are among the most critical problems in China and emerging contaminants in surface water have attracted rising attentions in recent years. There is great interest in China's future environmental quality as the national government has committed to a major action plan to improve surface water quality. This study presents methodologies to rank the importance of socioeconomic and environmental drivers to the chemical concentration in surface water during 2000-2030. A case study is conducted on triclosan, a home and personal care product (HPCP) ingredient. Different economic and discharge flow scenarios are considered. Urbanization and wastewater treatment connection rates in rural and urban areas are collected or projected for 2000-2030 for counties across China. The estimated usage increases from ca. 86 to 340 t. However, emissions decreases from 76 to 52 t during 2000-2030 under a modelled Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD) economic scenario because of the urbanization, migration and development of wastewater treatment plants/facilities (WWTPs). The estimated national median concentration of triclosan ranges 1.5-8.2 ng/L during 2000-2030 for different scenarios. It peaks in 2009 under the OECD and three of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), A2, B1 and B2 economic scenarios, but in 2025 under A1 economic scenario. Population distribution and surface water discharge flow rates are ranked as the top two drivers to triclosan levels in surface water over the 30 years. The development of urban WWTPs was the most important driver during 2000-2010 and the development of rural works is projected to be the most important in 2011-2030. Projections suggest discharges of ingredients in HPCPs - controlled by economic growth - should be balanced by the major expenditure programme on wastewater treatment in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some medical devices used to produce biologics are regulated by CBER under the FD&C Act's Medical ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  3. Safety assessment of food and herbal products containing hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: interlaboratory consistency and the importance of N-oxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A

    2008-01-01

    Two recent mass spectrometry-based reports concerning Senecio scandens yielded remarkably dissimilar pyrrolizidine alkaloid constituents. In both studies, and in a related analysis of Senecio scandens and Tussilago farfara using micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the presence of hazardous N-oxides of the alkaloids was either not considered or was inadequately considered. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of the methodologies used in these, and similar, studies in assessing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and the safety of food, food supplements and medicines for human use. To highlight essential analytical requirements for confident assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products for human use. Direct infusion-ESI MS and HPLC-ESI MS were used to analyse samples derived from liquid-liquid partitioning experiments and from strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. A simple solvent partitioning experiment using pure senecionine and senecionine-N-oxide, two constituents reported in one of the mass spectrometry-based studies of S. scandens, clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of the reported method to detect and quantitate hazardous pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide components. A preliminary LCMS analysis of commercially-prepared extracts of comfrey roots (Symphytum officinale and S. uplandicum s. l.) was used as a model to highlight the analytical importance of N-oxides in the safety assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing medicinal herbs. This study highlighted significant differences in the reported identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the same plant species, and clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of some procedures to include N-oxides in the assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products.

  4. Formic acid catalyzed hydrolysis of SO3 in the gas phase: a barrierless mechanism for sulfuric acid production of potential atmospheric importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Montu K; Sinha, Amitabha

    2011-11-02

    Computational studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) and MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels are performed to explore the changes in reaction barrier height for the gas phase hydrolysis of SO(3) to form H(2)SO(4) in the presence of a single formic acid (FA) molecule. For comparison, we have also performed calculations for the reference reaction involving water assisted hydrolysis of SO(3) at the same level. Our results show that the FA assisted hydrolysis of SO(3) to form H(2)SO(4) is effectively a barrierless process. The barrier heights for the isomerization of the SO(3)···H(2)O···FA prereactive collision complex, which is the rate limiting step in the FA assisted hydrolysis, are found to be respectively 0.59 and 0.08 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) and MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels. This is substantially lower than the ~7 kcal/mol barrier for the corresponding step in the hydrolysis of SO(3) by two water molecules--which is currently the accepted mechanism for atmospheric sulfuric acid production. Simple kinetic analysis of the relative rates suggests that the reduction in barrier height facilitated by FA, combined with the greater stability of the prereactive SO(3)···H(2)O···FA collision complex compared to SO(3)···H(2)O···H(2)O and the rather plentiful atmospheric abundance of FA, makes the formic acid mediated hydrolysis reaction a potentially important pathway for atmospheric sulfuric acid production.

  5. Would You Use It With a Seal of Approval? Important Attributes of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP as a Hypothetical Pharmaceutical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Bleasdale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP is an effective but highly dangerous fat burner, not licensed for human consumption. Death cases reported for 2,4-DNP overdose, particularly among young adults, have raised concerns about the ineffective regulatory control, lack of education and risks associated with impurity, and the unknown concentration of 2,4-DNP purchased on the Internet.MethodsUsing a sequential mixed method design and based on a hypothetical scenario as if 2,4-DNP was a licensed pharmaceutical drug, first we conducted a qualitative study to explore what product attributes people consider when buying a weight-loss aid. Focus group interviews with six females and three males (mean age = 21.6 ± 1.8 years were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. Sixteen attributes were identified for the Best–Worst Scale (BWS in the quantitative survey with 106 participants (64% female, mean age = 27.1 ± 11.9 years, focusing on 2,4-DNP. Demographics, weight satisfaction, and risk for eating disorder data were collected.ResultsIn contrast to experienced users such as bodybuilders, our study participants approached 2,4-DNP cautiously. Attributes of 2,4-DNP as a hypothetical weight-loss drug comprised a range of desirable and avoidable features. Of the 16 selected attributes, BWS suggested that long-term side effects were the most and branding was the least important attribute. Effectiveness and short-term side effects were also essential. Those in the >25 year group showed least concerns for legality. Neutral BWS scores for cost, treatment, degree of lifestyle changes required, and specificity required for the hypothetical weight-loss drug to be effective were likely caused by disagreement about their importance among the participants, not indifference.ConclusionWith advances in research, 2,4-DNP as a pharmaceutical drug in the future for treating neurodegenerative diseases and potentially for

  6. IMPORTANT NOTIFICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  7. Validation of SMOS L1C and L2 Products and Important Parameters of the Retrieval Algorithm in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite with a passive L-band radiometer monitors surface soil moisture. In addition to soil moisture, vegetation optical thickness tau(NAD) is retrieved (L2 product) from brightness temperatures (T-B, L1C product) using an algorithm based on the L...

  8. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi, and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance or certain inherent characteristics of the

  9. IMPORTANCE OF "GREEN TIDES" IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY: PRODUCTION DYNAMICS OF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA), DWARF EELGRASS (Z. JAPONICA) AND ENTEROMORPHA SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrophytes play a large role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of estuaries. I examine the relative contribution of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) to overall productivity of a macrotidal system. Biomass data from Yaquina Bay suggests that although these seagras...

  10. Japanese sake and tea as place-based products: a comparison of regional certifications of globally important agricultural heritage systems, geopark, biosphere reserves, and geographical indication at product level certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Kajima

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results imply that the place-based character remains at product level certification and is rather limited at landscape level. The product level certificate or the GI are used more frequently in the promotion of the place-based products than regional certifications. In order to further establish the placeness of the regions, certifications of landscape level need to be harmonized with the products that are produced in the landscape, using methods of place branding or story-telling.

  11. Importance of wind and river discharge in influencing nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton production in summer in the central Strait of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Goldblatt, R.H.; Harrison, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A cruise was conducted during August 6-14, 1991 to investigate the dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton production in the central Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, during a period when strong stratification resulted in nitrogen-limited primary productivity. High resolution vertical...... that summer phytoplankton productivity in the central Strait of Georgia is fueled by a supply of nutrients from the nitracline through vertical mixing induced by the interaction of winds, river discharge and tidal cycles. Of these 3 factors, winds are the most variable and therefore a summer with frequent...... profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were taken daily along a transect. A wind event occurred on August 7 and a rapid increase in the Fraser River discharge took place from August 8 to 14. The wind event mixed the water column and nutrients increased...

  12. Local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa and access to essential medicines: 'Urban bias' in access to imported medicines in Tanzania and its policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.M. Mujinja (Phares G.M.); M. Mackintosh (Maureen); M. Justin-Temu (Mary); M. Wuyts (Marc)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: International policy towards access to essential medicines in Africa has focused until recently on international procurement of large volumes of medicines, mainly from Indian manufacturers, and their import and distribution. This emphasis is now being challenged by renewed

  13. Preliminary comparison of different immune and production components in local and imported Saanen goats reared under a sub-tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Itani, Houssam H; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Saade, Maya F; Harakeh, Steve; Nour, Afif M Abdel; Shaib, Houssam A

    2012-01-01

    Three objectives were included in this research work. The first objective compared different immune components in healthy mature males, mature females, and female kids of local and imported Saanen goats, reared under a sub-tropical environment. The significantly differing immune components were the blood monocyte percent, blood CD8 count, and the total white blood cell count. The second objective compared the performance of Saanen versus local does. The means of the milk yield and prolificacy of the imported Saanen does were significantly higher than those of the local does (pchicken red blood cells (c-RBC). The HA titers showed a significant seroconversion only in imported Saanen (p<0.05) but not in local does; however, the CF titers increased significantly at 4 weeks following priming with c-RBC in local (p<0.05) but not in the imported Saanen does. The impact of the differences in blood immune components and responses to antigens in the compared goats on protection potential against prevalent diseases in the sub-tropical zone of the eastern Mediterranean countries is discussed.

