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Sample records for cber biological product

  1. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CBER is the Center within FDA that regulates biological products for human use under applicable federal laws, including the Public Health Service Act and the Federal...

  2. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...] Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request for... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain categories of information in product labeling for use as terms to search repositories of approved prescription medical product structured product...

  3. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some medical devices used to produce biologics are regulated by CBER under the FD&C Act's Medical ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  4. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  5. Next generation hyper resolution wide swath and multi-channel optical payload for CBERS series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang

    2017-11-01

    The China-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) program, (also called ZY-1) the result of a space technology agreement between China and Brazil, was officially signed in 1988 after the first joint work report produced by National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). During the 26 years of its existence, the program of cooperation between China and Brazil in space has achieved the successful launch of three satellites. It has become a unique example of cooperation in cutting edge technology between emerging nations. CBERS satellite is the first generation data-transferring remote sensing satellite developed by China. CBERS satellite data are widely applied to crop yield estimation, exploration of land and resources, urban planning, environmental protection and monitoring, disaster reduction, and other fields. CBERS series is just like Landsat series of USA and SPOT series of France.

  6. Regulatory administrative databases in FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research: convergence toward a unified database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey K

    2013-04-01

    Regulatory administrative database systems within the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are essential to supporting its core mission, as a regulatory agency. Such systems are used within FDA to manage information and processes surrounding the processing, review, and tracking of investigational and marketed product submissions. This is an area of increasing interest in the pharmaceutical industry and has been a topic at trade association conferences (Buckley 2012). Such databases in CBER are complex, not for the type or relevance of the data to any particular scientific discipline but because of the variety of regulatory submission types and processes the systems support using the data. Commonalities among different data domains of CBER's regulatory administrative databases are discussed. These commonalities have evolved enough to constitute real database convergence and provide a valuable asset for business process intelligence. Balancing review workload across staff, exploring areas of risk in review capacity, process improvement, and presenting a clear and comprehensive landscape of review obligations are just some of the opportunities of such intelligence. This convergence has been occurring in the presence of usual forces that tend to drive information technology (IT) systems development toward separate stovepipes and data silos. CBER has achieved a significant level of convergence through a gradual process, using a clear goal, agreed upon development practices, and transparency of database objects, rather than through a single, discrete project or IT vendor solution. This approach offers a path forward for FDA systems toward a unified database.

  7. Exterior orientation of CBERS-2B imagery using multi-feature control and orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato Junior, J.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2013-05-01

    The major contribution of this paper relates to the practical advantages of combining Ground Control Points (GCPs), Ground Control Lines (GCLs) and orbital data to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of images collected by CBERS-2B (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) HRC (High-resolution Camera) and CCD (High-resolution CCD Camera) sensors. Although the CBERS-2B is no longer operational, its images are still being used in Brazil, and the next generations of the CBERS satellite will have sensors with similar technical features, which motivates the study presented in this paper. The mathematical models that relate the object and image spaces are based on collinearity (for points) and coplanarity (for lines) conditions. These models were created in an in-house developed software package called TMS (Triangulation with Multiple Sensors) with multi-feature control (GCPs and GCLs). Experiments on a block of four CBERS-2B HRC images and on one CBERS-2B CCD image were performed using both models. It was observed that the combination of GCPs and GCLs provided better bundle block adjustment results than conventional bundle adjustment using only GCPs. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using primarily orbital data when the number of control entities is reduced.

  8. First in-Flight Radiometric Calibration of MUX and WFI on-Board CBERS-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and China have a long-term joint space based sensor program called China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS. The most recent satellite of this program (CBERS-4 was successfully launched on 7 December 2014. This work describes a complete procedure, along with the associated uncertainties, used to calculate the in-flight absolute calibration coefficients for the sensors Multispectral Camera (MUX and Wide-Field Imager (WFI on-board CBERS-4. Two absolute radiometric calibration techniques were applied: (i reflectance-based approach and (ii cross-calibration method. A specific site at Algodones Dunes region located in the southwestern portion of the United States of America was used as a reference surface. Radiometric ground and atmospheric measurements were carried out on 9 March 2015, when CBERS-4 passed over the region. In addition, a cross-calibration between both MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and the Operational Land Imager (OLI on-board Landsat-8 was performed using the Libya-4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site. The gain coefficients are now available: 1.68, 1.62, 1.59 and 1.42 for MUX and 0.379, 0.498, 0.360 and 0.351 for WFI spectral bands blue, green, red and NIR, respectively, in units of (W/(m2·sr·μm/DN. These coefficients were determined with uncertainties lower than 3.5%. As a validation of these radiometric coefficients, cross-calibration was also undertaken. An evaluation of radiometric consistency was performed between the two instruments (MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and with the well calibrated Landsat-7 ETM+. Results show that the reflectance values match in all the analogous spectral bands within the specified calibration uncertainties.

  9. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  10. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.

    2017-10-01

    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  11. Evaluation of land use classification accuracy based upon TM and CBERS-02B HR data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guifang; Lu, Heli

    2010-11-01

    Data fusions from SAR and TM, SPOT and TM, ASTER and TM, MODIS and ETM, etc are the common methods. But that from TM and CBERS-02B is rare. With HR camera working in September 19th 2007, Chinese-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 02B (CBERS-02B) became the first civilian high-resolution satellite in China. It could provide 2.36m panchromatic image which is better to Landsat TM. Meanwhile the spectral resolution of TM is better than CBERS-02B. So it's a good idea to take advantage of benefits from CBERS-02B HR and TM through data fusion. In this study, images of TM and CBERS-02B HR in 2007 were used as data sources. After image registration and noiseremoval process, data fusion methods of IHS and PCA were adopted. Then unsupervised classification and supervised classification were used for land use classification. Finally, classification accuracy between original image and fusion image was compared and evaluated. The result shows: (1) Compared with original TM or CBERS-02B HR image, the fusion image not only retains abundance spectrum but also enhances the object details. Residential texture, lake morphological, the relative position between roads, industrial and mining sites, etc, was identified easily. (2) Results from IHS and PCA are different. IHS image had higher spatial resolution but more spectral distortion. Spectral differences between some objects became smaller and classification accuracy was lower. Supervised classification accuracy assessment shows that overall Kappa index and overall land use classification accuracy decreased by 0.237 and 11% respectively. Meanwhile PCA image not only had high spatial resolution, but also smaller spectral distortion. Different land use / cover types can be better distinguished. (3) Disadvantages of low spatial resolution in TM and single color in CBERS-02B HR image are overcome in PCA fusion image to a certain extent. In this research under supervised classification in PCA image Kappa index of farm land, forest land and

  12. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  13. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  14. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael R.; Atsumi, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges. PMID:20827393

  15. Natural products in chemical biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Civjan, Natanya

    2012-01-01

    .... The book begins by introducing natural products from different origins, moves on to presenting and discussing biosynthesis of various classes of natural products, and then looks at natural products...

  16. Biological production of products from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  17. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  18. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  19. Patent landscape for biological hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David B; Lubieniechi, Simona

    2013-12-01

    Research and development of biological hydrogen production have expanded significantly in the past decade. Production of renewable hydrogen from agricultural, forestry, or other organic waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to hydrogen production capacity with no net, or at least with lower, greenhouse gas emissions. Significant improvements in the volumetric or molar yields of hydrogen production have been accomplished through genetic engineering of hydrogen synthesizing microorganisms. Although no commercial scale renewable biohydrogen production facilities are currently in operation, a few pilot scale systems have been demonstrated successfully, and while industrial scale production of biohydrogen still faces a number of technical and economic barriers, understanding the patent landscape is an important step in developing a viable commercialization strategy. In this paper, we review patents filed on biological hydrogen production. Patents on biohydrogen production from both the Canadian and American Patents databases were classified into three main groups: (1) patents for biological hydrogen by direct photolysis; (2) patents for biological hydrogen by dark fermentation; and (3) patents for process engineering for biological hydrogen production.

  20. Natural products in chemical biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Civjan, Natanya

    2012-01-01

    ... as models and the possibilities of using them in medicine"-- "This book provides a fairly general overview of the unique features of the small molecules referred to as Natural Products, explores how this traditionally organic chemistry-based field was transformed by insights from genetics and biochemistry, and highlights some promising future directions"--

  1. Biological production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jianping; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Maness, Pin-Ching; Seibert, Michael

    2016-04-12

    Strains of cyanobacteria that produce high levels of alpha ketoglutarate (AKG) and pyruvate are disclosed herein. Methods of culturing these cyanobacteria to produce AKG or pyruvate and recover AKG or pyruvate from the culture are also described herein. Nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides that function as ethylene-forming enzymes and their use in the production of ethylene are further disclosed herein. These nucleic acids may be expressed in hosts such as cyanobacteria, which in turn may be cultured to produce ethylene.

  2. Synthetic biology of fungal natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Derek J.; Valiante, Vito; Unkles, Shiela E.; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an ever-expanding field in science, also encompassing the research area of fungal natural product (NP) discovery and production. Until now, different aspects of synthetic biology have been covered in fungal NP studies from the manipulation of different regulatory elements and heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways to the engineering of different multidomain biosynthetic enzymes such as polyketide synthases or non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. The following review will cover some of the exemplary studies of synthetic biology in filamentous fungi showing the capacity of these eukaryotes to be used as model organisms in the field. From the vast array of different NPs produced to the ease for genetic manipulation, filamentous fungi have proven to be an invaluable source for the further development of synthetic biology tools. PMID:26284053

  3. STRIPING NOISE REMOVAL OF IMAGES ACQUIRED BY CBERS 2 CCD CAMERA SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amraei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CCD Camera is a multi-spectral sensor that is carried by CBERS 2 satellite. Imaging technique in this sensor is push broom. In images acquired by the CCD Camera, some vertical striping noise can be seen. This is due to the detectors mismatch, inter detector variability, improper calibration of detectors and low signal-to-noise ratio. These noises are more profound in images acquired from the homogeneous surfaces, which are processed at level 2. However, the existence of these noises render the interpretation of the data and extracting information from these images difficult. In this work, spatial moment matching method is proposed to modify these images. In this method, the statistical moments such as mean and standard deviation of columns in each band are used to balance the statistical specifications of the detector array to those of reference values. After the removal of the noise, some periodic diagonal stripes remain in the image where their removal by using the aforementioned method seems impossible. Therefore, to omit them, frequency domain Butterworth notch filter was applied. Finally to evaluate the results, the image statistical moments such as the mean and standard deviation were deployed. The study proves the effectiveness of the method in noise removal.

  4. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 114; Issue 1. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal elements supply to the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Paleoceanography during the past ∼1Ma. J N Pattan Toshiyuki Masuzawa D V Borole G Parthiban Pratima Jauhari Mineko Yamamoto.

  5. Standardization for natural product synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Huimin; Medema, Marnix H.

    2016-01-01

    Standardization is one of the foundational features of modern-day engineering, and the use of standardized parts and processes is a key element that distinguishes bona fide synthetic biology from traditional genetic engineering. Here, we discuss the role of standardization in natural product

  6. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  7. 9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging biological products. 112.6... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.6 Packaging biological products. (a) Each multiple-dose final container of a biological product...

  8. Orientação de imagens CBERS-2B usando o modelo rigoroso de colinearidade com dados orbitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcato Junior

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o imageamento orbital é uma das principais técnicas de coleta de informações geoespaciais. Embora os sistemas orbitais sejam equipados com sensores de orientação direta (GNSS, giroscópios, sensores de estrelas, dentre outros, nem sempre as imagens corrigidas a partir dos dados (efemérides e atitude provenientes destes sensores apresentam a acurácia requerida para certas aplicações. Uma das alternativas para solucionar este problema é a orientação dessas imagens considerando as informações de órbita (efemérides e atitude com o uso adicional de pontos de apoio. O objetivo principal deste trabalho consiste em avaliar experimentalmente o modelo de colinearidade com dados orbitais no processo de orientação de imagens CBERS-2B. Este modelo foi implementado no programa TMS (Triangulação MultiSsensor, seguindo a abordagem de triangulação multissensor. Foram realizados experimentos com imagens do nível 1 (com apenas correção radiométrica coletadas pelos sensores CCD e HRC. Nos casos estudados verificou-se que a utilização das informações de órbita possibilita a orientação de imagens CBERS-2B com um número reduzido de pontos de apoio.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DAS IMAGENS CBERS/CCD PARA O MAPEAMENTO DE AREAIS NO SUDOESTE DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Silva Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de aplicar diferentes técnicasde transformação em duas imagens CBERS, dosperíodos seco e chuvoso, que permitissem realçar emapear as manchas de Neossolos Quartzarênicos, semcobertura vegetal (areais, da bacia do Ribeirão Sujo,município de Serranópolis/GO. Revisaram-se bibliografiassobre comportamento espectral de solos arenosose trabalhos relacionados à avaliação de áreas degradadas.Utilizaram-se três métodos de transformaçãode imagens para os dois períodos com a finalidade demapear os areais: o modelo linear de mistura espectral,o índice de vegetação da diferença normalizada (NDVI ea análise por componentes principais. Verificou-se queas imagens do período chuvoso ressaltaram melhor osareais em relação aos vários tipos de cobertura da terrae que a técnica que apresentou o melhor resultado para omapeamento dos areais foi a classificação supervisionadadas bandas 2, 3 e 4 do sensor CDD/CBERS.

  10. Chemical Biology of Microbial Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    than 100 years. New natural products (NPs) are continually discovered and with the increase in selective biological assays, previously described compounds often also display novel bioactivities, justifying their presence in novel screening efforts. Screening and discovery of compounds with activity...... by cyanobacteria were discovered through target-guided isolation based on NMR. The micropeptins displayed inhibitory activity towards serine proteases: chymotrypsin and elastase with IC50 values between 5.9 and 28.0 μM. In conclusion, this PhD study adds to the knowledge of bioactive NPs produced by filamentous...

  11. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  13. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  14. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  15. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  16. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  17. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control).

  19. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as required by the regulations. (e) Released product. A finished product released for marketing after... total quantity of completed product which has been thoroughly mixed in a single container and identified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products and related terms...

  20. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulig, W.; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, P.; Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 199, Sep (2016), s. 144-160 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cholesterol * oxidation * oxysterols * biological membranes * biophysical properties Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  1. Biological productivity, terrigenous influence and noncrustal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our data suggest that during ∼1100 ka and ∼400 ka siliceous productivity was lower, complimented by higher supply of terrigenous material mostly derived from the metasedimentary rocks of High Himalayan crystalline. However, during the last ∼400ka, siliceous productivity increased with substantial reduction in the ...

  2. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity......There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...

  3. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  4. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  5. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  6. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  7. Digital-to-biological converter for on-demand production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Kent S; Kannan, Krishna; Gill, John; Felderman, Martina; Gouvis, Heather; Hubby, Bolyn; Kamrud, Kurt I; Venter, J Craig; Gibson, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Manufacturing processes for biological molecules in the research laboratory have failed to keep pace with the rapid advances in automization and parellelization. We report the development of a digital-to-biological converter for fully automated, versatile and demand-based production of functional biologics starting from DNA sequence information. Specifically, DNA templates, RNA molecules, proteins and viral particles were produced in an automated fashion from digitally transmitted DNA sequences without human intervention.

  8. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This second volume deals with integrated modeling...... and analyses of multi-omics datasets from theoretical and computational approaches and presents their applications in animal production and health as well as veterinary medicine to improve diagnosis, prevention and treatment of animal diseases. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal...

  9. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  10. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  11. Análise de mapas de represas publicados na web usando imagens orbitais CCD/CBERS no estado de Minas Gerais Analysis of dams maps published on the web by using orbital CCD/CBERS images in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, bancos de dados públicos e gratuitos disponíveis na World Wide Web (WEB foram utilizados para avaliar as áreas das superfícies dos espelhos d'água das represas de Furnas e do Funil, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi comparar as informações obtidas nos bancos da WEB com os valores das áreas calculadas a partir de imagens do sensor CCD a bordo dos satélites CBERS2 e CBERS2B. A área da represa de Furnas obtida a partir das imagens CCD/CBERS2B, ano 2008, foi de 1.138 km², mas nos bancos de dados consultados esta área estava entre 1.182 e 1.503 km². A represa do Funil, construída em 2003, com superfície de espelho d'água de 29,37 km² e uma ilha com área de 1,93 km² não aparecem nos bancos Atlas, Geominas, IGAM e IBGE. Os resultados mostraram algumas discrepâncias nos bancos de dados publicados na WEB, tais como diferenças em áreas e supressão ou extrapolação de limites do espelho d'água. Concluiu-se que, até o momento, os responsáveis por algumas publicações de bancos de dados no Estado de Minas Gerais não tiveram rigor suficiente com as atualizações. As imagens CCD/CBERS, que também são dados públicos disponíveis na WEB, mostraram ser produtos adequados para verificar, atualizar e melhorar as informações publicadas.In this work some public databases from the World Wide Web (WEB were used to find the area of the Furnas and Funil Dams in Minas Gerais State. The purpose of this work was to compare the WEB public databases values and the real values obtained from the CCD camera images on board CBERS2 and CBERS2B satellites. The Furnas Dam area obtained from CCD/ CBERS2B images, in 2008, was 1.138 km², but in the consulted databases this area ranged from 1.182 to 1.503 km². The dam of the Funil, built in 2003, with a water surface of 29.37 km² and an island with 1.93 km² area, did not appear in Atlas, Geominas, IGAM and IBGE databases. The results revealed some problems in the WEB public

  12. 9 CFR 103.3 - Shipment of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. A request for authorization to ship an unlicensed biological product for experimental study and... which show the name or identification of the product and bear a statement, “Notice! For Experimental Use.... At the conclusion of field studies, results shall be obtained, summarized, and submitted to the...

  13. The use of CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite to trace the dynamics of total suspended matter at an urbanized coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Colo Giannini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of organic and inorganic particles in the water column, or the total suspended matter (TSM, responds to local and remote oceanographic and meteorological processes, potentially impacting biogeochemical cycles. In shallow coastal areas, where particles have distinct origins and compositions and vary in different time scales, the use of remote sensing tools for monitoring and tracing this material is highly encouraged due to the high temporal and spatial data resolution. The objective of this work was to understand the variability of in situ TSM at Santos Bay (Southeastern Brazil and its response to oceanographic and meteorological conditions. We also aimed to verify the applicability of the satellite data from CBERS-2 sensor in order to map the dynamics of TSM in this region. Our results have shown that the distribution of TSM in Santos Bay varied consistently with winds, currents and tidal cycles, with significant relationships emphasizing the role of south-western winds and spring tides. Neap tides and eastern winds, along with rainfall, play an important role in the input of organic matter into the bay. In conclusion, our analyses showed that the main patterns observed in situ regarding the responses of TSM to the ocean-meteorological processes could be reproduced in the CBERS-2 satellite data, after simple and standard methods of images processing. TSM data retrieval from CBERS-2 or other satellite sensors were shown to be feasible, becoming an essential tool for synoptic observations of the composition and quality of water, especially at urbanized and impacted coastal areas.

  14. Improvement of FK506 production by synthetic biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li-Feng; Tao, Yang; Jin, Mei-Ying; Jiang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biology has been applied to direct improvement of valuable metabolite productions. Tacrolimus (FK506), a clinically used immunosuppressive agent isolated from many Streptomyces, is produced by fermentation in industry. Here we chose FK506 as an example to review recent progress in improving FK506 production, including enhancing transcription levels of biosynthetic genes, accelerating post-translational modification levels of biosynthetic enzymes, increasing activities of rate limiting enzymes, and rational supplement of limited precursors. FK506 production was increased from 25 % to sevenfold by these synthetic biology approaches.

  15. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivera, Baldomero M.; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively...... studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products—venom components from predatory marine cone snails—this review provides a rationale for why...... a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as “Chemical Neuroethology”, linking...

  16. Cell-Free Production of Protein Biologics Within 24 H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Challise J; Pendleton, Erik D; Dresios, John

    2018-01-01

    Protein biologics have emerged as a safe and effective group of drug products that can be used in a variety of medical disorders and clinical settings, including treatment of orphan diseases, personalized medicine, and point-of-care applications. However, the full potential of protein biologics for such applications will not be realized until there are methods available for rapid and cost-effective production of small scale products for individual needs. Here, we describe a modular and scalable method for rapid and adaptable production of protein-based medical products at small doses. The method includes cell-free synthesis of the protein target in a reactor module followed by a fluidic process for protein purification. As a proof of concept, we describe the application of this method for expression and purification of a bioactive pharmaceutically relevant protein biologic, recombinant human erythropoietin, at a single dose within 24 h. This method can be applied toward the development of automated platforms for rapid and adaptive production of protein biologics at the point of care in response to specific medical needs.

  17. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  18. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  19. Yeast synthetic biology toolbox and applications for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Sung; Kwak, Suryang; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-02-01

    Yeasts are efficient biofuel producers with numerous advantages outcompeting bacterial counterparts. While most synthetic biology tools have been developed and customized for bacteria especially for Escherichia coli, yeast synthetic biological tools have been exploited for improving yeast to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass. Here we review the current status of synthetic biological tools and their applications for biofuel production, focusing on the model strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe assembly techniques that have been developed for constructing genes, pathways, and genomes in yeast. Moreover, we discuss synthetic parts for allowing precise control of gene expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Applications of these synthetic biological approaches have led to identification of effective gene targets that are responsible for desirable traits, such as cellulosic sugar utilization, advanced biofuel production, and enhanced tolerance against toxic products for biofuel production from renewable biomass. Although an array of synthetic biology tools and devices are available, we observed some gaps existing in tool development to achieve industrial utilization. Looking forward, future tool development should focus on industrial cultivation conditions utilizing industrial strains. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  20. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiyong

    2014-08-11

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthetic and systems biology for microbial production of commodity chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Victor; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Petzold, Christopher J; Keasling, Jay D; Martín, Héctor García

    2016-01-01

    The combination of synthetic and systems biology is a powerful framework to study fundamental questions in biology and produce chemicals of immediate practical application such as biofuels, polymers, or therapeutics. However, we cannot yet engineer biological systems as easily and precisely as we engineer physical systems. In this review, we describe the path from the choice of target molecule to scaling production up to commercial volumes. We present and explain some of the current challenges and gaps in our knowledge that must be overcome in order to bring our bioengineering capabilities to the level of other engineering disciplines. Challenges start at molecule selection, where a difficult balance between economic potential and biological feasibility must be struck. Pathway design and construction have recently been revolutionized by next-generation sequencing and exponentially improving DNA synthesis capabilities. Although pathway optimization can be significantly aided by enzyme expression characterization through proteomics, choosing optimal relative protein expression levels for maximum production is still the subject of heuristic, non-systematic approaches. Toxic metabolic intermediates and proteins can significantly affect production, and dynamic pathway regulation emerges as a powerful but yet immature tool to prevent it. Host engineering arises as a much needed complement to pathway engineering for high bioproduct yields; and systems biology approaches such as stoichiometric modeling or growth coupling strategies are required. A final, and often underestimated, challenge is the successful scale up of processes to commercial volumes. Sustained efforts in improving reproducibility and predictability are needed for further development of bioengineering.

  2. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    OpenAIRE

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is...

  3. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied

  4. Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, A; Estève, K; Noilet, P; Méoule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2012-04-15

    Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolomics tools for the synthetic biology of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollywood, Katherine A; Schmidt, Kamila; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2018-03-19

    Metabolomics plays an increasingly central role within the Design-Build-Test cycle of synthetic biology, in particular in applications targeting the discovery, diversification and optimised production of a wide range of natural products. For example, improved methods for the online monitoring of chemical reactions accelerate data generation to be compatible with the rapid iterations and increasing library sizes of automated synthetic biology pipelines. Combinations of label-free metabolic profiling and 13 C-based flux analysis lead to increased resolution in the identification of metabolic bottlenecks affecting product yield in engineered microbes. And molecular networking strategies drastically increase our ability to identify and characterise novel chemically complex biomolecules of interest in a diverse range of samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  7. Current advances in biological production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eş, Ismail; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Propionic acid and its derivatives are considered "Generally Recognized As Safe" food additives and are generally used as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent, herbicide, and artificial flavor in diverse industrial applications. It is produced via biological pathways using Propionibacterium and some anaerobic bacteria. However, its commercial chemical synthesis from the petroleum-based feedstock is the conventional production process bit results in some environmental issues. Novel biological approaches using microorganisms and renewable biomass have attracted considerable recent attention due to economic advantages as well as great adaptation with the green technology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of important biotechnological aspects of propionic acid production using recent technologies such as employment of co-culture, genetic and metabolic engineering, immobilization technique and efficient bioreactor systems.

  8. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and concepts of systems biology with theoretical foundations including genetic, co-expression and metabolic networks. It will introduce to multi omics components of systems biology from genomics, through transcriptomics, proteomics to metabolomics. In addition it will highlight statistical methods...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  9. 78 FR 49528 - Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...] Consolidation of Wound Care Products Containing Live Cells AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... certain wound care products containing live cells from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health... CDRH and CBER. FDA believes that as more wound care products containing live cells are developed such...

  10. Implementation of Plasma Fractionation in Biological Medicines Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi Hosseini, Kamran; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Context The major motivation for the preparation of the plasma derived biological medicine was the treatment of casualties from the Second World War. Due to the high expenses for preparation of plasma derived products, achievement of self-sufficiency in human plasma biotechnological industry is an important goal for developing countries. Evidence Acquisition The complexity of the blood plasma was first revealed by the Nobel Prize laureate, Arne Tiselius and Theodor Svedberg, which resulted in...

  11. National experience in radiosterelization or radiodescontamination of biological products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Romay, Z.; Otero, I.; Chavez, A.; Prieto, E.; Sainz, D.; Rodriguez, R.; Diaz, D.

    1997-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are especially important when other chemical and physical methods can't be used, or they don't give the result required, for which the employment of advanced technologies for the sterilization is found in ascent at world level. To such effect, the International Atomic Energy Agency has, sponsored a coordinated program for the radiosterilization of medical and biological products in Latin America, in which Cuba participates. (author) [es

  12. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  13. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  14. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  15. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  16. Sustained climate warming drives declining marine biological productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. Keith; Fu, Weiwei; Primeau, Francois; Britten, Gregory L.; Lindsay, Keith; Long, Matthew; Doney, Scott C.; Mahowald, Natalie; Hoffman, Forrest; Randerson, James T.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change projections to the year 2100 may miss physical-biogeochemical feedbacks that emerge later from the cumulative effects of climate warming. In a coupled climate simulation to the year 2300, the westerly winds strengthen and shift poleward, surface waters warm, and sea ice disappears, leading to intense nutrient trapping in the Southern Ocean. The trapping drives a global-scale nutrient redistribution, with net transfer to the deep ocean. Ensuing surface nutrient reductions north of 30°S drive steady declines in primary production and carbon export (decreases of 24 and 41%, respectively, by 2300). Potential fishery yields, constrained by lower–trophic-level productivity, decrease by more than 20% globally and by nearly 60% in the North Atlantic. Continued high levels of greenhouse gas emissions could suppress marine biological productivity for a millennium.

  17. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  18. Assessment of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria and shrimp production in ponds treated with biological products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of biological products on the levels of nitrogen and sulphur cycle bacteria in shrimp culture systems of West Bengal, India. Methods: The pond water and sediment samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters as per standard methods. The bacteria involved in ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, sulphate reduction and sulphur oxidation were enumerated by most probable number technique. Results: The semi-intensive and modified extensive shrimp farms used a variety of biological products during various stages of production. No biological products were used in traditional farms. The water and sediment samples of modified extensive system recorded significantly higher mean heterotrophic bacterial counts. The counts of ammonia, nitrite and sulphur oxidizers, and nitrate and sulphate reducers varied among the systems. The cycling of nitrogen and sulphur appeared to be affected with the intensification of culture practices. Conclusions: The application of biological products in certain systems helped to maintain the bacteria involved in nitrogen and sulphur cycles and safe levels of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate. An assessment of these metabolically active bacteria in shrimp culture ponds and the application of right kind microbial products would help ameliorate the organic pollution in shrimp aquaculture.

  19. Regeneration of nutrients and biological productivity in Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Somasundar, K.; Qasim, S.Z.

    structure and productivity of Antarctic waters (El-Sayed 1967, Gordon & Goldberg 1970, Deacon 1982). However, detailed studies on the physico-chemical and biological characteristics have been conducted only in a few areas such as the Weddell Sea, Drake... Passage and Scotia Sea (Deacon 1977, El-Sayed &, Taguchi. 1981, Ronner et al. 1983), Ross Sea (Biggs 1982, Smith & Nelson 1985) and some regions of the Indian Ocean SC!ctor (Gambaroni et al. 1982, Le Jahan & Treguer 1985). From these studies it has been...

  20. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Mars, A.E.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.; de Vrije, T.; van Niel, E.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO 2 imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient

  1. Yeast synthetic biology for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunah; Yoo, Su Jin; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2015-02-01

    The production of recombinant therapeutic proteins is one of the fast-growing areas of molecular medicine and currently plays an important role in treatment of several diseases. Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microbial host cells that offer unique advantages in producing biopharmaceutical proteins. Yeasts are capable of robust growth on simple media, readily accommodate genetic modifications, and incorporate typical eukaryotic post-translational modifications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional baker's yeast that has been used as a major host for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, several nonconventional yeast species including Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica have gained increasing attention as alternative hosts for the industrial production of recombinant proteins. In this review, we address the established and emerging genetic tools and host strains suitable for recombinant protein production in various yeast expression systems, particularly focusing on current efforts toward synthetic biology approaches in developing yeast cell factories for the production of therapeutic recombinant proteins. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  2. Capturing Biological Activity in Natural Product Fragments by Chemical Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Erika A; Gademann, Karl

    2016-03-14

    Natural products have had an immense influence on science and have directly led to the introduction of many drugs. Organic chemistry, and its unique ability to tailor natural products through synthesis, provides an extraordinary approach to unlock the full potential of natural products. In this Review, an approach based on natural product derived fragments is presented that can successfully address some of the current challenges in drug discovery. These fragments often display significantly reduced molecular weights, reduced structural complexity, a reduced number of synthetic steps, while retaining or even improving key biological parameters such as potency or selectivity. Examples from various stages of the drug development process up to the clinic are presented. In addition, this process can be leveraged by recent developments such as genome mining, antibody-drug conjugates, and computational approaches. All these concepts have the potential to identify the next generation of drug candidates inspired by natural products. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. 78 FR 70306 - Distribution of In Vitro Diagnostic Products Labeled for Research Use Only or Investigational Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug Administration, 1401... Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N, Rockville, MD 20852-1448... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0305...

  4. QSAR Study of the Biologically Active Organosulfurs in Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of two sets of a total of 30 different polysulfides were investigated using QSAR. The semiempirical AM1 in Gaussian 2003 for windows was used to optimize the structures whereas a subsequent calculation of hundreds of various types of descriptors at the density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* using CODESSA package was employed. The known 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity data (IC50 of 19 polysulfides out of the whole data set were correlated in a multiple linear regression procedures with the computed descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlations were five- and four- parameter equations with good statistical parameters; R2= 0.9981, R2CV = 0.9970 and R2=9967, R2CV = 0.9933 respectively. The models concluded that biological activity of polysulfides is mainly attributed to quantum-chemical, geometrical and topological descriptors with neither electrostatic contribution nor chief role of sulfur atoms. Also sulfur related descriptors were not the most significant contributors in the concluded models. The obtained models were efficiently employed to estimate the biological activities of the other 11 polysulfides available in natural products such as garlic and mushroom.

  5. Recent advances on biological production of difructose dianhydride III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Guang, Cuie; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-04-01

    Difructose dianhydride III (DFA III) is a cyclic difructose containing two reciprocal glycosidic linkages. It is easily generated with a small amount by sucrose caramelization and thus occurs in a wide range of food-stuffs during food processing. DFA III has half sweetness but only 1/15 energy of sucrose, showing potential industrial application as low-calorie sucrose substitute. In addition, it displays many benefits including prebiotic effect, low cariogenicity property, and hypocholesterolemic effect, and improves absorption of minerals, flavonoids, and immunoglobulin G. DFA III is biologically produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase, EC 4.2.2.18). Plenty of DFA III-producing enzymes have been identified. The crystal structure of inulin fructotransferase has been determined, and its molecular modification has been performed to improve the catalytic activity and structural stability. Large-scale production of DFA III has been studied by various IFTases, especially using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor. In this article, the recent findings on physiological effects of DFA III are briefly summarized; the research progresses on identification, expression, and molecular modification of IFTase and large-scale biological production of DFA III by IFTase are reviewed in detail.

  6. 78 FR 60884 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics...

  7. 76 FR 44016 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research...

  8. 77 FR 3780 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. The...

  9. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL...

  10. BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND FORMULATION OF Bacillus subtilis FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Muis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis is a widespread bacterium found in soil, water, and air. It controls the growth of certain harmful bacteria and fungi, presumably by competing for nutrients, growth sites on plants, and by directly colonizing and attaching to fungal pathogens. When applied to seeds, it colonizes the developing root system of the plants and continues to live on the root system and provides protection throughout the growing season. The study on biomass production and formulation of B. subtilis for biological control was conducted in the laboratory of Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB-CA, College, Laguna from May to July 2005. The objective of the study was to determine the optimum pH and a good carbon source for biomass production of B. subtilis and to develop a seed treatment formulation of B. subtilis as biological control agent. Results showed that the optimum pH for growth of B. subtilis was pH 6 (1.85 x 109 cfu/ml. In laboratory tests for biomass production using cassava flour, corn flour, rice flour, and brown sugar as carbon sources, it grew best in brown sugar plus yeast extract medium (6.8 x 108 cfu ml-1 in sterile distilled water and 7.8 x 108 cfu ml-1 in coconut water. In test for bacterial biomass carriers, talc proved to be the best in terms of number of bacteria recovered from the seeds (3.98 x 105 cfu seed-1.

  11. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  12. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  13. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  14. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  15. Synthetic Biology in the FDA Realm: Toward Productive Oversight Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Hall, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) is expected to create tremendous opportunities in a wide range of areas, including in foods, therapeutics, and diagnostics subject to regulatory oversight by the United States Food and Drug Administration. At the same time, there is substantial basis for concern about the uncertainties of accurately assessing the human health and environmental risks of such SB products. As such, SB is the latest in a string of emerging technologies that is the subject of calls for new approaches to regulation and oversight that involve "thinking ahead" to anticipate governance challenges upstream of technological development and adopting oversight mechanisms that are both adaptive to new information about risks and reflexive to performance data and feedback on policy outcomes over time. These new approaches constitute a marked departure from the status quo, and their development and implementation will require considerable time, resources, and reallocation of responsibilities. Furthermore, in order to develop an appropriate oversight response, adaptive or otherwise, there is first a need to identify the specific types and natures of applications, uncertainties, and regulatory issues that are likely to pose oversight challenges. This article presents our vision for a Productive Oversight Assessment (POA) approach in which the abilities and deficits of an oversight system are evaluated with the aim of enabling productive decisions (i.e., timely, feasible, effective for achieving desired policy outcomes) about oversight while also building capacity to facilitate broader governance efforts. The value ofPOA is two-fold. First, it will advance the development of a generalizable approach for making productive planning and decision-making about the oversight of any given new technology that presents challenges and uncertainties for any given oversight system whose policy goals are implicated by that technology. Second, this effort can enhance the very processes

  16. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  17. Giant Icebergs and Biological Productivity on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uceda, E.; Fairen, A. G.; Woodworth-Lynas, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have previously presented evidence for furrows, dump structures and chains of craters that we interpret as indication for giant iceberg transport and grounding on very cold oceans on early Mars, both in the northern plains and in the Hellas basin. Structures include: 1. Furrows: The furrows are located in elevated areas or on local topographic highs, particularly on the Hellas basin. We interpret these features in terms of iceberg rafting and grounding. 2. Chains of craters: High-resolution images of Utopia and Isidis Basins reveal chains of crater-like structures several hundred meters wide and 1 to 5 km long. 3. Dump structures: Dark boulder clusters are revealed at large scales by their slightly darker tonality with respect to the surrounding terrain. These clusters have sizes ranging from several hundred meters to 1-2 km. On Earth's oceans, giant icebergs release melting water containing nanoparticulate iron and other micronutrients, which support biological metabolism and growth to the near-coastal euphotic ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. This iron limitation of primary producers has been documented in large regions of the Earth's oceans, most notably in polar areas proximal to significant glacial activity, and is counterbalanced by the substantial enrichment of terrigenous material supplied by icebergs. The biological productivity extends hundreds of kilometres from the giant icebergs, and persists for over one month after the iceberg passes. Here we propose that giant iceberg activity on early Mars could have promoted a similar enhancing of biological productivity on the planet's oceans. The identification of specific biosignatures in icebergs trails on Earth could give clues as to what kind of biosignatures could be expected on the ancient Mars ocean floors, and where to look for them. In particular, assuming that life existed on Mars coeval to glacial activity, enhanced concentrations of organic carbon could be anticipated near giant iceberg

  18. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  19. 78 FR 20663 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function..., Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA. FDA intends to...

  20. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Mainik, Annette; Parsons, Juliana; Jérôme, Hanna; Hartmann, Andrea; Lamer, Stephanie; Schaaf, Andreas; Schlosser, Andreas; Zipfel, Peter F; Reski, Ralf; Decker, Eva L

    2011-04-01

    The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a moss-derived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. 75 FR 47605 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Laboratory of Vector Borne Virus Diseases, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review...

  3. 76 FR 55397 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Laboratory of Method Development, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center...

  4. 76 FR 13646 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review...

  5. Development of biological platform for the autotrophic production of biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nymul

    The research described herein is aimed at developing an advanced biofuel platform that has the potential to surpass the natural rate of solar energy capture and CO2 fixation. The underlying concept is to use the electricity from a renewable source, such as wind or solar, to capture CO 2 via a biological agent, such as a microbe, into liquid fuels that can be used for the transportation sector. In addition to being renewable, the higher rate of energy capture by photovoltaic cells than natural photosynthesis is expected to facilitate higher rate of liquid fuel production than traditional biofuel processes. The envisioned platform is part of ARPA-E's (Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy) Electrofuels initiative which aims at supplementing the country's petroleum based fuel production with renewable liquid fuels that can integrate easily with the existing refining and distribution infrastructure (http://arpae. energy.gov/ProgramsProjects/Electrofuels.aspx). The Electrofuels initiative aimed to develop liquid biofuels that avoid the issues encountered in the current generation of biofuels: (1) the reliance of biomass-derived technologies on the inefficient process of photosynthesis, (2) the relatively energy- and resource-intensive nature of agronomic processes, and (3) the occupation of large areas of arable land for feedstock production. The process proceeds by the capture of solar energy into electrical energy via photovoltaic cells, using the generated electricity to split water into molecular hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), and feeding these gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from point sources such as a biomass or coal-fired power plant, to a microbial bioprocessing platform. The proposed microbial bioprocessing platform leverages a chemolithoautotrophic microorganism (Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha) naturally able to utilize these gases as growth substrates, and genetically modified to produce a triterpene hydrocarbon fuel

  6. Focus adjustment method for CBERS 3 and 4 satellites Mux camera to be performed in air condition and its experimental verification for best performance in orbital vacuum condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, Lucimara C. N.; Malavolta, Alexandre T.; Modugno, Rodrigo G.; Vales, Luiz F.; Carvalho, Erica G.; Evangelista, Sérgio; Stefani, Mario A.; de Castro Neto, Jarbas C.

    2017-11-01

    The first Brazilian remote sensing multispectral camera (MUX) is currently under development at Opto Eletronica S.A. It consists of a four-spectral-band sensor covering a 450nm to 890nm wavelength range. This camera will provide images within a 20m ground resolution at nadir. The MUX camera is part of the payload of the upcoming Sino-Brazilian satellites CBERS 3&4 (China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellite). The preliminary alignment between the optical system and the CCD sensor, which is located at the focal plane assembly, was obtained in air condition, clean room environment. A collimator was used for the performance evaluation of the camera. The preliminary performance evaluation of the optical channel was registered by compensating the collimator focus position due to changes in the test environment, as an air-to-vacuum environment transition leads to a defocus process in this camera. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm that the alignment of the camera must always be attained ensuring that its best performance is reached for an orbital vacuum condition. For this reason and as a further step on the development process, the MUX camera Qualification Model was tested and evaluated inside a thermo-vacuum chamber and submitted to an as-orbit vacuum environment. In this study, the influence of temperature fields was neglected. This paper reports on the performance evaluation and discusses the results for this camera when operating within those mentioned test conditions. The overall optical tests and results show that the "in air" adjustment method was suitable to be performed, as a critical activity, to guarantee the equipment according to its design requirements.

  7. High-density spore production of a B. cereus aquaculture biological agent by nutrient supplementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available conditions in systems used to rear Cyprinus carpio make this isolate an excellent candidate for aquaculture applications. Production cost is an important consideration in development of commercially relevant biological products, and this study examines...

  8. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  9. 77 FR 42319 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... consideration of the appropriateness of cell lines derived from human tumors for vaccine manufacture. FDA...

  10. 75 FR 2876 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... virus vaccine for the 2010 - 2011 influenza season. FDA intends to make background material available to...

  11. 75 FR 59729 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... vaccines for a post-exposure prophylaxis indication using the animal rule. On November 17, 2010, the...

  12. 75 FR 17929 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and indicated for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in...

  13. 76 FR 52668 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug... notice of meeting of the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. This meeting was... INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of July 22, 2011, FDA announced that a meeting of the Vaccines and...

  14. 76 FR 3639 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... the influenza virus vaccine for the 2011-2012 influenza season. The committee will also hear an update...

  15. 78 FR 5465 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide... virus vaccine for the 2013- 2014 influenza season. FDA intends to make background material available to...

  16. 77 FR 63839 - Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) Virus Monovalent Vaccine manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. On November 15, 2012, the committee will meet...

  17. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological...... control of stored-product pests and has considered a number of existing and potential fields for application of biological control. Three situations were identified where biological control would be a valuable component of integrated pest management: (1) Empty room treatment against stored-product mites......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  18. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  19. Advancement in bioprocess technology: parallels between microbial natural products and cell culture biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Khetan, Anurag; Malmberg, Li-Hong; Zhou, Weichang; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of natural products and industrial microbiology nearly eight decades ago propelled an era of bioprocess innovation. Half a century later, recombinant protein technology spurred the tremendous growth of biologics and added mammalian cells to the forefront of industrial producing cells in terms of the value of products generated. This review highlights the process technology of natural products and protein biologics. Despite the separation in time, there is a remarkable similarity in their progression. As the new generation of therapeutics for gene and cell therapy emerges, its process technology development can take inspiration from that of natural products and biologics.

  20. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Espaux, Leo; Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Li, Rachel; Keasling, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. We further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Espaux, L; Mendez-Perez, D; Li, R; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-23

    The risks of maintaining current CO2 emission trends have led to interest in producing biofuels using engineered microbes. Microbial biofuels reduce emissions because CO2 produced by fuel combustion is offset by CO2 captured by growing biomass, which is later used as feedstock for biofuel fermentation. Hydrocarbons found in petroleum fuels share striking similarity with biological lipids. Here in this paper we review synthetic metabolic pathways based on fatty acid and isoprenoid metabolism to produce alkanes and other molecules suitable as biofuels. Lastly, we further discuss engineering strategies to optimize engineered biosynthetic routes, as well as the potential of synthetic biology for sustainable manufacturing.

  2. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  3. Advances in reproductive biology and seed production systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is the main eucalypt species grown in Australian plantations. The focus on seedling deployment systems, coupled with exploitation of large, open-pollinated base populations for breeding purposes over the last two decades, has required a detailed understanding of the reproductive biology of this ...

  4. The chemistry and biology of guanidine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinck, Roberto G S; Bertonha, Ariane F; Takaki, Mirelle; Rodriguez, Julie P G

    2017-11-15

    Covering: 2015 and 2016The chemistry and biology of natural guanidines isolated from microbial culture media, from marine invertebrates, as well as from terrestrial plants and animals, are reviewed. Emphasis is directed to the biosynthesis, total synthesis, ecological roles as well as on the evolution of guanidines isolated from natural sources.

  5. Very-large-scale production of antibodies in plants: The biologization of manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Buyel, J.F.; Twyman, R.M.; Fischer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Gene technology has facilitated the biologization of manufacturing, i.e. the use and production of complex biological molecules and systems at an industrial scale. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the major class of biopharmaceutical products, but they are typically used to treat specific diseases which individually have comparably low incidences. The therapeutic potential of mAbs could also be used for more prevalent diseases, but this would require a massive increase in production...

  6. Biology Needs a Modern Assessment System for Professional Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Lucinda A.; Maddison, David R.; Guralnick, Robert; Piwowar, Heather A.; Jameson, Mary Liz; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Hill, Andrew; Vis, Morgan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated in large part by the advent of the Internet, research productivity in many academic disciplines has changed dramatically over the last two decades. However, the assessment system that governs professional success has not kept pace, creating a mismatch between modes of scholarly productivity and academic assessment criteria. In this…

  7. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  8. What drives the biological productivity of the northern Indian Ocean?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Gauns, M.; Sardessai, S.

    The northern Indian Ocean consists of two unique tropical basins: the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Arabian Sea is one of the most highly productive regions of the world ocean, while the Bay of Bengal is a basin of low productivity...

  9. Biocatalysis. Biological systems for the production of chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Held, M.; Schmid, A.; van Beilen, J. B.; Witholt, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biocatalysis harnesses the catalytic potential of enzymes to produce building blocks and end-products for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Located at the interface between fermentation processes and petrol-based chemistry, biotransformation processes broaden the toolbox for bioconversion of organic compounds to functionalized products

  10. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  11. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements...... need to be done. We have introduced the genes necessary for vanillin production in an identical manner in two different yeast strains S288c and CEN.PK,where comprehensive – omics datasets are available, hence, allowing vanillin production in the two strain backgrounds to be evaluated and compared......Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo...

  12. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  13. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be tested at a laboratory approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service using the Coggins... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics. 113.53 Section 113.53 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  14. Biological production of hydroxylated aromatics : Optimization strategies for Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, A.

    2010-01-01

    To replace environmentally unfriendly petrochemical production processes, the demand for bio-based production of organic chemicals is increasing. This thesis focuses on the biological production of hydroxylated aromatics from renewable substrates by engineered P. putida S12 including several cases

  15. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of Antioxidant Pyrrolomorpholine Spiroketal Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, Alyssa Leigh

    The pyrrolomorpholine spiroketal natural product family is comprised of epimeric furanose and pyranose isomers. These compounds were isolated from diverse plant species, all of which are used as traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Notably, the spiroketal natural products acortatarins A and B exhibit antioxidant activity in a diabetic renal cell model, significantly attenuating hyperglycemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. The xylapyrrosides, additional members of the family, also inhibit t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Accordingly, these natural products have therapeutic potential for the treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies, and synthetic access would provide an exciting opportunity to investigate bioactivity and mechanism of action. Herein, we report the stereoselective synthesis of acortatarins A and B, furanose members of the pyrrolomorpholine spiroketal family. Our synthetic route was expanded to synthesize the pyranose congeners, thus completing entire D-enantiomeric family of natural products. Efficient access towards these scaffolds enabled systematic analogue synthesis, investigation of mechanism-of-action, and the discovery of novel antioxidants.

  16. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄.

  17. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  18. Metabolic engineering with systems biology tools to optimize production of prokaryotic secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering using systems biology tools is increasingly applied to overproduce secondary metabolites for their potential industrial production. In this Highlight, recent relevant metabolic engineering studies are analyzed with emphasis on host selection and engineering approaches for th...

  19. Some aspects of biological production and fishery resources of the EEZ of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Region and season-wise biological production in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India has been computed from the data of more than twenty years available at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography...

  20. Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardesai, S.; Narvekar, J.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.

    -1 Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons S. Prasanna Kumar, M. Nuncio, N. Ramaiah, S. Sardesai, Jayu Narvekar, Veronica Fernandes, Jane T. Paul National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula...

  1. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  2. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  3. High biological productivity in the central Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon driven by Ekman pumping and lateral advection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Madhupratap, M.; DileepKumar, M.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; DeSouza, S.N.; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    Open oceans are generally oligotrophic and support less biological production. Results from the central Arabian Sea show that it may be an exception to this. We provide the observational evidence of fairly high biological production (up to 1700 mg C...

  4. Biological production of monoethanolamine by engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.J.; Médici, R.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered for the production of monoethanolamine (MEA) from glucose via the decarboxylation of the central metabolite l-serine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme l-serine decarboxylase (SDC).The host was first evaluated for its tolerance towards MEA as well as its

  5. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crable, B.R.; Plugge, C.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the

  6. Production of biological nanoparticles from Θ- lactalbumin for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, the concept of controlled release of encapsulated ingredients at the right place and the right time has become of more interest to the food and pharmaceutical industry. Whey proteins are valuable by-products from the cheese industry. The physicochemical properties of the whey proteins suggest that they ...

  7. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  8. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  9. In situ biomolecule production by bacteria; a synthetic biology approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Bueso, Yensi; Lehouritis, Panos; Tangney, Mark

    2018-04-10

    The ability to modify existing microbiota at different sites presents enormous potential for local or indirect management of various diseases. Because bacteria can be maintained for lengthy periods in various regions of the body, they represent a platform with enormous potential for targeted production of biomolecules, which offer tremendous promise for therapeutic and diagnostic approaches for various diseases. While biological medicines are currently limited in the clinic to patient administration of exogenously produced biomolecules from engineered cells, in situ production of biomolecules presents enormous scope in medicine and beyond. The slow pace and high expense of traditional research approaches has particularly hampered the development of biological medicines. It may be argued that bacterial-based medicine has been "waiting" for the advent of enabling technology. We propose that this technology is Synthetic Biology, and that the wait is over. Synthetic Biology facilitates a systematic approach to programming living entities and/or their products, using an approach to Research and Development (R&D) that facilitates rapid, cheap, accessible, yet sophisticated product development. Full engagement with the Synthetic Biology approach to R&D can unlock the potential for bacteria as medicines for cancer and other indications. In this review, we describe how by employing Synthetic Biology, designer bugs can be used as drugs, drug-production factories or diagnostic devices, using oncology as an exemplar for the concept of in situ biomolecule production in medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This two-volume work provides an overview on various state of the art experimental and statistical methods, modeling approaches and software tools that are available to generate, integrate and analyze multi-omics datasets in order to detect biomarkers, genetic markers and potential causal genes...... for improved animal production and health. The book will contain online resources where additional data and programs can be accessed. Some chapters also come with computer programming codes and example datasets to provide readers hands-on (computer) exercises. This first volume presents the basic principles...... and (bioinformatic) tools available to model and analyse these data sets along with phenotypes in animal production and health. This book is suitable for both students and teachers in animal sciences and veterinary medicine as well as to researchers in this discipline....

  11. Production of biological reagents for radioimmunoassay second antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, V.C.; Silva, S.R. da; Bellini, M.H.; Lin, L.H.

    1992-02-01

    The experimental production of second antibody to be used in hormonal assays, in which the first antibody is raised in rabbits, is described. Four sheep were immunized with the rabbit immunoglobulin prepared at IPEN-CNEN laboratory. Their antisera were evaluated by the human thyrotropin radioimmunoassay employing materials provided by the National Hormone and Pituitary Program (USA), in comparison with a reference antiserum of known quality, produced in goat by the Radioassay Systems Laboratories - RSL (USA). From the fourth booster injection the animals developed antiserum with titer similar to that exhibited by the commercial product, even presenting higher values. These antisera are now being examinated for the optimal conditions of precipitation before be packed for future use and distribution. (author)

  12. Time-ordered product expansions for computational stochastic system biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The time-ordered product framework of quantum field theory can also be used to understand salient phenomena in stochastic biochemical networks. It is used here to derive Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for chemical reaction networks; consequently, the SSA can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams. It is also used here to derive other, more general simulation and parameter-learning algorithms including simulation algorithms for networks of stochastic reaction-like processes operating on parameterized objects, and also hybrid stochastic reaction/differential equation models in which systems of ordinary differential equations evolve the parameters of objects that can also undergo stochastic reactions. Thus, the time-ordered product expansion can be used systematically to derive simulation and parameter-fitting algorithms for stochastic systems. (paper)

  13. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    -producing Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus has been applied on olive cake supplemented with glucose in order to evaluate any inhibitory effect that olive cake might have on the microbial growth and metabolism. It was shown that the strain was able to grow and produce ethanol up to a TS content of 100 g per L. Further...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  14. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the most important aroma compound based on market value, and natural vanillin is extracted from the cured seed pods of the Vanilla orchid. Most of the world’s vanillin, however, is obtained by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals or wood pulp lignins. As an alternative, de novo biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of...

  15. Extensive Dark Biological Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Brackish and Freshwater Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Hansel, Colleen M; Voelker, Bettina M; Lamborg, Carl H

    2016-03-15

    Within natural waters, photodependent processes are generally considered the predominant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a suite of biogeochemically important molecules. However, recent discoveries of dark particle-associated ROS production in aquatic environments and extracellular ROS production by various microorganisms point to biological activity as a significant source of ROS in the absence of light. Thus, the objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of dark biological production of the ROS superoxide (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in brackish and freshwater ponds. Here we show that the ROS superoxide and hydrogen peroxide were present in dark waters at comparable concentrations as in sunlit waters. This suggests that, at least for the short-lived superoxide species, light-independent processes were an important control on ROS levels in these natural waters. Indeed, we demonstrated that dark biological production of ROS extensively occurred in brackish and freshwater environments, with greater dark ROS production rates generally observed in the aphotic relative to the photic zone. Filtering and formaldehyde inhibition confirmed the biological nature of a majority of this dark ROS production, which likely involved phytoplankton, particle-associated heterotrophic bacteria, and NADH-oxidizing enzymes. We conclude that biological ROS production is widespread, including regions devoid of light, thereby expanding the relevance of these reactive molecules to all regions of our oxygenated global habit.

  16. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-01

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient

  17. Yeast-Based Synthetic Biology Platform for Antimicrobial Peptide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jicong; de la Fuente-Nunez, Cesar; Ou, Rui Wen; Torres, Marcelo Der Torossian; Pande, Santosh G; Sinskey, Anthony J; Lu, Timothy K

    2018-03-16

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging global health threats in our society. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. However, they are limited by their high manufacturing cost. Engineering living organisms represents a promising approach to produce such molecules in an inexpensive manner. Here, we genetically modified the yeast Pichia pastoris to produce the prototypical AMP apidaecin Ia using a fusion protein approach that leverages the beneficial properties ( e.g., stability) of human serum albumin. The peptide was successfully isolated from the fusion protein construct, purified, and demonstrated to have bioactivity against Escherichia coli. To demonstrate this approach as a manufacturing solution to AMPs, we scaled-up production in bioreactors to generate high AMP yields. We envision that this system could lead to improved AMP biomanufacturing platforms.

  18. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-15

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

  19. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  20. The biological productivity of natural forage plants` soils of Tersko-Sulakskaya lowland of Dagestan

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Kotenko; M. A. Balamirzoev

    2009-01-01

    The present condition of soil cover and biological productivity of Tersko-Sulakskaya lowland’s forage plants is studied. The conducted investigations showed that overwrite forage plants on the salted soils have low forage productivity and nutritive value. The soils under it need a deep melioration measures.

  1. The emerging role of systems biology for engineering protein production in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Chung; Chiang, Austin Wt; Shamie, Isaac; Samoudi, Mojtaba; Gutierrez, Jahir M; Lewis, Nathan E

    2017-12-06

    To meet the ever-growing demand for effective, safe, and affordable protein therapeutics, decades of intense efforts have aimed to maximize the quantity and quality of recombinant proteins produced in CHO cells. Bioprocessing innovations and cell engineering efforts have improved product titer; however, uncharacterized cellular processes and gene regulatory mechanisms still hinder cell growth, specific productivity, and protein quality. Herein, we summarize recent advances in systems biology and data-driven approaches aiming to unravel how molecular pathways, cellular processes, and extrinsic factors (e.g. media supplementation) influence recombinant protein production. In particular, as the available omics data for CHO cells continue to grow, predictive models and screens will be increasingly used to unravel the biological drivers of protein production, which can be used with emerging genome editing technologies to rationally engineer cells to further control the quantity, quality and affordability of many biologic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient availability limits biological production in Arctic sea ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi Louise; Thamdrup, Bo; Jeppesen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    nutrient limitation in melt ponds. We also document that the addition of nutrients, although at relative high concentrations, can stimulate biological productivity at several trophic levels. Given the projected increase in first-year ice, increased melt pond coverage during the Arctic spring and potential......Every spring and summer melt ponds form at the surface of polar sea ice and become habitats where biological production may take place. Previous studies report a large variability in the productivity, but the causes are unknown. We investigated if nutrients limit the productivity in these first...... additional nutrient supply from, e.g. terrestrial sources imply that biological activity of melt ponds may become increasingly important for the sympagic carbon cycling in the future Arctic....

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  4. Consideration of religious sentiments while selecting a biological product for knee arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepak; Goyal, Anjali; Brittberg, Mats

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing use of various synthetic and biological products in orthopaedics. The use of a biological product can be a major area of concern for patients of various cultures/religions. The purpose of this work is to study various restrictions in different faiths and their compatibility with available products focused on cartilage repair. A systematic search in several databases, CINAHL, EMBASE, Global health, PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane collaboration, was performed to find out various religious beliefs of some major religions regarding the use of animal products. Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Jewish and Buddhist faiths were studied to find out whether animal-derived surgical implants are permitted. Major religious scholars were asked about their opinions, and guidelines related to human/religious ethics were evaluated. A market survey was carried out to find out biological contents of various products and their compatibility. Jews and Muslims have religious restrictions for porcine products, while Hindus reject bovine products. Vegetarian Hindus reject usage of any animal product. Most Christians do not have any restrictions except those who follow vegetarian dietary regulations. Though there is no prohibition for the use of animal products in Buddhism, a code of non-violence to animals is being followed. However, difference of opinion exists about interpretation of these dietary guidelines for surgical usage amongst various scholars. Products of biological origin have a definite restriction for various religions, with few exceptions. Surgeons should know the source of the product and should be aware of the basic requirements of the patient's faith. Patient should be informed about the source of the product and alternative if available, and an informed consent may be considered. Type of study, Level V.

  5. Occurrence, pathways and implications of biological production of reactive oxygen species in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Hansel, C. M.; Voelker, B. M.; Lamborg, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a critical role in the redox cycling of both toxic (e.g., Hg) and nutrient (e.g., Fe) metals. Despite the discovery of extracellular ROS production in various microbial cultures, including fungi, algae and bacteria, photo-dependent processes are generally considered as the predominant source of ROS in natural waters. Here we show that biological production of ROS is ubiquitous and occurs at a significant rate in freshwater and brackish water environments. Water samples were collected from three freshwater and one brackish water ponds in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, periodically from 2012 to 2014. Production of O2- and H2O2 were measured in dark incubations of natural water using a chemiluminescent and a colorimetric probe, respectively. Rates of biological ROS production were obtained by comparing unfiltered with 0.2-μm filtered samples. The role of biological activity in ROS production was confirmed by the cessation of ROS production upon addition of formaldehyde. In surface water, production rates of O2- ranged from undetectable to 96.0 ± 30.0 nmol L-1 h-1, and production rates of H2O2 varied between 9.9 ± 1.3 nmol L-1 h-1 and 145.6 ± 11.2 nmol L-1 h-1. The maximum production rates of both ROS were observed in mid-summer 2013, which coincides with peak biological activity. ROS production in the water from aphotic zone was greater than in the water from photic zone. Thus, non-light dependent biological processes are likely the major contributors to ROS production in this system. Moreover, O2- production appeared to be enhanced by NADH and inhibited by proteinase-K, suggesting the possible involvement of NADH oxidoreductases in this process. The potential role of different microbial communities in ROS production, and the implications of biological ROS production for mercury speciation will also be discussed.

  6. A turning point for natural product discovery - ESF-EMBO research conference : synthetic biology of antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takano, Eriko; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Breitling, Rainer

    Synthetic Biology is in a critical phase of its development: it has finally reached the point where it can move from proof-of-principle studies to real-world applications. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis, especially the discovery and production of antibiotics, is a particularly relevant target

  7. Biological waste by-production costs in forest management and possibilities for their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kadlec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastes in forestry were observed from view of their by-production in silvicultural and logging operations. There were identified points where biological waste was produced in this paper, waste costs ratio for silvicultural and logging operations and were made suggestions for reduction of these costs. Biological waste costs give 34.4% of total costs of silvicultural operations and 30% of total costs of logging operations. Natural regeneration and minor forest produce operations are opportunities for reduction of these costs.

  8. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  9. Xenotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organs Letter - ARCHIVED Xenotransplantation Guidances Related Links Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation World Health Organization International Xenotransplantation Information Recalls & Alerts Recalls (Biologics) CBER-Regulated Products: Shortages and Discontinuations Report a Problem to the Center ...

  10. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  11. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use.

  12. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  13. Measurement of final container residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J C; Wheeler, R M; Etz, N; Del Grosso, A

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research has changed its regulations pertaining to residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products as published in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations for Food and Drugs. The new regulation requires that each lot of dried product be tested for residual moisture and meet and not exceed established limits as specified by an approved method on file in the product license application. The gravimetric or loss-on-drying method is no longer listed as the required method; the 1.0% moisture limit is no longer specifically stated in the regulation. These revisions were made to bring the regulation into line with changes in residual moisture testing methods and the results obtained when new testing methods were applied to the determination of residual moisture. This is illustrated with data for Measles Virus Vaccine Live and Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine using final container residual moisture test results obtained by the gravimetric, coulometric Karl Fischer, thermogravimetric and thermogravimetric/mass spectrometric methods. Guidelines for the determination of residual moisture in dried biological products have been issued to describe residual moisture test methods and procedures used to set product residual moisture limits. For most products levels of residual moisture should be low, usually from less than 1.0% to 3.0%, so that the viability, immunologic potency and therefore the stability of the product is not compromised over time.

  14. The Use of Alternative Raw Material in Production of Pastry Products as a Progressive Direction in Creating the Products of High Biological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janа Bachinska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the use of alternative vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of pastry products with high biological value; it presents the results of evaluation of commodity of the developed products and compares them with the main samples presented in Kharkiv trade network. The feasibility of using a mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds in the technology of pastry production to extend the range of confectionery products of high biological value and products with reduced calories has been proved. Adding the mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds to biscuits and cakes positively affected the chemical composition of the ready-made product, saturating it with useful and necessary to human body mineral elements, vitamins, dietary fiber.

  15. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  16. Biological activities of Agave by-products and their possible applications in food and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Julio Cesar; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Peña-Ramos, Etna Aida; González-Ríos, Humberto

    2017-10-11

    Agave leaves are considered a by-product of alcoholic beverage production (tequila, mezcal and bacanora) because they are discarded during the production process, despite accounting for approximately 50% of the total plant weight. These by-products constitute a potential source of Agave extracts rich in bioactive compounds, such as saponins, phenolic compounds and terpenes, and possess different biological effects, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo tests (e.g. antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, antiparasitic and anticancer activity). Despite their positive results in biological assays, Agave extracts have not been widely evaluated in food systems and pharmaceutical areas, and these fields represent a potential route to improve the usage of Agave plants as food additives and agents for treating medical diseases. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Leticia Colin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel.

  18. New approaches to estimation of peat deposits for production of biologically active compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Yurchenko, V. I.; Krasnik, V. G.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2009-04-01

    It is known, that biologically active preparations from peat increase animals productivity as well as resistance against stress-factors and have adaptogeneous, antioxidant, immunomodulative properties. Optymal choice of peat deposits for the production of biologically active preparations supposes the detailed comparative analysis of peat properties from different deposits. For this the cadastre of peat of Ukraine is developed in the humic substances laboratory named after prof. Khristeva L.A. (Dnipropetrovsk Agrarian University, Ukraine). It based on the research of its physical and chemical properties, toxicity and biological activity, and called Biocadastre. The Biocadastre is based on the set of parameters, including the descriptions of physical and chemical properties (active acidity, degree of decomposition, botanical composition etc.), toxicity estimation (by parabyotyc, infusorial, inhibitor and other tests), biological activity indexes (growth-promoting, antioxidative, adaptogeneous, immunomodulative antistress and other actions). The blocks of Biocadastre indexes are differentiated, taking into account their use for creation the preparations for vegetable, animals and microorganisms. The Biocadastre will allow to choose the peat deposits, most suitable for the production of different biologically active preparations, both wide directed and narrow spectrum of action, depending on application fields (medicine, agriculture, veterinary medicine, microbiological industry, balneology, cosmetology).

  19. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  20. 77 FR 26162 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... obtained by analysis of the same sample under a variety of normal test conditions, such as different... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 600, 610, and 680 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0080] Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products...

  1. Arctic Biotechnology – Sustainable Products and Processes from Arctic Biological Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mariane Schmidt; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Stougaard, Peter

    Biological resources from the Arctic hold the potential for development of sustainable products and/or processes within areas such as pharma, agriculture, and biotech. Here, we present the identification of cold-active enzymes and biocontrol agents isolated from cold-adapted bacteria. Truly cold...

  2. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of

  3. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind

    2018-01-01

    and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed...... virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products....

  4. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  5. The Effect of Motivation on Employee Performance in Biological Product Division of PT Medion Bandung Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yusuf Hamali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at Biological Product Division of PT Medion Bandung Barat, aimed to determine correlation of motivation and employee performance, and also to analyze the effect of motivation on employee performance at Biological Product Division of PT Medion Bandung Barat. Respondents of this research were 45 people, selected with simple random sampling technique. The methods used were descriptive and associative, which tested the connection using the Spearman rank correlation analysis, and to determine the accuracy of measurement using the validity and reliability test. Results of the validity and reliability test of variables X and Y are valid and reliable. Calculations were performed using SPSS software version 19. The result of this study showed that motivation is in the category of good and employee performance is also in the category of good. Results showed the correlation of motivation with employee performance at Biological Product Division of PT Medion Bandung Barat with correlation coefficient of 0,568. Based on the criteria champion, this relationship is in the criteria of strong enough relationship. Results of this calculation showed the coefficient of determination is 32, 26%. It is showed that the hypothesis is proved that there is an influence of motivation to employee performance at Biological Product Division of PT Medion Bandung Barat.

  6. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Egbuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51, fatty acids (four, and phenolics (six, were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  7. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Seabrooks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world. Herein, an overview of current traditional medicinal applications of insects and characterization of isolated biologically active molecules starting from approximately 2010 is presented. Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  8. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  9. Investigation of specificity ensuring of quality of biological medicinal products on example of drugs Cortexin and Retinalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vetiutneva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological medical products nowadays are one of the most promising area at the pharmaceutical market. Biopharmaceutical market has significant benefits such as fast and effective development of production facilities, the development of more effective and safer medical products. The aim of our research was, on the example of medical products Cortexin and Retinalamin, examine the specifics of quality of biological medicinal products in the chain from production to sale. The objects of study - original biological medicines Cortexin and Retinalamin. Comparative, systematic, analytical methods and reviews were used. Biological medical products have fundamental differences from synthetic medicines, due to their source - alive cells which are usually used in their production process. Each production cycle results in a unique finished pharmaceutical products and minimal differences in the modes of production can significantly effect on the properties of biological medical products. Therefore, even if the physical, chemical and biological properties of the product thoroughly studied and described, it does not guarantee therapeutic equivalence of two biological products which are manufactured in different conditions. One of the most important issues today is the problem of maintaining properties and quality of biological medicines. These issues are actively resolving on the native pharmaceutical market: quality control system are developing and implementing in accordance with international standards in order to maintain maximum efficiency of biological medicines and to protect consumers from defective products. Biological products require special conditions of storage and transportation. In order to save physical, chemical and therapeutic properties, strict compliance with the relevant conditions of packaging, transport and intermediate storage, related to deviations in temperature during transportation and storage is needed. The production process

  10. Waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry and energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Sergey; Solkina, Olga; Stepanov, Alexander; Zhukova, Maria

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of engineering and economical comparison of waste water biological purification plants of dairy products industry. Three methods of purification are compared: traditional biological purification with the use of secondary clarifiers and afterpurification through granular-bed filters, biomembrane technology and physical-and-chemical treatment together with biomembrane technology for new construction conditions. The improvement of the biological purification technology using nitro-denitrification and membrane un-mixing of sludge mixture is a promising trend in this area. In these calculations, an energy management which is widely applied abroad was used. The descriptions of the three methods are illustrated with structural schemes. Costs of equipment and production areas are taken from manufacturers’ data. The research is aimed at an engineering and economical comparison of new constructions of waste water purification of dairy products industry. The experiment demonstrates advantages of biomembrane technology in waste water purification. This technology offers prospects of 122 million rubles cost saving during 25 years of operation when compared with of the technology of preparatory reagent flotation and of 13.7 million rubles cost saving compared to the option of traditional biological purification.

  11. The biological waste product formation in the light of the membrane hypothesis of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zs-Nagy, Imre

    2002-01-01

    The membrane hypothesis of aging (MHA) explains the biological waste product (lipofuscin) formation as a disbalance between the rates of protein synthesis and damage, as well as of elimination of the damaged components. Although, this concept has not been refuted on the basis of any experimental evidence, it has neither been widely accepted. During the last decade the general interest has turned toward the molecular genetics so intensely, that research aimed at clarifying cell biological mechanisms became so to say hibernated. Nowadays it is being recognized more and more that after the complete description of the human genetic code, attention has to be dedicated again to the cellular mechanisms explaining the function of the gene products (proteins). In this context, our experimental findings described during the recent years may become again the subject of interest. We have shown that the in vivo inhibition of the lysosomal thiol-proteinase functions by sublethal doses of leupeptin in young, adult and old mice results in a considerable increase (about 30%) of the immobile fraction of membrane proteins in hepatocyte plasma membrane, meanwhile the lateral diffusion constant of the still mobile membrane proteins increased. These observations were interpreted as signs of a general slowing down of protein turnover in the plasma membrane, just by inhibiting the elimination mechanisms in the lysosomes. This paper will discuss the theoretical conclusions and significance of these findings for the biological waste product formation, as a basic cell biological function.

  12. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  13. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  14. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  15. Biological Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid: An Update on the Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of high added-value chemicals from renewable resources is a necessity in our attempts to switch to a more sustainable society. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP is a promising molecule that can be used for the production of an important array of high added-value chemicals, such as 1,3-propanediol, acrylic acid, acrylamide, and bioplastics. Biological production of 3HP has been studied extensively, mainly from glycerol and glucose, which are both renewable resources. To enable conversion of these carbon sources to 3HP, extensive work has been performed to identify appropriate biochemical pathways and the enzymes that are involved in them. Novel enzymes have also been identified and expressed in host microorganisms to improve the production yields of 3HP. Various process configurations have also been proposed, resulting in improved conversion yields. The intense research efforts have resulted in the production of as much as 83.8 g/L 3HP from renewable carbon resources, and a system whereby 3-hydroxypropionitrile was converted to 3HP through whole-cell catalysis which resulted in 184.7 g/L 3HP. Although there are still challenges and difficulties that need to be addressed, the research results from the past four years have been an important step towards biological production of 3HP at the industrial level.

  16. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. (a) If a determination is made pursuant to § 1.750 that a patent for a human drug, antibiotic...