  14. Alternative drugs go global: possible lead and/ or mercury intoxication from imported natural health products and a need for scientifically evaluated poisoning monitoring from environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver; Harth, Volker; Hahn, Axel

    2016-01-01

    With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient. We have been following this development in the last 6 years and have analyzed n  = 20 such products (60 analyses) from patients with intoxication symptoms in a pilot study, showing alarming high concentrations of mercury and/or lead (the first one in "therapeutic" doses). 82 % of the studied NHP contained lead concentrations above the EU limit for dietary supplements. 62 % of the samples exceeded the limit values for mercury. Elevated blood lead and mercury levels in patients along with clinical intoxication symptoms corroborate the causal assumption of intoxication (s). We present one detailed clinical case report of severe lead and mercury intoxications and give an overview about blood concentration related symptoms and signs of n  = 41 case reports of mercury intoxications of the German monitoring BfR-DocCenter. For NHP there is evidence on a distinct toxicological risk with alarming low awareness for a possible intoxication which prevents potentially life-saving diagnostic steps in affected cases. In many cases patients do not communicate the events to their physicians or the local health authority so that case reports (e.g. the BfR-DocCentre) are missing. Thus, there is an urgent need to raise awareness and to initiate more suitable monitory systems (e.g. National Monitoring of Poisonings) and control practice protecting the public.

  15. An outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection in Norway, 2012: a reminder to consider uncommon pathogens in outbreaks involving imported products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E; Møller, K E; Wester, A L; Dahle, U R; Hermansen, N O; Jenum, P A; Thoresen, L; Vold, L

    2015-02-01

    We investigated an outbreak of gastroenteritis following a Christmas buffet served on 4-9 December 2012 to ~1300 hotel guests. More than 300 people were reported ill in initial interviews with hotel guests. To identify possible sources of infection we conducted a cohort investigation through which we identified 214 probable cases. Illness was associated with consumption of scrambled eggs (odds ratio 9·07, 95% confidence interval 5·20-15·84). Imported chives added fresh to the scrambled eggs were the suspected source of the outbreak but were unavailable for testing. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was eventually confirmed in 40 hotel guests. This outbreak reinforces that ETEC should be considered in non-endemic countries when the clinical picture is consistent and common gastrointestinal pathogens are not found. Following this outbreak, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority recommended that imported fresh herbs should be heat-treated before use in commercial kitchens.

  16. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  17. The importance of long-term experiments in agriculture: their management to ensure continued crop production and soil fertility; the Rothamsted experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A E; Poulton, P R

    2018-01-01

    Long-term field experiments that test a range of treatments and are intended to assess the sustainability of crop production, and thus food security, must be managed actively to identify any treatment that is failing to maintain or increase yields. Once identified, carefully considered changes can be made to the treatment or management, and if they are successful yields will change. If suitable changes cannot be made to an experiment to ensure its continued relevance to sustainable crop production, then it should be stopped. Long-term experiments have many other uses. They provide a field resource and samples for research on plant and soil processes and properties, especially those properties where change occurs slowly and affects soil fertility. Archived samples of all inputs and outputs are an invaluable source of material for future research, and data from current and archived samples can be used to develop models to describe soil and plant processes. Such changes and uses in the Rothamsted experiments are described, and demonstrate that with the appropriate crop, soil and management, acceptable yields can be maintained for many years, with either organic manure or inorganic fertilizers. Long-term experiments demonstrate sustainability and increases in crop yield when managed to optimize soil fertility.Shifting individual response curves into coincidence increases understanding of the factors involved.Changes in inorganic and organic pollutants in archived crop and soil samples are related to inputs over time.Models describing soil processes are developed from current and archived soil data.

  18. The importance of long‐term experiments in agriculture: their management to ensure continued crop production and soil fertility; the Rothamsted experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Long‐term field experiments that test a range of treatments and are intended to assess the sustainability of crop production, and thus food security, must be managed actively to identify any treatment that is failing to maintain or increase yields. Once identified, carefully considered changes can be made to the treatment or management, and if they are successful yields will change. If suitable changes cannot be made to an experiment to ensure its continued relevance to sustainable crop production, then it should be stopped. Long‐term experiments have many other uses. They provide a field resource and samples for research on plant and soil processes and properties, especially those properties where change occurs slowly and affects soil fertility. Archived samples of all inputs and outputs are an invaluable source of material for future research, and data from current and archived samples can be used to develop models to describe soil and plant processes. Such changes and uses in the Rothamsted experiments are described, and demonstrate that with the appropriate crop, soil and management, acceptable yields can be maintained for many years, with either organic manure or inorganic fertilizers. Highlights Long‐term experiments demonstrate sustainability and increases in crop yield when managed to optimize soil fertility.Shifting individual response curves into coincidence increases understanding of the factors involved.Changes in inorganic and organic pollutants in archived crop and soil samples are related to inputs over time.Models describing soil processes are developed from current and archived soil data. PMID:29527119

  19. Book Production, Importation and Distribution in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey; A Study of Needs with Regional Recommendations within the Context of Social and Economic Development. Preliminary Report, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    A nine-week evaluation of developmental book activity in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, conducted during the summer of 1966 to study existing problems in the preparation, production, importation and distribution of books in these Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) Region Countries, was funded by the United States through the Agency for International…

  20. Economic and social importance of agricultural productive cooperatives in Poland Ekonomiczne i społeczne znaczenie rolniczych spółdzielni produkcyjnych w Polsce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclu-sions.

  1. Massive production of heavy metals in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Global importance of solute-particle interaction and enhanced metal fluxes to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saumik; Dalai, Tarun K.

    2018-05-01

    The Ganga River System is a major contributor to the global sediment and water discharge to the oceans. The estuary of Ganga (Hooghly) River in India is under increasing influence of anthropogenic contributions via discharge of the industrial and urban effluents. Here we document, based on the investigation of water and suspended sediment samples collected during six periods over two years, that there is extensive production of heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cu) in the estuary such that the annual dissolved fluxes of metals from the Hooghly River are enhanced by up to 230-1770%. Furthermore, the estuarine dissolved metal fluxes, when normalized with water fluxes, are the highest among estuaries of the major rivers in the world. Our simultaneous data on the dissolved, suspended particulate and exchangeable phases allow us to identify the ion-exchange process (coupled adsorption and desorption) as the dominant contributor to the generation of heavy metals in the middle and lower estuary where the estimated anthropogenic contribution is negligible. The estimated contributions from the groundwater are also insufficient to explain the measured metal concentrations in the estuary. A strong positive correlation that is observed between the dissolved heavy metal fluxes and the suspended particulate matter (SPM) fluxes, after normalizing them with the water fluxes, for estuaries of the major global rivers imply that the solute-particle interaction is a globally significant process in the estuarine production of metals. Based on this correlation that is observed for major estuaries around the world, we demonstrate that the South Asian Rivers which supply only ∼9% of the global river water discharge but carry elevated SPM load, contribute a far more significant proportion (∼40 ± 2% Ni and 15 ± 1% Cu) to the global supply of the dissolved metals from the rivers.

  2. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  3. Detecting trends in regional ecosystem functioning: the importance of field data for calibrating and validating NEON airborne remote sensing instruments and science data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.; Kuester, M. A.; Johnson, B. R.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.; Moore, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a research facility under development by the National Science Foundation to improve our understanding of and ability to forecast the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. The infrastructure, designed to operate over 30 years or more, includes site-based flux tower and field measurements, coordinated with airborne remote sensing observations to observe key ecological processes over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. NEON airborne data on vegetation biochemical, biophysical, and structural properties and on land use and land cover will be captured at 1 to 2 meter resolution by an imaging spectrometer, a small-footprint waveform-LiDAR and a high-resolution digital camera. Annual coverage of the 60 NEON sites and capacity to support directed research flights or respond to unexpected events will require three airborne observation platforms (AOP). The integration of field and airborne data with satellite observations and other national geospatial data for analysis, monitoring and input to ecosystem models will extend NEON observations to regions across the United States not directly sampled by the observatory. The different spatial scales and measurement methods make quantitative comparisons between remote sensing and field data, typically collected over small sample plots (e.g. New approaches to developing temporal and spatial scaling relationships between these data are necessary to enable validation of airborne and satellite remote sensing data and for incorporation of these data into continental or global scale ecological models. In addition to consideration of the methods used to collect ground-based measurements, careful calibration of the remote sensing instrumentation and an assessment of the accuracy of algorithms used to derive higher-level science data products are needed. Furthermore, long-term consistency of the data collected by all three airborne

  4. The Quality of the State Regulation and Social Responsibility of Enterprises as Important Factors of Competitiveness of Both Production and Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Petro A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the improvement of the author’s own conception of the competitiveness of production on the basis of the clarification of composition of the main factors, dependent and independent of enterprises. The existence of a close relationship between the quality and competitiveness of produced and/or sold goods, the competitiveness of both enterprises and country, and the quality of life of population in the country has been reasoned. An analysis of consequences of the long-term social irresponsibility (SI of the German company «Volkswagen» concerning cars with diesel engines has been provided. In such cases, the author proposes to use the concept of «false competitiveness». According to the author’s concept, the SI of enterprises in any country is a consequence of low or insufficient high quality of its economic system, the State regulation of economy; lack of division of power and business; corruption; poor quality of laws and regulations that ensure the orientation of entrepreneurship to social responsibility; lack of strict material and criminal liability for the anti-social irresponsibility of enterprises.

  5. “Seeing” the Difference: The Importance of Visibility and Action as a Mark of “Authenticity” in Co-production; Comment on “Collaboration and Co-production of Knowledge in Healthcare: Opportunities and Challenges”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Cooke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rycroft-Malone paper states that co-production relies on ‘authentic’ collaboration as a context for action. Our commentary supports and extends this assertion. We suggest that ‘authentic’ co-production involves processes where participants can ‘see’ the difference that they have made within the project and beyond. We provide examples including: the use of design in health projects which seek to address power issues and make contributions visible through iteration and prototyping; and the development of ‘actionable outputs’ from research that are the physical embodiment of coproduction. Finally, we highlight the elements of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC architecture that enables the inclusion of such collaborative techniques that demonstrate visible co-production. We reinforce the notion that maintaining collaboration requires time, flexible resources, blurring of knowledge produceruser boundaries, and leaders who promote epistemological tolerance and methodological exploration.