  17. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  18. Biological-inorganic hybrid systems as a generalized platform for chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangle, Shannon N; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-12-01

    An expanding renewable energy market to supplant petrochemicals has motivated synthesis technologies that use renewable feedstocks, such as CO 2 . Hybrid biological-inorganic systems provide a sustainable, efficient, versatile, and inexpensive chemical synthesis platform. These systems comprise biocompatible electrodes that transduce electrical energy either directly or indirectly into bioavailable energy, such as H 2 and NAD(P)H. In combination, specific bacteria use these energetic reducing equivalents to fix CO 2 into multi-carbon organic compounds. As hybrid biological-inorganic technologies have developed, the focus has shifted from phenomenological and proof-of-concept discovery towards enhanced energy efficiency, production rate, product scope, and industrial robustness. In this review, we highlight the progress and the state-of-the-art of this field and describe the advantages and challenges involved in designing bio- and chemo- compatible systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Need for new technologies for detection of adventitious agents in vaccines and other biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Laurent; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    From an industrial perspective, the conventional in vitro and in vivo assays used for detection of viral contaminants have shown their limitations, as illustrated by the unfortunate detection of porcine circovirus contamination in a licensed rotavirus vaccine. This contamination event illustrates the gaps within the existing adventitious agent strategy and the potential use of new broader molecular detection methods. This paper serves to summarize current testing approaches and challenges, along with opportunities for the use of these new technologies. Testing of biological products is required to ensure the safety of patients. Recently, a licensed vaccine was found to be contaminated with a virus. This contamination did not cause a safety concern to the patients; however, it highlights the need for using new testing methods to control our biological products. This paper introduces the benefits of these new tests and outlines the challenges with the current tests. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  20. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingji; Borodina, Irina

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept chemicals have been made in yeast, only a very small fraction of those has reached commercial-scale production so far. The limiting factor is the high research cost associated with the development of a robust cell factory that can produce the desired chemical at high titer, rate, and yield. Synthetic biology has the potential to bring down this cost by improving our ability to predictably engineer biological systems. This review highlights synthetic biology applications for design, assembly, and optimization of non-native biochemical pathways in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  1. Mapping the patent landscape of synthetic biology for fine chemical production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Gök, Abdullah; Shapira, Philip; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-09-01

    A goal of synthetic biology bio-foundries is to innovate through an iterative design/build/test/learn pipeline. In assessing the value of new chemical production routes, the intellectual property (IP) novelty of the pathway is important. Exploratory studies can be carried using knowledge of the patent/IP landscape for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. In this paper, we perform an assessment of pathways as potential targets for chemical production across the full catalogue of reachable chemicals in the extended metabolic space of chassis organisms, as computed by the retrosynthesis-based algorithm RetroPath. Our database for reactions processed by sequences in heterologous pathways was screened against the PatSeq database, a comprehensive collection of more than 150M sequences present in patent grants and applications. We also examine related patent families using Derwent Innovations. This large-scale computational study provides useful insights into the IP landscape of synthetic biology for fine and specialty chemicals production. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  3. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....

  5. Meat Production in a Feedlot System of Zebu—Holstein Steers and Heifers with Dairy Genetics: Productive and Biological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4 Zebu × (1/4 Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P<0.05 of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P<0.05 final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P<0.05 and, consequently, a greater (P<0.05 fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67 kcal/EBW0.75/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg and protein (NPg for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d=0.067×EBW0.75×  EBG1.095 and NPg=162×EBG-5.62×RE for the two sexes.

  6. Biological production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of OFMSW and co-fermentation with slaughterhouse wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, A.; Gomez, X.; Cuestos, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature (Lin and Lay, 2003). There are different methods for the production of hydrogen, the traditional ones, are the production from fossil fuels. Aiming to reach a development based on sustainable principles the production of hydrogen from renewable sources is a desirable goal. Among the environmental friendly alternatives for the production of hydrogen are the biological means. Dark fermentation as it is known the process when light is not used; it is a preferable option thanks to the knowledge already collected from its homologous process, the anaerobic digestion for the production of methane. There are several studies intended to the evaluation of the production of hydrogen, many are dedicated to the use of pure cultures or the utilization of basic substrates as glucose or sucrose (Lin and Lay, 2003; Chang et al., 2002, Kim et al., 2005). This study is performed to evaluate the fermentation of a mixture of wastes for the production of hydrogen. It is used as substrate the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and a mixture of this residue with slaughterhouse waste. (Author)

  7. A review of biological delignification and detoxification methods for lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Alvira, Pablo; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Future biorefineries will integrate biomass conversion processes to produce fuels, power, heat and value-added chemicals. Due to its low price and wide distribution, lignocellulosic biomass is expected to play an important role toward this goal. Regarding renewable biofuel production, bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks is considered the most feasible option for fossil fuels replacement since these raw materials do not compete with food or feed crops. In the overall process, lignin, the natural barrier of the lignocellulosic biomass, represents an important limiting factor in biomass digestibility. In order to reduce the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose, biological pretreatments have been promoted as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional physico-chemical technologies, which are expensive and pollute the environment. These approaches include the use of diverse white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes, which disrupt lignin polymers and facilitate the bioconversion of the sugar fraction into ethanol. As there is still no suitable biological pretreatment technology ready to scale up in an industrial context, white-rot fungi and/or ligninolytic enzymes have also been proposed to overcome, in a separated or in situ biodetoxification step, the effect of the inhibitors produced by non-biological pretreatments. The present work reviews the latest studies regarding the application of different microorganisms or enzymes as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technologies for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This review also points out the main challenges and possible ways to make these technologies a reality for the bioethanol industry.

  8. Improvements in algal lipid production: a systems biology and gene editing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Negi, Sangeeta; Chang, Jo-Shu; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2018-05-01

    In the wake of rising energy demands, microalgae have emerged as potential sources of sustainable and renewable carbon-neutral fuels, such as bio-hydrogen and bio-oil. For rational metabolic engineering, the elucidation of metabolic pathways in fine detail and their manipulation according to requirements is the key to exploiting the use of microalgae. Emergence of site-specific nucleases have revolutionized applied research leading to biotechnological gains. Genome engineering as well as modulation of the endogenous genome with high precision using CRISPR systems is being gradually employed in microalgal research. Further, to optimize and produce better algal platforms, use of systems biology network analysis and integration of omics data is required. This review discusses two important approaches: systems biology and gene editing strategies used on microalgal systems with a focus on biofuel production and sustainable solutions. It also emphasizes that the integration of such systems would contribute and compliment applied research on microalgae. Recent advances in microalgae are discussed, including systems biology, gene editing approaches in lipid bio-synthesis, and antenna engineering. Lastly, it has been attempted here to showcase how CRISPR/Cas systems are a better editing tool than existing techniques that can be utilized for gene modulation and engineering during biofuel production.

  9. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  10. Synthetic biology approaches for protein production optimization in bacterial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennig, Maja; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    such sustainable alternative if converted into so-called microbial cell factories. Instead of crude oil, cell factories use renewable resources or waste products as source material. The challenge is, however, that microbial production needs to be economically feasible to compete with the classical chemical...... devices and their fusion to antibiotic selection markers enables subsequent selection of high-expressing constructs. The approach is a simple and inexpensive alternative to advanced screening techniques. In addition, a second synthetic biology approach provides the means for fast and efficient plasmid......Society’s strong dependence on fossil fuels and petroleum-based products leads not only to a rapid decline of natural oil reserves but contributes massively to global warming and environmental damage. This consequently urges society to look into more sustainable alternatives. Microorganisms present...

  11. Studies of the Production of Fungal Polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans by Using Systems Biology Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Grotkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    that overexpression of xpkA does not directly improve 6-MSA production on glucose, but it is possible, if the metabolic flux through the lower part of glycolysis is reduced, to obtain quite high yields for conversion of sugar to 6-MSA. Systems biology tools were employed for in-depth analysis of the metabolic...... characterized on glucose, xylose, glycerol, and ethanol media in controlled bioreactors. Glucose was found to be the preferred carbon source for 6-MSA production, and 6-MSA concentrations up to 455 mg/liter were obtained for the recombinant strain harboring the 6-MSA gene. Our findings indicate...... processes. Transcriptome analysis of 6-MSA-producing strains grown on glucose and xylose in the presence and absence of xpkA overexpression, combined with flux and physiology data, enabled us to propose an xpkA-msaS interaction model describing the competition between biomass formation and 6-MSA production...

  12. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances in synthetic biology for engineering isoprenoid production in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Williams, Thomas C; Peng, Bingyin; Cherry, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Isoprenoids (terpenes/terpenoids) have many useful industrial applications, but are often not produced at industrially viable level in their natural sources. Synthetic biology approaches have been used extensively to reconstruct metabolic pathways in tractable microbial hosts such as yeast and re-engineer pathways and networks to increase yields. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing on central carbon metabolism engineering to increase precursor supply, re-directing carbon flux for production of C10, C15, or C20 isoprenoids, and chemical decoration of high value diterpenoids (C20). We also overview other novel synthetic biology strategies that have potential utility in yeast isoprenoid pathway engineering. Finally, we address the question of what is required in the future to move the field forwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term biological hydrogen production by agar immobilized Rhodobacter capsulatus in a sequential batch photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkahlout, Kamal; Alipour, Siamak; Eroglu, Inci; Gunduz, Ufuk; Yucel, Meral

    2017-04-01

    In this study, agar immobilization technique was employed for biological hydrogen production using Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710 (wild type) and YO3 (hup-mutant) strains in sequential batch process. Different agar and glutamate concentrations were tested with defined nutrient medium. Agar concentration 4% (w/v) and 4 mM glutamate were selected for bacterial immobilization in terms of rate and longevity of hydrogen production. Acetate concentration was increased from 40 to 60-100 and 60 mM gave best results with both bacterial strains immobilized in 4% (w/v) agar. Cell concentration was increased from 2.5 to 5 mg dcw mL -1 agar and it was found that increasing cell concentration of wild-type strain caused decrease in yield and productivity while these parameters improved by increasing cell concentration of mutant strain. Also, the hydrogen production time has extended from 17 days up to 60 days according to the process conditions and parameters. Hydrogen production by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria is a convenient technology for hydrogen production as it enables to produce hydrogen with high organic acid concentrations comparing to suspended cultures. Besides, immobilization increases the stability of the system and allowed sequential batch operation for long-term application.

  15. The scientific production in health and biological sciences of the top 20 Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zorzetto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian scientific output exhibited a 4-fold increase in the last two decades because of the stability of the investment in research and development activities and of changes in the policies of the main funding agencies. Most of this production is concentrated in public universities and research institutes located in the richest part of the country. Among all areas of knowledge, the most productive are Health and Biological Sciences. During the 1998-2002 period these areas presented heterogeneous growth ranging from 4.5% (Pharmacology to 191% (Psychiatry, with a median growth rate of 47.2%. In order to identify and rank the 20 most prolific institutions in these areas, searches were made in three databases (DataCAPES, ISI and MEDLINE which permitted the identification of 109,507 original articles produced by the 592 Graduate Programs in Health and Biological Sciences offered by 118 public universities and research institutes. The 20 most productive centers, ranked according to the total number of ISI-indexed articles published during the 1998-2003 period, produced 78.7% of the papers in these areas and are strongly concentrated in the Southern part of the country, mainly in São Paulo State.

  16. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum : A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Rutger D.; Batista, Joana M.; Touw, Kai M.; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Zhao, Zheng; Veiga, Tania; Klaassen, Paul; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Gulik, Walter M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Krikken, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Background: In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to

  17. [The pharmaceutical company Choay: an history linked to research and commercialization of biological products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Eugène Choay, when he created his own company in 1911, had already a large experience in pharmaceutical industry obtained with Maison Frère where he discovered the famous Dentol, well known thank to Poulbot's publicity drawings for this product. But, convinced of the future of biological products and Opotherapy, he decided to invest himself in this area with a totally new process for cold desiccation of organs. The success will be there and several pharmacists from Choay family will take care of the company and bring it to the top of its specialty in Opotherapy. At the beginning of the 1970's, Choay in in full development and has the products, the sites and the human resources for the future. In 1975, 4 therapeutic areas are covered by Choay's products: coagulation, inflammation, dermatology and hepatology. After more than 65 years of independence, Choay group will be finally bought partially and then totally by Sanofi. With the support of Sanofi, Choay created, in 1981, their US subsidiary called Choay Laboratories Inc;, after the NDA approval of sub-cutaneous Calciparine by the FDA. In 1985 Fraxiparine, a low molecular weight heparin discovered by Jean Choay's team, is lauched on the market. All these developments represent an outstanding record a longevity which indicates how perceptive was Eugène Choay and his successors when choosing to invest totally in the therapeutic use of hormones and products acting on coagulation factors.

  18. Importance of copper for nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt

    nitrification during drinking water production provided the motivation to investigate if a lack of copper could be responsible for the problems in nitrifying biofilters. Copper is believed to be an essential cofactor in the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), which catalyzes the first essential step...... be supplied in a controlled fashion, and that little maintenance and no chemicals are required. Copper dosing through the novel electrolysis method, as well as through passive dosing from solid copper and active dosing of copper solution, was studied at nine more DWTPs, which all shared a long history...... were the main active ammonium oxidizers during the dosing. This PhD project revealed that copper is of vital importance for efficient nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production. The results of this study have important practical implications for biofilters currently...

  19. The gravimetric method for the determination of residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J C; Wheeler, R M; Grim, E

    1989-06-01

    The gravimetric test for the determination of residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products performed in a humidity- and temperature-controlled room with the use of scrupulous gravimetric analytical technique can be used to accurately determine residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products such as antihemophilic factor (human) or honey bee venom allergenic extract. This method determines the first water of hydration of sodium tartrate dihydrate (7.93%) to within 1.3% of the calculated value with a relative standard deviation of 0.3% for 10 replicates. For this gravimetric procedure, freeze-dried samples containing from 1.12 to 4.4% residual moisture had relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6 to 9.1%. Samples containing less than 1.0% residual moisture by the gravimetric method such as intravenous immune globulin and antihemophilic factor (human) had relative standard deviations ranging from 16.7 to 47.0%. Relative standard deviations for residual moisture tests performed on comparable samples by the Karl Fischer and thermogravimetric methods showed similar variability.

  20. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of /sup 26/Al, /sup 49/V, /sup 51/Cr, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 93/Nb, and /sup 94/Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs.

  1. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  2. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  3. The secondary metabolite bioinformatics portal: Computational tools to facilitate synthetic biology of secondary metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Weber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are among the most important sources of lead molecules for drug discovery. With the development of affordable whole-genome sequencing technologies and other ‘omics tools, the field of natural products research is currently undergoing a shift in paradigms. While, for decades, mainly analytical and chemical methods gave access to this group of compounds, nowadays genomics-based methods offer complementary approaches to find, identify and characterize such molecules. This paradigm shift also resulted in a high demand for computational tools to assist researchers in their daily work. In this context, this review gives a summary of tools and databases that currently are available to mine, identify and characterize natural product biosynthesis pathways and their producers based on ‘omics data. A web portal called Secondary Metabolite Bioinformatics Portal (SMBP at http://www.secondarymetabolites.org is introduced to provide a one-stop catalog and links to these bioinformatics resources. In addition, an outlook is presented how the existing tools and those to be developed will influence synthetic biology approaches in the natural products field.

  4. The great 2012 Arctic Ocean summer cyclone enhanced biological productivity on the shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Ashjian, Carin; Campbell, Robert; Hill, Victoria; Spitz, Yvette H; Steele, Michael

    2014-01-01

    [1] A coupled biophysical model is used to examine the impact of the great Arctic cyclone of early August 2012 on the marine planktonic ecosystem in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSA). Model results indicate that the cyclone influences the marine planktonic ecosystem by enhancing productivity on the shelves of the Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev seas during the storm. Although the cyclone's passage in the PSA lasted only a few days, the simulated biological effects on the shelves last 1 month or longer. At some locations on the shelves, primary productivity (PP) increases by up to 90% and phytoplankton biomass by up to 40% in the wake of the cyclone. The increase in zooplankton biomass is up to 18% on 31 August and remains 10% on 15 September, more than 1 month after the storm. In the central PSA, however, model simulations indicate a decrease in PP and plankton biomass. The biological gain on the shelves and loss in the central PSA are linked to two factors. (1) The cyclone enhances mixing in the upper ocean, which increases nutrient availability in the surface waters of the shelves; enhanced mixing in the central PSA does not increase productivity because nutrients there are mostly depleted through summer draw down by the time of the cyclone's passage. (2) The cyclone also induces divergence, resulting from the cyclone's low-pressure system that drives cyclonic sea ice and upper ocean circulation, which transports more plankton biomass onto the shelves from the central PSA. The simulated biological gain on the shelves is greater than the loss in the central PSA, and therefore, the production on average over the entire PSA is increased by the cyclone. Because the gain on the shelves is offset by the loss in the central PSA, the average increase over the entire PSA is moderate and lasts only about 10 days. The generally positive impact of cyclones on the marine ecosystem in the Arctic, particularly on the shelves, is likely to grow with increasing

  5. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  6. Future Food Production System Development Pulling From Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Romeyn, Matt; Fritsche, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    lessons, as we learn about growing at different scales and move toward developing systems that require less launch mass. Veggie will be used as a test bed for novel food production technologies. Veggie is a relatively simple precursor food production system but the knowledge gained from space biology validation tests in Veggie will have far reaching repercussions on future exploration food production. This work is supported by NASA.

  7. Determination of production biology of Cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were examined. The design of the study was to compare rates of cladoceran population production at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond, the cooling reservoir located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS), and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). The statistical properties of the Edmondson egg ratio model (Edmondson, 1960) were examined to determine if it would be a suitable method for calculating cladoceran production rates for comparison between stations. Based on an examination of the variance associated with standing stock and fecundity measurements and other consideratios, the use of the egg ratio model was abandoned. Instead, a non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, were used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in species composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  8. Influence of oil pollution to the total biological productivity of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of a numerous researches it was defined that among all the species of pollutants polluting water reservoirs, oil and its components has a leading role. In this respect the Caspian Sea is in a special condition, as it exists as an isolated water reservoirs it had a direct relation with oil and oil products earlier than others and more than the rest. For this reason the oil in the Caspian Sea in its turn has become a permanent substrate. The main reservoirs of contamination of environmental medium of the Caspian Sea by oil and oil products are oil industries, oil pipelines, oil processing ventures, oil transportation, oil-gas service and oil drilling. At the same time oil components due to dried lands appear in the sea by river floods that are a heavy showers. Oil is a complex environmental compound of carbohydrogenes and distributed in environmental medium. Its characteristic that no other pollutant as dangerous it hasn't been and cannot be compared with oil according to the range of distribution, amount of pollutant resources and range of pressure to all the compounds of environmental medium. During the involvement of oil in the hydrosphere deep, often inattentive changes of its chemical, physiological and microbiological features and even reconstruction of all the hydrospheric profile take place. Being dynamic and mobile it penetrates toxic metals increasing their emigrational ability, subsides to the bottom and oppresses benthofauna. At the same time oil products in water reservoirs in common negatively influence to the balance of oxygen and position of biocenoses in the surface layers of sea water. In the given information the results of many years and monitoring character of researches about the influence of pollution in the base of total biological productivity of the Caspian Sea are presented (as well as oil pollution). It was defined that in the basins of the North (Makachkala - from Berbash, Bautina, Shevchenko fleet), Middle (Sand

  9. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  10. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  11. Extracellular membrane vesicles in blood products-biology and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Krstova Krajnc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular membrane vesicles are fragments shed from plasma membranes off all cell types that are undergoing apoptosis or are being subjected to various types of stimulation or stress.  Even in the process of programmed cell death (apoptosis, cell fall apart of varying size vesicles. They expose phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer leaflet of their membrane, and bear surface membrane antigens reflecting their cellular origin. Extracellular membrane vesicles have been isolated from many types of biological fluids, including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, saliva, tears and conditioned culture medium. Flow cytometry is one of the many different methodological approaches that have been used to analyze EMVs. The method attempts to characterize the EMVs cellular origin, size, population, number, and structure. EMVs are present and accumulate in blood products (erythrocytes, platelets as well as in fresh frozen plasma during storage. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of extracellular vesicles as a cell-to-cell communication system and the role in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Special emphasis will be given to the implication of extracellular membrane vesicles in blood products and their clinical relevance. Although our understanding of the role of  EMVs in disease is far from comprehensive, they display promise as biomarkers for different diseases in the future and also as a marker of quality and safety in the quality control of blood products.

  12. Production of biodiesel from microalgae through biological carbon capture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Madhumanti; Goswami, Shrayanti; Ghosh, Ashmita; Oinam, Gunapati; Tiwari, O N; Das, Papita; Gayen, K; Mandal, M K; Halder, G N

    2017-06-01

    Gradual increase in concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere due to the various anthropogenic interventions leading to significant alteration in the global carbon cycle has been a subject of worldwide attention and matter of potential research over the last few decades. In these alarming scenario microalgae seems to be an attractive medium for capturing the excess CO 2 present in the atmosphere generated from different sources such as power plants, automobiles, volcanic eruption, decomposition of organic matters and forest fires. This captured CO 2 through microalgae could be used as potential carbon source to produce lipids for the generation of biofuel for replacing petroleum-derived transport fuel without affecting the supply of food and crops. This comprehensive review strives to provide a systematic account of recent developments in the field of biological carbon capture through microalgae for its utilization towards the generation of biodiesel highlighting the significance of certain key parameters such as selection of efficient strain, microalgal metabolism, cultivation systems (open and closed) and biomass production along with the national and international biodiesel specifications and properties. The potential use of photobioreactors for biodiesel production under the influence of various factors viz., light intensity, pH, time, temperature, CO 2 concentration and flow rate has been discussed. The review also provides an economic overview and future outlook on biodiesel production from microalgae.

  13. Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquacultire and their potential environmental risks: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.; Satapornvanit, K.; Haque, M.M.; Min, J.; Nguyen, P.T.; Telfer, T.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, Asian aquaculture production has intensified rapidly through the adoption of technological advances, and the use of a wide array of chemical and biological products to control sediment and water quality and to treat and prevent disease outbreaks. The use of chemicals in

  14. Use of Brevibacillus choshinensis for the production of biologically active brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Phillip A; Carlson, Rebecca J; Thorwall, Sarah; Patrick Walton, S

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family critical for neuronal cell survival and differentiation, with therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurological disorders and spinal cord injuries. The production of recombinant, bioactive BDNF is not practical in most traditional microbial expression systems because of the inability of the host to correctly form the characteristic cystine-knot fold of BDNF. Here, we investigated Brevibacillus choshinensis as a suitable expression host for bioactive BDNF expression, evaluating the effects of medium type (2SY and TM), temperature (25 and 30 °C), and culture time (48-120 h). Maximal BDNF bioactivity (per unit mass) was observed in cultures grown in 2SY medium at extended times (96 h at 30 °C or >72 h at 25 °C), with resulting bioactivity comparable to that of a commercially available BDNF. For cultures grown in 2SY medium at 25 °C for 72 h, the condition that led to the greatest quantity of biologically active protein in the shortest culture time, we recovered 264 μg/L of BDNF. As with other microbial expression systems, BDNF aggregates did form in all culture conditions, indicating that while we were able to recover biologically active BDNF, further optimization of the expression system could yield still greater quantities of bioactive protein. This study provides confirmation that B. choshinensis is capable of producing biologically active BDNF and that further optimization of culture conditions could prove valuable in increasing BDNF yields.

  15. Production of Some Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites From Marine-derived Fungus Varicosporina ramulosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalla, M. M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.

  16. Evaluation of the Safety of Drugs and Biological Products Used During Lactation: Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Johnson, T; Sahin, L; Tassinari, MS; Anderson, PO; Baker, TE; Bucci-Rechtweg, C; Burckart, GJ; Chambers, CD; Hale, TW; Johnson-Lyles, D; Nelson, RM; Nguyen, C; Pica-Branco, D; Ren, Z; Sachs, H; Sauberan, J; Zajicek, A; Ito, S; Yao, LP

    2017-01-01

    This report serves as a summary of a 2-day public workshop sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the safety of drugs and biological products used during lactation. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the collection of data to inform the potential risks to breastfed infants with maternal use of medications during lactation. Discussions included the review of current approaches to collect data on medications used during lactation, and the considerations for future approaches to design and guide clinical lactation studies. This workshop is part of continuing efforts to raise the awareness of the public for women who choose to breastfeed their infants. PMID:28510297

  17. New Parvovirus Associated with Serum Hepatitis in Horses after Inoculation of Common Biological Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Thomas J; Tennant, Bud C; Kumar, Arvind; McDonough, Sean; Cullen, John; Bhuva, Nishit; Jain, Komal; Chauhan, Lokendra Singh; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Lipkin, W Ian; Laverack, Melissa; Trivedi, Sheetal; Srinivasa, Satyapramod; Beard, Laurie; Rice, Charles M; Burbelo, Peter D; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward; Kapoor, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Equine serum hepatitis (i.e., Theiler's disease) is a serious and often life-threatening disease of unknown etiology that affects horses. A horse in Nebraska, USA, with serum hepatitis died 65 days after treatment with equine-origin tetanus antitoxin. We identified an unknown parvovirus in serum and liver of the dead horse and in the administered antitoxin. The equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) shares horses using a tetanus antitoxin contaminated with EqPV-H. Viremia developed, the horses seroconverted, and acute hepatitis developed that was confirmed by clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic testing. We also determined that EqPV-H is an endemic infection because, in a cohort of 100 clinically normal adult horses, 13 were viremic and 15 were seropositive. We identified a new virus associated with equine serum hepatitis and confirmed its pathogenicity and transmissibility through contaminated biological products.

  18. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches driving isoprenoid production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chonglong; Zada, Bakht; Wei, Gongyuan; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-10-01

    Isoprenoids comprise the largest family of natural organic compounds with many useful applications in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and industrial fields. Rapid developments in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the engineering of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in Escherichia coli to induce high levels of production of many different isoprenoids. In this review, the stem pathways for synthesizing isoprene units as well as the branch pathways deriving diverse isoprenoids from the isoprene units have been summarized. The review also highlights the metabolic engineering efforts made for the biosynthesis of hemiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, carotenoids, retinoids, and coenzyme Q 10 in E. coli. Perspectives and future directions for the synthesis of novel isoprenoids, decoration of isoprenoids using cytochrome P450 enzymes, and secretion or storage of isoprenoids in E. coli have also been included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical influence on biological production along the western shelf of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripp, T.; Gammelsrød, T.; Krakstad, J. O.

    2014-02-01

    In September 2009, the R.V. Dr. Fridtjof Nansen surveyed the western coast of Madagascar. Environmental parameters of temperature, salinity, fluorescence and oxygen were profiled with a CTD probe and continuously underway at 5 m utilising a thermosalinograph equipped with a fluorescence sensor. A ship mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) provided current profiles down to 250 m, while estimates of biomass were obtained from acoustics and trawling was used for species identification. In addition, visual whale observations were conducted. The survey revealed three areas that were identified as upwelling regions, namely the Southern Coast (26°S), offshore from Cap St. André (16°S) and near Nosy Be Island (13°S). In these upwelling regions, acoustic estimates, trawling and whale observations indicated high biological productivity. The total acoustic estimate for the whole western coast was as low as 62 000 t, typical for tropical waters. In addition to the upwelling areas, high biological productivity was also found outside river mouths. Ship born wind measurements, as well as re-analysed wind fields, indicated that the southern coast upwelling cell was wind-driven and had a larger extent than reported earlier. The wind conditions were not favourable for upwelling in the two northernmost upwelling cells. Here the ADCP showed high bottom velocities (>1 m s-1) oriented northeast. These currents were probably forced by the migrating eddies in the area as indicated by the remotely sensed Sea Level Anomaly (SLA). Such currents induce bottom friction layer transport oriented towards the coast, thus driving upwelling, although not necessarily penetrating all the way to the surface layer as was the case near Cap St. André.

  20. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  1. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: III. Biological efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Methods were developed and incorporated into a previously published computer model to predict ME intake and calculate biological efficiencies in terms of grams of empty BW (EBW) and fat-free matter (FFM) gained/megacalorie of ME consumed from weaning to slaughter. Efficiencies were calculated for steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG, and slaughtered at 300 kg carcass weight, small or greater degree of marbling, and 28% carcass fat. Backgrounding systems were high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, and low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d, and 0 d backgrounding. The high ADG finishing system was more biologically efficient than the low ADG finishing system, and generally backgrounding systems were less biologically efficient than direct finishing after weaning (0 d backgrounding). Large-framed breeds were more efficient at the constant carcass weight and carcass fatness end point, and breeds that achieved the marbling end point at low levels of carcass fatness were more efficient at this end point. Some small-framed breeds gained EBW more efficiently but gained FFM less efficiently than some of the large-framed breeds. Variation in efficiency between genotypes was greatest with 0 d backgrounding and decreased in the other backgrounding systems.

  2. Prospects and progress in the production of valuable carotenoids: Insights from metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and computational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, Mohan; Rao, Priya Rajendra; Hemachandran, Hridya; Pullela, Phani Kumar; Doss C, George Priya; Tayubi, Iftikhar Aslam; Subramanian, Babu; Gothandam, K M; Singh, Pooja; Ramamoorthy, Siva

    2018-01-20

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms and play critical roles in light harvesting, photoprotection, attracting pollinators and phytohormone production. In recent years, carotenoids have been used for their health benefits due to their high antioxidant activity and are extensively utilized in food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis occurs throughout the life cycle of plants, with vibrant changes in composition based on developmental needs and responses to external environmental stimuli. With advancements in metabolic engineering techniques, there has been tremendous progress in the production of industrially valuable secondary metabolites such as carotenoids. Application of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has become essential for the successful and improved production of carotenoids. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline; metabolic engineering approaches may provide insights into novel ideas for biosynthetic pathways. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and genetic engineering of carotenoids to improve their nutritional value. In addition, we investigated synthetic biological approaches for the production of carotenoids. Theoretical biology approaches that may aid in understanding the biological sciences are discussed in this review. A combination of theoretical knowledge and experimental strategies may improve the production of industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physico-chemical and biological factors influencing dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Thunell, Robert C.; Pospelova, Vera; Pinckney, James L.; Romero, Oscar E.; Tappa, Eric J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a 2.5-year-long sediment trap record of dinoflagellate cyst production in the Cariaco Basin, off Venezuela (southern Caribbean Sea). The site lies under the influence of wind-driven, seasonal upwelling which promotes high levels of primary productivity during boreal winter and spring. Changes in dinoflagellate cyst production is documented between November 1996 and May 1999 at ˜ 14-day intervals and interpreted in the context of in situ observations of physico-chemical and biological parameters measured at the mooring site. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are diverse (57 taxa) and dominated by cyst taxa of heterotrophic affinity, primarily Brigantedinium spp. (51 % of the total trap assemblage). Average cyst fluxes to the trap are high (17.1 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1) and show great seasonal and interannual variability. On seasonal timescales, dinoflagellate cyst production responds closely to variations in upwelling strength, with increases in cyst fluxes of several protoperidinioid taxa observed during active upwelling intervals, predominantly Brigantedinium spp. Cyst taxa produced by autotrophic dinoflagellates, in particular Bitectatodinium spongium, also respond positively to upwelling. Several spiny brown cysts contribute substantially to the assemblages, including Echinidinium delicatum (9.7 %) and Echinidinium granulatum (7.3 %), and show a closer affinity to weaker upwelling conditions. The strong El Niño event of 1997/98 appears to have negatively impacted cyst production in the basin with a 1-year lag, and may have contributed to the unusually high fluxes of cysts type Cp (possibly the cysts of the toxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides sensu Li et al., 2015), with cyst type Cp fluxes up to 11.8 × 103 cysts m-2 day-1 observed during the weak upwelling event of February-May 1999. Possible trophic interactions between dinoflagellates and other major planktonic groups are also investigated by comparing the timing and magnitude of cyst

  4. Current strategies for protein production and purification enabling membrane protein structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aditya; Shin, Kyungsoo; Patterson, Robin E; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K

    2016-12-01

    Membrane proteins are still heavily under-represented in the protein data bank (PDB), owing to multiple bottlenecks. The typical low abundance of membrane proteins in their natural hosts makes it necessary to overexpress these proteins either in heterologous systems or through in vitro translation/cell-free expression. Heterologous expression of proteins, in turn, leads to multiple obstacles, owing to the unpredictability of compatibility of the target protein for expression in a given host. The highly hydrophobic and (or) amphipathic nature of membrane proteins also leads to challenges in producing a homogeneous, stable, and pure sample for structural studies. Circumventing these hurdles has become possible through the introduction of novel protein production protocols; efficient protein isolation and sample preparation methods; and, improvement in hardware and software for structural characterization. Combined, these advances have made the past 10-15 years very exciting and eventful for the field of membrane protein structural biology, with an exponential growth in the number of solved membrane protein structures. In this review, we focus on both the advances and diversity of protein production and purification methods that have allowed this growth in structural knowledge of membrane proteins through X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

  5. [Assays of HbA1c and Amadori products in human biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillery, P

    2014-09-01

    Different Amadori products, formed during the early steps of the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, may be assayed in current practice in human biology. The most important marker is HbA1c, resulting from the binding of glucose to the N-terminal extremity of HbA beta chains. HbA1c may be evaluated by various techniques (ion exchange or affinity high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, immunoassay, enzymatic technique) and is considered the best marker of diabetic patient survey. Due to its irreversible and cumulative formation, it provides a retrospective information on the glycemic balance over the four to eight weeks preceding blood collection. It benefits from an international standardization, based on a reference method using liquid chromatography coupled to capillary electrophoresis or mass spectrometry, maintained by an international network of reference laboratories. When HbA1c assay cannot be used (anemia, hemolysis, hemoglobinopathy) or when a shorter period of glycemic equilibrium must be evaluated (child and adolescent, pregnancy, therapeutic changes), other Amadori products may be assayed, like plasma fructosamine (all plasma glycated proteins) or glycated albumin. Nevertheless, these assays are less used in practice, because their semiological value has been less evidenced. Besides, fructosamine assay lacks specificity, and glycated albumin assay has been described recently. An expanding use of HbA1c assay is expected, especially for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and the evaluation of other risks, especially cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated side-stream reactor for biological nutrient removal and minimization of sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, M; Rovira, S; Canals, J; Colprim, J

    2015-01-01

    Integrated processes to reduce in situ the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants are gaining attention in order to facilitate excess sludge management. In contrast to post-treatments, such as anaerobic digestion which is placed between the activated sludge system and dewatering processes, integrated technologies are placed in the sludge return line. This study evaluates the application of an anoxic side-stream reactor (SSR) which creates a physiological shock and uncouples the biomass metabolism and diverts the activity from assimilation for biosynthesis to non-growth activities. The effect of this system in biological nutrient removal for both nitrogen and phosphorus was evaluated for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic reactors. The RedOx potential within the SSR was maintained at -150 mV while the sludge loading rate was modified by increasing the percentage of recycled activated sludge feed to the SSR (0 and 40% at laboratory scale and 0, 10, 50 and 100% at pilot scale). The use of the SSR presented a slight reduction of phosphorus removal but maintained the effluent quality to the required discharge values. Nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 75 to 86% while reducing the sludge production rate by 18.3%.

  7. Sea foam as a source of fungal inoculum for the isolation of biologically active natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Berrue, Fabrice; Correa, Hebelin; Hanif, Novriyandi; Hay, Kathryn; Lanteigne, Martin; Mquilian, Kathrine; Duffy, Stephanie; Boland, Patricia; Jagannathan, Ramesh; Carr, Gavin S; Vansteeland, Marieke; Kerr, Russell G

    2014-07-03

    Due to a rate increase in the resistance of microbial pathogens to currently used antibiotics, there is a need in society for the discovery of novel antimicrobials. Historically, fungi are a proven source for antimicrobial compounds. The main goals of this study were to investigate the fungal diversity associated with sea foam collected around the coast of Prince Edward Island and the utility of this resource for the production of antimicrobial natural products. Obtained isolates were identified using ITS and nLSU rDNA sequences, fermented on four media, extracted and fractions enriched in secondary metabolites were screened for antimicrobial activity. The majority of the isolates obtained were ascomycetes, consisting of four recognized marine taxa along with other ubiquitous genera and many 'unknown' isolates that could not be identified to the species level using rDNA gene sequences. Secondary metabolite isolation efforts lead to the purification of the metabolites epolones A and B, pycnidione and coniothyrione from a strain of Neosetophoma samarorum ; brefeldin A, leptosin J and the metabolite TMC-264 from an unknown fungus (probably representative of an Edenia sp.); and 1-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-hydroxymethylxanthone, chrysophanol and chrysophanol bianthrone from a Phaeospheria spartinae isolate. The biological activity of each of these metabolites was assessed against a panel of microbial pathogens as well as several cell lines.

  8. Human chorionic gonadotropin: Different glycoforms and biological activity depending on its source of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is the first hormonal message from the placenta to the mother. It is detectable in maternal blood two days after implantation and behaves like a super LH agonist stimulating progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum. In addition to maintaining the production of progesterone until the placenta itself produces it, hCG also has a role in myometrial quiescence and local immune tolerance. Specific to humans, hCG is a complex glycoprotein composed of two highly glycosylated subunits. The α-subunit is identical to the pituitary gonadotropin hormones (LH, FSH, TSH), contains two N-glycosylation sites, and is encoded by a single gene (CGA). By contrast, the β-subunits are distinct for each hormones and confer both receptor and biological specificity, although LH and hCG bind to the same receptor (LH/CG-R). The hCG ß-subunit is encoded by a cluster of genes (CGB) and contains two sites of N-glycosylation and four sites of O-glycosylation. The hCG glycosylation state varies with the stage of pregnancy, its source of production and in the pathology. It is well established that hCG is mainly secreted into maternal blood, where it peaks at 8-10weeks of gestation (WG), by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST), which represents the endocrine tissue of the human placenta. The invasive extravillous trophoblast (iEVT) also secretes hCG, and in particular hyperglycosylated forms of hCG (hCG-H) also produced by choriocarcinoma cells. In maternal blood, hCG-H is elevated during early first trimester corresponding to the trophoblastic cell invasion process and then decreases. In addition to its endocrine role, hCG has autocrine and paracrine roles. It promotes formation of the ST and angiogenesis through LH/CG-R but has no effect on trophoblast invasion in vitro. By contrast, hCG-H stimulates trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis by interacting with the TGFß receptor in a LH/CG-R independent signalling pathway. hCG is largely used in antenatal screening

  9. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. WebBio, a web-based management and analysis system for patient data of biological products in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Hao; Kuo, Chen-Chun; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2011-08-01

    We selected HTML, PHP and JavaScript as the programming languages to build "WebBio", a web-based system for patient data of biological products and used MySQL as database. WebBio is based on the PHP-MySQL suite and is run by Apache server on Linux machine. WebBio provides the functions of data management, searching function and data analysis for 20 kinds of biological products (plasma expanders, human immunoglobulin and hematological products). There are two particular features in WebBio: (1) pharmacists can rapidly find out whose patients used contaminated products for medication safety, and (2) the statistics charts for a specific product can be automatically generated to reduce pharmacist's work loading. WebBio has successfully turned traditional paper work into web-based data management.

  11. Biological hydrogen production in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: pH and cyclic duration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Hsing [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, I-Lan 260 (China); Sung, Shihwu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3232 (United States); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to evaluate biological hydrogen production from carbohydrate-rich organic wastes. The goal of the proposed project was to investigate the effects of pH (4.9, 5.5, 6.1, and 6.7), and cyclic duration (4, 6, and 8 h) on hydrogen production. With the ASBR operated at 16-h HRT, 25 g COD/L, and 4-h cyclic duration, the results showed that the maximum hydrogen yield of 2.53 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} appeared at pH 4.9. The carbohydrate removal efficiency declined to 56% at pH 4.9, which indirectly resulted in the reduction of total volatile fatty acid production. Acetate fermentation was the dominant metabolic pathway at pH 4.9. The concentration of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) also showed a decrease from nearly 15,000 mg/L between pHs 6.1 and 6.7 to 6000 mg/L at pH 4.9. Investigation of the effect of cyclic duration found that hydrogen yield reached the maximum of 1.86 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} at 4-h cyclic duration while ASBR was operating at 16-h HRT, 15 g COD/L, and pH 4.9. The experimental results showed that MLVSS concentration increased from 6200 mg/L at 4-h cyclic duration to 8500 mg/L at 8-h cyclic duration. However, there was no significant change in effluent volatile suspended solid concentration. The results of butyrate to acetate ratio showed that using this ratio to correlate the performance of hydrogen production is not appropriate due to the growth of homoacetogens. In ASBR, the operation is subject to four different phases of each cycle, and only the complete mix condition can be achieved at react phase. The pH and cyclic duration under the unique operations profoundly impact fermentative hydrogen production. (author)

  12. Dust fertilization of biological productivity in the Subarctic North Pacific during the last 150 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serno, S.; Winckler, G.; Anderson, R. F.; Ren, H. A.; Hayes, C.; Machalett, B.; Gersonde, R.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Subarctic North Pacific (SNP) is one of three principal High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions of the modern ocean characterized by an excess pool of macronutrients not completely consumed during the annual biogeochemical cycle. In the last 25 years, a number of studies from the SNP have proposed that eolian dust input of iron from East Asian arid regions is the major limiting factor for primary and export production. In recent years, additional iron sources have been suggested for regulating phytoplankton growth in the SNP, including mobilized continental margin material, ice-rafted debris, volcanic material, turbulent mixing and upwelling. We will present results of a multi-proxy approach from INOPEX core SO202-7-6 and ODP site 882 from the Detroit Seamount in the northwest SNP covering the last 30 and 150 kyr, respectively. We will compare 230Th-normalized dust flux records based on 4He, 232Th and REE, grain size distributions and 230Th-normalized fluxes of opal, total organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic barium and Pa/Th ratios as productivity proxies for INOPEX core SO202-7-6. A new high resolution record of dust fluxes based on 4He will be compared with published productivity proxy records from ODP site 882. A spatial survey of core-top sediments covering the whole SNP indicates that the efficiency of diatom export out of the euphotic zone, as defined by the ratio of opal flux in the core-top sediments to the maximum annual surface water silicate concentration during the winter months, is positively correlated with dust fluxes, possibly as a result of either dust fertilization of primary production or a diatom ballasting effect by dust particles. Preliminary results from INOPEX core SO202-7-6, on the other hand, indicate no correlation between dust flux and biological productivity during the last deglaciation. We will discuss possible explanations for these observations to answer the question if the dust fertilization hypothesis proposed by John Martin

  13. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  14. Regulatory and information support for evaluation of biological productivity of Ukrainian forests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakyda, Petro; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Stabilization and preservation of the planet's climate system today is regarded as one of the most important global political-economic, environmental and social problems of mankind. Rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the planet's atmosphere due to anthropogenic impact is the main reason leading to global climate change. Due to the above mentioned, social demands on forests are changing their biosphere role and function of natural sink of greenhouse gases becomes top priority. It is known that one of the most essential components of biological productivity of forests is their live biomass. Absorption, long-term sequestration of carbon and generation of oxygen are secured by its components. System research of its parametric structure and development of regulatory and reference information for assessment of aboveground live biomass components of trees and stands of the main forest-forming tree species in Ukraine began over twenty-five years ago at the department of forest mensuration and forest inventory of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, involving staff from other research institutions. Today, regulatory and reference materials for evaluation of parametric structure of live biomass are developed for trees of the following major forest-forming tree species of Ukraine: Scots pine of natural and artificial origin, Crimean pine, Norway spruce, silver fir, pedunculate oak, European beech, hornbeam, ash, common birch, aspen and black alder (P.I. Lakyda et al., 2011). An ongoing process on development of similar regulatory and reference materials for forest stands of the abovementioned forest-forming tree species of Ukraine is secured by scientists of departments of forest management, and forest mensuration and forest inventory. The total experimental research base is 609 temporary sample plots, where 4880 model trees were processed, including 3195 model trees with estimates of live biomass components. Laboratory studies conducted

  15. Decree 152/013. It dictate norms concerning to the management of waste from the use of chemical or biological products in farming, forestry and agro fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This decree is about the norms concerning to the management of waste from the use of chemical or biological products in farming, forestry and agro fruit. This includes chemical or biological containers.

  16. Synthesis and Demonstration of the Biological Relevance of sp3-rich Scaffolds Distantly Related to Natural Product Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Daniel J; Craven, Philip G E; Collins, Patrick M; Doveston, Richard G; Aimon, Anthony; Talon, Romain; Churcher, Ian; von Delft, Frank; Marsden, Stephen P; Nelson, Adam

    2017-10-26

    The productive exploration of chemical space is an enduring challenge in chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Natural products are biologically relevant, and their frameworks have facilitated chemical tool and drug discovery. A "top-down" synthetic approach is described that enabled a range of complex bridged intermediates to be converted with high step efficiency into 26 diverse sp 3 -rich scaffolds. The scaffolds have local natural product-like features, but are only distantly related to specific natural product frameworks. To assess biological relevance, a set of 52 fragments was prepared, and screened by high-throughput crystallography against three targets from two protein families (ATAD2, BRD1 and JMJD2D). In each case, 3D fragment hits were identified that would serve as distinctive starting points for ligand discovery. This demonstrates that frameworks that are distantly related to natural products can facilitate discovery of new biologically relevant regions within chemical space. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Production of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds and biological activities from hairy root cultures of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Praveen, Nagella; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-05-01

    report for the production of anthraquinones (emodin and physcion), phenolic compounds and biological activities from hairy root cultures of P. multiflorum.

  18. AN INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MICROFLORA OF FERMENTED HORSEMEAT PRODUCTS ON THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin. Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %, and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %. Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the

  19. Recovery of Phenolic Acid and Enzyme Production from Corn Silage Biologically Treated by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Šelo, Gordana; Zelić, Bruno; Planinić, Mirela; Tišma, Marina

    2017-03-01

    Corn silage is used as high-energy forage for dairy cows and more recently for biogas production in a process of anaerobic co-digestion with cow manure. In this work, fresh corn silage after the harvest was used as a substrate in solid-state fermentations with T. versicolor with the aim of phenolic acid recovery and enzyme (laccase and manganese peroxidase) production. During 20 days of fermentation, 10.4-, 3.4-, 3.0-, and 1.8-fold increments in extraction yield of syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid, respectively, were reached when compared to biologically untreated corn silage. Maximal laccase activity was gained on the 4th day of fermentation (V.A. = 180.2 U/dm 3 ), and manganese peroxidase activity was obtained after the 3rd day of fermentation (V.A. = 30.1 U/dm 3 ). The addition of copper(II) sulfate as inducer during solid state fermentation resulted in 8.5- and 7-fold enhancement of laccase and manganese peroxidase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of pH and temperature on enzyme activities was investigated. Maximal activity of laccase was obtained at T = 50 °C and pH = 3.0, while manganese peroxidase is active at temperature range T = 45-70 °C with the maximal activity at pH = 4.5.

  20. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Aravind [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum (India); Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran, E-mail: sindhurgcb@gmail.com; Sukumaran, Rajeev K. [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab (India); Castro, Galliano Eulogio [Dpt. Ingeniería Química, Ambiental y de los Materiales Edificio, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén (Spain)

    2017-04-25

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  1. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  2. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Aravind; Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Galliano Eulogio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  3. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS ON FORAGE BIOMASS YIELD IN SMOOTH BROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal biostimulants are organic products (natural or synthesized that exert upon plant growth an action similar to the phytohormones’ one, when they are applied in small amounts, in certain stages of plant development. Biostimulants change organisms or organs’ development, nutrition or resistance, under various stress conditions, by inducing changes into the vital processes leading to the improvement of crop quality and quantity, to a better and more operative mechanical harvesting and to an improvement in the agricultural products’ preservation. The application of biologically-active products in the smooth brome crop determined growth of the dry matter yield of up to 1.11 t/ha depending on the product used, and the foliar surface index increased in the variants with application of biologically-active products with up to 1.16 m2SA/m2 land, compared to the control variant.

  4. Phytosterol oxidation products in enriched foods: Occurrence, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Birgit; Guth, Sabine; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Steinberg, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary intake of phytosterols/phytostanols and their fatty acid esters results in a reduction of the LDL and total plasma cholesterol levels. Therefore, these constituents are added to a broad spectrum of foods. As in the case of cholesterol, thermo-oxidative treatment of phytosterols may result in the formation of phytosterol oxidation products (POPs), i.e. keto-, hydroxy-, and epoxy-derivatives. This review summarizes and evaluates the current knowledge regarding POPs in the light of the potentially increasing dietary exposure to these constituents via the consumption of foods enriched with phytosterols/phytostanols and their esters. Data on the occurrence of POPs and approaches to assess the potential intake of POPs resulting from the consumption of enriched foods are described. The knowledge on the uptake of POPs and the presently available data on the impact of the consumption of enriched foods on the levels of POPs in humans are discussed. Biological effects of POPs, such as potential proatherogenic properties or the loss of the cholesterol-lowering effects compared to nonoxidized phytosterols, are discussed. Finally, knowledge gaps are outlined and recommendations for further research needed for a safety assessment of POPs are presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  6. A recyclable protein resource derived from cauliflower by-products: Potential biological activities of protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Li, Yuting; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Jianxu

    2017-04-15

    Cauliflower by-products (CBP) are rich in leaf protein. Every year tons of CBP will lead to environmental pollution. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract leaf protein from CBP and investigate its biological activities. Our results showed that the optimal extraction parameters were: a liquid to solid ratio of 4mL/g, a pH of 11, an ultrasonic extraction lasting 15min, and at an applied power of 175W. Under these optimized conditions, 12.066g of soluble leaf protein (SLP) was obtained from 1000g of CBP and its extraction yield was 53.07%. The obtained SLP was further hydrolysed by Alcalase and the SLP hydrolysate (SLPH) showed a potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 138.545μg/mL in vitro. In addition, SLPH promoted the glucose consumption and enhanced the glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Overall, our results suggested that CBP may be recycled for designing future functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The three Rs of Russell & Burch and the testing of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls, M; Straughan, D W

    1996-01-01

    The principles of humane animal experimentation proposed by Russell & Burch (1959), namely, replacement, reduction, and refinement, are now commonly known as the Three Rs. These principles are clearly embodied in Article 7 of Directive 86/609/EEC. It is instructive, therefore, to consider the priority currently attached to compliance with these principles and to the Directive in the development and control of biological products. Specific comments are made on the need for the application of the Three Rs in relation to the testing of human diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, human pertussis vaccine, inactivated veterinary Gumboro vaccine, veterinary Newcastle disease vaccine, veterinary clostridial vaccines and botulinum toxin. We pose three questions: a. Are the minimum numbers of animals already being used in this area? b. Is any unnecessary pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm being inflicted on the animals used? and c. What could and should be done about any shortcomings in current practice? Finally, the role of ECVAM in the promotion of the Three Rs within the European Union will be reviewed.

  8. [Synthesis and its application to the synthesis of biologically active natural products of new and versatile chiral building blocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, N

    2001-07-01

    This article describes a design and synthesis of new and versatile chiral building blocks and its application to the biologically active natural product synthesis. The chiral building blocks were prepared using a biocatalysis in an enantiomerically pure state. As an application of the above chiral building blocks to the synthesis of biologically active natural product, we demonstrated the diastereodivergent synthesis of the 3-piperidinol alkaloids cassine, spectaline, prosafrinine, iso-6-cassine, prosophylline, prosopinine, and also established the flexible route to the 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine or 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidine type of Dendrobates alkaloids. As another application to the synthesis of biologically active alkaloids, we accomplished the first enantioselective total synthesis of marine alkaloids clavepictines A, B, and pictamine using a highly stereoselective Michael type quinolizidine ring closure reaction as the crucial step, and the first total synthesis of a marine alkaloid lepadin B was also achieved using aldol cyclization controlled by a A strain.

  9. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), amending the soil with composted poultry litter (CPL) and molasses (M), has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical soil fumigation for tomato production, however, optimization of ASD and the use of other biologically-based soil management practices ...

  10. Modeling Nitrous Oxide Production during Biological Nitrogen Removal via Nitrification and Denitrification: Extensions to the General ASM Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N2O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N2O...

  11. Biologically Induced Hydrogen Production Drives High Rate/High Efficiency Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate from Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Lu, Yang; Flexer, Victoria; Keller, Jurg; Freguia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Electron-transfer pathways occurring in biocathodes are still unknown. We demonstrate here that high rates of acetate production by microbial electrosynthesis are mainly driven by an electron flux from the electrode to carbon dioxide, occurring via biologically induced hydrogen, with (99±1)%

  12. Doing Gener in Brazilian Biology: Obstacles and Prejudices on Knowledge Production within the FAFESP Genome Proyect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição da Costa, Maria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the participation of women scientist in knowledge production within the Genome Project sponsored by FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation. Between 1997 and 2003, FAPESP invested approximately 33 million euros to develop the FAPESP Genome Project (PGF, generating major changes in Molecular Biology in Brazil: institutions devoted to fostering science and technology have been investing large sum of money; bioinformatics became one of the fields with great demand for professionals, and the results of the Xylella Genome Project, first organism sequenced in Brazil, were published in several international scientific journals including Nature, and Brazil became the first country to develop genome projects outside USA, Europe and Japan. As a consequence of this process, women scientists were loosing space as “spokespersons of this new science”, playing secondary roles at the project.Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la participación de las mujeres en la producción de conocimiento del proyecto genoma financiado por la FAPESP (Fundación de Apoyo a la Investigación del Estado de São Paulo. Entre 1997 y 2003, FAPESP invirtió aproximadamente 33 millones de euros en el desarrollo del Proyecto Genoma Fapesp (PGF, provocando importantes cambios en la Biología Molecular brasileña: las instituciones de fomento a la investigación comenzaron a promoverla con grandes financiaciones; la bioinformática se tornó uno de los campos con mayor demanda de profesionales y, por fin, los resultados del Proyecto Genoma de la Xylella Fastidiosa, primer organismo vivo secuenciado en Brasil, se publicaron en revistas científicas internacionales, como Nature. Con ello se convierte en el primer país fuera de la tríada EUA-Europa-Japón en desarrollar proyectos genoma. Como consecuencia del proceso, las mujeres están perdiendo espacio como “portavoces de esta nueva ciencia”, ocupando papeles secundarios en el

  13. A consilience model to describe N2O production during biological N removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Smets, Barth F.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during biological nitrogen conversion in wastewater treatment operations. Complex mechanisms underlie N2O production by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, which continue to be unravelled. Mathematical models that describe nitric oxide...... (NO) and N2O dynamics have been proposed. Here, a first comprehensive model that considers all relevant NO and N2O production and consumption mechanisms is proposed. The model describes autotrophic NO production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria associated with ammonia oxidation and with nitrite reduction...

  14. Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Baltazar, Fátima; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The health industry has always used natural products as a rich, promising, and alternative source of drugs that are used in the health system. Propolis, a natural resinous product known for centuries, is a complex product obtained by honey bees from substances collected from parts of different plants, buds, and exudates in different geographic areas. Propolis has been attracting scientific attention since it has many biological and pharmacological properties, which are related to its chemical composition. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to characterize and understand the diverse bioactivities of propolis and its isolated compounds, as well as to evaluate and validate its potential. Yet, there is a lack of information concerning clinical effectiveness. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential of propolis for the development of new drugs by presenting published data concerning the chemical composition and the biological properties of this natural compound from different geographic origins. PMID:26106433

  15. Theoretical methane production generated by the co-digestion of organic fraction municipal solid waste and biological sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nielfa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-digestion of two problematic and available wastes, namely Organic Fraction Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW and biological sludge, was carried out in this work. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP tests are a useful tool for determining the best substrate and co-digestion configurations, however there are some methodologies destined to save costs and time from this process by using the theoretical final methane potential of a substrate from its organic composition. Besides there are some models capable not only of reproducing the methane curve behavior, but also of predicting final methane productions from the first days of experimentation. Methodologies based in the elemental composition for the determination of theoretical production fit better with the experimental results and behavior, nevertheless the Gompertz model was capable of predicting the final productivity within the 7th day of experiment, selecting at the same time the co-digestion of 80% OFMSW and 20% Biological sludge as the optimum.

  16. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Organic Wastes of Frying Oils and Beef Fats: Valorization for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Souissi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the different approaches of biodiesel production by exploiting low cost feedstocks such as organic wastes of frying oils (WFO and wastes of beef fats (WBF. The aim was to compare not only two different sources of waste raw materials but also different approaches of biodiesel production. Biodiesel which refers to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME was produced by both chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The characterization of the biodiesel produced by both approaches was performed according to the European standard EN 14214. The results showed that the biological method gave a richer FAME biodiesel through the catalysis of whole-cell lipase. However, for the chemical method, better biodiesel physicochemical properties were observed for the two raw materials. Therefore, it would be interesting to compromise by optimizing the biological biodiesel production approach in order to obtain a better quality in coherence with EN 14214 requirements.

  17. Microbial production of natural and non-natural flavonoids: Pathway engineering, directed evolution and systems/synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances made in pathway engineering, directed evolution, and systems/synthetic biology approaches employed in the production and modification of flavonoids from microbial cells. The review is divided into two major parts. In the first, various metabolic engineering and system/synthetic biology approaches used for production of flavonoids and derivatives are discussed broadly. All the manipulations/engineering accomplished on the microorganisms since 2000 are described in detail along with the biosynthetic pathway enzymes, their sources, structures of the compounds, and yield of each product. In the second part of the review, post-modifications of flavonoids by four major reactions, namely glycosylations, methylations, hydroxylations and prenylations using recombinant strains are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Propolis: A Complex Natural Product with a Plethora of Biological Activities That Can Be Explored for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva-Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health industry has always used natural products as a rich, promising, and alternative source of drugs that are used in the health system. Propolis, a natural resinous product known for centuries, is a complex product obtained by honey bees from substances collected from parts of different plants, buds, and exudates in different geographic areas. Propolis has been attracting scientific attention since it has many biological and pharmacological properties, which are related to its chemical composition. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have been performed to characterize and understand the diverse bioactivities of propolis and its isolated compounds, as well as to evaluate and validate its potential. Yet, there is a lack of information concerning clinical effectiveness. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential of propolis for the development of new drugs by presenting published data concerning the chemical composition and the biological properties of this natural compound from different geographic origins.

  19. Hyporheic Interfaces Serve as Ecological Control Points for Mountainous Landscape Biological Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Dwivedi, D.; Raberg, J.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Wainwright, H. M.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S.; Steefel, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    lengthened vernal window motivates a better understanding of the role each ecological control point plays in processing landscape biological productivity and for understanding biogeochemical cycling in riverine systems.

  20. Biological monitoring of aromatic diisocyanates in workers exposed to thermal degradation products of polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christina; Nikkilä, Kirsi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engströrm, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated district heating pipes during installation and joint welding, and heat-flexing of PUR floor covering. Isocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples were analysed as perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the aromatic diamines 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) were 0.25 nmol l(-1), 0.25 nmol l(-1) and 0.15 nmol l(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the aliphatic diamines hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IpDA) and 4,4'-diaminodicyclohexyl methane (4,4'-DDHM) was 5 nmol l(-1). TDA and MDA were detected in urine samples from workers in car repair shops and MDA in samples from workers welding district heating pipes. The 2,4-TDA isomer accounted for about 80% of the total TDA detected. No 2.6-TDA was found in the urine of non-exposed workers. The highest measured urinary TDA and MDA concentrations were 0.79 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine and 3.1 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine, respectively. The concentrations found among non-exposed workers were 0.08 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for TDA and 0.05 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for MDA (arithmetic means). Exposure to diisocyanates originating from the thermal degradation of PURs are often intermittent and of short duration. Nevertheless, exposure to aromatic diisocyanates can be identified by monitoring diisocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples.

  1. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  2. Biologically Active Macrocyclic Compounds – from Natural Products to Diversity‐Oriented Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Macrocyclic compounds are attractive targets when searching for molecules with biological activity. The interest in this compound class is increasing, which has led to a variety of methods for tackling the difficult macrocyclization step in their synthesis. This microreview highlights some recent...... developments in the synthesis of macrocycles, with an emphasis on chemistry developed to generate libraries of putative biologically active compounds....

  3. What controls biological production in coastal upwelling systems? Insights from a comparative modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lachkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of net primary production (NPP in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the wind-driven upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of NPP to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003. Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS and Canary Current System (Canary CS, we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of NPP to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the two upwelling systems using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS, coupled to a nitrogen-based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD ecosystem model. Using identical ecological/biogeochemical parameters, our coupled model simulates a level of NPP in the California CS that is 50 % smaller than that in the Canary CS, in agreement with observationally based estimates. We find this much lower NPP in the California CS despite phytoplankton in this system having nearly 20 % higher nutrient concentrations available to fuel their growth. This conundrum can be explained by: (1 phytoplankton having a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS; a consequence of more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2 the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS, which permit a larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing NPP. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be a result of the wider continental shelves and the lower mesoscale activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and reducing the spatial decoupling between new and export production in the Canary CS. Our results suggest that climate change

  4. iNOS EXPRESSION AND NO PRODUCTION CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIRECT EFFECTS OF BCG ON UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA CELL BIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gopitkumar; Zhang, Guangjian; Chen, Fanghong; Cao, YanLi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; See, William A.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evidence suggests that oxidative stress occurring as a consequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (iNOS/NO) contributes to the biologic effects of Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG). Objective of the current study is to examine iNOS expression, NO production and the biologic impact of NO, on established intermediate end points for the human urothelial carcinoma cell response to BCG. MATERIALS AND METHODS Quantitative rt-PCR and real time measurement of NO was used to assess iNOS and NO production respectively, in two human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines, in response to BCG. The effect of blocking NO production using the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W was determined for multiple intermediate end points characterizing BCGs direct effects on tumor cell biology. Activation of NF-κB and NRF2 signaling pathways, transactivation of genes including p21, CD54, IL6, IL8, CXCL1, CXCL3, CCL20 and cytotoxicity as measured by vital dye exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and MTT assay were measured in response to BCG with and without iNOS inhibition. RESULTS Exposure of UC cells to BCG significantly increased both iNOS expression and NO production. Inhibition of iNOS activity with 1400W significantly inhibited BCG’s direct biologic effect on UC cells for all of the end points evaluated. CONCLUSIONS iNOS expression, NO production and the associated oxidative stress play a central role in the response of UC cells to BCG exposure. Manipulation of oxidative stress may afford an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of BCG. PMID:24054867

  5. Synthetic methylotrophy: engineering the production of biofuels and chemicals based on the biology of aerobic methanol utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William B; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Bennett, Robert K; Fast, Alan G; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic methylotrophy is the development of non-native methylotrophs that can utilize methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy sources or as co-substrates with carbohydrates to produce metabolites as biofuels and chemicals. The availability of methane (from natural gas) and its oxidation product, methanol, has been increasing, while prices have been decreasing, thus rendering them as attractive fermentation substrates. As they are more reduced than most carbohydrates, methane and methanol, as co-substrates, can enhance the yields of biologically produced metabolites. Here we discuss synthetic biology and metabolic engineering strategies based on the native biology of aerobic methylotrophs for developing synthetic strains grown on methanol, with Escherichia coli as the prototype. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species for the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Hyun Uk; Charusanti, Pep

    2014-01-01

    have been more systematized with high-throughput techniques through inspections of correlations among components of the primary and secondary metabolisms at the genome scale. Moreover, up-to-date information on the genome of Streptomyces species with emphasis on their secondary metabolism has been...... collected in the form of databases and knowledgebases, providing predictive information and enabling one to explore experimentally unrecognized biological spaces of secondary metabolism. Herein, we review recent trends in the systems biology and biotechnology of Streptomyces species....

  7. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  8. Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papoutsakis, Elefterios [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This is the final project report for project "Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production" for the funding period of 9/1/12 to 2/28/2015 (three years with a 6-month no-cost extension) OVERVIEW AND PROJECT GOALS The bottleneck of achieving higher rates and titers of toxic metabolites (such as solvents and carboxylic acids that can used as biofuels or biofuel precursors) can be overcome by engineering the stress response system. Thus, understanding and modeling the response of cells to toxic metabolites is a problem of great fundamental and practical significance. In this project, our goal is to dissect at the molecular systems level and build models (conceptual and quantitative) for the stress response of C. acetobutylicum (Cac) to its two toxic metabolites: butanol (BuOH) and butyrate (BA). Transcriptional (RNAseq and microarray based), proteomic and fluxomic data and their analysis are key requirements for this goal. Transcriptional data from mid-exponential cultures of Cac under 4 different levels of BuOH and BA stress was obtained using both microarrays (Papoutsakis group) and deep sequencing (RNAseq; Meyers and Papoutsakis groups). These two sets of data do not only serve to validate each other, but are also used for identification of stress-induced changes in transcript levels, small regulatory RNAs, & in transcriptional start sites. Quantitative proteomic data (Lee group), collected using the iTRAQ technology, are essential for understanding of protein levels and turnover under stress and the various protein-protein interactions that orchestrate the stress response. Metabolic flux changes (Antoniewicz group) of core pathways, which provide important information on the re-allocation of energy and carbon resources under metabolite stress, were examined using 13C-labelled chemicals. Omics data are integrated at different levels and scales. At the metabolic-pathway level, omics data are integrated into a 2nd generation genome

  9. Effect of biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould, fruit yield and fruit quality in organic strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PROKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 2001–2002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry ‘Jonsok’ were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;

  10. Paul Carlson | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Carlson, Ph.D. March 28 Principal Investigator Laboratory of Mucosal Pathogens and Cellular Immunology Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), FDA Topic:  "Research and Regulation of novel biologic products at the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research"

  11. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology.

  12. Modeling nitrous oxide production during biological nitrogen removal via nitrification and denitrification: extensions to the general ASM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Maël; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Smets, Barth F

    2011-09-15

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) can be formed during biological nitrogen (N) removal processes. In this work, a mathematical model is developed that describes N(2)O production and consumption during activated sludge nitrification and denitrification. The well-known ASM process models are extended to capture N(2)O dynamics during both nitrification and denitrification in biological N removal. Six additional processes and three additional reactants, all involved in known biochemical reactions, have been added. The validity and applicability of the model is demonstrated by comparing simulations with experimental data on N(2)O production from four different mixed culture nitrification and denitrification reactor study reports. Modeling results confirm that hydroxylamine oxidation by ammonium oxidizers (AOB) occurs 10 times slower when NO(2)(-) participates as final electron acceptor compared to the oxic pathway. Among the four denitrification steps, the last one (N(2)O reduction to N(2)) seems to be inhibited first when O(2) is present. Overall, N(2)O production can account for 0.1-25% of the consumed N in different nitrification and denitrification systems, which can be well simulated by the proposed model. In conclusion, we provide a modeling structure, which adequately captures N(2)O dynamics in autotrophic nitrification and heterotrophic denitrification driven biological N removal processes and which can form the basis for ongoing refinements.

  13. Biodiesel waste products as soil amendments : evaluation of microbial, biological, and plant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    During biodiesel production, about 200 lbs of glycerol, commonly called glycerin, is produced for every 1 ton of biodiesel. As the : biodiesel industry grows, so does the need to dispose of this waste product. While potential uses for glycerin exist,...

  14. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  15. Application of synthetic biology for production of chemicals in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof-of-concept ch......Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering enable generation of novel cell factories that efficiently convert renewable feedstocks into biofuels, bulk, and fine chemicals, thus creating the basis for biosustainable economy independent on fossil resources. While over a hundred proof...... computational tools for the prediction of biochemical pathways, molecular biology methods for assembly of DNA parts into pathways, and for introducing the pathways into the host, and finally approaches for optimizing performance of the introduced pathways....

  16. Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data from the EVRIKA and other platforms in the Antarctic from 23 February 1980 to 09 December 1988 (NODC Accession 9600039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacterial production, primary production, phytoplankton, zooplankton, biological analysis of fish, and massive fish length data were collected from the EVRIKA and...

  17. Inclusion of products of physicochemical oxidation of organic wastes in matter recycling of biological-technical life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergei; Ushakova, Sofya

    Inclusion of products of human and plant wastes' `wet' incineration in 22 medium using alter-nating current into matter recycling of biological-technical life support system (BTLSS) has been considered. Fluid and gaseous components have been shown to be the products of such processing. In particular, the final product contained all necessary for plant cultivation nitrogen forms: NO2, NO3, NH4+. As the base solution included urine than NH4+ form dominated. At human solid wastes' mineralization NO2 NH4+ were registered in approximately equal amount. Comparative analysis of mineral composition of oxidized human wastes' and standard Knop solutions has been carried out. On the grounds of that analysis the dilution methods of solutions prepared with addition of oxidized human wastes for their further use for plant irrigation have been suggested. Reasonable levels of wheat productivity cultivated at use of given solutions have been obtained. CO2, N2 and O2 have been determined to be the main gas components of the gas admixture emitted within the given process. These gases easily integrate in matter recycling process of closed ecosystem. The data of plants' cultivation feasibility in the atmosphere obtained after closing of gas loop including physicochemical facility and vegetation chamber with plants-representatives of LSS phototrophic unit has been received. Conclusion of advance research on creation of matter recycling process in the integrated physical-chemical-biological model system has been drawn.

  18. Improving EGSB reactor performance for simultaneous bioenergy and organic acid production from cheese whey via continuous biological H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lucas Rodrigues; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and cheese whey (CW) substrate concentration (15 and 25 g lactose l -1 ) on the performance of EGSB reactors (R15 and R25, respectively) for H 2 production. A decrease in the HRT from 8 to 4 h favored the H 2 yield and H 2 production rate (HPR) in R15, with maximum values of 0.86 ± 0.11 mmol H 2 g COD -1 and 0.23 ± 0.024 l H 2 h -1 l -1 , respectively. H 2 production in R25 was also favored at a HRT of 4 h, with maximum yield and HPR values of 0.64 ± 0.023 mmol H 2 g COD -1 and 0.31 ± 0.032 l H 2 h -1 l -1 , respectively. The main metabolites produced were butyric, acetic and lactic acids. The EGSB reactor was evaluated as a viable acidogenic step in the two-stage anaerobic treatment of CW for the increase of COD removal efficiency and biomethane production.

  19. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium......Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  20. Copper deficiency can limit nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete nitrification in biological filters during drinking water treatment is problematic, as it compromises drinking water quality. Nitrification problems can be caused by a lack of nutrients for the nitrifying microorganisms. Since copper is an important element in one of the essential...... enzymes in nitrification, we investigated the effect of copper dosing on nitrification in different biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater. A lab-scale column assay with filter material from a water works demonstrated that addition of a trace metal mixture, including copper, increased ammonium...... removal compared to a control without addition. Subsequently, another water works was investigated in full-scale, where copper influent concentrations were below 0.05 μg Cu L-1 and nitrification was incomplete. Copper dosing of less than 5 μg Cu L-1 to a full-scale filter stimulated ammonium removal...

  1. Ecological and biological considerations for sustainable management of non-timber forest products in northern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc C. Duchesne; John C. Zasada; Iain. Davidson-Hunt

    2001-01-01

    With a current output of over $241 million per year, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) contribute significantly to the welfare of rural and First Nations communities in Canada. Maple sap products, wild mushrooms, and wild fruits are the most important NTFPs for consumption both in Canada and abroad. However, because of increased access to international markets by...

  2. Methanol regulated yeast promoters: production vehicles and toolbox for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Brigitte; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2015-12-02

    Promoters are indispensable elements of a standardized parts collection for synthetic biology. Regulated promoters of a wide variety of well-defined induction ratios and expression strengths are highly interesting for many applications. Exemplarily, we discuss the application of published genome scale transcriptomics data for the primary selection of methanol inducible promoters of the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella sp.). Such a promoter collection can serve as an excellent toolbox for cell and metabolic engineering, and for gene expression to produce heterologous proteins.