  6. Study of important parameters on the irradiation of 124Xe, to improve the production of 123I with high purity using the Cyclone-30 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Luiz Carlos do Amaral

    2006-01-01

    The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly 18 F, 67 Ga, 201 Tl and 123 I. The 123 I production is the aim of the present work. With the 123 I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree 123 I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of 123 I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: 124 Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain 123 I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)

  7. EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING THE IMPORT-SUBSTITUTING NATIONAL REFERENCE MATERIALS OF COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF PETROL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS UNDER THE PROGRAM OF THE METROLOGICAL ASSURANCE OF PRODUCTION OF THE MINISTRY OF OIL REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY OF USSR APPROVED BY THE GOSSTANDART'S DECREE NO. 8 OF 30.01.1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Mukhamedzianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main stages of the development of activities of INTEGRSO branches in the field of the development of national reference materials of petrol and petroleum products composition and properties under the Program of the metrological assurance of petroleum processing plant products. The scientific and production program of metrological assurance of test methods and control means for petrol and petroleum product composition and properties on the basis of reference materials with trademark NPO "INTEGRSO" is self-fulfilled. From 1986 more than 185 types of reference materials were developed and produced including 36 types of import-substituting reference materials.

  8. McCormick or the Butenops?: Problem of State Support of Agricultural Machines Production Import Substitution in Russia in the early 20th Century (following Materials of 1907 Special Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антон Юрьевич Петров

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyses the problem of improving technical equipment of the Russian agriculture at the outset of the Stolypin agrarian reforms. The author shows contradictions between different governmental bodies of the Russian empire over the issue of the sources of supply of agricultural machinery for the Russian rural population (import or domestic production. It becomes clear, that after 1907 the Russian government took no special measures to restrict import of foreign agricultural machinery to Russia. Instead a new policy of direct support of the Russian agricultural machine-building industry was accepted (extension of credit from the Bank of Russia, awarding a bonus for the agricultural machines manufactured in Russia etc.. The article poses a problem of import substitution tendencies in the above-mentioned industry.

  9. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  10. The importance and measurement of new production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Platt, T.; Jauhari, P.; Sathyendranath, S.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Primary_Prod_Biogeochem_Cycle_Sea_1992_273.pdf.txt stream_source_info Primary_Prod_Biogeochem_Cycle_Sea_1992_273.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  11. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, SI (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  12. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, P.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, Sep (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols * biological membranes * biophysical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  13. Normalization of NDVI from Different Sensor System using MODIS Products as Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenxia, Gan; Liangpei, Zhang; Wei, Gong; Huanfeng, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Medium Resolution NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from different sensor systems such as Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, CBERS and HJ-1A/1B satellites provide detailed spatial information for studies of ecosystems, vegetation biophysics, and land cover. Limitation of sensor designs, cloud contamination, and sensor failure highlighted the need to normalize and integrate NDVI from multiple sensor system in order to create a consistent, long-term NDVI data set. In this paper, we used a reference-based method for NDVI normalization. And present an application of this approach which covert Landsat ETM+ NDVI calculated by digital number (NDVI DN ) to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance (NDVI SR ) using MODIS products as reference, and different cluster was treated differently. Result shows that this approach can produce NDVI with highly agreement to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance from physical approaches based on 6S (Second Simulation of the satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). Although some variability exists, the cluster specified reference based approach shows considerable potential for NDVI normalization. Therefore, NDVI products in MODIS era from different sources can be combined for time-series analysis, biophysical parameter retrievals, and other downstream analysis

  14. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products' importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straede, Steffen; Treue, Thorsten

    2006-02-01

    Even after 30 years of strict de jure protection, today's de facto extraction of products from Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) and their great economic importance to local households suggests that this reality should be explicitly internalised in managing this world heritage park. Several studies have quantified local people's use of protected areas and estimated the value of such areas to them. However, few studies incorporate economic analyses to investigate the effect of management interventions on local communities' resource use and collection behaviour. In Nepal, buffer zones and especially buffer zone community forestry are seen as means to define and demarcate places, where local people may legally extract goods that are either identical to or relevant substitutes for products that are collected in protected areas. The intention is to resolve park-people conflicts over resource use. This article presents the findings of an in-depth study of the importance of natural resources to the livelihoods of 18 households. One village was located inside RCNP with no realistic alternatives to Park resources, while the other is located in the buffer zone with equal distance to the Park, a national forest and their community forest. For each household, the collection of products, allocation of time, and purchase and sale of goods were recorded daily through 12 consecutive months and economic values were calculated on the basis of local market prices and recorded quantities. The study shows that products from RCNP are of great importance to the livelihoods of local people. Furthermore, we find that products collected in the national forest substitute products from the Park, while the substitution effect of the community forest is small. Accordingly, the study illustrates that, irrespective of buffer zone community forestry, there is still a gap between local people's need for supplementing natural resources and their rights to satisfy them on a legal basis

  15. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when......A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...... the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result...

  17. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  18. Study of the fermentative activity of Hansenula anomala and production of chemical compounds of sensory importance Estudio de la actividad fermentativa de Hansenula anomala y producción de compuestos químicos de importancia sensorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Estela Escalante

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The fermentative behaviour of Hansenula anomala RIVE 7-1-5 was studied in order to evaluate the production of chemical compounds of sensory importance. The results demonstrated that the strain ferments very well monosaccharides and also sucrose and maltose. Its fermentative activity was inhibited at concentrations of 100 mg/L of sodium metabisulphite in the medium. Furthermore, it was able to produce 5,81±0,1% (v/v of ethanol. Agitation of the culture medium increases the production of higher alcohols (679,2 mg/L and ethyl acetate (206,0±8,0 mg/L, but on the contrary affects the production of acetic acid (196,0±7,0mg/L. Glycerol production was similar in static (without agitation and shaken cultivation. During batch cultivation carried out in biorreactor under aerated conditions the growth rate (μ reached value of 0,13 h-1 and, it was also observed production of acetic acid at levels of 4,2±0,3 g/L. The oxygen concentration in the medium affects its metabolism, thus insufficient amounts of oxygen would provoke a respirofermentative metabolism with production of ethanol, higher alcohols, esters and acetic acid. The control of aeration during fermentation is a useful tool to control the balance between the respiratory and fermentative activity and thus; synthesis of compounds of sensory importance in the production of non-traditional fermented beverages.Se ha estudiado la actividad fermentativa de Hansenula anomala RIVE 7-1-5 con el objetivo de evaluar la producción de compuestos químicos de importancia sensorial. Los resultados mostraron que fermenta bien monosacáridos y también sucrosa y maltosa. Su actividad fermentativa es inhibida a concentraciones de 100,0mg/L de metabisulfito de sodio en el medio. Además, es capaz de producir 5,81±0,1 % v/v de etanol. La agitación del medio de cultivo incrementa la producción de alcoholes superiores (679,2 mg/L y etil acetato (206,0±8,0 mg/L, por el contrario disminuye la producción de

  19. Lacunas e falhas relacionadas à importação de produtos para a saúde em contêiner | Breaches and errors related to imports of health products in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariene Castilho D’Ávila

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metade das mercadorias relacionadas à saúde, importadas via Porto do Rio de Janeiro, é armazenada em contêineres, 70% deles não possui sistema de refrigeração, por isto, não é possível assegurar a manutenção das recomendações do fabricante conforme exigem as regulamentações sanitárias estabelecidas. Estes contêineres geralmente são fabricados em aço, suas especificações são voltadas para possibilitar segurança e eficiência no transporte de mercadorias diversas e estão inseridos em um complexo contexto multimodal. O presente estudo objetivou obter conhecimento sobre este segmento de importação, na produção científica, legislação internacional, orientações técnicas e práticas operacionais atuais. As análises realizadas entre 2014 e 2015 revelaram que os contêineres são sensíveis ao ambiente em que estão depositados, 30% das medições apresentaram discrepâncias em relação às recomendações de temperatura para a armazenagem. Foram registradas temperaturas acima de 60°C. A exposição das mercadorias a estas condições foi estimada em no mínimo 38 dias. Não foram localizados estudos científicos sobre o acondicionamento de mercadorias para a saúde em contêineres. As produções técnica e legal são incipientes. Esses resultados reforçam a preocupação com a eficácia das mercadorias importadas e a necessidade de se promover o debate sobre a armazenagem em contêineres onde se estabeleçam requisitos mínimos de qualidade obrigatórios. ===================================================== Half of the health products imported through the Port of Rio de Janeiro are stored in containers. As 70% of these containers do not have refrigeration system, manufacturer’s recommendations –as required by health regulations- cannot be guaranteed. Containers are usually made of steel, aim to enable safe and efficient transportation of various goods, and are embedded in a complex multi-modal system. This

  20. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  1. 77 FR 71194 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy... Industry: Preclinical Assessment of Investigational Cellular and Gene Therapy Products,'' dated November... Evaluation (CBER), Office of Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies (OCTGT). The product areas covered by this...

  2. Buying Local or Imported Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...

  3. Importance of process oriented organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedic, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.