  3. Sponges in Qatari waters A new source of marine natural products for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Sponges are the most primitive multicellular organisms belonging to Animalia kingdom. They lack symetry and do not have differentiated tissues or organs. However, as a consequence of this primitive organization it is very likely that sponges are the richest source of marine organisms for biological properties and pharmaceutical applications. Attached for life on their substrate and devoid of mecanical protection against predators sponges have elaborated a lot of sophisticated means of chemica...

  4. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities. PMID:27854330

  5. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Thiruvengadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones (AQs and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum. We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs, media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA, and salicylic acid (SA for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum. The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM; 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum. This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities.

  6. Enhanced Production of Anthraquinones and Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in the Cell Suspension Cultures of Polygonum multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Lee, Taek-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min

    2016-11-16

    Anthraquinones (AQs) and phenolic compounds are important phytochemicals that are biosynthesized in cell suspension cultures of Polygonum multiflorum . We wanted to optimize the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs), media, sucrose, l-glutamine, jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) for the production of phytochemicals and biomass accumulation in a cell suspension culture of P. multiflorum . The medium containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts and 4% sucrose supplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L thidiazuron, and 100 µM l-glutamine at 28 days of cell suspension culture was suitable for biomass accumulation and AQ production. Maximum biomass accumulation (12.5 and 12.35 g fresh mass (FM); 3 and 2.93 g dry mass (DM)) and AQ production (emodin 295.20 and 282 mg/g DM; physcion 421.55 and 410.25 mg/g DM) were observed using 100 µM JA and SA, respectively. JA- and SA-elicited cell cultures showed several-fold higher biomass accumulation and AQ production than the control cell cultures. Furthermore, the cell suspension cultures effectively produced 23 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures produced a higher amount of AQs and phenolic compounds. Because of these metabolic changes, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities were high in the PGR-, JA-, and SA-elicited cell cultures. The results showed that the elicitors (JA and SA) induced the enhancement of biomass accumulation and phytochemical (AQs and phenolic compounds) production as well as biological activities in the cell suspension cultures of P. multiflorum . This optimized protocol can be developed for large-scale biomass accumulation and production of phytochemicals (AQs and phenolic compounds) from cell suspension cultures, and the phytochemicals can be used for various biological activities.

  7. Evaluation of biological attributes of soil type latossol under agroecological production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil attributes have shown to be good indicators of soil changes as a result of the management function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using cover crops, as well as planting and tillage systems on the biological attributes of a yellowish red latosol soil. Soil samples were taken at 0 to 0.10 m depth, seven days before the bean harvest. Microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, basal soil respiration, metabolic ratio and total enzyme activity were evaluated in this study. The best agroecological management was achieved under the association of the ground cover with millet and in direct seeding because they showed higher soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content and lower metabolic quotient, being pork bean the best plant coverage. All biological soil attributes were sensitive to the tillage system, which showed the best results of the total enzyme activity and of the soil metabolic quotient which resulted to be the most efficient.

  8. The importance of extremophile cyanobacteria in the production of biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobac-Čik Aleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to endure extreme conditions, terrestrial cyanobacteria belong to a group of organisms known as "extremophiles". Research so far has shown that these organisms posses a great capacity for producing biologically active compounds (BAC. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol extracts of 21 cyanobacterial strains belonging to Anabaena and Nostoc genera, previously isolated from different soil types and water resources in Serbia, were evaluated. In general, larger number of cyanobacterial strains showed antifungal activity. In contrast to Nostoc, Anabaena strains showed greater diversity of antibacterial activity (mean value of percentages of sensitive targeted bacterial strains 3% and 25.9% respectively. Larger number of targeted fungi was sensitive to cultural liquid extract (CL, while crude cell extract (CE affected more bacterial strains. According to this investigation, the higher biological activity of terrestrial strains as representatives of extremophiles may present them as significant BAC producers. This kind of investigation creates very general view of cyanobacterial possibility to produce biologically active compounds but it points out the necessity of exploring terrestrial cyanobacterial extremophiles as potentially excellent sources of these substances and reveals the most prospective strains for further investigations.

  9. Production of High Viscosity Chitosan from Biologically Purified Chitin Isolated by Microbial Fermentation and Deproteinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkalak Ploydee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce high viscosity chitosan from shrimp chitin prepared by using a two-step biological treatment process: decalcification and deproteinization. Glucose was fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus L7 to lactic acid. At a pH of 3.9±0.1, the calcium carbonate of the shells was solubilized in 48 hours. The amounts of residual calcium in the form of ash (1.4±0.5% and crude protein (23.2±2.5% were further eliminated by the activity of proteolytic Bacillus thuringiensis SA. After decalcification and deproteinization of the shrimp shells, residual calcium and crude protein of shrimp chitin flakes were 1.7±0.4% and 3.8±1.3%, respectively. Chitin was deacetylated with 50% NaOH at 121°C for 5 hours. After deacetylation, the chitosan had residual calcium, crude protein content, and degree of acetylation of 1.6±0.6%, 0.4±0.3%, and 83.2±1.5%, respectively. The viscosity of chitosan prepared from chitin extracted by this two-step biological process was 1,007±14.7 mPa·s, whereas chitosan prepared from chemically processed chitin had a viscosity of 323±15.6   mPa·s, indicating that biologically purified chitin gave chitosan with a high quality.

  10. Mucoralean fungi for sustainable production of bioethanol and biologically active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2018-02-01

    Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition to a high ethanol yield, the fungi produce several commercially valuable by-products, including chitosan, microbial oil (mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids), and protein. Moreover, the fungal extracts can replace the expensive nutrients required in fermentation. Besides, their morphologies can be altered from filamentous to yeast like and are adjustable based on the process requirement. The focus of this review is on applying Mucorales in producing ethanol and the biomass by-products thereof.

  11. The Production of Curli Amyloid Fibers Is Deeply Integrated into the Biology of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel R.; Price, Janet E.; Burby, Peter E.; Blanco, Luz P.; Chamberlain, Justin; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Curli amyloid fibers are the major protein component of the extracellular matrix produced by Enterobacteriaceae during biofilm formation. Curli are required for proper biofilm development and environmental persistence by Escherichia coli. Here, we present a complete and vetted genetic analysis of functional amyloid fiber biogenesis. The Keio collection of single gene deletions was screened on Congo red indicator plates to identify E. coli mutants that had defective amyloid production. We discovered that more than three hundred gene products modulated curli production. These genes were involved in fundamental cellular processes such as regulation, environmental sensing, respiration, metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, transport, and protein turnover. The alternative sigma factors, σS and σE, had opposing roles in curli production. Mutations that induced the σE or Cpx stress response systems had reduced curli production, while mutant strains with increased σS levels had increased curli production. Mutations in metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis and the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produced less curli. Regulation of the master biofilm regulator, CsgD, was diverse, and the screen revealed several proteins and small RNAs (sRNA) that regulate csgD messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Using previously published studies, we found minimal overlap between the genes affecting curli biogenesis and genes known to impact swimming or swarming motility, underlying the distinction between motile and sessile lifestyles. Collectively, the diversity and number of elements required suggest curli production is part of a highly regulated and complex developmental pathway in E. coli. PMID:29088115

  12. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  13. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  14. Biological production and spatial variation of dimethylated sulfur compounds and their relation with plankton in the North Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Xuan; Yang, Gui-Peng; Wang, Bao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of dimethylated sulfur compounds and chlorophyll a, as well as biological production and consumption rates of dimethylsulfide (DMS), were measured in the surface water of the North Yellow Sea (NYS, 37-40°N to 121-124°E) in winter 2007. Surface DMS, dissolved and particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPd and DMSPp) concentrations in the study area increased significantly from offshore to inshore sites, with the average values of 2.00, 4.52 and 7.21 nM, respectively. The biological production and consumption rates of DMS were estimated, with the average values of 5.41 and 3.84 nM d-1, respectively. The spatial variation of chlorophyll a was consistent with that of DMS and DMSP, as well as with that of DMS biological production, suggesting that phytoplankton biomass might play an important role in controlling the distribution of DMS and DMSP in the study area. According to the collective data of dimethylated sulfur compounds and DMS biological conversion in China Seas, the dimethylated sulfur compounds concentrations in the NYS during winter were a factor of 2 and 1.3 higher than those in the East China Sea and South China Sea, respectively. Less DMS (DMSP) in NYS was released in winter than that in spring and summer, which could be attributed to the shift in phytoplankton community composition dominated by diatoms to non-diatoms from winter to summer. Quantitative comparison analysis pointed to DMSPp rather than DMSPd as an important precursor of DMS in the surface water. The estimated sea-to-air fluxes of DMS using Liss and Merlivat (LM86), Wanninkhof (W92) and Nightingale (N2000) formulae were 2.72, 5.12 and 4.28 μmol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the surface water, the biological turnover time of DMS varied from 0.21 to 1.73 d with an average of 0.83 d, which was about 5.43-fold faster than the mean DMS sea-air turnover time (3.12 d), implying that microbial consumption was a main sink of DMS in the surface water.

  15. 78 FR 67985 - Supplemental Applications Proposing Labeling Changes for Approved Drugs and Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... statement about drug abuse, dependence, psychological effect, or overdosage; To add or strengthen an... the same clinical effect and safety profile as the prescribed product'' (Orange Book, 33rd ed., 2013...

  16. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  17. 78 FR 19492 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Formal Meetings Between FDA and Biosimilar Biological Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Chairman of the Committee on...: a. A brief history of the development program. b. The status of product development (e.g., chemistry...

  18. Are eddies nature’s trigger to enhance biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Sardessai, S.; DeSouza, S.N.; Gauns, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Madhupratap, M.

    and augments the subsurface nutrient injection to the euphotic zone by eddy pumping. Notwithstanding this, the lower than expected primary production in the north suggests the possible role of riverine sediment in limiting the sunlight for photosynthesis....

  19. Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kumar, Ashok; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeong, Seong Hun; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-10-01

    Biohythane may be used as an alternative feed for methanol production instead of costly pure methane. In this study, methanol production potential of Methylocella tundrae immobilized through covalent immobilization, adsorption, and encapsulation was evaluated. Cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan showed a relative methanol production potential of 83.9 and 91.6%, respectively, compared to that of free cells. The maximum methanol production by free cells and cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan was 6.73, 6.20, and 7.23mM, respectively, using simulated biohythane as a feed. Under repeated batch conditions of eight cycles, cells covalently immobilized on chitosan and groundnut shells, and cells encapsulated in sodium-alginate resulted in significantly higher cumulative methanol production of 37.76, 31.80, and 25.58mM, respectively, than free cells (18.57mM). This is the first report on immobilization of methanotrophs on groundnut shells and its application in methanol production using biohythane as a feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterotrophic bacterial production: Relationships to biological and abiological factors in estuarine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepfler, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effects of creosote contamination on benthic bacterial communities in the Elizabeth River, Virginia were investigated using both structural an functional microbial parameters. Results indicated that cell specific and total heterotrophic bacterial production parameters were depressed in a dose-dependent manner with increasing sediment PAH concentrations. Toxicity effects upon production were modified by temporal trends associated with temperature as well as spatial sediment characteristics. Of the parameters employed, the tritiated thymidine production assay was found to be the most sensitive for detection of ecotoxicological effects. Bacterial abundance and production were examined during a destratification event in the lower James River, Virginia. Bacterial abundance, although significantly different between stations, did not change over the study. Bacterial production ( 3 H-Tdr incorporation) in surface waters was significantly less during the mixed period 187 μg C·1-1· d -1 compared to the most stratified state (324μg C·1-1· d -1 ). Correlations between bacteria and chlorophyll were diminished during the mixed period. Total and flagellate specific grazing rates upon bacteria were reduced during the onset of destratification. Relationships between bacterial and nutrient parameters also indicated a strong influence of destratification. These results indicate that destratification changes trophic interactions within the microbial loop, which are not necessarily reflected in temporal patterns of bacterial abundance. Bacterioplankton production, and ammonium assimilation and remineralization were examined between April and August 1988 in the lower York River, Va

  1. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (Phb) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Mohagheghi, Ali; Mittal, Ashutosh; Pilath, Heidi; Johnson, David K.

    2015-03-22

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. In recent years a great effort has been made in bacterial production of PHB, yet the production cost of the polymer is still much higher than conventional petrochemical plastics. The high cost of PHB is because the cost of the substrates can account for as much as half of the total product cost in large scale fermentation. Thus searching for cheaper and better substrates is very necessary for PHB production. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB by Cupriavidus necator from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified hydrolysate slurry from pretreated corn stover. Good cell growth was observed on slurry saccharified with advanced enzymes and 40~60% of PHB was accumulated in the cells. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by pretreatment and saccharification of biomass, will be discussed.

  2. Biological iron oxidation by Gallionella spp. in drinking water production under fully aerated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, W W J M; Dinkla, I J T; Rietveld, L C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2011-11-01

    Iron oxidation under neutral conditions (pH 6.5-8) may be a homo- or heterogeneous chemically- or a biologically-mediated process. The chemical oxidation is supposed to outpace the biological process under slightly alkaline conditions (pH 7-8). The iron oxidation kinetics and growth of Gallionella spp. - obligatory chemolithotrophic iron oxidizers - were assessed in natural, organic carbon-containing water, in continuous lab-scale reactors and full-scale groundwater trickling filters in the Netherlands. From Gallionella cell numbers determined by qPCR, balances were made for all systems. The homogeneous chemical iron oxidation occurred in accordance with the literature, but was retarded by a low water temperature (13 °C). The contribution of the heterogeneous chemical oxidation was, despite the presence of freshly formed iron oxyhydroxides, much lower than in previous studies in ultrapure water. This could be caused by the adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) on the iron oxide surfaces. In the oxygen-saturated natural water with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.7, Gallionella spp. grew uninhibited and biological iron oxidation was an important, and probably the dominant, process. Gallionella growth was not even inhibited in a full-scale filter after plate aeration. From this we conclude that Gallionella spp. can grow under neutral pH and fully aerated conditions when the chemical iron oxidation is retarded by low water temperature and inhibition of the autocatalytic iron oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  4. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low?oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well?preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5?Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5?Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and m...

  5. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of new approaches to the prevention of infectious complications of bacterial nature after the high-technology operations in the abdominal surgery, first of all, after liver transplantation. At- tention is drawn to the first positive results of randomized studies on the use of biological preparations - probi- otics, prebiotics and synbiotics in patients after liver transplantation. The authors prove the prospects of further development of this subject based on successful model experiments on animals and various operational interven- tions in abdominal surgery. 

  6. Enriching the biological space of natural products and charting drug metabolites, through real time biotransformation monitoring: The NMR tube bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikonstantinou, Alexandra V; Chatziathanasiadou, Maria V; Ravera, Enrico; Fragai, Marco; Parigi, Giacomo; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Luchinat, Claudio; Stamatis, Haralambos; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2018-01-01

    Natural products offer a wide range of biological activities, but they are not easily integrated in the drug discovery pipeline, because of their inherent scaffold intricacy and the associated complexity in their synthetic chemistry. Enzymes may be used to perform regioselective and stereoselective incorporation of functional groups in the natural product core, avoiding harsh reaction conditions, several protection/deprotection and purification steps. Herein, we developed a three step protocol carried out inside an NMR-tube. 1st-step: STD-NMR was used to predict the: i) capacity of natural products as enzyme substrates and ii) possible regioselectivity of the biotransformations. 2nd-step: The real-time formation of multiple-biotransformation products in the NMR-tube bioreactor was monitored in-situ. 3rd-step: STD-NMR was applied in the mixture of the biotransformed products to screen ligands for protein targets. Herein, we developed a simple and time-effective process, the "NMR-tube bioreactor", that is able to: (i) predict which component of a mixture of natural products can be enzymatically transformed, (ii) monitor in situ the transformation efficacy and regioselectivity in crude extracts and multiple substrate biotransformations without fractionation and (iii) simultaneously screen for interactions of the biotransformation products with pharmaceutical protein targets. We have developed a green, time-, and cost-effective process that provide a simple route from natural products to lead compounds for drug discovery. This process can speed up the most crucial steps in the early drug discovery process, and reduce the chemical manipulations usually involved in the pipeline, improving the environmental compatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost minimization in a full-scale conventional wastewater treatment plant: associated costs of biological energy consumption versus sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S; Volant, A; Lesage, G; Heran, M

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption and sludge production minimization represent rising challenges for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The goal of this study is to investigate how energy is consumed throughout the whole plant and how operating conditions affect this energy demand. A WWTP based on the activated sludge process was selected as a case study. Simulations were performed using a pre-compiled model implemented in GPS-X simulation software. Model validation was carried out by comparing experimental and modeling data of the dynamic behavior of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration and nitrogen compounds concentration, energy consumption for aeration, mixing and sludge treatment and annual sludge production over a three year exercise. In this plant, the energy required for bioreactor aeration was calculated at approximately 44% of the total energy demand. A cost optimization strategy was applied by varying the MLSS concentrations (from 1 to 8 gTSS/L) while recording energy consumption, sludge production and effluent quality. An increase of MLSS led to an increase of the oxygen requirement for biomass aeration, but it also reduced total sludge production. Results permit identification of a key MLSS concentration allowing identification of the best compromise between levels of treatment required, biological energy demand and sludge production while minimizing the overall costs.

  8. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L -1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  9. A systems biology approach to reconcile metabolic network models with application to Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Fallah-Mehrabadi, Jalil; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Zahiri, Javad; Javad Niroomand, Mohammad; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-07-19

    Production of biofuels has been one of the promising efforts in biotechnology in the past few decades. The perspective of these efforts can be reduction of increasing demands for fossil fuels and consequently reducing environmental pollution. Nonetheless, most previous approaches did not succeed in obviating many big challenges in this way. In recent years systems biology with the help of microorganisms has been trying to overcome these challenges. Unicellular cyanobacteria are widespread phototrophic microorganisms that have capabilities such as consuming solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide for growth and thus can be a suitable chassis for the production of valuable organic materials such as biofuels. For the ultimate use of metabolic potential of cyanobacteria, it is necessary to understand the reactions that are taking place inside the metabolic network of these microorganisms. In this study, we developed a Java tool to reconstruct an integrated metabolic network of a cyanobacterium (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803). We merged three existing reconstructed metabolic networks of this microorganism. Then, after modeling for biofuel production, the results from flux balance analysis (FBA) disclosed an increased yield in biofuel production for ethanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and propanol. The numbers of blocked reactions were also decreased for 2-methyl-1-butanol production. In addition, coverage of the metabolic network in terms of the number of metabolites and reactions was increased in the new obtained model.

  10. Biological hydrogen production from probiotic wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Biohydrogen production from probiotic wastewater using mixed anaerobic consortia is reported in this paper. Batch tests are carried out in a 5.0 L batch reactor under constant mesophillic temperature (37 C). The maximum hydrogen yield 1.8 mol-hydrogen/mol-carbohydrate is obtained at an optimum pH of 5.5 and substrate concentration 5 g/L. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 168 ml/h. The hydrogen content in the biogas is more than 65% and no significant methane is observed throughout the study. In addition to hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol are found to be the main by-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. (author)

  11. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  12. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Task 4 report, Continuous reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The production of ethanol from synthesis gas by the anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii has been demonstrated in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), CSTRs with cell recycle and trickle bed reactors. Various liquid media were utilized in these studies including basal medium, basal media with 1/2 B-vitamins and no yeast extract and a medium specifically designed for the growth of C. ljungdahlii in the CSTR. Ethanol production was successful in each of the three reactor types, although trickle bed operation with C. ljungdahlii was not as good as with the stirred tank reactors. Operation in the CSTR with cell recycle was particularly promising, producing 47 g/L ethanol with only minor concentrations of the by-product acetate.

  13. Effects of different culture conditions on biological potential and metabolites production in three Penicillium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Ćirić, Ana; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is well known for its importance in drug and food production. Certain species are produced on an industrial scale for the production of antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) or for insertion in food (e.g. cheese). In the present work, three Penicillium species, part of the natural mycobiota growing on various food products were selected - P. ochrochloron, P. funiculosum and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium. The objective of our study was to value these species from the point of view of production of bioactive metabolites. The species were obtained after inoculation and growth in Czapek and Malt media. Both mycelia and culture media were analyzed to monitor the production of different metabolites by each fungus and their release to the culture medium. The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids and tocopherols were determined. Antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was evaluated, as also the antimicrobial activity of phenolic acids, organic acids and tocopherols extracts. Rhamnose, xylose, fructose and trehalose were found in all the mycelia and culture media; the prevailing organic acids were oxalic and fumaric acids, and protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids were the most common phenolic acids; γ-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E isoform. Generally, the phenolic extracts corresponding to the mycelia samples revealed higher antioxidant activity. Concerning the antimicrobial activity there were some fluctuations, however all the studied species revealed activity against the tested strains. Therefore, the in-vitro bioprocesses can be an alternative for the production of bioactive metabolites that can be used by pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Non-enzymatic lipid oxidation products in biological systems: assessment of the metabolites from polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigor, Claire; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Pinot, Edith; Oger, Camille; Vercauteren, Joseph; Le Faouder, Pauline; Galano, Jean-Marie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Durand, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Metabolites of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids notably omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have become important biomarkers of lipid products. Especially the arachidonic acid-derived F2-isoprostanes are the classic in vivo biomarker for oxidative stress in biological systems. In recent years other isoprostanes from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic acids have been evaluated, namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively. These have been gaining interest as complementary specific biomarkers in human diseases. Refined extraction methods, robust analysis and elucidation of chemical structures have improved the sensitivity of detection in biological tissues and fluids. Previously the main reliable instrumentation for measurement was gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), but now the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunological techniques is gaining much attention. In this review, the types of prostanoids generated from non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation of some important omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and biological samples that have been determined by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Chitooligosaccharide: An evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties with the proposition for determination of thermal degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil, Lucas; Naveed, Muhammad; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Bo, Li; Bin, Di

    2018-03-23

    Being the most versatile biopolymer, chitooligosaccharide/chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has been extensively studied for a range of exceptional biological activities and potential developments of novel medical devices and systems in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. While possessing intrinsic biocompatibility, mucoadhesiveness, and non-toxicity it gained more interests in the biomedical development of novel systems, devices, and pharmaceutical formulations. The bioactive relativity of chitosan and COS are of highly significant and thus explored in this paper while highlighting its multiple biological activities and promising biomedical applications. More emphasis is on the molecular weight, degree of acetylation/deacetylation, degree of polymerization and reactive groups in relation to chitin and chitosan. Despite COS wide acceptance and utilization, the associated viscosity and instability are crucial factors that posed a great challenge to researchers. The apparent reason attributed to instability and viscosity could be the presence intrinsic variable oligomers within COS. Due to lack of data on safety and impurity analysis of thermal exposure of COS, we hypothesized that different molecules could be generated with thermal treatment of COS, thus finally suggested a prospective determination of thermal degradation product(s)in COS. Hence the aim of this paper is to highlight COS physicochemical and biological significance with reference to its recent developments and propose a further chemical analysis thermal treated COS. This could trigger future researchers for possible isolation and characterization of distinct biomolecules from COS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Estimation of calcium, magnesium, cadmium, and lead in biological samples from paralyzed quality control and production steel mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Naveed; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Shah, Faheem

    2015-06-01

    The determination of trace and toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of essential trace and toxic elements cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), and magnesium (Mg) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of male paralyzed production (PPW) and quality control workers (PQW) of a steel mill, age ranged (35-55 years). For comparison purposes, healthy age-matched exposed referent subjects (EC), working in steel mill and control subjects (NEC), who were not working in industries and lived far away from the industrial areas, were selected as control subjects. The concentrations of electrolytes and toxic elements in biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of PPW and PQW as compared to NEC and EC (p urine samples of PPW and PQW. The results show the need for immediate improvements in workplace, ventilation, and industrial hygiene practices.

  17. Integration of systems biology with bioprocess engineering: L: -threonine production by systems metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Jin Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Random mutation and selection or targeted metabolic engineering without consideration of its impact on the entire metabolic and regulatory networks can unintentionally cause genetic alterations in the region, which is not directly related to the target metabolite. This is one of the reasons why strategies for developing industrial strains are now shifted towards targeted metabolic engineering based on systems biology, which is termed systems metabolic engineering. Using systems metabolic engineering strategies, all the metabolic engineering works are conducted in systems biology framework, whereby entire metabolic and regulatory networks are thoroughly considered in an integrated manner. The targets for purposeful engineering are selected after all possible effects on the entire metabolic and regulatory networks are thoroughly considered. Finally, the strain, which is capable of producing the target metabolite to a high level close to the theoretical maximum value, can be constructed. Here we review strategies and applications of systems biology successfully implemented on bioprocess engineering, with particular focus on developing L: -threonine production strains of Escherichia coli.

  18. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  19. Nitrogen management in grasslands and forage-based production systems – Role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Subbarao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N, the most critical and essential nutrient for plant growth, largely determines the productivity in both extensive and intensive grassland systems. Nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil are the primary drivers of generating reactive N (NO3-, N2O and NO, largely responsible for N loss and degradation of grasslands. Suppressing nitrification can thus facilitate retention of soil N to sustain long-term productivity of grasslands and forage-based production systems. Certain plants can suppress soil nitrification by releasing inhibitors from roots, a phenomenon termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI. Recent methodological developments [e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs from plant-root systems] led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize BNI function in pasture grasses. Among grass pastures, BNI capacity is strongest in low-N environment grasses such as Brachiaria humidicola and weakest in high-N environment grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne and B. brizantha. The chemical identity of some of the BNIs produced in plant tissues and released from roots has now been established and their mode of inhibitory action determined on nitrifying Nitrosomonas bacteria. Synthesis and release of BNIs is a highly regulated and localized process, triggered by the presence of NH4+ in the rhizosphere, which facilitates release of BNIs close to soil-nitrifier sites. Substantial genotypic variation is found for BNI capacity in B. humidicola, which opens the way for its genetic manipulation. Field studies suggest that Brachiaria grasses suppress nitrification and N2O emissions from soil. The potential for exploiting BNI function (from a genetic improvement and a system perspective to develop production systems, that are low-nitrifying, low N2O-emitting, economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, is discussed.

  20. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this...... basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing....

  1. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Wang, Jianlong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-10-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550mM total carbon). Results obtained in this study can pave the way towards efficient chain elongation from ethanol-rich wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  3. 76 FR 36019 - Amendments to Sterility Test Requirements for Biological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... the sample matrix. Ruggedness is the degree of reproducibility of results obtained by analysis of the... lot size of 5,000 units; The duration of manufacturing of the drug product.\\8\\ For example, samples... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 600, 610, and...

  4. Biological evaluation of tubulysin A: A potential anticancer and antiangiogenic natural product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Hollingshead, Melinda; Holbeck, Susan; Schauer-Vukašinović, Vesna; Camalier, Richard F.; Dömling, Alexander; Agarwal, Seema

    2006-01-01

    Tubulysin A (tubA) is a natural product isolated from a strain of myxobacteria that has been shown to depolymerize microtubules and induce mitotic arrest. The potential of tubA as an anticancer and antiangiogenic agent is explored in the present study. tubA shows potent antiproliferative activity in

  5. Enhanced biological production in the southeastern Arabian Sea during spring intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sabu, P.

    spring intermonsoon This water mass was relatively low saline (34.2) and nitrate-rich (0.5 mu M), favoring moderate primary production (6.7 mg C m sup(-3) d sup(-1) Since the mixing of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal waters is an important process...

  6. Biological formation of caproate and caprylate from acetate: fuel and chemical production from low grade biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology for anaerobic digestion to recover valuable products from low grade biomass. In this mixed culture fermentation, organic waste streams are converted to caproate and caprylate as precursors for biodiesel or chemicals. It

  7. Application of cyclic phosphonamide reagents in the total synthesis of natural products and biologically active molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Focken

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the synthesis of natural products and bioactive compounds adopting phosphonamide anion technology is presented highlighting the utility of phosphonamide reagents in stereocontrolled bond-forming reactions. Methodologies utilizing phosphonamide anions in asymmetric alkylations, Michael additions, olefinations, and cyclopropanations will be summarized, as well as an overview of the synthesis of the employed phosphonamide reagents.

  8. 75 FR 59935 - Investigational New Drug Safety Reporting Requirements for Human Drug and Biological Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    .... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing safety reporting... safety reporting for human drug products: Janet Norden, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and.... Costs of the Regulation (to Prepare and Submit Safety Reports) C. Benefits of the Regulation D. Final...

  9. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile

  10. Physical forcing of biological productivity in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Ramaiah; Gauns, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Muraleedharan, P.M.; Raghukumar; DileepKumar; Madhupratap

    that this interannual variation is of basin-wide spatial scale. After the termination of winter cooling and subsequent warming during the Spring Intermonsoon, the Arabian Sea has low primary production. During the latter period, micro-organisms, i.e. heterotrophic...

  11. Biologic significance of constitutive and subliminal growth factor production by bone marrow stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, E L; McGrath, H; Temeles, D; Crittenden, R B; Kister, V K; Quesenberry, P J

    1992-06-15

    The "stromal" or adherent cells of long-term murine Dexter explant bone marrow cultures provide the best in vitro model of the bone marrow microenvironment. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is produced constitutively by these cells and is easily detected, but most investigators have not found constitutive production of the other hemolymphopoietic cytokines. We have previously reported the detection of granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) in murine stromal cultures and its induction by the lectin Pokeweed mitogen. The present studies analyzing stromal cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) production by standard Northern blot analysis show constitutive production of mRNAs for CSF-1, GM-CSF, granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), c-kit ligand (KL), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not IL-3, IL-4, or IL-5 by 3-week irradiated or nonirradiated murine Dexter stromal cells. Exposure of stromal cells to Pokeweed mitogen or IL-1 16 hours before RNA harvest induces the messages for GM-CSF, G-CSF, KL, and IL-6, but not IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, or CSF-1. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA made with reverse transcriptase from stromal RNA using two separate sets of IL-3-specific primers shows the presence of IL-3 message in irradiated stromal cells, which is only detectable with this more sensitive technique. The factor-dependent cell lines FDC-P1 and 32D are supported by the stromal cells without the addition of exogenous growth factors, demonstrating a cytokine activity in these cultures that is inhibited by the addition of anti-IL-3 or anti-GM-CSF antibodies. These data indicate that murine Dexter stromal cells constitutively produce CSF-1, GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-6, KL, and IL-3. This growth factor production could explain the support of granulocyte, macrophage, and megakaryocyte production and stem cell maintenance in Dexter-type long-term murine bone marrow cultures.

  12. Seasonal variability of estuarine dynamics due to freshwater discharge and its influence on biological productivity in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Hong, Seongjin; Song, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Hae-Cheol; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Chang-Hee; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-08-01

    In order to evaluate water quality and biological productivity, observation data sets were collected and analyzed in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. We also set up a numerical model to resolve hydrodynamics and fate of water quality variables in the system. Results show that most of nutrients loading are trapped in the lake and higher concentrations of nutrients and organic matters (OM) are present only inside of the artificial sea dike. There exist episodial discharges at the dam, which coincide mostly with rainfall events during summer monsoon periods. During this discharge event, lower salinity and higher suspended solids, nutrients, and OM are observed in surface layer of the estuarine section. Hydrodynamic model results show that circulation in the estuarine section is governed by freshwater discharge from the lake, resulting in an enhanced two-layer estuarine circulation being dominated, during and after the freshwater is discharged. Such two-layer estuarine circulation combined with higher concentration of nutrients in the surface layer results in that outfluxes of nutrients in the surface layer dominate over the influxes in the bottom layer during summer high precipitation periods. Meanwhile, numerical dye experiment results show that the discharged water with elevated nutrients levels have a short residence time (∼5-10 days) in the estuarine section. Due to this fast flushing rate, excessive nutrient loadings are not used to produce biological matters in the estuarine section. This limited biological productivity, characterized by seaward side of the artificial sea dike, makes Yeongsan estuarine system excluded from acting as an active carbon sink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological and Histological Studies of Purified Product from Streptomyces janthinus M7 Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik Zahira S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen clinical samples were taken out from patients suffering cancer, these patients being under the treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy. The samples were used for the isolation of bacterial cells surrounding tumor; the samples were collected from Center of Cancer Therapy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical bacterial isolates were purified and identified according to Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology ninth edition (1994. The bacterial isolates were found to be Klebsiella oxytoca m1; Enterobacter cancerogenus m2; P. aeruginosa m3; Citrobacter diversus m4; Enterobacter agglomerans m5; Klebsiella oxytoca m6; Enterobacter dissolvens m7; Serratia fonticola m8; Escherichia coli m9; Citrobacter freundii m10; Staphylococcus aureus m11; Escherichia coli m12; P. aeruginosa m13; Staphylococcus aureus m14; and Bacillus cereus m15. In the present study both primary and secondary screening methods were used to screen the antibacterial activity of St. janthinus M7 against fifteen clinical bacterial isolates. The St. janthinus M7 showed an increase in antibacterial activity against all the tested human bacterial pathogens. In this study Gamma irradiation at dose levels (0.5 and 1.5 kGy was used for the enhancement of the antibacterial activity of Streptomyces strain against the clinical isolates. Several commercial antibiotic discs (Doxorubicin, Augmentin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Oxacillin, and Cefazolin were used for comparing their antimicrobial activity with purified product. The results declared a significant increase in the antibacterial activity in most cases. The physiochemical properties of the purified product were carried out for determination of Rf, empirical formula, M.W, and chemical structure of product and then analyzed by thin layer chromatography, elemental analysis, UV, Mass, and NMR. The result exhibited brown color, one spot, Rf (0.76, M.W (473, while it recorded 270 nm in UV region and the calculated

  14. Genetic and Biological Changes of Newcastle Disease Virus Due to The Development of Chicken Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, Newcastle Disease (ND is one of the most important diseases of poultry. It causes serious economic losses in poultry industry. Newcastle Disease or pseudo-fowl pest is a highly infectious viral disease that causes very high mortality (up to 100% in severe epidemics in poultry and wild birds around the world. Newcastle Disease remains endemic in many regions and continues to severely limit poultry production in some developing countries. The disease is currently being controlled by routine vaccinations in many countries. However, it was reported that outbreaks of ND in vaccinated flocks often occur on the field may not only be due to differences in the antigenicity of the NDV wild field strains and vaccine strains, but could also be as a result of differences in pathogenicity and virulence between different strains used as vaccine seed in NDV vaccine production.

  15. Biological treatment of nitrate bearing wastewater from a uranium production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Kneip, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) produces uranium metal products used for DOE defense programs resulting in the generation of nitrate-bearing wastewaters. To treat these wastewaters, a two-column fluidized bed biodenitrification facility (BDN) was constructed at the FMPC. The operation of the BDN resulted in substantial compliance with the design criteria limits for nitrate from July through November, 1987. Since the BDN surge lagoon (BSL) proved inadequate for providing nitrate concentration equalization, the BDN feed nitrate concentration fluctuated widely throughout this period of operation. BDN effluent caused a doubling of the hydraulic loading and a tripling of the organic loading on the FMPC sewage treatment plant (STP). Better control of the methanol feed to the BDN, coupled with reduced throughput and improved preaeration, caused a significant improvement in the operation of the STP. The overloading of the STP prompted a decision to add a stand-alone effluent treatment system to the BDN

  16. Factors affecting the production of lactulose by Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL 4495 β-galactosidase and its biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Romia, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Production of lactulose and other oligosaccharides by Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL 4495 â-galactosidase andtheir biological activity. Methodology and Results: The transgalactosylation activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL 4495 B-galactosidase was investigated under different conditions for synthesis of lactulose and oligosaccharides. The synthesis was optimized with respect to pH; time; enzyme concentration and substrates ratio (lactose: fructose. Maximum production forlactulose was found to be 25 g/L at pH 6.6 with 40: 20% (w/v lactose to fructose, respectively and enzyme concentration 4 IU/mL after 7 h. With respect to the other oligosaccharides the maximum yield (19 .68 g/L was obtained under the same conditions but with enzyme concentration 2 IU/mL and after 10 h. As a new pharmaceutical application the produced lactulose and oligosaccharide and their sulfated derivative were found to have fibrinolytic activity, but theyfailed to act as anticoagulant. Conclusion significance and impact of study: the research leads to increase the production of lactulose and other oligosaccharides with a significant yield and discovered a new pharmaceutical application for all the products.