  4. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  5. Mites affecting hen egg production: some considerations for Brazilian farms Ácaros de importância para a avicultura de postura: algumas considerações aplicadas à realidade da indústria avícola brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro do Carmo Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is characterized for its constant search for productivity and profitability, which are based on flock health status. Brazilian Commercial laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus have been impacted significantly by mite infestations. This review aims to compile the literature on the occurrence, economic losses, biology, epidemiology and control of mite species considered important for the Brazilian laying poultry industry. The national experience was compared with practices of other countries and a scarcity of studies on this subject in Brazil was evident. The poultry industry has prioritized the use of pesticides to control infestations with little regard for the adverse effects. In this context, the integrated control programs using several strategies simultaneously constitute the best alternative to mite control. Integrated control programs involve measures of chemical, physical and biological nature, as well as attention to cultural aspects. However, studies should be performed aiming at the development of new control methods, evaluating the adequacy of practices developed in other countries to the national reality.A indústria avícola é caracterizada por sua constante busca por produtividade e lucratividade, que se relacionam diretamente ao status sanitário dos plantéis avícolas. No Brasil, as galinhas poedeiras (Gallus gallus domesticus dos plantéis comerciais têm sido afetadas significativamente por infestações por ácaros. Esta revisão teve como objetivo a compilação da literatura existente sobre a ocorrência, perdas econômicas, biologia, epidemiologia e controle das espécies de ácaros consideradas importantes para a avicultura de postura brasileira. Nesse sentido, comparou-se a experiência nacional com a de outros países, observando-se escassez de estudos sobre o assunto no Brasil. Na indústria avícola brasileira, tem-se priorizado o uso de pesticidas para o controle das infestações, com pouca

  6. 9 CFR 93.802 - Import permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit. 93.802 Section 93.802..., BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.802 Import permit...

  7. 9 CFR 93.704 - Import permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permit. 93.704 Section 93.704..., BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.704 Import permit. (a) General requirements. No...

  8. A theoretical study of the atmospherically important radical-radical reaction BrO + HO2; the product channel O2(a1Δg) + HOBr is formed with the highest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ronald; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M

    2016-11-09

    A theoretical study has been made of the BrO + HO 2 reaction, a radical-radical reaction which contributes to ozone depletion in the atmosphere via production of HOBr. Reaction enthalpies, activation energies and mechanisms have been determined for five reaction channels. Also rate coefficients have been calculated, in the atmospherically important temperature range 200-400 K, for the two channels with the lowest activation energies, both of which produce HOBr: (R1a) HOBr(X 1 A') + O 2 (X 3 Σ) and (R1b) HOBr(X 1 A') + O 2 (a 1 Δ g ). The other channels considered are: (R2) BrO + HO 2 → HBr + O 3 , (R3) BrO + HO 2 → OBrO + OH and (R4) BrO + HO 2 → BrOO + OH. For all channels, geometry optimization and frequency calculations were carried out at the M06-2X/AVDZ level, while relative energies of the stationary points on the reaction surface were improved at a higher level (BD(TQ)/CBS or CCSD(T)/CBS). The computed standard reaction enthalpies (ΔH) for channels (R1a), (R1b), (R2), (R3) and (R4) are -47.5, -25.0, -4.3, 14.9 and 5.9 kcal mol -1 , and the corresponding computed activation energies (ΔE) are 2.53, -3.07, 11.83, 35.0 and 37.81 kcal mol -1 . These values differ significantly from those obtained in earlier work by Kaltsoyannis and Rowley (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2002, 4, 419-427), particularly for channel (R1b), and reasons for this are discussed. In particular, the importance of obtaining an open-shell singlet wavefunction, rather than a closed-shell singlet wavefunction, for the transition state of this channel is emphasized. Rate coefficient calculations from computed potential energy surfaces were made for BrO + HO 2 for the first time. Although channel (R1a) is the most exothermic, channel (R1b) has the lowest barrier height, which is negative (at -3.07 kcal mol -1 ). Most rate coefficient calculations were therefore made for (R1b). A two transition state model has been used, involving an outer and an inner transition state. The inner transition

  9. Xenotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organs Letter - ARCHIVED Xenotransplantation Guidances Related Links Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation World Health Organization International Xenotransplantation Information Recalls & Alerts Recalls (Biologics) CBER-Regulated Products: Shortages and Discontinuations Report a Problem to the Center ...

  10. 9 CFR 327.16 - Small importations for importer's own consumption; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption; requirements. 327.16 Section 327.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... importations for importer's own consumption; requirements. Any product in a quantity of 50 pounds or less which was purchased by the importer outside the United States for his/her own consumption, is eligible to be...

  11. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  12. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies for the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collignon, P.; Powers, J. H.; Chiller, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    " for human medicine, is an important step toward preserving the benefits of antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization has developed and applied criteria to rank antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine. Clinicians, regulatory agencies, policy makers, and other...

  13. Consensus rank orderings of molecular fingerprints illustrate the most genuine similarities between marketed drugs and small endogenous human metabolites, but highlight exogenous natural products as the most important ‘natural’ drug transporter substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O'Hagan

    2017-06-01

    We next explicitly recognise that natural evolution will have selected for the ability to transport dietary substances, including plant, animal and microbial ‘secondary’ metabolites, that are of benefit to the host. These should also be explored in terms of their closeness to marketed drugs. We thus compared the TS of marketed drugs with the contents of various databases of natural products. When this is done, we find that some 80 % of marketed drugs are within a TS of 0.7 to a natural product, even using just the MACCS encoding. For patterned and TYPICAL encodings, 80 % and 98 % of drugs are within a TS of 0.8 to (an endogenite or an exogenous natural product. This implies strongly that it is these exogeneous (dietary and medicinal natural products that are more to be seen as the ‘natural’ substrates of drug transporters (as is recognised, for instance, for the solute carrier SLC22A4 and ergothioneine. This novel analysis casts an entirely different light on the kinds of natural molecules that are to be seen as most like marketed drugs, and hence potential transporter substrates, and further suggests that a renewed exploitation of natural products as drug scaffolds would be amply rewarded.

  14. The Importance of Systematics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-02-18

    Feb 18, 1999 ... cal control of pests which is itself a very important aspect of applied bioiogy. When natural enemies are being sought or transferred from one region to another, in order to bring about biological control of a pest, the correct identification of both the pest and natural enemy species is of utmost importance. Tax-.

  15. 78 FR 70306 - Distribution of In Vitro Diagnostic Products Labeled for Research Use Only or Investigational Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration, 1401... Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, MD 20852-1448... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0305...

  16. Back/joint pain, illness perceptions and coping are important predictors of quality of life and work productivity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Brakenhoff, Lianne K P M; van Erp, Sanne J H; Kaptein, Ad A; Leenders, Max; Scharloo, Margreet; Veenendaal, Roeland A; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Hommes, Daan W; Fidder, Herma H

    2015-03-01

    Back and joint pain are the most common extraintestinal symptoms reported by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the impact of back/joint pain, illness perceptions, and coping on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity in patients with IBD. Our cohort included 155 IBD patients with and 100 without arthropathy. Arthropathy was defined as daily back pain for ≥3 months and/or peripheral joint pain and/or joint swelling over the last year. At baseline and at 12 months, patients completed questionnaires on the extent of back/joint pain, IBD disease activity, illness perceptions, coping, QOL, and work productivity. The impact of back/joint pain, illness perceptions and coping on QOL and work productivity was determined, using linear mixed models. In total, 204 IBD patients (72% Crohn's disease, 40% male, mean age 44 ± 14 years) completed questionnaires at both time points. At both time points, IBD patients with back/joint pain reported a significantly lower QOL and work productivity compared with IBD patients without back/joint pain. Predictors of low QOL were back/joint pain (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.40, -0.68), stronger beliefs about the illness consequences (β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.59, -0.18) and emotional impact of IBD (β = -0.47, 95% CI -0.66, -0.28), and the coping strategy 'decreasing activity' (β = -0.26, 95% CI -0.48, -0.03). Predictors of work productivity were back/joint pain (β = 0.22, 95% CI 0.07, 0.37) and illness consequences (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.06, 0.22). Back/joint pain, illness perceptions, and coping are significant predictors of QOL and work productivity, after controlling for disease activity. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Import vs. Imitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölcze, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years archaeological research has developed a radically new theoretical approach to prehistoric material culture. Objects are no longer regarded as simple products of human behavior, but rather as agents interacting with people on multiple levels. As such, artifacts play an active role ...... of swords of the type Hajdúsámson-Apa from Stensgård, Torupgårde and Dystrup in Denmark....

  18. Why phosphorites are important ?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Why phosphorites are important ? Phosphorus is the. 10th abundant element in the earth crust. Essential element of nutritive value. Used for fertilisers, phosphoric acid. Host for U, V, F and REEs. Palaeoceanography.

  19. Imported coal remains flexible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, F.

    1982-01-01

    The new law on coal tariff quotas is one year old. During this period hard coal imports increased by 1 million tons, in spite of the slowed down economic activities and the wait-and-see attitude of consumers. The author gives a first survey.

  20. Importance of Gait Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or it could be to learn a new skill such as walking step-over-step up stairs, walking on uneven terrain, or even running. It is important that the prosthetist and therapist remain in close communication when gait train- ing is occurring since any ...

  1. Importance of Family Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is essential, it is equally important for parents to set aside some time just for themselves, too. Additional Information from HealthyChildren.org: Turning Family Time into Active Time Bedtime Routines for School-Aged Children The Benefits & Tricks to Having a Family Dinner ​ Article Body Last Updated ...

  2. Importance of ECM recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Importance of ECM recognition. Leishmaniasis transmitted by parasite injection into blood during blood meal of insect vector. Parasites home in macrophages of liver and spleen - adhere, penetrate, transform and replicate. Macrophage lysis - attack of neighbouring ...