  17. Interchangeability of biosimilar and biological reference product: updated regulatory positions and pre- and post-marketing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifirò, Gianluca; Marcianò, Ilaria; Ingrasciotta, Ylenia

    2018-03-01

    Since 2006, biosimilars have been available in several countries worldwide, thus allowing for potential savings in pharmaceutical expenditure. However, there have been numerous debates about the interchangeability of biosimilars and reference products based on concerns of immunogenicity by switching between biological products, which may cause lack of effect and toxicity. Areas covered: The authors provide the reader with an overview of the different positions of regulatory authorities on the interchangeability and automatic substitution of biosimilars and reference products. Presently, the FDA allows automatic substitution without prescriber intervention if the biosimilar is interchangeable with reference products, while the European Medicines Agency delegate to each single EU member state. Expert opinion: Different approaches in defining interchangeability and automatic substitution call for harmonization to increase confidence of healthcare professionals and patients about the clinical impact of switching. Networks of electronic healthcare records and administrative databases, potentially linkable to clinical charts and registries may rapidly assess frequency and benefit-risk profile of different switching patterns in routine care at different levels, thus integrating and strengthening pre-marketing evidence.

  18. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  19. A Pseudomonas putida double mutant deficient in butanol assimilation: a promising step for engineering a biological biofuel production platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, María Del Sol; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Gómez-García, María R; Ramos, Juan L

    2016-03-01

    Biological production in heterologous hosts is of interest for the production of the C4 alcohol (butanol) and other chemicals. However, some hurdles need to be overcome in order to achieve an economically viable process; these include avoiding the consumption of butanol and maintaining tolerance to this solvent during production. Pseudomonas putida is a potential host for solvent production; in order to further adapt P. putida to this role, we generated mini-Tn5 mutant libraries in strain BIRD-1 that do not consume butanol. We analyzed the insertion site of the mini-Tn5 in a mutant that was deficient in assimilation of butanol using arbitrary PCR followed by Sanger sequencing and found that the transposon was inserted in the malate synthase B gene. Here, we show that in a second round of mutagenesis a double mutant unable to take up butanol had an insertion in a gene coding for a multisensor hybrid histidine kinase. The genetic context of the histidine kinase sensor revealed the presence of a set of genes potentially involved in butanol assimilation; qRT-PCR analysis showed induction of this set of genes in the wild type and the malate synthase mutant but not in the double mutant. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Aquatic productivity: isotopic tracer aided studies of chemical-biological interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Inland waters subject to the accumulation and effects of trace contaminants are discussed and a review of international research projects on this subject is given. The following aspects are specially discussed: aquatic nitrogen and agriculture; aquatic ecosystems in arid zones of developing countries; micronutrients in aquatic ecosystems; microbiological activity (''primary production''); enzymic methods in water quality determinations. Recommendations of the Joint FAO/IAEA Advisory Group for measures to be taken in order to protect water quality are also given

  1. Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nakhla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

  2. Biologic treatment of wastewater from cassava flour production using vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce T Correia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimate cassava production in Brazil in 2007 was of 25 million tons (= 15% of the world production and most of it is used in the production of flour. During its processing, waste that can cause environmental inequality is generated, if discharged inappropriately. One of the liquid waste generated, manipueira, is characterized by its high level of organic matter. The anaerobic treatment that uses a vertical anaerobic baffled reactor (VABR inoculated with granulated sludge, is one of the ways of treating this effluent. The anaerobic biodigestion phases are separated in this kind of reactor, allowing greater stability and resistance to load shocks. The VABR was built with a width/height rate of 1:2. The pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity and COD removal were analyzed in 6 different regions of the reactor, which was operated with an increasing feeding from ? 2000 to ? 10000 mg COD L?¹ and HRT between 6.0 and 2.5 days. The VABR showed decreasing acidity and turbidity, an increase in alkalinity and pH, and 96% efficiency in COD removal with 3-day HRT and feeding of 3800 mg COD L?¹.

  3. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of beta-carotene and retinoic acid oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithsiri Wijeratne, E M; Liu, Manping X; Kantipudi, Narendra B; Brochini, Claudia B; Leslie Gunatilaka, A A; Canfield, Louise M

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of the beta-carotene oxidation product, 2,3-dihydro-5,8-endoperoxy-beta-apo-carotene-13-one (1) was achieved in six steps starting from beta-ionone. Photo-oxygenation of all trans-retinoic acid (8) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (9) produced a mixture of 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (10) and 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-5,8-dihydroretinoic acid (11). Methylation of the crude photo-oxygenation mixture afforded the corresponding methyl esters 12 and 13, respectively, both of which underwent ready aerial oxidation yielding hitherto unknown oxidation products of retinoic acid identified as methyl 5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (14) and methyl 13-cis-5S*,8S*-epidioxy-9,10beta-epoxy-5,8,9,10-tetrahydroretinoate (15). Evaluation of 1, all trans-retinoic acid (8), 13-cis-retinoic acid (9), and the photo-oxygenation products 10-15 in a panel of five cancer cell lines showed 1 to be inactive and that 11 is significantly cytotoxic compared with the other retinoic acid analogs suggesting the requirement of the carboxylic acid moiety and the cis-geometry of the 13(14) double bond for cytotoxic activity.

  4. Scope for biological sensing technologies in meat production and export in northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M. S.; Qureshi, I. H.

    2013-12-01

    The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan is rich in livestock resources, including 14.84 million sheep and goats (valued at US1.60 billion) and a 27% share of the national poultry sector (having an investment of US2.00 billion), and produces 834 billion kg meat. These huge assets have the potential to support the provincial economy through income generation, self employment and production of certified high-quality food items for the domestic and international Halal Food Market. A model has been developed for analyzing the gaps in the status of health, productivity, nutrition, fertility and management aspects of local farming. Improved practices would be introduced to combat the losses. The model will comprise a farming network linked to farmers' welfare centre, a central lab and an expert group. A strong sensing technology network would be introduced for data transfer and quality control of the inputs and products. The farmers will e-tag their animals for the purpose of traceability, online history and biodata. The data will be maintained in remote and central servers. A communication system would be developed utilizing mobile phones for the prices, demands and availability status of inputs and produce at local and international markets. A mobile money transfer system will be introduced to exchange, save and borrow small amounts of capital as well as take out short-term insurance policies.

  5. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daran Jean-Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat, a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin production in a high producing Penicillium chrysogenum strain during prolonged ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations. Results During these cultivations, the biomass specific penicillin production rate decreased more than 10-fold in less than 22 generations. No evidence was obtained for a decrease of the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster, nor a significant down regulation of the expression of the penicillin biosynthesis genes. However, a strong down regulation of the biosynthesis pathway of cysteine, one of the precursors of penicillin, was observed. Furthermore the protein levels of the penicillin pathway enzymes L-α-(δ-aminoadipyl-L-α-cystenyl-D-α-valine synthetase (ACVS and isopenicillin-N synthase (IPNS, decreased significantly. Re-cultivation of fully degenerated cells in unlimited batch culture and subsequent C-limited chemostats did only result in a slight recovery of penicillin production. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the observed degeneration is attributed to a significant decrease of the levels of the first two enzymes of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, ACVS and IPNS. This decrease is not caused by genetic instability of the penicillin amplicon, neither by down regulation of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore no indications were obtained for degradation of these enzymes as a result of autophagy. Possible causes for the decreased enzyme levels could be a decrease of the translation efficiency of ACVS and IPNS during degeneration, or the presence of a culture variant impaired in the biosynthesis of functional proteins of these enzymes

  6. Production of Biologically Activated Carbon from Orange Peel and Landfill Leachate Subsequent Treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve adsorption of macromolecular contaminants and promote the growth of microorganisms, active carbon for biological wastewater treatment or follow-up processing requires abundant mesopore and good biophile ability. In this experiment, biophile mesopore active carbon is produced in one-step activation with orange peel as raw material, and zinc chloride as activator, and the adsorption characteristics of orange peel active carbon is studied by static adsorption method. BET specific surface area and pore volume reached 1477 m2/g and 2.090 m3/g, respectively. The surface functional groups were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The surface of the as-prepared activated carbon contained hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, and methoxy group. The analysis based on X-ray diffraction spectrogram (XRD and three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum indicated that the as-prepared activated carbon, with smaller microcrystalline diameter and microcrystalline thickness and enhanced reactivity, exhibited enhanced adsorption performance. This research has a deep influence in effectively controlling water pollution, improving area water quality, easing orange peel waste pollution, and promoting coordinated development among society, economy, and environment.

  7. Feasibility of lignocellulose as feedstock for biological production of super absorbent polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrand, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAP) can absorb liquid many times its own weight and is used in diapers and incontinence pads. The most common type of SAP is cross-linked polyacrylic acid. The production of acrylic acid uses crude oil as starting material. This means that the final price of acrylic acid is affected by the price of crude oil which is expected to rise. This has led to an increasing interest in developing a sustainable bioproduction process that uses renewable lignocellulosic raw mate...

  8. Downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lalloo, R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , rapid mixing providing near 441isothermal conditions and uniform end product (Bayrock 442and Ingledew 1997; Larena et al. 2003; Q1Luna-Solano et al. 4432005; Mille et al. 2004). 444The high recovery of B. cereus spores through our 445agglomeration... Biotechnol JrnlID 253_ArtID 2294_Proof# 1 - 13/10/2009 AUTHOR'S PROOF! UNCORRECTE D PROO F AUTHOR QUERY AUTHOR PLEASE ANSWER QUERY. Q1. Luna-Solano et al. 2005 was cited in the body but not listed in the reference list. Please provide complete...

  9. Economic analysis of ethanol production from switchgrass using hybrid thermal/biological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, K.S.; Brown, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Coal and the Environment; Scott, D.S. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The economics of ethanol production from switchgrass using Waterloo fast pyrolysis with a fermentation step is investigated. Standard chemical engineering methods are used to estimate capital investment and operating costs. Order of magnitude method is employed for preliminary approximation of capital investment. The azeotropic ethanol production capacity used in this case study is 189 million liters/year (50 million gallons/year). All cost figures are updated to 1997 US $. Total capital investment is estimated to be $142 million, while the annual operating cost is about $118 million with an ethanol selling price of $0.62/l ($2.35/gal). This compares to $0.58/l ($2.20/gal) for ethanol from popular wood as determined in a previous study of the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process. Conservation of energy, especially, in the separation and purification steps, and generation of steam from lignin to meet energy requirements are evaluated in terms of energy saving costs. Additional steam has to be purchased, at $0.30 million/year, in order to meet the heat energy requirement of the process. Sensitivity analyses of feedstock cost and yield of sugar fermentation on the selling price of ethanol show that feedstock cost is positively related to ethanol selling price, while the yield has a negative relationship with selling price.

  10. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Sahrawat, K. L.; Nakahara, K.; Rao, I. M.; Ishitani, M.; Hash, C. T.; Kishii, M.; Bonnett, D. G.; Berry, W. L.; Lata, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. Scope In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4+)-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and

  11. Exploration of Sea Cucumbers Stichopus hermanii from Karimunjawa Islands as Production of Marine Biological Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringgenies, Delianis; Rudiyanti, Siti; Yudiati, Ervia

    2018-02-01

    This research aim was to study the potential of Stichopus hermanii to determine the amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents, to discover its antibacterial and anti-cancer agent. The samples were rinsed prior to separation, with only the corpus being used in the study. Sea cucumber extract was then processed using HPLC to trace contents of amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents. The samples were then put into test against several strains of pathogenic bacteria by means of diffusion for any biological activity. The anti-cancer test was performed by human ovarian cancer cell line (KOC7C) method. The study showed that the extract of Stichopus hermanii has the potency to inhibit the growth of active ovarian cancer cells. The qualitative test of the sea cucumber extract showed that it is capable of suppressing the growth of several strains of pathogenic bacteria identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio voinivica, and Pseudomonas sp. HPLC results showed that the extract contained amino acid (mg/100g), the highest being Collagen (11200), followed by Glycine (3760), Glutamic Acid (3700), Aspartic Acid (2540), Alanine (2140), Proline (2050), Arginine (2050), Tyrosine (1430), Threonine (1270), Leucine (1170), Valine (1050), Serine (971), Isoleucine (816), Phenylalanine (713), Lysine (639), Methionine (383), Cystine (263) and Histidine (208). The extract also contained Chondroitin Sulfate (4200) and Glucosamine Hydrochloride (<5.00). In conclusion, the study found that the extract of Stichopus hermanii has potential as anti-cancer, particularly against ovarian cancer, with the highest content being Collagen within amino acids, as well as chondroitin and glucosamine.

  12. Application of Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) serine proteinase for production of biologically active peptides from casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Pokora, Marta; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine potential application of a serine proteinase derived from Asian pumpkin for obtaining biologically active peptides from casein. The course of casein hydrolysis by three doses of the enzyme (50, 150, 300 U/mg of protein) was monitored for 24 hours by the determinations of: hydrolysis degree DH (%), free amino group content (μmole Gly/g), RP HPLC peptide profiles and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In all hydrolyzates analyzed antioxidant activities were determined using three tests: the ability to reduce iron ions in FRAP test, the ability to scavenge free radicals in DPPH test, and Fe(2+) chelating activity. The antimicrobial activity of obtained peptide fractions was determined as the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in a diffusion plate test. The deepest degradation, expressed as the DH [%] and the free amino group content (67% and 7528 µmole Gly/mg, respectively), was noted in samples hydrolyzed with 300 U/ml of enzyme for 24 hours, while in other samples the determined values were about three and two times lower. The results were in agreement with the peptide profiles obtained by RP HPLC. The highest antioxidative activities determined in all tests were seen for the casein hydrolysate obtained with 300 U/mg protein of serine proteinase after 24 h of reaction (2.15 µM Trolox/mg, 96.15 µg Fe(3+)/mg, 814.97 µg Fe(2+)/mg). Antimicrobial activity was presented in three preparations. In other samples no antimicrobial activity was detected.

  13. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid-Ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2016-05-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow-orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant.

  14. Accelerating patient access to novel biologics using stable pool-derived product for non-clinical studies and single clone-derived product for clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Trent P; Le, Kim; Le, Huong; Zhang, Li; Stevens, Jennitte; Soice, Neil; Benchaar, Sabrina A; Hong, Robert W; Goudar, Chetan T

    2017-11-01

    Cell cloning and subsequent process development activities are on the critical path directly impacting the timeline for advancement of next generation therapies to patients with unmet medical needs. The use of stable cell pools for early stage material generation and process development activities is an enabling technology to reduce timelines. To successfully use stable pools during development, it is important that bioprocess performance and requisite product quality attributes be comparable to those observed from clonally derived cell lines. To better understand the relationship between pool and clone derived cell lines, we compared data across recent first in human (FIH) programs at Amgen including both mAb and Fc-fusion modalities. We compared expression and phenotypic stability, bioprocess performance, and product quality attributes between material derived from stable pools and clonally derived cells. Overall, our results indicated the feasibility of matching bioprocess performance and product quality attributes between stable pools and subsequently derived clones. These findings support the use of stable pools to accelerate the advancement of novel biologics to the clinic. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1476-1482, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Biological properties of propolis extracts: Something new from an ancient product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaiou, Nada; Fouache, Allan; Trousson, Amalia; Baron, Silvère; Zellagui, Amar; Lahouel, Mesbah; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2017-10-01

    Natural products are an interesting source of new therapeutics, especially for cancer therapy as 70% of them have botany origin. Propolis, a resinous mixture that honey bees collect and transform from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources, has been used by ethnobotany and traditional practitioners as early in Egypt as 3000 BCE. Enriched in flavonoids, phenol acids and terpene derivatives, propolis has been widely used for its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Even though it is a challenge to standardize propolis composition, chemical analyses have pointed out interesting molecules that also present anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties that are of interest in the field of anti-cancer therapy. This review describes the various geographical origins and compositions of propolis, and analyzes how the main compounds of propolis could modulate cell signaling. A focus is made on the putative use of propolis in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with High Biological Activity from Local Fermented Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Munkhtsetseg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The thirty-two strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the Mongolian traditional fermented dairy products, among them 25 strains show antimicrobial activity against test microorganisms including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Pseudom о nas aeruginosa . Protease sensitivity assay demonstrated that the antimicrobial substances produced by isolates А 23, Т 2 are bacteriocins as their antibacterial activities were eliminated completely after treatment with protease. Identi fi cation of bacteria is being carried out. Among the isolates 22 strains show protease enzyme producing activity. The selected strains isolated from mare’s fermented milk (airag or kumis and yoghurt (tarag show the speci fi c protease activity from 7.9 μ g/ml to 11.9 μ g/ml. The strain T2, isolated from yoghurt exhibited the highest proteolytic activity.

  17. Systems biology of yeast: enabling technology for development of cell factories for production of advanced biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Bouke; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-08-01

    Transportation fuels will gradually shift from oil based fuels towards alternative fuel resources like biofuels. Current bioethanol and biodiesel can, however, not cover the increasing demand for biofuels and there is therefore a need for advanced biofuels with superior fuel properties. Novel cell factories will provide a production platform for advanced biofuels. However, deep cellular understanding is required for improvement of current biofuel cell factories. Fast screening and analysis (-omics) methods and metabolome-wide mathematical models are promising techniques. An integrated systems approach of these techniques drives diversity and quantity of several new biofuel compounds. This review will cover the recent technological developments that support improvement of the advanced biofuels 1-butanol, biodiesels and jetfuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Useful Terpenoids by Higher-Fungus Cell Factory and Synthetic Biology Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Higher fungi with greater than 70000 species are regarded as a rich source of various natural compounds including terpenoids, the production of which represents a wide range of interest in pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. This review summarizes the current knowledge of terpenoids synthesized by higher fungi, and highlights the current state-of-the-art regarding genetic manipulation of higher fungi. As the focus, this article will discuss the most recent approaches enabling native hosts and heterologous microbes to efficiently produce various terpenoids, especially with regard to the construction of 'smart' higher-fungus cell factories. The merits and demerits of heterologous versus native hosts as cell factories will also be debated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flowering biology, nectar production and insect visits in Cucurbita pepo L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of grease interceptors with and without biological product addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; Osborne, Jason; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2012-03-01

    Hardened and insoluble fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits are the primary cause of sewer line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). However, there have been very few long-term assessments of the physico-chemical characteristics of full-scale grease interceptors (GIs), the first "line of defense" against FOG buildup in sewer lines. In this study, we assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of two full-scale GIs (at a restaurant and a retirement community kitchen) over a one-year period. Statistically significant differences between bioaugmented and untreated cycles were detected for several chemical and physical properties. The treated cycles had lower BOD and COD at the grease interceptor outlet. While the combined data for all treated cycles did not show lower FOG concentrations in the GI outlet compared to the combined data for all untreated cycles, comparison of specific individual treated and untreated cycles show a positive effect due to the addition of product.

  2. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Heather A; Sinasac, Sarah E; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  3. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Hager

    Full Text Available In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  4. Determination of the trypanocidal drug melarsoprol and its conversion products in biological fluids with HPLC-ICPMS/ESMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Georg; Raber, Thomas; Raml, Reingard; Murko, Manuela; Magnes, Christoph; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2013-11-15

    Although melarsoprol, an organoarsenic compound, is widely used for the treatment of trypanosomiasis (human African sleeping sickness), very little is known about its fate in the human body, its active metabolites passing the blood-brain barrier and the mode of action. Previous pharmacological studies based on the determination of melarsoprol by HPLC-UV or by a bioassay method produced different results. We report a HPLC-ICPMS method suitable for determining melarsoprol and its metabolites in biological fluids. The arsenic selective capability of the method allowed the quantitative measurement of melarsoprol and two arsenic-containing conversion products produced when melarsoprol was incubated with human serum and blood. The major product was identified as melarsen [4-[(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]phenyl]arsonic acid by HPLC/electrospray MS, and by accurate mass measurements. Investigations about the stability of melarsoprol in serum showed that within 30 h about 10% of melarsoprol is converted to melarsen. In blood, however, most of the melarsoprol was bound to proteins and only 1% was converted to melarsen after 30 hours. The limit of detection for melarsoprol and its conversion products were in the range of 1 µg AsL(-1) (13 nmol As L(-1)) based on signal to noise ratio of 3 with a 10 µL injection volume allowing direct determination of the compounds in blood and serum (after protein precipitation) at therapeutically realistic concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rates of molecular evolution in tree ferns are associated with body size, environmental temperature and biological productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Redondo, Josué; Ramirez-Barahona, Santiago; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2018-03-31

    Variation in rates of molecular evolution (heterotachy) is a common phenomenon among plants. Although multiple theoretical models have been proposed, fundamental questions remain regarding the combined effects of ecological and morphological traits on rate heterogeneity. Here, we used tree ferns to explore the correlation between rates of molecular evolution in chloroplast DNA sequences and several morphological and environmental factors within a Bayesian framework. We revealed direct and indirect effects of body size, biological productivity, and temperature on substitution rates, where smaller tree ferns living in warmer and less productive environments tend to have faster rates of molecular evolution. In addition, we found that variation in the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) in the chloroplast rbcL gene was significantly correlated with ecological and morphological variables. Heterotachy in tree ferns may be influenced by effective population size associated with variation in body size and productivity. Macroevolutionary hypotheses should go beyond explaining heterotachy in terms of mutation rates and instead, should integrate population-level factors to better understand the processes affecting the tempo of evolution at the molecular level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Proof of concept for a banding scheme to support risk assessments related to multi-product biologics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jeffrey W; Fikree, Hana; Haighton, Lois A; Blackwell, James; Felice, Brian; Wright, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    A banding scheme theory has been proposed to assess the potency/toxicity of biologics and assist with decisions regarding the introduction of new biologic products into existing manufacturing facilities. The current work was conducted to provide a practical example of how this scheme could be applied. Information was identified for representatives from the following four proposed bands: Band A (lethal toxins); Band B (toxins and apoptosis signals); Band C (cytokines and growth factors); and Band D (antibodies, antibody fragments, scaffold molecules, and insulins). The potency/toxicity of the representative substances was confirmed as follows: Band A, low nanogram quantities exert lethal effects; Band B, repeated administration of microgram quantities is tolerated in humans; Band C, endogenous substances and recombinant versions administered to patients in low (interferons), intermediate (growth factors), and high (interleukins) microgram doses, often on a chronic basis; and Band D, endogenous substances present or produced in the body in milligram quantities per day (insulin, collagen) or protein therapeutics administered in milligram quantities per dose (mAbs). This work confirms that substances in Bands A, B, C, and D represent very high, high, medium, and low concern with regard to risk of cross-contamination in manufacturing facilities, thus supporting the proposed banding scheme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-23

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  8. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; Bloem, J

    2008-01-01

    that received farmyard manure, which is in line with the responses of their potential food sources (microbes and organic matter). Mineral fertilizer application detrimentally affected enchytraeids and Diptera larvae, whereas aphids benefited. Spider abundance was favoured by organic management, most likely...... Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological...... parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences between "herbicide-free" bioorganic (BIOORG) and biodynamic (BIODYN) systems and conventional systems...

  9. Production and immobilization of alpha amylase using biotechnology techniques for use in biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasher, E.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The immobilized enzymes on polymeric supports are prepared for purpose of repeated use and the possibilities of continuous reaction system. One of the most important properties is the stability of proteins when they are used in some medical and industrial applications. The immobilization of the enzymes improves this property as well as many other properties.In this study, alpha amylase was purified and immobilized onto two different polymers. α- amylase was used in this study for its biological and industrial applications. It is used in paper textile, pharmaceutical applications, food, and detergent industries. α- amylase was found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Purification of α-amylase from microorganisms is the main source of α-amylase because it was excreted from many bacteria and fungi. In this study, α-amylase was purified from Aspergillus niger. Fractional precipitation of the α- amylase produced by A. niger with 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. The crude enzyme was applied on column chromatography packed with Sephadex G 100 for purification. The active eluents containing partially purified enzyme were collected for further investigation. The specific activity of α-amylase was (34.9 U/mg) which was corresponding to 2.09 fold purification for the tested organism. The purified α-amylase was immobilized by entrapment method into two types of polymers. One of them was natural consist of chitosan and alginate. The other polymer was synthetic consist of N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. The temperature optimum and thermal inactivation showed a severe loss in the activity of the free enzymes, while the temperature profile of the immobilized enzymes was much broader at higher temperatures demonstrating the effectiveness of the polymer protecting the enzymes. Also, the immobilized enzymes (natural polymer and synthetic polymer) showed higher thermal stability. Optimum ph and stability showed that immobilization of enzymes resulted in more

  10. Structural and functional investigations of biological catalysts for optimization of solar-driven H II production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul W.; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Cohen, Jordi; Schulten, Klaus; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2006-08-01

    Research efforts to develop efficient systems for H II production encompass a variety of biological and chemical approaches. For solar-driven H II production we are investigating an approach that integrates biological catalysts, the [FeFe] hydrogenases, with a photoelectrochemical cell as a novel bio-hybrid system. Structurally the [FeFe] hydrogenases consist of an iron-sulfur catalytic site that in some instances is electronically wired to accessory iron-sulfur clusters proposed to function in electron transfer. The inherent structural complexity of most examples of these enzymes is compensated by characteristics desired for bio-hybrid systems (i.e., low activation energy, high catalytic activity and solubility) with the benefit of utilizing abundant, less costly non-precious metals. Redesign and modification of [FeFe] hydrogenases is being undertaken to reduce complexity and to optimize structural properties for various integration strategies. The least complex examples of [FeFe] hydrogenase are found in the species of photosynthetic green algae and are being studied as design models for investigating the effects of structural minimization on substrate transfer, catalytic activity and oxygen sensitivity. Redesigning hydrogenases for effective use in bio-hybrid systems requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and catalysis. To achieve better mechanistic understanding of [FeFe] hydrogenases both structural and dynamic models are being used to identify potential substrate transfer mechanisms which are tested in an experimental system. Here we report on recent progress of our investigations in the areas of [FeFe] hydrogenase overexpression, minimization and biochemical characterization.

  11. Biochemical studies on antibiotic production from Streptomyces sp.: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam M. Atta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunicamycin is a nucleotide antibiotic which was isolated from the fermentation broth of a Streptomyces strain No. T-4. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain T-4 was identified as Streptomyces torulosus. It is active in vitro against some microbial pathogenic viz: Staphylococcus aureus, NCTC 7447; Micrococcus lutea, ATCC 9341; Bacillus subtilis, NCTC 10400; B. pumilus, NCTC; Klebsiella pneumonia, NCIMB 9111; Escherichia coli, NCTC 10416; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATCC 10145; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Aspergillus flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The production media were optimized for maximum yield of secondary metabolites. The metabolites were extracted using n-butanol (1:1, v/v at pH 7.0. The chemical structural analysis with UV, IR, and MS spectral analyses confirmed that the compound produced by Streptomyces torulosus, T-4 is tunicamycin antibiotic.

  12. Metabolic Engineering of Yeast and Plants for the Production of the Biologically Active Hydroxystilbene, Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandet, Philippe; Delaunois, Bertrand; Aziz, Aziz; Donnez, David; Vasserot, Yann; Cordelier, Sylvain; Courot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbenic compound deriving from the phenyalanine/polymalonate route, being stilbene synthase the last and key enzyme of this pathway, recently has become the focus of a number of studies in medicine and plant physiology. Increased demand for this molecule for nutraceutical, cosmetic and possibly pharmaceutic uses, makes its production a necessity. In this context, the use of biotechnology through recombinant microorganisms and plants is particularly promising. Interesting results can indeed arise from the potential of genetically modified microorganisms as an alternative mechanism for producing resveratrol. Strategies used to tailoring yeast as they do not possess the genes that encode for the resveratrol pathway, will be described. On the other hand, most interest has centered in recent years, on STS gene transfer experiments from various origins to the genome of numerous plants. This work also presents a comprehensive review on plant molecular engineering with the STS gene, resulting in disease resistance against microorganisms and the enhancement of the antioxidant activities of several fruits in transgenic lines. PMID:22654481

  13. Biological pre-treatment: Enhancing biogas production using the highly cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, Mira; Illmer, Paul; Wagner, Andreas Otto

    2015-09-01

    With regard to renewable sources of energy, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a desirable endeavor. However, the highly heterogeneous structure of lignocellulose restricts the exploitation of its promising potential in biogas plants. Hence, effective pre-treatment methods are decisive prerequisites to overcome these challenges in order to improve the utilization ratio of (ligno) cellulosic substrates during fermentation. In the present study, the application of Trichoderma viride in an aerobic upstream process prior to anaerobic digestion led up to a threefold increase in the yield of methane and total gas in a lab-scale investigation. Due to its highly efficient cellulolytic activities, T. viride seemed to be responsible for an improved nutrient availability that positively influenced the anaerobic microbiocenosis. Aerobic pre-treatment of organic matter with T. viride is therefore a promising solution to achieve higher methane yields and degradation performances without any additional energy demand, nor undesired by-product inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical biology of natural indolocarbazole products: 30 years since the discovery of staurosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hirofumi; Omura, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Staurosporine was discovered at the Kitasato Institute in 1977 while screening for microbial alkaloids using chemical detection methods. It was during the same era that protein kinase C was discovered and oncogene v-src was shown to have protein kinase activity. Staurosporine was first isolated from a culture of Actinomyces that originated in a soil sample collected in Mizusawa City, Japan. Thereafter, indolocarbazole compounds have been isolated from a variety of organisms. The biosynthesis of staurosporine and related indolocarbazoles was finally elucidated during the past decade through genetic and biochemical studies. Subsequently, several novel indolocarbazoles have been produced using combinatorial biosynthesis. In 1986, 9 years since its discovery, staurosporine and related indolocarbazoles were shown to be nanomolar inhibitors of protein kinases. They can thus be viewed as forerunners of today's crop of novel anticancer drugs. The finding led many pharmaceutical companies to search for selective protein kinase inhibitors by screening natural products and through chemical synthesis. In the 1990s, imatinib, a Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was synthesized and, following human clinical trials for chronic myelogenous leukemia, it was approved for use in the USA in 2001. In 1992, mammalian topoisomerases were shown to be targets for indolocarbazoles. This opened up new possibilities in that indolocarbazole compounds could selectively interact with ATP-binding sites of not only protein kinases but also other proteins that had slight differences in ATP-binding sites. ABCG2, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, was recently identified as an important new target for indolocarbazoles.

  15. Influence of 239Pu aerosol production temperature on biological responses in Chinese hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A. L.; Peters, R.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the retention, distribution and effects of inhaled 239 Pu particles produced at different temperatures are continuing in an effort to assess the consequences of accidental inhalation exposures under various conditions. Three groups of Chinese hamsters, 381 animals per group, were exposed to aerosols of 239 Pu which had been treated in a heating column at either 50, 600 or 1150 0 C. Retention and distribution of the plutonium through 600 days after exposure reflected the relative insolubility of the aerosols heated at 1150 and 600 0 C, and the relative solubility of the aerosol heated at 50 0 C. Animals exposed to either of the insoluble aerosols had 80 to 90 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days after exposure whereas animals exposed to the aerosol heated at 50 0 C had only 10 percent of the sacrifice body burden in the lung at 400 days. Translocation was mainly to the liver. To date, survival of the animals seemed to depend primarily on activity level, with production temperature exerting an influence only at the highest activities

  16. Carbon and nitrogen - The key to biological activity, diversity and productivity in a Haplic Acrisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okae-Anti, Daniel; Torkpo, Addison; Kankam-Boadu, Maryross; Agyei Frimpong, Kwame; Obuobi, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    Soil organic matter is important because it impacts all soil quality functions. Much less information is available on the dynamics of the residual carbon and nitrogen content and their distribution in continuously cropped arable fields. We described the values of the soil properties, pH, moisture content, organic carbon and total nitrogen considering them to be random variables. We treated their spatial variation as a function of the distance between observations within the study site, a continuously-cropped field dominated by Haplic Acrisols. We discussed the nature and structure of the modeled functions, the semivariograms, and interpreted these in the light of the potential of these soils to sustain agricultural productivity. At these sites there had been no conversion of natural forests to agriculture so the paper does not discuss soil carbon storage for either the regional or global storage. All the properties studied showed spatial non-stationarity for the distances covered, indicating that the variance between pairs of observations increased as separating distances also increased. pH, moisture content and total nitrogen were fitted with the power model whereas the linear model best fitted organic carbon. Total nitrogen had the least nugget variance and pH the highest estimated exponent, α, from the power equations. The soils are highly variable in terms of input or return of organic residue to provide a sink for carbon and nitrogen and the breakdown of these materials as affected by pH, moisture availability and microorganisms. (author)

  17. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  18. Interannual variability of biological production and carbon export in the California Current System from 1979 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Martin; Münnich, Matthias; Gruber, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    As an eastern boundary upwelling system, the California Current System (CalCS) belongs to those highly productive oceanic environments that sustain a complex ecosystem structure and food supply chains of high economic values. The intense coastal biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients inherent in the CalCS experiences substantial year-to-year variability, most of which is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we assess the response of the coastal cycling of carbon and nutrients to ENSO within the CalCS between 1979 and 2016 based on a high-resolution modeling study. We use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled to a biogeochemical/ecological model with three plankton functional types. Our basin-scale model setup with substantial grid refinement toward coastal regions facilitates an investigation of the complex coastal dynamics while still permitting large-scale connectivity to the tropical Pacific, where ENSO is originating. Our findings underpin the substantial changes in nutrient supply, biological production and carbon export associated with ENSO. Composite means based on all El Niño events falling into the analysis period reveal strong reductions in the upwelling of inorganic nutrients to the coastal euphotic zone (-30%) and a subsequent drop in coastal production (-35%) along central California, consistent with in situ observations for the major events. These changes in nutrient supply and production translate into changes in the redistribution of organic and inorganic matter. In response to the lower production during El Niño events, vertical export (-30%) and offshore transport of organic carbon from coastal to open ocean regions are strongly reduced (-40%) as well. This is essentially a result of the strong decrease in production that is mainly confined to the coastal ocean, but effectively communicates ENSO induced changes along the coast to regions beyond the upwelling front. Reflecting the coastal El Niño response

  19. Production, characterization and biological activities of acidic exopolysaccharide from marine Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 3MS 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Asker, Mohsen S; Mahmoud, Manal G; El Awady, Mohamed E

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor abilities against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and human prostate cancer (PC3) as well as the suppressor effect of bacterial exopolysaccharide (BAEPS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). In-vitro antioxidants characters of BAEPS were determined using various methods, while anti-inflammatory activity was estimated against cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2). In-vitro study, anticancer against MCF7 and PC3 were assessed by the mitochondrial dependent reduction of yellow MTT. In in-vivo study against EAC progression, mice were inoculated with EAC cells and then were orally administered BAEPS at 200 mg/kg after 24 h (equals to 0.10 of determined LD 50 )/10 d. BAEPS was acidic exopolysaccharide contained uronic acid (12.3%) and sulfate (22.8%) with constitution of glucose, galactose and glucuronic acid in a molar ratio 1.6:1.0:0.9, respectively, with a molecular mass of 3.76 × 10 4  g/mol. BAEPS appeared potent antioxidant characters as free radical scavenging, oxygen reactive species scavenging and metal chelation, while its reducing power was low. BAEPS showed selective anti-inflammatory activity against COX-2 than COX-1, COX-2 selective. BAEPS exhibited potent and selective effect to breast cell cancer MCF7, the death percentage was 65.20% with IC 50  = 70 μg/mL and IC 90  = 127.40 μg/mL. BAEPS decreased counted viable EAC cells and induced non-viable cells. BAEPS improved all assessed hematological parameters. These improvements were reflected in the increasing median survival time and significant increment (P < 0.05) in life span. BAEPS has anti-tumor activity with a good margin of safety. The anti-tumor activity of BAEPS may be due to its content from sulfated groups and uronic acids and they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reaction between peroxynitrite and triphenylphosphonium-substituted arylboronic acid isomers: identification of diagnostic marker products and biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Adam; Zielonka, Jacek; Adamus, Jan; Debski, Dawid; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Michalowski, Bartosz; Joseph, Joy; Hartley, Richard C; Murphy, Michael P; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-06-17

    Aromatic boronic acids react rapidly with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) to yield phenols as major products. This reaction was used to monitor ONOO(-) formation in cellular systems. Previously, we proposed that the reaction between ONOO(-) and arylboronates (PhB(OH)2) yields a phenolic product (major pathway) and a radical pair PhB(OH)2O(•-)···(•)NO2 (minor pathway). [Sikora, A. et al. (2011) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24, 687-697]. In this study, we investigated the influence of a bulky triphenylphosphonium (TPP) group on the reaction between ONOO(-) and mitochondria-targeted arylboronate isomers (o-, m-, and p-MitoPhB(OH)2). Results from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping experiments unequivocally showed the presence of a phenyl radical intermediate from meta and para isomers, and not from the ortho isomer. The yield of o-MitoPhNO2 formed from the reaction between o-MitoPhB(OH)2 and ONOO(-) was not diminished by phenyl radical scavengers, suggesting a rapid fragmentation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anion with subsequent reaction of the resulting phenyl radical with (•)NO2 in the solvent cage. The DFT quantum mechanical calculations showed that the energy barrier for the dissociation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anion is significantly lower than that of m-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) and p-MitoPhB(OH)2O(•-) radical anions. The nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2, is not formed by the nitrogen dioxide radical generated by myeloperoxidase in the presence of the nitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide, indicating that this specific nitrated product may be used as a diagnostic marker product for ONOO(-). Incubation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2 with RAW 264.7 macrophages activated to produce ONOO(-) yielded the corresponding phenol o-MitoPhOH as well as the diagnostic nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2. We conclude that the ortho isomer probe reported here is most suitable for specific detection of ONOO(-) in biological systems.