  3. In silico and in vitro studies of the reduction of unsaturated α,β bonds of trans-2-hexenedioic acid and 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid – Important steps towards biobased production of adipic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gunnar; Eriksson, Leif A.; Mapelli, Valeria

    2018-01-01

    The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms. However, the drawback of this pathway is that several reactions are involved where there is no known efficient enzyme. By changing the order of the enzymatic reactions, we were able to identify an alternative pathway with one unknown enzyme less compared to the original pathway. One of the reactions lacking known enzymes is the reduction of the unsaturated α,β bond of 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid and trans-2-hexenedioic acid. To identify the necessary enzymes, we selected N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli and Old Yellow Enzyme 1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus. Despite successful in silico docking studies, where both target substrates could fit in the enzyme pockets, and hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues of both enzymes were predicted, no in vitro activity was observed. We hypothesize that the lack of activity is due to a difference in electron withdrawing potential between the naturally reduced aldehyde and the carboxylate groups of our target substrates. Suggestions for protein engineering to induce the reactions are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the two metabolic pathways from lysine. We have highlighted bottlenecks associated with the lysine pathways, and proposed ways of addressing them. PMID:29474495

  4. In silico and in vitro studies of the reduction of unsaturated α,β bonds of trans-2-hexenedioic acid and 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid - Important steps towards biobased production of adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Emma; Shin, Jae Ho; Westman, Gunnar; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Mapelli, Valeria

    2018-01-01

    The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms. However, the drawback of this pathway is that several reactions are involved where there is no known efficient enzyme. By changing the order of the enzymatic reactions, we were able to identify an alternative pathway with one unknown enzyme less compared to the original pathway. One of the reactions lacking known enzymes is the reduction of the unsaturated α,β bond of 6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic acid and trans-2-hexenedioic acid. To identify the necessary enzymes, we selected N-ethylmaleimide reductase from Escherichia coli and Old Yellow Enzyme 1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus. Despite successful in silico docking studies, where both target substrates could fit in the enzyme pockets, and hydrogen bonds with catalytic residues of both enzymes were predicted, no in vitro activity was observed. We hypothesize that the lack of activity is due to a difference in electron withdrawing potential between the naturally reduced aldehyde and the carboxylate groups of our target substrates. Suggestions for protein engineering to induce the reactions are discussed, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the two metabolic pathways from lysine. We have highlighted bottlenecks associated with the lysine pathways, and proposed ways of addressing them.

  5. Food and Agricultural Imports from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Geoffrey S

    2007-01-01

    U.S. food and agricultural imports have increased significantly in recent years. A series of recent incidents have raised safety concerns about the many foods, medicines, and other products from China in particular. U.S...

  6. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...

  7. [Myiases of economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, S M

    1994-12-01

    A simplified list of the principal Diptera capable of causing myiasis is followed by a brief presentation of the biology, lesions inflicted, and methods of treatment and control of the myiases of economic importance. Cochliomyiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax is of greatest interest, in view of the damage and losses caused by this disease. A brief account of the outbreak of infestation in Libya illustrates the danger of this parasite. Other important traumatic myiases are described: that due to Chrysomya bezziana, which causes an African myiasis similar to cochliomyiasis, and those due to Lucilia cuprina and related species. Hypodermyiasis (warble fly infestation) and oestrosis (nasal bot fly infestation in sheep) still cause major economic losses in domestic animals, justifying their inclusion in control campaigns. The same applies to stomach bot flies of the family Gasterophilidae. The account of each myiasis includes notes on parasiticides which have been found to be effective. Given the rapidity with which a parasite can now be transported from one continent to another, it is important for Veterinary Services to be well-informed and vigilant.

  8. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals and metallic products are fundamental to a large number of modern industries and steel is certainly one of the most significant metallurgical products. Steel and steel castings as universal production material, that provided the grounds for the contemporary industrialization process,will have a continuously irreplaceable role in the future, regardless of the fact that nowadays steel materials are often replaced by other materials (ceramics, polymers, etc., whenever it is technically required and cost-justified.The development of metallurgy and metallurgical processes is accompanied by pollution of the environment that directly or indirectly endangered the health of humans, certain animal and plant species, water resources systems, and soil. It also lead to increased erosion of material goodsand caused many other adverse social and economy-related effects.The integral steelworks concept has, for example, set off a significant increase in the number of emission sources and the increase of harmful substances concentration in the environment. The largest polluters have always been coking plants, iron ore agglomeration facilities, blast furnaces, steel mills, foundries and thermal energy plants.Numerous fundamental scientific research works have proven a series of adverse effects caused by uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances from these plants. Beside the considerable quantities of usual and well-known polluting substances such as sulfur and carbon oxides, fluorides,ammonia, benzene, heavy metals, phenols, cyanides, oil and grease, slag, used refractory material, metallic scrapings, sludge, dust, and scale, there are also relatively small pollutions with long-lasting effects that are hazardous even in their low concentrations and they rarely receivedue attention.This polluting substance group consists of persistent organic pollutions represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated

  9. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii...... of skill composition and rent sharing available in typical firm level datasets - like ratio of educated to uneducated workers and sales per employee.......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  10. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  11. Differential resistance and the importance of antibiotic production in Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ant castes towards the entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus nomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    Paired exocrine metapleural glands are present in almost all ants and produce compounds with antibiotic properties towards a variety of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. In Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants, small workers have relatively large metapleural glands compared to large workers, and thus harbour...... nomius hyphae and spores appear on the cadavers of workers dead from infection, is significantly increased in the small worker caste. In addition to supporting previous findings that the metapleural glands have an important defence function, the results of this study indicate that the relatively large...... approximately half the number of gland cells of large workers, despite being only one-fifteenth their body mass. Here we present results showing that when the two worker castes of A. echinatior are treated with spores of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus nomius in doses that correspond to the difference...

  12. Most important human aluminoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtsyn, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.

  13. Recombinant protein production technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  14. Study of important parameters on the irradiation of {sup 124}Xe, to improve the production of {sup 123}I with high purity using the Cyclone-30 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP; Estudo de parametros relevantes na irradiacao de {sup 124}Xe, visando a otimizacao na obtencao de {sup 123}I ultra puro no ciclotron Cyclone-30 do IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiya, Luiz Carlos do Amaral

    2006-07-01

    The development of diagnosis equipment and therapy procedures in nuclear medicine depends on the availability of commercial radioisotopes. IPEN is the most important institution that provides radioisotopes for national market. In order to achieve this function, IPEN had invested in the acquisition of a 30 MeV Cyclone-30 cyclotron to produce mainly {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I. The {sup 123}I production is the aim of the present work. With the {sup 123}I routine production data obtained by proton irradiation of Xe targets with an enrichment greater than 99.8%, it was possible to identify the important parameters that have direct influence on the production yield of high purity degree {sup 123}I. Even though the methodology for the commercial production of {sup 123}I, there are an scarcity of operational parameters data for this task. In this work the evaluated parameters were: {sup 124}Xe pressure, proton beam quality, irradiation time, operational temperature of the irradiation system under irradiation, waiting time to obtain {sup 123}I, temperature of washing solution and the impact of the internal Ni coating in the target. With the obtained results it was possible to modify the operational conditions for routine production and increasing the efficiency in about 30%. (author)

  15. The RNA-Binding Chaperone Hfq Is an Important Global Regulator of Gene Expression in Pasteurella multocida and Plays a Crucial Role in Production of a Number of Virulence Factors, Including Hyaluronic Acid Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégroz, Marianne; Kleifeld, Oded; Wright, Amy; Powell, David; Harrison, Paul; Adler, Ben; Harper, Marina; Boyce, John D

    2016-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a number of economically important animal diseases, including avian fowl cholera. Numerous P. multocida virulence factors have been identified, including capsule, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and filamentous hemagglutinin, but little is known about how the expression of these virulence factors is regulated. Hfq is an RNA-binding protein that facilitates riboregulation via interaction with small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules and their mRNA targets. Here, we show that a P. multocida hfq mutant produces significantly less hyaluronic acid capsule during all growth phases and displays reduced in vivo fitness. Transcriptional and proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during mid-exponential-phase growth revealed altered transcript levels for 128 genes and altered protein levels for 78 proteins. Further proteomic analyses of the hfq mutant during the early exponential growth phase identified 106 proteins that were produced at altered levels. Both the transcript and protein levels for genes/proteins involved in capsule biosynthesis were reduced in the hfq mutant, as were the levels of the filamentous hemagglutinin protein PfhB2 and its secretion partner LspB2. In contrast, there were increased expression levels of three LPS biosynthesis genes, encoding proteins involved in phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine addition to LPS, suggesting that these genes are negatively regulated by Hfq-dependent mechanisms. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence that Hfq plays a crucial role in regulating the global expression of P. multocida genes, including the regulation of key P. multocida virulence factors, capsule, LPS, and filamentous hemagglutinin. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Imported coenurosis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, G.; Grünenfelder, F.; Sydler, T.; Rademacher, N.; Braun, U.; Deplazes, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts [de

  17. Imported emissions. The world trade stowaway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2013-05-01

    This study first gives an overview of existing tools and methodological challenges to account emissions included in consumed products fabricated elsewhere. It notably discusses the passage from a methodology based on a production principle to a methodology based on a consumption principle, outlines the different methodologies associated with the different analysis levels, and the importance of uncertainty sources. The second part proposes a view on emission flows included in exports and imports. It addresses the following issues: the international level, increasing importance of emissions transferred via world trade, emissions related to consumption per capita and per social class, carbon and energy intensity of products at the origin of emissions, composition of imported and exported products and intensity of their emissions, impact of a methodological change on greenhouse gas emissions by France, extent of emissions imported in France, and Germany as the first trade partner and emission importer of France. The third part discusses the political implications of an accounting of emissions related to consumption and to world trade

  18. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  19. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  20. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...... predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade...... is mainly driven by the "import-push" if product differentiation is high, whereas it is driven by the "export-pull" if goods are homogeneous....

  1. Economic analysis of fish import demand in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesimi, A.A.; Aderinola, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of the fishery industry in the Nigerian economy is examined, considering source of domestic fish production and government fish production programmes and also analysis Nigeria's fish imports during the period 1971-80. Suggestions are made regarding the regulation of fish imports to conserve foreign exchange and the removal of constraints in domestic fish production expansion

  2. The Importance of Agribusiness' Family In Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, Joaquim J. M.; Silveira, Fernando; Ichihara, Silvio M.; Azzoni, Carlos Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results for the familiar activity level of the agricultural agribusiness in the Brazilian economy for the period from 1995 to 2003. Using input output models it was possible to estimate the importance of the Gross Domestic Product of the familiar agribusiness in the national economy. The results show that around 1/3 of the Brazilian agribusiness come from the agricultural production done by the familiar agriculture, it was also noticed that the recent development of th...

  3. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  4. Socio-Economic Importance of Fuelwood Production in Gambari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuelwood apart from meeting domestic energy need of the people around forest areas provide a means of livelihood as a source of income. The socio-economic analysis of fuelwood collectors in Oyo State, Nigeria, was investigated with a view to determine its potentials and impact on the income of the rural communities in ...

  5. 26 CFR 52.4682-3 - Imported taxable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....05 is included in this listing because a bipolar transistor is a type of electronic integrated...-113 0.0022 Telephone answering machines 8520.20 CFC-113 0.1 Color video recording/reproducing... 9401 CFC-11 0.30 Foam sofas 9401 CFC-11 0.75 Foam mattresses 9404.21 CFC-11 1.60 Electronic games and...

  6. The increasing importance of herbicides in worldwide crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianessi, Leonard P

    2013-10-01

    Herbicide use is increasingly being adopted around the world. Many developing countries (India, China, Bangladesh) are facing shortages of workers to hand weed fields as millions of people move from rural to urban areas. In these countries, herbicides are far cheaper and more readily available than labor for hand weeding. History shows that in industrializing countries in the past, including the United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea, the same phenomenon has occurred-as workers have left agriculture, herbicides have been adopted. It is inevitable that herbicide use will increase in sub-Saharan Africa, not only because millions of people are leaving rural areas, creating shortages of hand weeders, but also because of the need to increase crop yields. Hand weeding has never been a very efficient method of weed control-often performed too late and not frequently enough. Uncontrolled weeds have been a major cause of low crop yields in sub-Saharan Africa for a long time. In many parts of the world, herbicides are being increasingly used to replace tillage in order to improve environmental conditions. In comparison with tillage, herbicide use reduces erosion, fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient run-off and conserves water. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Importance of water quality in container plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Ruter

    2013-01-01

    High substrate pH is a major problem for producers of container-grown plants and seedlings. The primary cause of high substrate pH is irrigation water with high alkalinity. Alkalinity is defined as the capacity of water to neutralize acids. Some alkalinity in irrigation water is beneficial as it serves as a buffer to large swings in pH levels, but high alkalinity in...

  8. Economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel mill products are subject to the import licensing...

  10. The Importance of Water-Hydrocarbon Phase Equilibria During Reservoir Production and Drilling Operations Nouveaux défis liés à la présence d'équilibres eau-hydrocarbures lors des opérations de production et de forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable presence of water in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs leads to a number of new challenges for petroleum engineers. A brief state of the art on water-hydrocarbon phase equilibria is presented. It appears that large amounts of water may be present in the hydrocarbon phase (up to 10% molar, and non negligible amounts of gas can dissolve in water. Based on experimental data, a large number of models have been developed. However, concerning the limitations of the data, caution is expressed about the correctness of some models. Recent studies have proven the usefulness of Henry's constants to predict hydrocarbon solubilities in water. The new challenges that are raised by this problem are discussed based on a number of recent publications. The water present in the hydrocarbon may lead to salt deposits downwell, and it must be taken into account in order to estimate the amount of gas in place. It can also result in modifications of the saturation pressure. Due to the presence of water, additional treatment is needed for pipe transport. On the other hand, the large amount of hydrocarbons dissolved in the water phase may result in a modification of the hydrocarbon composition, especially when reservoir pressure becomes very low. The increased toxicity of the water, containing either H2S or aromatics, can become a real burden for gas reservoirs in contact with aquifers or when disposing of production water. During drilling, large amounts of dissolved gas can become very hazardous, increasing the risk of eruption. A particular attention must be paid to acid gas injection in reservoirs, as the true effect of the injected gas may not be straightforward to predict. In conclusion, in light of the industrial importance of this information, some general guidelines are provided concerning additional data to be gathered and ideas for improving current models. La présence inévitable d'eau dans les réservoirs à hautes pression et temp

  11. AND/OR Importance Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  12. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  13. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  14. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  15. Some important factors affecting fertility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milan P.; Caro-Petrović V.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Maksimovic N.; Ilić Z.; Milošević B.; Stojković J.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of sheep production is conditioned by fertility. According to some authors number of offspring obtained per lambing is more important than gain of weight. Genetic relationships involving reproductive traits were seldom studied. Reproductive traits have low heritabilities, a discrete phenotypic expression, and are expressed only in sexually mature ewes leading to low selection intensities and long generation intervals. Documentation of realized se...

  16. Import Demand Function of Rice in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dwi Prasetyo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To fulfil the need of rice is to increase the domestic production, which is the one of the government’s policy. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increase the domestic productivity cannot supply the need of domestic rice. So, to cover the shortage the government makes decision to import rice from other countries. Gross Domestic Product (GDP also increased after monetary crisis in 1998. In the fact of the import of rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The aim of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the gross domestic product, the consumption, the price of rice in world market are influence significantly toward the import of rice in Indonesia.

  17. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  18. Development and application of group importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskin, F.E.; Huang, Min; Sasser, M.K.; Stack, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a complete Level I probabilistic safety analysis of the K Production Reactor, three traditional importance measures-risk reduction, partial derivative, and variance reduction-have been extended to permit analyses of the relative importance of groups of basic and initiating events. None of the group importance measures require Monte Carlo sampling for their quantification. The group importance measures are quantified for the overall fuel damage equation and for dominant accident sequences using the following event groups: initiating events, electrical failures, instrumentation failures, common-cause failures, human errors, and nonrecovery events. Additional analyses are presented using other event groups. Collectively, these applications indicate both the utility and the versatility of the group importance measures

  19. IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL INTENSITY IN HORTICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stefko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although horticulture is an integral part of agriculture it has several distinguishing characteristics resulting from its potentially higher profitability and different use of the basic production factors, such as land, labour and capital. The common features of horticultural farms are the high level of real fixed assets in the structure of assets and high capital intensity of production. Therefore, the main goal of the article is to define the importance of the capital intensity in horticulture production. An effective tool to calculate the suitable for the individual needs of real fixed assets level should facilitate permanent monitoring of the production in terms of the economic calculation in order to optimize the range of the producers’ investment so that they could avoid a financial loss.

  20. The Importance of Kinetic Metastability: Some Common Everyday Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of kinetic metastability is illustrated in detail using several common household products and recommendations are made for how this important and widespread, but often neglected, phenomenon can be more effectively presented in the introductory chemistry textbook.

  1. Pengaruh Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, dan Community Feeling Importance terhadap Compulsive Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Soliha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance and Community Feeling to Compulsive Buying. Result of this supports all hypothesis and consistent with theory.Keywords:    compulsive buying, self-acceptance Importance, affiliation Importance, community feeling Importance, Logit Model

  2. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.

  3. [Import risk analysis in animal disease control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ruth; Breidenbach, Eric; Thür, Barbara; Griot, Christian; Engels, Monika; Stärk, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    At the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office risk analyses are conducted according to international standards. A risk analysis contains the elements risk management, risk assessment and risk communication. A risk assessment is based on risk profile, hazard identification and a pathway model. All available information is gathered, documented and assessed and the risk estimated. The question. "What is the probability that unprocessed wild boar meat imported to Switzerland from the federal state Mecklenburg Western Pommerania is contaminated with classical swine fever virus?" was answered by a release assessment. The hazard identification recognized classical swine fever virus and attenuated live virus vaccine used for oral immunization as hazards. The probability of contamination was estimated to be small. The question: "What is the likelihood to introduce Aujeszky's disease to Switzerland and infect the indigenous pig population with the disease, by means of importing pork and meat products?" was answered by assessing the release, exposure and resulting consequences. The risk of an infection of the indigenous pig population was estimated to be very small, as 80% of the imported products derive from countries or zones free from Aujeszky's disease. Furthermore the majority of the imported products are processed. The strict implementation of the regulations governing feeding of food wastes to pigs reduces the probability of exposure. In all assessments the risk management decides on a strategy to deal with the risk, taking into consideration the results and recommendations derived from the risk assessment as well as other relevant factors.

  4. Pigeonpea as an important food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, D K; Chavan, J K; Kadam, S S

    1986-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important source of proteins, carbohydrates, B-group vitamins, and certain minerals. India contributes over 90% of the pigeonpea production in the world where it is mostly consumed as dehusked splits or dhal. In African countries and Latin America, it is mainly consumed as canned peas. In this review, world production and distribution, genetic background, and biochemical and nutritional properties, storage and processing of pigeonpea are discussed. Future research needs to improve the utilization of pigeonpea as human food are also addressed.

  5. Pengaruh Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, dan Community Feeling Importance terhadap Compulsive Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance an...

  6. Pengaruh Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, Dan Community Feeling Importance Terhadap Compulsive Buying

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance an...