  1. Reaction between peroxynitrite and triphenylphosphonium-substituted arylboronic acid isomers–Identification of diagnostic marker products and biological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Adam; Zielonka, Jacek; Adamus, Jan; Debski, Dawid; Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka; Michalowski, Bartosz; Joseph, Joy; Hartley, Richard C.; Murphy, Michael P.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic boronic acids react rapidly with peroxynitrite (ONOO−) to yield phenols as major products. This reaction was used to monitor ONOO− formation in cellular systems. Previously, we proposed that the reaction between ONOO− and arylboronates (PhB(OH)2) yields a phenolic product (major pathway) and a radical pair PhB(OH)2O•−…•NO2 (minor pathway). [Sikora A. et al., Chem Res Toxicol 24, 687-97, 2011]. In this study, we investigated the influence of a bulky triphenylphosphonium (TPP) group on the reaction between ONOO− and mitochondria-targeted arylboronate isomers (o-, m-, and p-MitoPhB(OH)2). Results from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping experiments unequivocally showed the presence of a phenyl radical intermediate from meta and para isomers, and not from the ortho isomer. The yield of o-MitoPhNO2 formed from the reaction between o-MitoPhB(OH)2 and ONOO− was not diminished by phenyl radical scavengers, suggesting a rapid fragmentation of the o-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anion with subsequent reaction of the resulting phenyl radical with •NO2 in the solvent cage. The DFT quantum mechanical calculations showed that the energy barrier for the dissociation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anion is significantly lower than that of m-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− and p-MitoPhB(OH)2O•− radical anions. The nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2, is not formed by nitrogen dioxide radical generated by myeloperoxidase in the presence of nitrite anion and hydrogen peroxide, indicating that this specific nitrated product may be used as a diagnostic marker product for ONOO−. Incubation of o-MitoPhB(OH)2 with RAW 264.7 macrophages activated to produce ONOO− yielded the corresponding phenol o-MitoPhOH as well as the diagnostic nitrated product, o-MitoPhNO2. We conclude that the ortho isomer probe reported here is most suitable for specific detection of ONOO− in biological systems. PMID:23611338

  2. Practical considerations in clinical strategy to support the development of injectable drug-device combination products for biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoyang; Easton, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    The development of an injectable drug-device combination (DDC) product for biologics is an intricate and evolving process that requires substantial investments of time and money. Consequently, the commercial dosage form(s) or presentation(s) are often not ready when pivotal trials commence, and it is common to have drug product changes (manufacturing process or presentation) during clinical development. A scientifically sound and robust bridging strategy is required in order to introduce these changes into the clinic safely. There is currently no single developmental paradigm, but a risk-based hierarchical approach has been well accepted. The rigor required of a bridging package depends on the level of risk associated with the changes. Clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparability or outcome studies are only required when important changes occur at a late stage. Moreover, an injectable DDC needs to be user-centric, and usability assessment in real-world clinical settings may be required to support the approval of a DDC. In this review, we discuss the common issues during the manufacturing process and presentation development of an injectable DDC and practical considerations in establishing a clinical strategy to address these issues, including key elements of clinical studies. We also analyze the current practice in the industry and review relevant and status of regulatory guidance in the DDC field.

  3. How to Sustainably Feed a Microbe: Strategies for Biological Production of Carbon-Based Commodities with Renewable Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Caitlyn S; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    As interest and application of renewable energy grows, strategies are needed to align the asynchronous supply and demand. Microbial metabolisms are a potentially sustainable mechanism for transforming renewable electrical energy into biocommodities that are easily stored and transported. Acetogens and methanogens can reduce carbon dioxide to organic products including methane, acetic acid, and ethanol. The library of biocommodities is expanded when engineered metabolisms of acetogens are included. Typically, electrochemical systems are employed to integrate renewable energy sources with biological systems for production of carbon-based commodities. Within these systems, there are three prevailing mechanisms for delivering electrons to microorganisms for the conversion of carbon dioxide to reduce organic compounds: (1) electrons can be delivered to microorganisms via H 2 produced separately in a electrolyzer, (2) H 2 produced at a cathode can convey electrons to microorganisms supported on the cathode surface, and (3) a cathode can directly feed electrons to microorganisms. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in designing full-scale processes. This review considers the evolving understanding of each of these approaches and the state of design for advancing these strategies toward viability.

  4. PRODUCTION OF FUNGAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS THROUGH SOLID STATE FERMENTATION: A CASE STUDY ON PAECILOMYCES LILACINUS AGAINST ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brand; C. R. Soccol; A. Sabu; S. Roussos

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes cause annual losses of about USD $100 billion worldwide. Development of natural resistance to nematicides by nematodes and the tendency to withdraw chemical pesticides/nematicides from the market led to the search for new methods of control. Biological control of root-knot nematodes with Paecilomyces lilacinus is being investigated thoroughly, but there is a lack of information on the production systems. Solid state fermentation is a suitable ecofriendly biological process...

  5. Effects of oyster shell on soil chemical and biological properties and cabbage productivity as a liming materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Do Kyoung; Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, Pil Joo

    2008-12-01

    Oyster shell, a byproduct of shellfish-farming in Korea and containing a high amount of CaCO(3), has a high potential to be used as a liming material in agriculture. However, the agricultural utilization of oyster shell is limited due to its high concentration NaCl. The oyster-shell meal collected had a low concentration of water soluble NaCl (mean 2.7 g kg(-1)), which might be a result of stacking the material for 6 months in the open field. It has a very similar liming potential with calcium carbonate, with 3.4 and 3.8 Mg ha(-1) for silt loam (SiL, pH 6.2) and sandy loam (SL, pH 5.8) to bring the soil pH to 6.5, respectively. To determine the effect of crushed oyster-shell meal on improving soil chemical and biological properties and crop plant productivity, oyster-shell meal was applied at rates of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 Mg ha(-1) before transplanting Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) in the two soils mentioned above. Soil pH was significantly increased to 6.9 and 7.4 by 16 Mg ha(-1) shell meal application (4 times higher level than the recommendation) in SiL and SL, respectively, at harvesting stage. The effect of liming was found higher in SL compared to SiL soil, probably due to the different buffering capacity of the two soils. The concentration of NaCl and EC value of soils were found slightly increased with shell meal applications, but no salt damage was observed. Oyster-shell meal application increased soil organic matter, available P, and exchangeable cations concentrations. The improved soil pH and nutrient status significantly increased the microbial biomass C and N concentrations and stimulated soil enzyme activities. With the exception of acid phosphomonoesterase (PMEase) activity, which decreased with increasing soil pH in SL but slightly increased in SiL, the activities of urease and alkali PMEase increased markedly with increasing soil pH by shell meal application. The improved soil chemical and biological properties resulted in increased crop

  6. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  7. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part I: Validation of the biological simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A global general circulation model coupled to a simple six-compartment ecosystem model is used to study the extent to which global variability in primary and export production can be realistically predicted on the basis of advanced parameterizations of upper mixed layer physics, without recourse to introducing extra complexity in model biology. The "K profile parameterization" (KPP scheme employed, combined with 6-hourly external forcing, is able to capture short-term periodic and episodic events such as diurnal cycling and storm-induced deepening. The model realistically reproduces various features of global ecosystem dynamics that have been problematic in previous global modelling studies, using a single generic parameter set. The realistic simulation of deep convection in the North Atlantic, and lack of it in the North Pacific and Southern Oceans, leads to good predictions of chlorophyll and primary production in these contrasting areas. Realistic levels of primary production are predicted in the oligotrophic gyres due to high frequency external forcing of the upper mixed layer (accompanying paper Popova et al., 2006 and novel parameterizations of zooplankton excretion. Good agreement is shown between model and observations at various JGOFS time series sites: BATS, KERFIX, Papa and HOT. One exception is the northern North Atlantic where lower grazing rates are needed, perhaps related to the dominance of mesozooplankton there. The model is therefore not globally robust in the sense that additional parameterizations are needed to realistically simulate ecosystem dynamics in the North Atlantic. Nevertheless, the work emphasises the need to pay particular attention to the parameterization of mixed layer physics in global ocean ecosystem modelling as a prerequisite to increasing the complexity of ecosystem models.

  8. The use of theoretical and empirical knowledge in the production of explanations and arguments in an inquiry biology activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Batistoni e Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agreeing with the scientific literacy as the purpose of science education and with the recent propositions that in order to achieve it we should favor the engagement of students in practices of scientific culture, this study intends to analyze the production of explanations and arguments in an inquiry based teaching activity in order to characterize students' mobilization of theoretical and empirical knowledge by engaging in these practices. Analyzing the scientific reports elaborated by the students (14-15 years old after the inquiry activity on population dynamics, we highlight the importance of empirical knowledge about the experimental context as a repertoire for construction of explanations, especially when students deal with anomalous data. This knowledge was also important for production of valid arguments, since most of the justifications were empirical, regardless of whether or not the data were in accordance with the explanatory model already known. These results reinforce the importance of students' engagement in inquiry activities, as already defended by different authors of this research area, and indicate that the inquiry practice allowed the engagement in epistemic practices, since the knowledge about the experimental conditions and the procedures of data collection provided a repertoire for the production of explanations and arguments. Finally, we discuss the relevance of this research to the field of biology teaching, seeking to defend the promotion of inquiry activities with an experimental approach as an opportunity to integrate conceptual and epistemic objectives and overcome the difficulties generated by the specificities of this area of knowledge in relation to the other disciplines in nature sciences.

  9. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  10. Experimental methods for screening parameters influencing the growth to product yield (Y(x/CH4 of a biological methane production (BMP process performed with Methanothermobacter marburgensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bernacchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Specht M, Brellochs J, Frick V, et al. (2010 Storage of renewable energy in the natural gas grid. Erdoel, Erdgas, Kohle 126: 342-345.2. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Goenrich M, et al. (2010 Hydrogenases from methanogenic archaea, nickel, a novel cofactor, and H2 storage. Annu Rev Biochem 79: 507-536.3. Liu Y, Whitman WB (2008 Metabolic, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the methanogenic archaea. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1125: 171-189.4. Kaster AK, Goenrich M, Seedorf H, et al. (2011 More than 200 genes required for methane formation from H2 and CO2 and energy conservation are present in Methanothermobacter marburgensis and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Archaea ID 973848: 1-23.5. Seifert AH, Rittmann S, Herwig C (2014 Analysis of process related factors to increase volumetric productivity and quality of biomethane with Methanothermobacter marburgensis Appl Energ 132: 155-162.6. Bernacchi S, Weissgram M, Wukovits W, et al. (2014 Process efficiency simulation for key process parameters in biological methanogenesis. AIMS bioengineering 1: 53-71.7. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Seedorf H, et al. (2008 Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation. Nat Rev Microbiol 6: 579-591.8. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a simple, unstructure mathematical model and experimental verification with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Biotechnol Bioeng 51: 645-658.9. Jud G, Schneider K, Bachofen R (1997 The role of hydrogen mass transfer for the growth kinetics of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum in batch and chemostat cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19: 246-251.10. Tsao JH, Kaneshiro SM, Yu SS, et al. (1994 Continuous culture of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic methanogen. Biotechnol Bioeng 43: 258-261.11. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a

  11. 77 FR 12312 - Electronic Submission of Nonclinical Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... certain biological products and is committed to advancing the public health through innovative activities... 56363, October 3, 2007). The phase 2 pilot was aimed at evaluating animal toxicity data submitted in... transport file (XPT version 5) datasets with data provided in PDF. CBER currently receives nonclinical study...

  12. Plankton Production Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    oceanic oxygen minimum zones, which are of global biogeochemical importance because of massive denitrification (NO3- to N2) and also for- mation of the...stations) are taken at face value and considered as indicators of active denitrification . The latitudes of 8˚ to12˚N, outside the OMZ, are treated only...between 20˚ and 21˚N. (3) The one-fifth of our 707 OMZ sam- ples without NO2- apparently had enough O2 to prevent denitrification and permit resident

  13. Elicitation Enhanced the Production of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activities in Hairy Root Cultures of Bitter melon ( Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill-Min Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae is an important vegetable and also medicinal crop which produces the bioactive compounds for various biological activities with potential uses in human health. The present investigation relates to elicitors of jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA to enhance biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production in hairy root cultures of M. charantia. Hairy root cultures were elicited with JA and SA at 0, 25, 50 and 100 μM concentrations respectively. The adding of elicitation to the hairy root cultures on the 15th day of culture and the roots were harvested on day 25. Cultures supplemented with 100 μM JA and SA enhanced the phenolic compounds significantly compared to that of non-elicited hairy root cultures. The biomass of hairy root culture significantly increased by SA whereas decreased in JA elicitation at 100 μM. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures significantly produced a higher amount of phenolic compounds (12811.23 and 11939.37µg/g, total phenolic (4.1 and 3.7 mg/g and flavonoid (3.5 and 3.2 mg/g contents than non-elicited hairy root cultures (10964.25 µg/g, 2.8 and 2.5 mg/g. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures were significantly higher antioxidant activity of DPPH (84 and 78%, reducing potential (0.53 and 0.48, phosphomolybdenum (3.6 and 3.2 mg/g and ferrous ion chelating assays (80 and 74% than non-elicited hairy root cultures. The higher antimicrobial and anticancer activity were exhibited in JA and SA-elicited than non-elicited hairy root cultures. This protocol can be developed for the production of phenolic compounds from JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures.

  14. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  15. Spectroscopic elucidation of energy transfer in hybrid inorganic-biological organisms for solar-to-chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Sakimoto, Kelsey K; Herlihy, David M; Nguyen, Son C; Alivisatos, A Paul; Harris, Charles B; Schwartzberg, Adam; Yang, Peidong

    2016-10-18

    The rise of inorganic-biological hybrid organisms for solar-to-chemical production has spurred mechanistic investigations into the dynamics of the biotic-abiotic interface to drive the development of next-generation systems. The model system, Moorella thermoacetica-cadmium sulfide (CdS), combines an inorganic semiconductor nanoparticle light harvester with an acetogenic bacterium to drive the photosynthetic reduction of CO 2 to acetic acid with high efficiency. In this work, we report insights into this unique electrotrophic behavior and propose a charge-transfer mechanism from CdS to M. thermoacetica Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy revealed that photoexcited electron transfer rates increase with increasing hydrogenase (H 2 ase) enzyme activity. On the same time scale as the TA spectroscopy, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy showed spectral changes in the 1,700-1,900-cm -1 spectral region. The quantum efficiency of this system for photosynthetic acetic acid generation also increased with increasing H 2 ase activity and shorter carrier lifetimes when averaged over the first 24 h of photosynthesis. However, within the initial 3 h of photosynthesis, the rate followed an opposite trend: The bacteria with the lowest H 2 ase activity photosynthesized acetic acid the fastest. These results suggest a two-pathway mechanism: a high quantum efficiency charge-transfer pathway to H 2 ase generating H 2 as a molecular intermediate that dominates at long time scales (24 h), and a direct energy-transducing enzymatic pathway responsible for acetic acid production at short time scales (3 h). This work represents a promising platform to utilize conventional spectroscopic methodology to extract insights from more complex biotic-abiotic hybrid systems.

  16. Development of a broad-host synthetic biology toolbox for Ralstonia eutropha and its application to engineering hydrocarbon biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Changhao; Su, Peter; Müller, Jana; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chhabra, Swapnil R; Beller, Harry R; Singer, Steven W; Hillson, Nathan J

    2013-11-13

    The chemoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha can utilize H2/CO2 for growth under aerobic conditions. While this microbial host has great potential to be engineered to produce desired compounds (beyond polyhydroxybutyrate) directly from CO2, little work has been done to develop genetic part libraries to enable such endeavors. We report the development of a toolbox for the metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha H16. We have constructed a set of broad-host-range plasmids bearing a variety of origins of replication, promoters, 5' mRNA stem-loop structures, and ribosomal binding sites. Specifically, we analyzed the origins of replication pCM62 (IncP), pBBR1, pKT (IncQ), and their variants. We tested the promoters P(BAD), T7, P(xyls/PM), P(lacUV5), and variants thereof for inducible expression. We also evaluated a T7 mRNA stem-loop structure sequence and compared a set of ribosomal binding site (RBS) sequences derived from Escherichia coli, R. eutropha, and a computational RBS design tool. Finally, we employed the toolbox to optimize hydrocarbon production in R. eutropha and demonstrated a 6-fold titer improvement using the appropriate combination of parts. We constructed and evaluated a versatile synthetic biology toolbox for Ralstonia eutropha metabolic engineering that could apply to other microbial hosts as well.

  17. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions.

  18. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  19. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  1. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few...... studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume...

  2. Comparative study of the floral biology and of the response of productivity to insect visitation in two rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L. in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Blochtein

    Full Text Available Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61 were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420.

  3. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation preservation of biological tissues with special emphasis on immunological alterations. Part of a coordinated programme on radiosterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.

    1977-01-01

    A method suitable for clinical use and preparations of tendon and skin preserved by lyophilization and radiosterilization were investigated. The fate of the graft was detected by histological and electronmicroscopical investigations. We demonstrated that the implanted preparation was desorganized and was absorbed within six weeks. Clinical examinations were made on pig-tendon preparations. Patients recovered without difficulties in every case. Skin preparations were prepared of pig-skin. It was demonstrated by indirect haemagglutination that pig-skin antigenity was decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude during the preservation process. The clinical application of skin preparations has been used for nearly two years. It is effectively used as a biological dressing for the covering of wound surface in case of burn injuries

  5. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  6. Effect of Methanethiol on Product Formation in a Biological Sulfide Oxidition process at Natron-alkaline Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Fortuny-Picornell, M.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of methanethiol (MT) on biological sulfide oxidation were studied in a continuously operated bioreactor, in which chemolithoautotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio convert hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at natron-alkaline conditions. Previous bioreactor experiments have

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SILAGE QUALITY AND MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF CATTLE BY THE USE OF A NEW LIOPHYLIZED BIOLOGICAL PRESERVATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Baryshnikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of new biological preservative representing the mix of liophylized lactobacteria strains Lactobacillus plantarum VKPM V-4173; Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis VKPM V-2092, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici VKPMV-5723 (at a ratio of 40:40:20 on the quality of a maize silage has been studied. The total bacteria content in the preparation was 1´1011 CFU/g. Different variants of a silage conservation have been accesses under laboratory conditions using laboratory vessels; the variants included a preservative-free (control variant and the dosages of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g per a ton of conserved maize green mass. The evaluation of the dynamical changes in the ammonia content, pH, organic acid content and their ratio, and the analysis of the chemical composition of a silage performed at the 7th, 21st, and 60th days after the filling showed the dosage of 3.0 g/ton provided the best results. An industrial testing of the studied preservative (3.0 g/ton showed that, comparing to the preservative-free silage, the use of the new preservative during the filling of a maize sillage provided the better preservation of nutrients and more optimal pH and ratio of organic acids in the silage mass. The industrial evaluation of the effect of the preservative addition to the silage on the productivity of milk cattle (n = 12 showed that the maximum average daily yield of milk of the basis fat content was obtained from cows of the experimental group, which ration included maize silage prepared with the use of the studied preservative. This yield made 28.86 kg that exceeds the same value of the control group by 4.0%. The feeding of cows with the silage prepared with the use of the new preservative provided an increase of the volatile fatty acid content and bacteria amount in the rumen contents and simultaneously decreased the ammonia content that evidenced the improvement of the digestion processes. The digestibility of nutrients of the whole ration of cows

  8. Promoter sequence of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is recognized in vivo, leading to production of biologically active Stx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, Leticia V; Mejías, Maria P; Pinto, Alípio; Bilen, Marcos F; Meiss, Roberto; Rodriguez-Galán, Maria C; Baez, Natalia; Pedrotti, Luciano P; Goldstein, Jorge; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Palermo, Marina S

    2013-10-01

    mechanisms involved in Stx expression. In this regard, the present study demonstrates that mammals can synthesize biologically active Stx using the natural promoter associated with the Stx-converting bacteriophage genome. These results could impact the comprehension of EHEC HUS, since local eukaryotic cells transduced and/or infected by bacteriophage encoding Stx2 could be an alternative source of Stx production.

  9. Energy production from mechanical biological treatment and Composting plants exploiting solid anaerobic digestion batch: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, F.; Sordi, A.; Micale, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work quantifies the Italian Composting and MBT facilities upgradable by SADB. ► The bioCH 4 from SADB of source and mechanical selected OFMSW is of 220–360 Nl/kg VS. ► The upgrading investment cost is 30% higher for Composting than for MBT. ► Electricity costs are 0.11–0.28 €/kW h, not influenced by differentiate collection. ► Electrical energy costs are constant for SADB treating more than 30 ktons/year. - Abstract: The energetic potential of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste processed in both existing Composting plants and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, can be successfully exploited by retrofitting these plants with the solid anaerobic digestion batch process. On the basis of the analysis performed in this study, about 50 MBT plants and 35 Composting plants were found to be suitable for retrofitting with Solid Anaerobic Digestion Batch (SADB) facilities. Currently the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) arising from the MBT facilities is about 1,100,000 tons/year, whereas that arising from differentiated collection and treated in Composting plants is about 850,000 tons/year. The SADB performances were analyzed by the aid of an experimental apparatus and the main results, in agreement with literature data, show that the biogas yield ranged from 400 to 650 Nl/kg of Volatile Solids (VS), with a methane content ranging from 55% to 60% v/v. This can lead to the production of about 500 GW h of renewable energy per year, giving a CO 2 reduction of about 270,000 tons/year. From the economic point of view, the analysis shows that the mean cost of a kW h of electrical energy produced by upgrading MBT and Composting facilities with the SADB, ranges from 0.11 and 0.28 €/kW h, depending on the plant size and the amount of waste treated.

  10. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with Phlebia brevispora NRRL-13108 for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical, or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. In this work, solid state cultivation of corn stover with Phlebia bre...

  11. The fed-batch principle for the molecular biology lab: controlled nutrient diets in ready-made media improve production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Mirja; Neubauer, Antje; Neubauer, Peter

    2016-06-17

    While the nutrient limited fed-batch technology is the standard of the cultivation of microorganisms and production of heterologous proteins in industry, despite its advantages in view of metabolic control and high cell density growth, shaken batch cultures are still the standard for protein production and expression screening in molecular biology and biochemistry laboratories. This is due to the difficulty and expenses to apply a controlled continuous glucose feed to shaken cultures. New ready-made growth media, e.g. by biocatalytic release of glucose from a polymer, offer a simple solution for the application of the fed-batch principle in shaken plate and flask cultures. Their wider use has shown that the controlled diet not only provides a solution to obtain significantly higher cell yields, but also in many cases folding of the target protein is improved by the applied lower growth rates; i.e. final volumetric yields for the active protein can be a multiple of what is obtained in complex medium cultures. The combination of the conventional optimization approaches with new and easy applicable growth systems has revolutionized recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli in view of product yield, culture robustness as well as significantly increased cell densities. This technical development establishes the basis for successful miniaturization and parallelization which is now an important tool for synthetic biology and protein engineering approaches. This review provides an overview of the recent developments, results and applications of advanced growth systems which use a controlled glucose release as substrate supply.

  12. A cholesterol-enriched diet enhances egg production and egg viability without altering cholesterol Content of biological membranes in the copepod Acartia hudsonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Elizabeth L; Hassett, R Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Copepods may lack the capacity for de novo synthesis of cholesterol, while at the same time their dietary levels of sterol vary. We tested the hypothesis that copepods maintain the cholesterol contents of their biological membranes despite varying dietary levels of cholesterol. Acartia hudsonica were acclimated for 5 d to phytoplankton alone or phytoplankton supplemented with cholesterol, at a level sufficient to induce a maximal response on egg production rates. Biological membranes were prepared from the copepods and cholesterol contents assayed. Egg production and hatch rates were measured (the former to confirm that supplemented cholesterol was being assimilated). Analyses of marker enzymes indicate that the majority of membrane-associated cholesterol in the copepod resides in the plasma membrane. In membranes fractions, cholesterol normalized to protein or activity of Na+/K+-ATPase is not significantly different for supplemented and unsupplemented groups (29 and 33 mu g cholesterol mg(-1) protein, respectively; 0.24 and 0.25 mg cholesterol U(-1) Na+/K+-ATPase, respectively). At the same time, acclimating animals to a diet enriched with cholesterol enhances egg production by up to 1.8-fold and egg viability by 1.5-fold. We conclude that a cholesterol-enriched diet stimulates both egg production and hatching rates without altering cholesterol contents of plasma membranes in the copepod A. hudsonica.

  13. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  14. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes.

  16. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  17. Biological treatment of eucalypt spent sulphite liquors: a way to boost the production of second generation bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana R; Ivanuša, Spela; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Serafim, Luísa S; Xavier, Ana M R B

    2012-01-01

    The fermentation of reducing sugars from hardwood (eucalypt) spent sulphite liquor (HSSL) into ethanol by Pichia (Scheffersomyces) stipitis is hindered by concomitant inhibitors of microbial metabolism. The conditions for the HSSL biological treatment step by Paecilomyces variotii were evaluated and optimised. Two different strategies of reactor operation were compared using single batch (B) and sequential batch reactor (SBR). Biological treatment of HSSL in the SBR revealed the best results with respect to the removal of microbial inhibitors. Also, most of inhibitory compounds, acetic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallol, amongst others, were removed from HSSL by P. variotii before the ethanol fermentation. The bio-detoxified HSSL was subjected to a successful fermentation by P. stipitis, attaining a maximum ethanol concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.24 g ethanol g sugars(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Marchant, J.K.; Woodman, R.F.M.; Wilkins, B.T.; Mercer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  19. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY ACHIEVED SUCCESSIVE TO THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS IN SMOOTH BROME CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA PEł

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Within any branch of material production, the supervision of the economic effects caused by the applied technologies is an essential requirement. Not only related to the productive activity, but also related to scientific research, designing and other fields of activity, the final goal is represented by the achievement of immediate or far off economic effects. The introduction and generalization into production of the newest technologies of forage production must rely upon calculations of economic efficiency, too. The objective of these calculations is to offer to any producer the possibility to choose among the optimal technologic variants, with great productions per surface unit, of high quality and low costs. The calculations of economic efficiency were carried out during the three years of experimentation. The economic efficiency obtained after the application of biostimulants in smooth brome during the first year of production is expressed through the achievement of a profit per surface unit of 75.85 – 127.00 €/ha. Successive to the calculations of economic efficiency, during the second year of production, the profit per surface unit recorded values between 79.10 – 153.10 €/ha depending upon the applied biostimulant, and during the third year of production the profit obtained per surface unit was 211.05 – 270.70 €/ha.

  20. Assessment of key biological and engineering design parameters for production of Chlorella zofingiensis (Chlorophyceae) in outdoor photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Peter E; Sommerfeld, Milton R; Hu, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    For the design of a large field of vertical flat plate photobioreactors (PBRs), the effect of four design parameters-initial biomass concentration, optical path length, spacing, and orientation of PBRs-on the biochemical composition and productivity of Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated. A two-stage batch process was assumed in which inoculum is generated under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, followed by accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates in nitrogen-deplete conditions. For nitrogen-deplete conditions, productivity was the most sensitive to initial biomass concentration, as it affects the light availability to individual cells in the culture. An initial areal cell concentration of 50 g m(-2) inoculated into 3.8-cm optical path PBR resulted in the maximum production of lipids (2.42 ± 0.02 g m(-2) day(-1)) and carbohydrates (3.23 ± 0.21 g m(-2) day(-1)). Productivity was less sensitive to optical path length. Optical path lengths of 4.8 and 8.4 cm resulted in similar areal productivities (biomass, carbohydrate, and lipid) that were 20 % higher than a 2.4-cm optical path length. Under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, biomass productivity was 48 % higher in PBRs facing north-south during the winter compared to east-west, but orientation had little influence on biomass productivity during the spring and summer despite large differences in insolation. An optimal spacing could not be determined based on growth alone because a tradeoff was observed in which volumetric and PBR productivity increased as space between PBRs increased, but land productivity decreased.

  1. Leakage of soluble microbial products from biological activated carbon filtration in drinking water treatment plants and its influence on health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shen; Xian-Chun, Tang; Nan-Xiang, Wu; Hong-Bin, Chen

    2018-07-01

    The application of ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) as an advanced treatment method in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) can help to remove organic micropollutants and further decrease the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) level in finished water. With the increase attention to microbial safety of drinking water, a pre-positioned O 3 -BAC followed by a sand filter has been implanted into DWTP located in Shanghai, China to increase the biostability of effluents. The results showed that BAC had high removal efficiencies of UV 254 , DOC and disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP). The removal efficiencies between pre- and post-positioned BAC filtrations were similar. Based on the analyses of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrophotometry (FEEM), the generation and leakage of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were found in both two BAC filtrations on account of the increased fluorescence intensities and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) distribution of protein-like organics, as well as the enhanced biological index (BIX). The leakage of SMPs produced by metabolism of microbes during BAC process resulted in increased DBPFP yield and carcinogenic factor per unit of DOC (CF/DOC). Although BAC filtration reduced the DBPFP and CF, there still was high health risk of effluents for the production of SMPs. Therefore, the health risks for SMPs generated by BAC filtration in drinking water advanced treatment process should be addressed, especially with that at high temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  3. Vectorial product concentration obtained with a permeable immobilized enzyme membrane. A new approach to the analysis of biological transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïsterrena, B; Blum, L J; Bardeletti, G; Coulet, P R

    1986-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of the distribution on both sides of a flat porous membrane of the product generated by an enzyme covalently bound only on to one side of the membrane separating two compartments of widely different volumes is presented. Contrary to what occurs with heterogeneous symmetric systems, the diffusional limitations at the enzyme level play a prominent role, not only on the apparent enzyme activity, but also on product flux-splitting. The mathematical model developed shows that it is possible to concentrate the reaction product in the compartment opposite to that where the reaction occurs. The influence of the parameters and of the physical characteristics of an asymmetrical system on product distribution is analysed. This theoretical analysis is in excellent agreement with experimental data obtained with glucose oxidase immobilized on a porous collagen membrane.

  4. Suppression of Botrytis cinerea on necrotic grapevine tissues by early-season applications of natural products and biological control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Garrido, Carlos; Viñas, Inmaculada; Elmer, Philip A G; Usall, Josep; Teixidó, Neus

    2014-04-01

    Necrotic tissues within grape (Vitis vinifera) bunches represent an important source of Botrytis cinerea inoculum for Botrytis bunch rot (BBR) at harvest in vineyards. This research quantified the incidence of B. cinerea on necrotic floral and fruit tissues and the efficacy of biologically based treatments for suppression of B. cinerea secondary inoculum within developing bunches. At veraison (2009 and 2010), samples of aborted flowers, aborted fruits and calyptras were collected, and the incidence and sporulation of B. cinerea were determined. Aborted fruits presented significantly higher incidence in untreated samples. Early-season applications of Candida sake plus Fungicover®, Fungicover alone or Ulocladium oudemansii significantly reduced B. cinerea incidence on aborted flowers and calyptras by 46-85%. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced B. cinerea incidence on calyptras. None of the treatments reduced B. cinerea incidence on aborted fruits. Treatments significantly reduced sporulation severity by 48% or more. Treatments were effective at reducing B. cinerea secondary inoculum on necrotic tissues, in spite of the variable control on aborted fruits. This is the first report to quantify B. cinerea on several tissues of bunch trash and to describe the effective suppression of saprophytic B. cinerea inoculum by biologically based treatments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics.

  6. Outlet of products of biological treatment- what will be the future problems and opportunities?; Avsaettning av energiprodukter fraan biologisk behandling - vilka fraagestaellningar kommer att bli aktuella?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Hanna

    2010-01-15

    Biological treatment and related products is a topical subject, which increases year after year, not only in Sweden but all over the world. In this phase of expansion, it is interesting to find out what subjects could become relevant for products from this treatment method in the future. The following products are incorporated in the concept 'energy products' from biological treatment: sludge from sewage treatment plants, digestate from waste digestion plants, biogas, ethanol, and products from biorefinery. Questions regarding the process of these products are not included in this project. The purpose is to bring forward a catalogue of ideas of current and future topics in the field of biological treatment. The goal is to identify development projects which could be of interest for upcoming programs at Waste Refinery. Issues and project proposals for each product have been identified by the writer's network, and in discussions tabled at a workshop arranged by Waste Refinery in the autumn of 2009. At the present time, almost all digestate is sold, but there are problems. Though the plants have found an outlet for their products, they do not receive adequate return on them. Moreover, a lot of water is being transported. Many stakeholders within Waste Refinery, as well as external stakeholders, have requested a project on refining of digestate. Other topical issues regarding digestate are how new, non-food substrates and additives affect the quality of the digestate. Sewage treatment plants have to pay large amounts of money for the disposal of sludge. If Waste Refinery can include sewage sludge in their range of work, there will be several synergies between sludge and digestate. Matters, that need to be solved in the near future, are how to best achieve hygienisation of sewage sludge in order to guarantee salmonella-free sludge. As for biogas, the demand will be determined by factors such as the access of raw material, whether it becomes a vehicle fuel

  7. Essential veterinary education in the cultural, political and biological complexities of international trade in animals and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C C

    2009-08-01

    Globalisation has changed the veterinary profession in many ways and academic institutes may need to re-tool to help future professionals deal with the changes in a successful and productive way. The remarkably expanded and expanding volume of trade and traffic in animals and animal products means that to be effective veterinarians must grasp some of the complexities inherent in this trade. Being able to engage productively in cross-cultural dialogue will be important in negotiations over livestock shipments and also within the context of the delivery of medical services to companion animals in societies that are becoming increasingly diverse. Understanding the political landscapes that influence trade decisions will help to expedite agreements and facilitate the transfer of goods and materials that involve animal health. Disease emergence will continue to occur, and an awareness of the factors responsible and the response measures to undertake will help to contain any damage.