  7. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  8. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  9. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  10. Enformasyon Yönetimi Sistemi Tasarımının Üretim Yapan İşletmelerde Faaliyet Temelli Maliyet Muhasebesi İçin Önemi = The Importance of Information Management System Design for Cost Accounting in Production Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satır, Benhür

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ürün maliyetlerinin gerçek değerlerine yakın tahmini, ürün kârlılıkları ve işletmelerin pazarda rekabetçi olabilmeleri için çok önemlidir. İşletme bir üretim işletmesi ise, özellikle siparişe dayalı üretim yapıyor veya çok çeşitli tipte ürün üretiyorsa maliyet tahmini zorlaşmaktadır. Bunlara ek olarak, üretim koşulları zorlu birişletme ise, ürün maliyeti için üretim sürecinden gelmesi gereken üretim enformasyonunun sağlıklı olması zorlaşmakta ve işletme için maliyet tahmini gerçek değerinden oldukça farklı olabilmektedir. Bazı ürünleriçin üretim ve teslimat süreci bittikten sonra, tahmini maliyete göre kâr beklenirken, gerçekleşen maliyetin fiyattan bile yüksek çıktığı ve aslında bu üretimden zarar edildiği çok geç olarak anlaşılabilmektedir. Bütün bu zorluklar aşılarak doğru bir maliyet tahmini yapılması için, enformasyon yönetim sisteminin maliyet muhasebesi sistemine uygun tasarlanmasının yanı sıra, sistemin sağlıklı ve güncel tutulması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada üretim koşullarının en zor olduğu işletmelerden birisi olan dökümhâneler için Faaliyet Temelli Maliyetlendirme Yöntemi uygulamaları esas alınarak, Enformasyon Yönetimi Sisteminin buna uygun nasıl tasarlanması gerektiği anlatılmıştır. / Estimating product cost close to their real values is very important for companies in order to know product profits and be competitive in the market. Cost estimation becomes harder for a production company, especially if it produces for order or has a wide rage product variety. In addition to these, if the company hastough production conditions, it becomes harder to obtain healthy information that comes from production processes and the estimated product costs might be very different than its real value. For some products, after the completion of production and distribution, it might be lately understood that although profit was

  11. [Mycoviruses and importance in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keçeli, Sema Aşkın

    2017-10-01

    extracellular way, and then the binding of mycovirus to target fungus by genetic modifications is aimed. The second scenario is about the use of mycovirus as a vector for genetic transformation. In fact, this method is applied by using toxins in fungal diseases of plants. In addition, the production of lethal antibodies or peptides derived from antibodies obtained from toxin-coding cytoplasmic dsRNA mycovirus toxins may be a new therapeutic approach. It has been claimed that these derivatives may be used as parentheral therapeutic agents against human pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans. In this review article, the importance of mycoviruses in mycology has been discussed.

  12. Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered

  13. Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Castañeda-Ruelas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there´s a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  14. Environmental certification for more sustainable imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Lucile; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Demeulenaere, Laurence

    2017-12-01

    As France imports high quantities of products which have environmental impacts abroad due to extraction, transformations, and transports of used materials, and which are not visible for consumers, environmental certification could be a mean to reduce these impacts as it would allow consumers to identify the less polluting products, and incite producers to put such products on the market. After having discussed these issues, the author outlines key factors of success for such a certification, briefly identifies required adjustments at the technical level (requirement level, cost anticipation), and at the social and political level. She also evokes accompanying measures, and outlines that environmental certification is only a tool among others such as partnership agreements currently being negotiated between the European Union and other countries, or a combination of certification and cooperation with extracting countries (as practiced by Germany)

  15. Importing Vector Graphics: The grImport Package for R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Murrell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an approach to importing vector-based graphical images intostatistical software as implemented in a package called grImport for the R statistical com-puting environment. This approach assumes that an original image can be transformedinto a PostScript format (i.e., the opriginal image is in a standard vector graphics formatsuch as PostScript, PDF, or SVG. The grImport package consists of three components: afunction for converting PostScript les to an R-specic XML format; a function for read-ing the XML format into special Picture objects in R; and functions for manipulatingand drawing Picture objects. Several examples and applications are presented, includingannotating a statistical plot with an imported logo and using imported images as plottingsymbols.

  16. Why suspended matter is important ?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nutrients and pollutants (agricultural, industrial and domestic waste runoff) – enhance / reduce productivity and/or fish migration / mortality ... Understanding SPM dynamics – monitor water quality, fate of pollution and success of dredging operations.

  17. Importance analysis for reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Shubin; Levitin, Gregory; Dui, Hongyan; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Importance measures are used in reliability engineering to rank the system components according to their contributions to proper functioning of the entire system and to find the most effective ways of reliability enhancement. Traditionally, the importance measures do not consider the possible change of system structure with the improvement of specific component reliability. However, if a component's reliability changes, the optimal system structure/configuration may also change and the importance of the corresponding component will depend on the chosen structure. When the most promising component reliability improvement is determined, the component importance should be taken into account with respect to the possible structure changes. This paper studies the component reliability importance indices with respect to the changes of the optimal component sequencing. This importance measure indicates the critical components in providing the system reliability enhancement by both enhancing the component's reliability and reconfiguring the system. Examples of linear consecutive-k-out-of-n: F and G systems are considered to demonstrate the change of the component Birnbaum importance with the optimal system reconfiguration. The results show that the change of the importance index corresponds to the change of the system optimal configuration and the importance index can change not monotonically with the variation of the component reliability

  18. Present importance of coffe production in some coffe grower communities and indian comunities in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Importancia actual de la caficultora en algunas comunidades campesinas e indígenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Rojas Gilberto

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffe production followed by coffe growers and indian groups in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, shows several differences regarding economical rationalityandtechnology. Coffe plays avery important role inthe economy and life quality ofthegrowers and indians. Traditional technology is generalized and has slowed down the deterioration of the Sierra, although life quality is very low.
    La caficultura que practican los campesinos y los grupos indlgenas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, tiene notables diferencias, tanto en la racionalidad económica, como en la lógica con la cual son atendidos los cultivos. El café juega un
    papel predominante en el sostenimiento de la economla
    y en la calidad de la vida de campecinos e indlgenas. La tecnologla tradicional, cuyo uso es generalizado, ha demorado el deterioro de ese inmenso maciso, aunuqe la calidad de la vida es bastante baja.

  19. Electrochemical Behavior of Biologically Important Indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Karaaslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltammetric techniques are most suitable to investigate the redox properties of a new drug. Use of electrochemistry is an important approach in drug discovery and research as well as quality control, drug stability, and determination of physiological activity. The indole nucleus is an essential element of a number of natural and synthetic products with significant biological activity. Indole derivatives are the well-known electroactive compounds that are readily oxidized at carbon-based electrodes, and thus analytical procedures, such as electrochemical detection and voltammetry, have been developed for the determination of biologically important indoles. This paper explains some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to biologically important indole derivatives in view of drug discovery and analysis.

  20. Importance Weighted Import Vector Machine for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighi, Sirvan; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Nunes, Urbano J

    2017-10-01

    In real-world applications, the assumption of independent and identical distribution is no longer consistent. To alleviate the significant mismatch between source and target domains, importance weighting import vector machine, which is an adaptive classifier, is proposed. This adaptive probabilistic classification method, which is sparse and computationally efficient, can be used for unsupervised domain adaptation (DA). The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via a toy problem, and a real-world cross-domain object recognition task. Even though the sparseness, the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art in both unsupervised and semisupervised DA scenarios. We also introduce a reliable importance weighted cross validation (RIWCV), which is an improvement of importance weighted cross validation, for parameter and model selection. The RIWCV avoid falling down in local minimum, by selecting a more reliable combination of the parameters instead of the best parameters.

  1. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... as a new importance/performance map that can be an aid for organizations when they prioritize their improvement actions based on a job satisfaction study. Design/methodology/approach: A typology for possible relationships between importance and performance in job satisfaction studies is developed based...... on theoretical considerations. This typology is then applied and validated on approximately 10,000 responses from the European Employee Index 2002. Ultimately a new importance/performance map for priority setting in job satisfaction studies is developed based on the new typology for possible relationships...

  2. 19 CFR 12.7 - Permits required for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... showing in clear and legible type the product (raw milk, pasteurized milk, raw cream, or pasteurized cream... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Milk and Cream § 12.7 Permits required for importation. (a... Federal Import Milk Act, the importation into the United States of milk and cream is prohibited unless the...

  3. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  4. Social cost of imported oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadman, H.G.

    1986-06-01

    A conceptual framework of the oil import premium - the difference between social and private marginal cost of imported oil - is developed, and an evaluation of quantitative estimates of the premium is presented. The estimates span a wide range, from near zero to well over $100 per barrel. It is concluded that an oil import fee is likely to be the best policy instrument to capture the first component of the premium, and a strategic petroleum reserve, the best policy instrument to capture the second component.

  5. Method for alignment of product and production concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Kvist, Morten; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    for customers. Modular product architectures often serve as a basis for several products often referred to as product families. One or more product families may constitute a substantial amount of the total product portfolio of a company, and it is, therefore, of the greatest importance that concepts...

  6. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  7. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  8. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  9. Why suspended matter is important ?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nutrients and pollutants (agricultural, industrial and domestic waste runoff) – enhance / reduce productivity and/or fish migration / mortality. Dynamic estuarine (physico-chemical/biogeochemical) processes control distribution and transportation of SPM. Understanding SPM dynamics – monitor water quality, fate of pollution ...

  10. Aplicabilidade do Teste de Ativação de Monócitos (MAT no Brasil: importância da sua utilização como teste para detecção de pirogênios no controle da qualidade de produtos injetáveis | Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT in Brazil: the importance of its use as a test for the detection of pyrogens in the quality control of injectable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Caldeira da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O MAT (sigla do inglês Monocyte Activation Test é considerado um potencial substituto do Teste de Pirogênios, entretanto: i. não foi avaliado para um número suficiente de produtos; ii. faltam dados que possam garantir sua capacidade em detectar pirogênios não endotoxinas; e iii. deve ser realizada a validação do método para cada classe de produtos. O objetivo foi identificar as monografias que requerem testes de pirogenicidade e propor os produtos que têm por base somente o teste de pirogênios como um ponto de partida para futuros estudos. As monografias específicas nas Farmacopeias Americana, Europeia e Brasileira que recomendam o Teste de Pirogênios ou Teste de Endotoxina Bacteriana ou LAL (sigla do inglês Limulus Amebocyte Lysate foram: Teste de Pirogênios: 20 monografias na Americana, 37 na Europeia e 28 na Brasileira. LAL: 619 monografias na Americana, 157 na Europeia e 41 na Brasileira. Somente quatro produtos requerem testes de pirogenicidade nas três farmacopeias analisadas. O Teste de Pirogênios e LAL são recomendados em seis monografias na Brasileira e 15 na Europeia. Na Brasileira, a maior parte dessas monografias é referente a produtos biológicos, sugerindo, assim, que estes devam ser os primeiros a ser testados, uma vez que são ensaiados em animais. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Monocyte Activation Test (MAT is thought to be a good replacement for rabbit pyrogen test (RPT; however, MAT remains controversial. MAT was not adequately evaluated in a sufficient number of products, and there is no sufficient data that support the ability of MAT to detect non-endotoxin pyrogens. Furthermore, MAT was used subject to validation for each specific product. The aim of this study was to identify in main pharmacopoeias, whose monographs require pyrogenicity tests, and propose those products for which only the rabbit pyrogen test is required to be used as a

  11. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  12. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  13. Uses of risk importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Poern, K.; Holmberg, J.

    1991-05-01

    Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The report clarifies the definitions, relationships and interpretations of the three most basic measures: Risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. The above three measures already cover the main types of risk importance measures. Many other importance measures presented in literature are close variants to some of these three measures. They are related in many cases so that, for a technical system considered, the two other measures can be derived from the one calculated first. However, the practical interpretations are different, and hence each three measures have their own uses and rights to existence. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is, that they express some specific influence of a basic event on the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance where to focus main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view and wherefrom to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort

  14. Exploring Malaysia’s Transformation to Net Oil Importer and Oil Import Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Prambudia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Within ASEAN, Malaysia is a major oil-exporting country; however, it is expected to become a net oil-importing country in the near future. This issue brings concerns over Malaysia’s energy security, particularly on the aspect of oil import dependency. This is because its transportation and industrial sectors are still heavily dependent on oil products. By simulating dynamic interplays between developments in Malaysia’s oil sector and its economy sectors, this study explores the possible years of the transformation and the extent to which it will be dependent on oil import. Four scenarios related to enhanced oil recovery, exploration and production investment, subsidy elimination and technology advances are considered for the simulation. In isolation, the subsidy elimination scenario provides the best result. However, if all scenarios are considered simultaneously, an undesired effect emerges. The earliest that Malaysia is expected to become a net oil-importing country is 2012 and the latest is 2021. Malaysia’s dependence on oil imports is expected to continue increasing. In all scenarios, the shares of oil import in the total supply rise to above 90% in 2030, with the highest share at 97%.

  15. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  16. 50 CFR 14.91 - When do I need an import/export license?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF... import/exportlicense? (1) Wildlife in the form of products such as garments, bags, shoes, boots, jewelry...

  17. What's important to a game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.; Grabarczyk, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues for the necessity of adding a hierarchy to Aarseth and Calleja’s Cybermedia model (2015). The cybermedia model describes games as the player’s perspective on a cybermedia object, which consists of materiality, a sign system and a mechanical system. The author’s description......, as well as visual representation, of the model suggests an equal importance of these three dimensions. We claim that such symmetry is unattainable. Through the exploration of the three dimensions relationships to one another, we will show that the mechanical system has a higher importance to games than...

  18. Marketing importance of body image

    OpenAIRE

    Francová, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Body image is undoubtedly important in everyone's life. The main objective of this thesis is to find its importance for marketing. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to find out the society's opinions on the issue of beauty and body image, how do media picture human body and if there exists a difference between these two things. The first part of this theses consists of the historical development of the beauty ideal. It is followed by segmentation of Czech population, based on the data fr...

  19. Export and import. Conformity with regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    Since the division of the former US Atomic Energy Commission's tasks, the regulation and control of import and export of nuclear materials and equipment has become the responsability of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The import and export of nuclear fuels, equipment and reactors are therefore subject to prior licensing by the Commission. This requirement aims to guarantee that such activities will not create serious hazards for defense and national safety, and that the exported products will not be diverted from their peaceful uses. The relevant applicable legal provisions are based on the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and on the detailed regulations issued by the Commission. Under the pressure of public opinion, there is a current tendency to restrict these activities because of the hazards they present, in particular during transport, until the Commission has completed all the necessary studies. (NEA) [fr

  20. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide: importance and determination

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz de; Shiraishi, Karina Antonelli; Braz, Alexandre Delphini; Fernandes, João Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A brief discussion about the hydrogen peroxide importance and its determination is presented. It was emphasized some consideration of the H2O2 as reagent (separated or combined), uses and methods of analysis (techniques, detection limits, linear response intervals, sensor specifications). Moreover, it was presented several applications, such as in environmental, pharmaceutical, medicine and food samples.

  2. Important projects of the Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter important projects of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. are presented. Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management has successfully carried out variety of significant projects. The most significant projects that were realised, are implemented and possible future projects are introduced in the following part of presentation.

  3. The Importance of Effective Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Bud

    1977-01-01

    In an address to the Canadian Guidance and Counselling Association, the Canadian Manpower and Immigration Minister emphasized the importance of vocational guidance for high school students. He cited the need for communication between the worlds of education and work, promotion of better cooperative programs, and subsidized job training for youth.…

  4. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  5. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  6. The Signal Importance of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…

  7. Writing: Importance, Development, and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Gillespie, Amy; McKeown, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we examine why writing is important, how it develops, and effective writing practices. We situate the 5 articles in this special issue of "Reading and Writing" in this literature, providing a context for the contribution of each paper.

  8. 78 FR 6399 - Easing the Ban on Imports From Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... prisoners, and other steps on human rights and national reconciliation. DATES: Effective Date: November 15..., 2012 authorizing imports into the United States of any article that is a product of Burma, subject to...

  9. Managing challenges of import safety in a global market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This collaborative will examine market, regulatory, and hybrid approaches to managing risk from deliberate or unintentional contamination in : imported commodity products from the global supply chain, through research and on-campus activities involvi...

  10. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described

  11. PLACE AND IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN HOTEL OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tandogan, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    As nowadays technology production is out of monopolyof certain countries, it also possible for countries that don’t have necessaryequipment for technology production to acquire them by copying. In this contextevery other resource except human resources can be bought, substituted oracquired by various means. Human resource is hardest to acquire and the mostexpensive. The most important feature of the tourism sector whose importance isever-growing today and the future is it being a service sect...

  12. Importance of direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.

    1973-01-01

    Energy reserves of different types (fossil fuels, nuclear fission and fusion reactions, solar and geothermal energy) are listed and their conversion patterns evaluated with regard to economic and ecological factors and to the siting of power plants. The concepts and economy of different types of power plants are discussed. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion is given detailed analysis being the most promising for nuclear power production. MHD power plants are expected to operate as peak plants. The graphs presented show that the combination of an MHD reactor and gas turbines is the least costly

  13. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitiveness of sugar products in Indonesia was evaluated using the of East Java wet and dry farmlands and was found to be higher than similar products from overseas as shown by DRC value of less than 1. Keyword: Sugar, Welfare distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), import tariff, Indonesia ...

  14. Effect of Import Tariff Implementation Policy on Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economic net loss in production, consumption and exchange gain economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand, such that the welfare distribution value will be bigger; (b) sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia by knowing that cane field calculation in East Java in the ...

  15. Environmental assessment of organic juice imported to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Langer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has given rise to a debate on the environmental impacts during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic orange juice produced by smallholders in Brazil, processed and imported to Denmark, were identified in a case study using a li...

  16. Importance of Synthesis and Role of synthetic organic chemist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Synthesis of natural products is taken up as: Synthesis of natural products is taken up as: Natural sources are limited; The compounds are available in very small quantities; To achieve efficient synthesis. Synthesize target molecule of importance/ interest using existing tools of ...

  17. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  18. 7 CFR 980.1 - Import regulations; Irish potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and which are subsequently used as... the Food of Plant Origin Division, Plant Products Directorate, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, are.... 11, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 980.1 Import...

  19. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  20. Imported brucellosis: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Chamorro-Tojeiro, Sandra; Pérez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the main neglected zoonotic diseases. Several factors may contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis. Imported cases, mainly in travellers but also in recently arrived immigrants, and cases associated with imported products, appear to be infrequently reported. Cases of brucellosis diagnosed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe were described and a review of the literature on imported cases and cases associated with contaminated imported products was performed. Most imported cases were associated with traditional risk factors such as travel/consumption of unpasteurized dairy products in endemic countries. Cases associated with importation of food products or infected animals also occurred. Although a lower disease incidence of brucellosis has been reported in developed countries, a higher incidence may still occur in specific populations, as illustrated by cases in Hispanic patients in the USA and in Turkish immigrants in Germany. Imported brucellosis appears to present with similar protean manifestations and both classical and infrequent modes of acquisition are described, leading on occasions to mis-diagnoses and diagnostic delays. Importation of Brucella spp. especially into non-endemic areas, or areas which have achieved recent control of both animal and human brucellosis, may have public health repercussions and timely recognition is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.