  8. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: II. Carcass composition, retail product, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    A computer simulation model was used to characterize the response in carcass composition, retail product, and quality of steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds (Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise) mated to Hereford and Angus dams, grown under nine backgrounding systems, and finished at either a low (1.0 kg) or high (1.36 kg) ADG. The backgrounding systems were a high ADG (.9 kg) for 111, 167, or 222 d, a medium ADG (.5 kg) for 200, 300, or 400 d, a low ADG (.25 kg) for 300 or 400 d and 0 d backgrounding. For specific genotype x production system combinations, results showed that carcasses of compensating steers may be either leaner, not different in fatness, or fatter than carcasses of steers put on a finishing diet directly after weaning. Systems in which steers gained a greater proportion of the final slaughter weight over long durations of growth restriction resulted in leaner carcasses. There were 12 common production systems in which 13 of the genotypes produced a carcass with a maximum of 28% fat or with a marbling score of 11 or greater. These results suggest sire breeds used to produce these steers can be used over a wide range of nutritional and management environments, and that a mixed group of steers can be fed and managed similarly from weaning to slaughter to produce a carcass with a specified composition, retail product, or quality.

  9. Biological processes in the North Sea: comparison of Calanus helgolandicus and Calanus finmarchicus vertical distribution and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Koski, Marja

    2011-01-01

    stratified with a tidally generated deep chlorophyll maximum at 30 m depth. When co-occurring, a separation of the species was evident, where C. finmarchicus preferred colder (9°C) deeper waters, while C. helgolandicus stayed in the warmer (16°C) surface waters. Egg production rates (EPRs) were...... not statistically different between the species, and the population egg production depended primarily on female abundance and was generally higher for C. finmarchicus. EPRs of the Calanus spp. were best explained by the abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, flagellates and ciliates. Hatching...

  10. Biological treatment of potato processing wastewater for red pigment production by immobilized cells of UV-irradiated monascus sp. in repeated batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Potato processing wastewater (PPW) was collected and analyzed for biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and starch content. A fungal strain isolated from PPW identified as Monascus sp. PPW was evaluated for its ability to grow and produce red pigment, biomass and reduce the starch content of the ,PPW. Active UV-irradiated isolate of the above strain was obtained by exposing the parent strain to UV-radiation and coded Monascus. sp. PPW-UV7 and used as immobilized cell system for PPW treatment process in repeated batch fermentation. The immobilized cells (in sponge cubes) were able to reduce COD by about 85.7 %, with biomass production of 9.22 gl+ l and over productivity of red pigment of 2.6 gl+ 1 after 8 days fermentation (2 batches). The immobilized cells showed stability and viability for 8 batches (32 days) during the process treatment

  11. Simultaneous determination of asrenic, mercury, antimony and selenium in biological materials with prior collection of gaseous products followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.; Chen, P.Y.; Yang, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method combining prior collection of gaseous products with subsequent neutron activation analysis has been developed for simultaneous determination of traces of arsenic, mercury, antimony and selenium in biological materials. The generation of hydrides of arsenic, antimony and selenium and cold vapor of mercury in the generation and collection system was investigated by the use of radiotracers of the respective elements. The result indicates that selenium and mercury can be completely evaporated from the digested sample solution in 5M HCl with the addition of 5% sodium tetrahydroborate solution, while additional reduction process by potassium iodide and ascorbic acid is needed for complete evaporation of arsenic and antiomony. The gaseous products were collected in a quartz tube for neutron irradiation. The detection limits of these elements were found to be in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 g under the present experimental conditions. The reliability was checked with NBS standard reference materisl. (author)

  12. Molecular Phenotyping Combines Molecular Information, Biological Relevance, and Patient Data to Improve Productivity of Early Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye Marie; Zhang, Jitao David; Küng, Erich; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Benmansour, Fethallah; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Jensen Zoffmann, Sannah; Delobel, Frédéric; Prummer, Michael; Weibel, Franziska; Carlson, Coby; Anson, Blake; Iacone, Roberto; Certa, Ulrich; Singer, Thomas; Ebeling, Martin; Prunotto, Marco

    2017-05-18

    Today, novel therapeutics are identified in an environment which is intrinsically different from the clinical context in which they are ultimately evaluated. Using molecular phenotyping and an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we show that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping can cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. Molecular phenotyping was applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and triaged false positives derived from high-content screening assays. The technique identified a class of calcium-signaling modulators that can reverse disease-regulated pathways and phenotypes, which was validated by structurally distinct compounds of relevant classes. Our results advocate for application of molecular phenotyping in early drug discovery, promoting biological relevance as a key selection criterion early in the drug development cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Equatorial Pacific peak in biological production regulated by nutrient and upwelling during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Etourneau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The largest increase in export production in the eastern Pacific of the last 5.3 Myr (million years occurred between 2.2 and 1.6 Myr, a time of major climatic and oceanographic reorganization in the region. Here, we investigate the causes of this event using reconstructions of export production, nutrient supply and oceanic conditions across the Pliocene–Pleistocene in the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP for the last 3.2 Myr. Our results indicate that the export production peak corresponds to a cold interval marked by high nutrient supply relative to consumption, as revealed by the low bulk sedimentary 15N/14N (δ15N and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST values. This ∼0.6 million year long episode of enhanced delivery of nutrients to the surface of the EEP was predominantly initiated through the upwelling of nutrient-enriched water sourced in high latitudes. In addition, this phenomenon was likely promoted by the regional intensification of upwelling in response to the development of intense Walker and Hadley atmospheric circulations. Increased nutrient consumption in the polar oceans and enhanced denitrification in the equatorial regions restrained nutrient supply and availability and terminated the high export production event.

  14. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  15. Seasonal variability in biological carbon biomass standing stocks and production in the surface layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; Jyothibabu, R.; Gauns, M.; Jayraj, E.A.

    ) and northeast monsoon (NEM, Dec 2005-January 2006). Chl a carbon during SuM, FIM, SpIM and NEM averaged 688, 767, 1212 and 1057 mg C m sup(-2) in the western Bay 9WB) 518, 904, 789 and 1023 mg C m sup(-2) in the central Bay. Primary productivity (PP) averaged...

  16. Serious Game Leverages Productive Negativity to Facilitate Conceptual Change in Undergraduate Molecular Biology: A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Andrea; Jenkinson, Jodie

    2017-01-01

    We designed a serious game, MolWorlds, to facilitate conceptual change about molecular emergence by using game mechanics (resource management, immersed 3rd person character, sequential level progression, and 3-star scoring system) to encourage cycles of productive negativity. We tested the value-added effect of game design by comparing and…

  17. A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic bacterium which is known for its solvent-producing capabilities, namely regarding the bulk chemicals acetone and butanol, the latter being a highly efficient biofuel. For butanol production by C. acetobutylicum to be optimized and exploited on an industrial scale, the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by C. acetobutylicum in continuous culture must be understood as fully as possible. Results We present an ordinary differential equation model combining the metabolic network governing solvent production with regulation at the genetic level of the enzymes required for this process. Parameterizing the model with experimental data from continuous culture, we demonstrate the influence of pH upon fermentation products: at high pH (pH 5.7 acids are the dominant product while at low pH (pH 4.5 this switches to solvents. Through steady-state analyses of the model we focus our investigations on how alteration in gene expression of C. acetobutylicum could be exploited to increase butanol yield in a continuous culture fermentation. Conclusions Incorporating gene regulation into the model of solvent production by C. acetobutylicum enables an accurate representation of the pH-induced switch to solvent production to be obtained and theoretical investigations of possible synthetic-biology approaches to be pursued. Steady-state analyses suggest that, to increase butanol yield, alterations in the expression of single solvent-associated genes are insufficient; a more complex approach targeting two or more genes is required.

  18. Natural infection of cattle with an atypical 'HoBi'-like pestivirus--implications for BVD control and for the safety of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Karl; Kampa, Jaruwan; Alenius, Stefan; Persson Wadman, Annie; Baule, Claudia; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Belák, Sándor

    2007-01-01

    During a study on Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) epidemiology in Thailand, a pestivirus was detected in serum from a calf. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed that this virus was closely related to a recently described atypical pestivirus (D32/00_'HoBi') that was first isolated from a batch of foetal calf serum collected in Brazil. The results from virus neutralisation tests performed on sera collected from cattle in the herd of the infected calf, showed that these cattle had markedly higher antibody titres against the atypical pestivirus 'HoBi' than against Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus types 1 and 2, or Border Disease Virus. The results also supported, consequently, the results from the molecular analysis, and demonstrated that a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus had been introduced to, and was now circulating in the herd. This study is the first to report a natural infection in cattle with a virus related to this atypical pestivirus, and it suggests that this group of pestiviruses may already be spread in cattle populations. The findings have implications for BVD control and for the biosafety of vaccines and other biological products produced with foetal calf serum. Consequently, these atypical pestiviruses should be included in serological assays, and any diagnostic assay aimed at detection of pestiviruses in biological products or animals should be tested for its ability to detect them.

  19. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  20. The biological pump in the Costa Rica Dome: an open-ocean upwelling system with high new production and low export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukel, Michael R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R; Décima, Moira; Taylor, Andrew G; Buchwald, Carolyn; Landry, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    The Costa Rica Dome is a picophytoplankton-dominated, open-ocean upwelling system in the Eastern Tropical Pacific that overlies the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone. To investigate the efficiency of the biological pump in this unique area, we used shallow (90-150 m) drifting sediment traps and 234 Th: 238 U deficiency measurements to determine export fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in sinking particles. Simultaneous measurements of nitrate uptake and shallow water nitrification allowed us to assess the equilibrium balance of new and export production over a monthly timescale. While f -ratios (new:total production) were reasonably high (0.36 ± 0.12, mean ± standard deviation), export efficiencies were considerably lower. Sediment traps suggested e- ratios (export/ 14 C-primary production) at 90-100 m ranging from 0.053 to 0.067. ThE-ratios ( 234 Th disequilibrium-derived export) ranged from 0.038 to 0.088. C:N and N:P stoichiometries of sinking material were both greater than canonical (Redfield) ratios or measured C:N of suspended particulates, and they increased with depth, suggesting that both nitrogen and phosphorus were preferentially remineralized from sinking particles. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem in which mesozooplankton play a major role in energy transfer to higher trophic levels but are relatively inefficient in mediating vertical carbon flux to depth, leading to an imbalance between new production and sinking flux.

  1. Biological production of hydrogen from agricultural raw materials and residues with a subsequent methanisation step; Biologische Wasserstoffproduktion aus landwirtschaftlichen Roh- und Reststoffen mit nachfolgender Methanstufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2007-07-01

    In order to examine the thermophile fermentative production from biohydrogen, discontinuous attempts were accomplished at a temperature of 60 C. As an inoculum, heat-treated sewage sludge was used. Glucose was used as a substrate. The fermenting residues of the hydrogen attempts were used as a substrate in a methane reactor in order to examine a two-stage system. The hydrogen attempts in the anaerobic test system were operated with a hydraulic retention time by 3.3 days and were performed during a period of 300 days. The optimal space load amounts to 5 g (l*d). The production rate at hydrogen amounts to 1.2 Nl/(l{sub R}*d). The yields amount to between 200 and 250 Nml/g oTS. In the case of an overloading of the system with substrate, the hydrogen production decreases drastically due to poor yields. Biological hydrogen production by fermentation possesses the potential to become a component for a lasting emission-free power supply. The thermophile approach ensures a simultaneous hygienization. As a fermenting remainder treatment a downstream methanation stage is possible.

  2. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  3. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli L-Arabinose Isomerase (ECAI), The Putative Target of Biological Tagatose Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjasetty,B.; Chance, M.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase (ECAI; EC 5.3.1.4) catalyzes the isomerization of L-arabinose to L-ribulose in vivo. This enzyme is also of commercial interest as it catalyzes the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose in vitro. The crystal structure of ECAI was solved and refined at 2.6 Angstroms resolution. The subunit structure of ECAI is organized into three domains: an N-terminal, a central and a C-terminal domain. It forms a crystallographic trimeric architecture in the asymmetric unit. Packing within the crystal suggests the idea that ECAI can form a hexameric assembly. Previous electron microscopic and biochemical studies supports that ECAI is hexameric in solution. A comparison with other known structures reveals that ECAI adopts a protein fold most similar to E. coli fucose isomerase (ECFI) despite very low sequence identity 9.7%. The structural similarity between ECAI and ECFI with regard to number of domains, overall fold, biological assembly, and active site architecture strongly suggests that the enzymes have functional similarities. Further, the crystal structure of ECAI forms a basis for identifying molecular determinants responsible for isomerization of arabinose to ribulose in vivo and galactose to tagatose in vitro.

  4. Production of lightweight ceramisite from iron ore tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangsheng; Du Fang; Yuan Li; Zeng Hui; Kong Sifang

    2010-01-01

    The few reuse and large stockpile of iron ore tailings (IOT) led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the IOT as one of starting materials to prepare lightweight ceramisite (LWC) by a high temperature sintering process. Coal fly ash (CFA) and municipal sewage sludge (SS) were introduced as additives. The LWC was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The effects of sintering parameters on physical properties of the LWC, and leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were also determined. The microstructure and the phase composition of the LWC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results revealed that: (1) IOT could be used to produce the LWC under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were well below their respective regulatory levels in the China Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQS); and (3) the BAF reactor with the LWC serving as the biomedium achieved high removal efficiencies for COD Cr (>92%), NH 4 + -N (>62%) and total phosphate (T-P) (>63%). Therefore, the LWC produced from the IOT was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the municipal wastewater treatment.

  5. Determination of enalapril maleate and atenolol in their pharmaceutical products and in biological fluids by flow-injection chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arfaj, Nawal A; Al-Abdulkareem, Eman A; Aly, Fatma A

    2009-01-01

    A chemiluminescent method using flow injection (FI) was investigated for rapid and sensitive determination of enalapril maleate and atenolol, which are used in the treatment of hypertension. The method is based on the sensitizing effect of these drugs on the Ce(IV)-sulfite reaction. The different experimental parameters affecting the chemiluminescence (CL) intensity were carefully studied and incorporated into the procedure. The method permitted the determination of 0.01-3.0 microg mL(-1) of enalapril maleate in bulk form with correlation coefficient r = 0.99993, lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.0025 microg mL(-1) (S/N = 2) and lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) 0.01 microg mL(-1). The linearity range of atenolol in bulk form was 0.01-2.0 microg mL(-1) (r = 0.99989) with LOD of 0.0003 microg mL(-1) (S/N = 2) and LOQ of 0.01 microg mL(-1). In biological fluids the linearity range of enalapril maleate was 0.1-2.0 microg mL(-1) in both urine and serum, and for atenolol the linearity range was 0.1-1.0 microg mL(-1) in both urine and serum. The method was also applied to the determination of the drugs in their pharmaceutical preparations.

  6. Biosurfactant production from Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011 and its application in accelerating the chemical and biological decolorization of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; You, Yanting; Zhao, Ruofei; Sun, Di; Zhang, Peng; Jiang, Jihong; Zhu, Aihua; Liu, Weijie

    2017-11-01

    Dye dispersion and the interaction efficiency between azoreductases and dye molecules are rate-limiting steps for the decolorization of azo dyes. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain, Pseudomonas taiwanensis L1011, was isolated from crude oil. To increase the yield of the biosurfactant BS-L1011 from P. taiwanensis L1011, culture conditions were optimized including temperature, initial pH, carbon source, nitrogen source and C/N ratio. A maximum yield of 1.12g/L of BS-L1011 was obtained using D-mannitol as carbon source and yeast extract/urea as compound nitrogen source with C/N ratio of 10/4, pH 7.0 and 28°C. BS-L1011 exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 10.5mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to 25.8±0.1 mN/m. BS-L1011 was stable over a wide range of temperatures, pH values and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant is reported for the first time to accelerate chemical decolorization of Congo red by sodium hypochlorite, and biological decolorization of Amaranth by Bacillus circulans BWL1061, thus showing a potential in the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulated influence of postweaning production system on performance of different biological types of cattle: I. Estimation of model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L; Keele, J W

    1995-03-01

    Breed parameters for a computer model that simulated differences in the composition of empty-body gain of beef cattle, resulting from differences in postweaning level of nutrition that are not associated with empty BW, were estimated for 17 biological types of cattle (steers from F1 crosses of 16 sire breeds [Hereford, Angus, Jersey, South Devon, Limousin, Simmental, Charolais, Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Chianina, Brahman, Sahiwal, Pinzgauer, and Tarentaise] mated to Hereford and Angus dams). One value for the maximum fractional growth rate of fat-free matter (KMAX) was estimated and used across all breed types. Mature fat-free matter (FFMmat) was estimated from data on mature cows for each of the 17 breed types. Breed type values for a fattening parameter (THETA) were estimated from growth and composition data at slaughter on steers of the 17 breed types, using the previously estimated constant KMAX and breed values for FFMmat. For each breed type, THETA values were unique for given values of KMAX, FFMmat, and composition at slaughter. The results showed that THETA was most sensitive to KMAX and had similar sensitivity to FFMmat and composition at slaughter. Values for THETA were most sensitive for breed types with large THETA values (Chianina, Charolais, and Limousin crossbred steers) and least sensitive for breed types with small THETA values (purebred Angus, crossbred Jersey, and Red Poll steers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Production of lightweight ceramisite from iron ore tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Du, Fang; Yuan, Li; Zeng, Hui; Kong, Sifang

    2010-06-15

    The few reuse and large stockpile of iron ore tailings (IOT) led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the IOT as one of starting materials to prepare lightweight ceramisite (LWC) by a high temperature sintering process. Coal fly ash (CFA) and municipal sewage sludge (SS) were introduced as additives. The LWC was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The effects of sintering parameters on physical properties of the LWC, and leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were also determined. The microstructure and the phase composition of the LWC were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results revealed that: (1) IOT could be used to produce the LWC under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the LWC were well below their respective regulatory levels in the China Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQS); and (3) the BAF reactor with the LWC serving as the biomedium achieved high removal efficiencies for COD(Cr) (>92%), NH(4)(+)-N (>62%) and total phosphate (T-P) (>63%). Therefore, the LWC produced from the IOT was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the municipal wastewater treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental contamination by cyclophosphamide preparation: Comparison of conventional manual production in biological safety cabinet and robot-assisted production by APOTECAchemo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierl, Rudolf; Masini, Carla; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Böhlandt, Antje; Rosini, Valeria; Paolucci, Demis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare environmental contamination of cyclophosphamide (CP) during 1 week of drug compounding by conventional manual procedure in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) with laminar airflow and a new robotic drug preparation system (APOTECAchemo). During four consecutive days, similar numbers of infusion bags with cyclophosphamide were prepared with both techniques in a cross-over design. Wipe samples (49 for BSC, 50 for APOTECAchemo) were taken at several locations (gloves, infusion bags, trays, BSC-benches, floor) in the pharmacy and analyzed for CP concentrations by GC-MSMS (LOD 0.2 ng/sample). The detection rate was 70% in the BSC versus 15% in APOTECAchemo. During manual preparation of admixtures using BSC contamination with CP was below 0.001 ng/cm(2) at most locations, but significant on gloves (0.0004-0.0967 ng/cm(2)) and the majority (70%) of infusion bags (preparation by APOTECAchemo, gloves (1 of 8: 0.0007 ng/cm(2)) and infusion bags (3 of 20: 0.0005, 0.0019, 0.0094 ng/cm(2)) were considerably less contaminated. Residual contamination was found on the surfaces under the dosing device in the compounding area (0.0293-0.1603 ng/cm(2)) inside the robotic system. Compared to outcomes of other studies, our results underline good manufacturing procedures in this pharmacy with low contamination for both techniques (BSC and APOTECAchemo). Comparison of both preparation procedures validated that contamination of infusion bags was much lower by using the robotic system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Comparative accounts of biological productivity characteristics and estimates of carbon fluxes in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gauns, M.; Madhupratap, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Jyothibabu, R.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS-India), Bay of Bengal Process Studies (BOBPS) and Marine Research on Living Resources (MRLR) were used. Data collected under the Indo-German sediment trap programme (AS - May 1986 to May 1987 and BOB - October 1987 to October... differences in physical and chemical fields between the AS and BOB over seasons. SSTs are lower during SWM and NEM in the AS because of upwelling and winter cooling respectively aiding pumping in of nutrients to upper layers thus increasing productivity...

  11. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  12. In-vivo biological activity and glycosylation analysis of a biosimilar recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone product (Bemfola compared with its reference medicinal product (GONAL-f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mastrangeli

    Full Text Available Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH is widely used in fertility treatment. Although biosimilar versions of r-hFSH (follitropin alfa are currently on the market, given their structural complexity and manufacturing process, it is important to thoroughly evaluate them in comparison with the reference product. This evaluation should focus on how they differ (e.g., active component molecular characteristics, impurities and potency, as this could be associated with clinical outcome. This study compared the site-specific glycosylation profile and batch-to-batch variability of the in-vivo bioactivity of Bemfola, a biosimilar follitropin alfa, with its reference medicinal product GONAL-f. The focus of this analysis was the site-specific glycosylation at asparagine (Asn 52 of the α-subunit of FSH, owing to the pivotal role of Asn52 glycosylation in FSH receptor (FSHR activation/signalling. Overall, Bemfola had bulkier glycan structures and greater sialylation than GONAL-f. The nominal specific activity for both Bemfola and GONAL-f is 13,636 IU/mg. Taking into account both the determined potency and the nominal amount the average specific activity of Bemfola was 14,522 IU/mg (105.6% of the nominal value, which was greater than the average specific activity observed for GONAL-f (13,159 IU/mg; 97.3% of the nominal value; p = 0.0048, although this was within the range stated in the product label. A higher batch-to-batch variability was also observed for Bemfola versus GONAL-f (coefficient of variation: 8.3% vs 5.8%. A different glycan profile was observed at Asn52 in Bemfola compared with GONAL-f (a lower proportion of bi-antennary structures [~53% vs ~77%], and a higher proportion of tri-antennary [~41% vs ~23%] and tetra-antennary structures [~5% vs <1%]. These differences in the Asn52 glycan profile might potentially lead to differences in FSHR activation. This, together with the greater bioactivity and higher batch-to-batch variability

  13. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by consolidated biological processing using the wood rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Sakae; Ando, Hiromasa; Ariga, Osamu; Sakuma, Yoh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, ethanol production from polysaccharides or wood chips was conducted in a single reactor under anaerobic conditions using the white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune NBRC 4928, which produces enzymes that degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The ethanol yields produced from glucose and xylose were 80.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. The absolute yields of ethanol per microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylan and arabinogalactan were 0.26g/g-MCC, 0.0419g/g-xylan and 0.0508g/g-arabinogalactan, respectively. By comparing the actual ethanol yields from polysaccharides with monosaccharide fermentation, it was shown that the rate of saccharification was slower than that in fermentation. S. commune NBRC 4928 is concluded to be suitable for CBP because it can produce ethanol from various types of sugar. From the autoclaved cedar chip, only little ethanol was produced by S. commune NBRC 4928 alone but ethanol production was enhanced by combined use of ethanol fermenting and lignin degrading fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytochemistry, biological activities and potential of annatto in natural colorant production for industrial applications – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid-ul-Islam; Rather, Luqman J.; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2015-01-01

    Bixa orellana commonly known as annatto is one of the oldest known natural dye yielding plants native to Central and South America. Various parts of annatto have been widely used in the traditional medical system for prevention and treatment of a wide number of health disorders. The plethora of traditional uses has encouraged researchers to identify and isolate phytochemicals from all parts of this plant. Carotenoids, apocarotenoids, terpenes, terpenoids, sterols, and aliphatic compounds are main compounds found in all parts of this plant and are reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In recent years annatto has received tremendous scientific interest mainly due to the isolation of yellow–orange natural dye from its seeds which exhibits high biodegradability, low toxicity, and compatibility with the environment. Considerable research work has already been done and is currently underway for its applications in food, textile, leather, cosmetic, solar cells, and other industries. The present review provides up-to-date systematic and organized information on the traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of annatto. It also highlights its non-food industrial applications in order to bring more interest on this dye plant, identifies the existing gaps and provides potential for future studies. Studies reported in this review have demonstrated that annatto holds a great potential for being exploited as source of drugs and a potential natural dye. However, further efforts are required to identify extract biomolecules and their action mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities in order to understand the full phytochemical profile and the complex pharmacological effects of this plant. PMID:27222755

  15. Production of sorption functional media (SFM) from clinoptilolite tailings and its performance investigation in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Qi, Jingyao; Chi, Liying; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhaoyang; Li, Ke; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sorption functional media (SFM) were prepared using zeolite tailings. ► Two upflow BAFs were applied to treat municipal wastewater. ► SFM BAF brought a relative superiority to haydite reactor. ► SFM BAF has a stronger adaptability to low temperature (6–11°C) for NH 3 -N removal. ► The application provided a promising way in zeolite tailings utilization. -- Abstract: The few reuse and large stockpile of zeolite tailings led to a series of social and environmental problems. This study investigated the possibility of using the zeolite tailings as one of principal raw materials to prepare sorption functional media (SFM) by a high temperature sintering process. The SFM was used to serve as a biomedium in a biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor for domestic wastewater treatment, and its purification performance was examined. The physical, chemical and sorption properties of SFM were also determined. The microstructure of the SFM was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results revealed that: (1) zeolite tailings could be used to produce the SFM under the optimal sintering parameters; (2) the sorption and desorption isotherm of ammonia nitrogen on SFM could be well described by the Langmuir formula; (3) in terms of removing organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity and colourity, the performance of the biofilter with SFM was superior to that with haydite; and (4) SFM BAF has a stronger adaptability to low temperature (6–11 °C) for NH 3 -N removal compared to haydite BAF. Therefore, the SFM produced from the zeolite tailings was suitable to serve as the biomedium in the domestic wastewater treatment

  16. Biological activity of two new pyrrole derivatives against stored-product species: influence of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukouvala, M C; Kavallieratos, N G; Athanassiou, C G; Hadjiarapoglou, L P

    2016-08-01

    Members of the pyrrole group are likely to have interesting properties that merit additional investigation as insecticides at the post-harvest stages of agricultural commodities. In the present work, the insecticidal effect of two new pyrrole derivatives, ethyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3i) and isopropyl 3-(benzylthio)-4,6-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-carboxylate (3k) were studied as stored-wheat protectants against two major stored-product insect species, the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val adults and larvae and the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller larvae at different doses (0.1, 1 and 10 ppm), exposure intervals (7, 14 and 21 days), temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and relative humidity (55 and 75%) levels. For T. confusum adults, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, mortality was low and it did not exceed 32.2% in wheat treated with 10 ppm 3i at 30°C and 55% relative humidity. Progeny production was very low (relative humidity, including control. In the case of the pyrrole derivative 3k, mortality reached 67.8% at 30°C and 55% relative humidity in wheat treated with 10 ppm after 21 days of exposure. Progeny production was low in all tested combinations (≤0.7 individuals/vial) of 55% relative humidity, including control. For T. confusum larvae, in the case of the pyrrole derivative 3i, at the highest dose, mortality was 82.2% at 25°C and 55% relative humidity whereas in the case of 3k it reached 77.8% at the same combination. In contrast, mortality at 75% relative humidity remained very low and did not exceed 13.3%. For E. kuehniella larvae, the highest mortalities, 44.4 and 63.3%, were observed in 10 ppm at 25°C and 55% relative humidity for both pyrrole derivatives. The compounds tested here have a certain insecticidal effect, but this effect is moderated by the exposure, the target species, the temperature and the

  17. Advanced treatment of oilfield production wastewater by an integration of coagulation/flotation, catalytic ozonation and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, advanced treatment of heavily polluted oilfield production wastewater (OPW) was investigated employing the combination of coagulation/dissolved air flotation, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes. Two SBR reactors were separately set up before and after the ozonation unit. The results show that microbubble flotation was more efficient than macrobubble flotation in pollutant removal. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared Fe/activated carbon catalyst significantly enhanced pollutant removal in the second SBR by improving wastewater biodegradability and reducing wastewater microtoxicity. The treatment technique decreased oil, chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N by about 97%, 88% and 91%, respectively, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real OPW.

  18. The results of the lipids peroxidation products on the DNA bases as biological markers of the oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falletti, O.

    2007-10-01

    Different ways of DNA damages have been studied, among these ones the direct way of DNA damages formation by the reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). This way leads to the formation of oxidative DNA damages. In 1990, works have suggested an indirect way of DNA damages formation, the lipids peroxidation. Instead of oxidizing directly DNA, the R.O.S. oxide the lipids present in the cells and their membranes; The products coming from this degradation are able to provoke DNA damages. This way has not been studied very much. The work of this thesis is axed on this DNA theme and lipids peroxidation. In the first chapter, we begin by presenting DNA and the direct way of oxidative damages formation by the R.O.S.Then, we speak about the cell lipids suffering oxidation reactions and the different ways of lipids oxidation. Then, we present how the lipid peroxidation is a source of damages for DNA. (N.C.)

  19. Suitability of biomarkers of biological effects (BOBEs) for assessing the likelihood of reducing the tobacco related disease risk by new and innovative tobacco products: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Gerhard

    2018-02-09

    The health risk of tobacco smoking can best be avoided or reduced by not taking up or quitting the habit. The use of new and innovative tobacco (NTPs, e.g. electronic cigarettes) can either be an aid for smoking cessation or, for those who are not able or willing to quit, an alternative for smoking conventional tobacco products. Before the use of an NTP can be regarded as an effective approach in tobacco harm reduction (THR), the implicated risk has to be evaluated by suitable toxicological methods such as the analysis of the chemical composition as well as assessment of detrimental effects in animal and in vitro studies. In human (clinical) studies, the NTP-related exposure to toxicants and early biological effects can be assessed by the determination of suitable biomarkers. In this review, the suitability of established and newly developed biomarkers of biological effect (BOBEs) for the indicated purpose is evaluated according to five criteria, including the association to diseases, reported difference in BOBE levels between smokers and non-smokers, dose-response relationships, reversibility and kinetics after smoking cessation. Furthermore, the effect size and the resulting sample size required in clinical studies were estimated and considered in the BOBE evaluation process. It is concluded that the rating process presented is useful for selecting BOBEs suitable for risk evaluation of NTPs in clinical and other human studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  1. Annual net primary productivity of a cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crust in the Gulf Savannah, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Williams, Wendy J.; Reichenberger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m-2 yr-1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m-2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m-2 yr-1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m-2 s-1

  2. Antiviral cationic peptides as a strategy for innovation in global health therapeutics for dengue virus: high yield production of the biologically active recombinant plectasin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2013-11-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.

  3. Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M

    2014-01-01

    Kashmir Valley is a major saffron (Crocus sativus Kashmirianus) growing area of the world, second only to Iran in terms of production. In Kashmir, saffron is grown on uplands (termed in the local language as "Karewas"), which are lacustrine deposits located at an altitude of 1585 to 1677 m above mean sea level (amsl), under temperate climatic conditions. Kashmir, despite being one of the oldest historical saffron-producing areas, faces a rapid decline of saffron industry. Among many other factors responsible for decline of saffron industry the preponderance of erratic rainfalls and drought-like situation have become major challenges imposed by climate change. Saffron has a limited coverage area as it is grown as a 'niche crop' and is a recognized "geographical indication," growing under a narrow microclimatic condition. As such it has become a victim of climate change effects, which has the potential of jeopardizing the livelihood of thousands of farmers and traders associated with it. The paper discusses the potential and actual impact of climate change process on saffron cultivation in Kashmir; and the biotechnological measures to address these issues.

  4. The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimira Tasheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species.

  5. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h−1 and 0.044 h−1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h−1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  6. Establishing elements of a synthetic biology platform for Vaccinia virus production: BioBrick™ design, serum-free virus production and microcarrier-based cultivation of CV-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuchang; Ruban, Ludmila; Wang, Yaohe; Zhou, Yuhong; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2017-02-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation. We propose a new BioBrick™ plasmid backbone format for inserting transgenes into VACV. We then test the performance of CV-1 cells in propagation of a conventional recombinant Lister strain VACV, VACVL-15 RFP, in a serum-free process. CV-1 cells grown in 5% foetal bovine serum (FBS) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) were adapted to growth in OptiPRO and VP-SFM brands of serum-free media. Specific growth rates of 0.047 h -1 and 0.044 h -1 were observed for cells adapted to OptiPRO and VP-SFM respectively, compared to 0.035 h -1 in 5% FBS DMEM. Cells adapted to OptiPRO and to 5% FBS DMEM achieved recovery ratios of over 96%, an indication of their robustness to cryopreservation. Cells adapted to VP-SFM showed a recovery ratio of 82%. Virus productivity in static culture, measured as plaque forming units (PFU) per propagator cell, was 75 PFU/cell for cells in 5% FBS DMEM. VP-SFM and OptiPRO adaptation increased VACV production to 150 PFU/cell and 350 PFU/cell respectively. Boosted PFU/cell from OptiPRO-adapted cells persisted when 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium was observed during the infection step and when titre was measured using cells adapted to 5% FBS DMEM or OptiPRO medium. Finally, OptiPRO-adapted CV-1 cells were successfully cultivated using Cytodex-1 microcarriers to inform future scale up studies.

  7. Biosurfactant production by the crude oil degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. B-2: chemical characterization, biological activities and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Contreras, María Del Mar; Ammar, Sonda; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated water collected from Tunisian oilfield. After enrichment and isolation, different bacterial strains were preliminary studied for their biosurfactant/bioemulsifier properties when using crude oil as the unique carbon source. In particular, the isolate strain B-2, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, efficiently emulsified crude oil. The extracellular biosurfactant product from this strain presented an emulsification activity above 70% and a hydrophobicity of 71%. In addition, a diameter of 6 cm was observed in the oil displacement test. The characterization of B-2 strain using 16S rDNA sequencing enables us to find a high degree of similarity with various members of the genus Stenotrophomonas (with a percentage of similarity of 99%). The emulsification activity of Stenotrophomonas biosurfactant B-2 was maintained in a wide range of pH (2 to 6), temperature (4 to 55 °C), and salinity (0 to 50 g L -1 ) conditions. It also enhanced the solubility of phenanthrene in water and could be used in the re-mobilization of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment. In addition, this biosurfactant exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Infrared spectroscopy suggested potential lipidic and peptidic moieties, and mass spectrometry-based analyses showed that the biosurfactant contains mainly cyclic peptidic structures belonging to the class of diketopiperazines. Therefore, the B-2 strain is a promising biosurfactant-producing microorganism and its derived biosurfactant presents a wide range of industrial applications.

  8. Biological removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during laboratory soil aquifer treatment simulation with different primary substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesios, Kathryn M; Bouwer, Edward J

    2012-05-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected in bodies of water worldwide, yet their effects on the environment are not fully understood. Recent toxicity studies suggest that mixtures of PPCPs at low concentrations may be detrimental to exposed organisms, highlighting the need to remove PPCPs from wastewater treatment plant effluent before it is discharged to the environment. In this study, the utility of biofilm-based PPCP removal as a means to prevent environmental PPCP contamination was investigated. The removal of 14 PPCPs, each at an initial concentration of 10 μg/L, was studied in laboratory sand columns inoculated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. The examined PPCPs included biosol, biphenylol, p-chloro-m-cresol, p-chloro-m-xylenol, chlorophene, sodium diclofenac, gabapentin, gemfibrozil, 5-fluorouracil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, triclosan, and valproic acid. Ten of the PPCPs were removed by greater than 95% during column passage, while the four other compounds proved more recalcitrant. The effect of the concentration (either 50 or 1000 μg/L) of an easily degradable primary substrate (acetate) supplied along with the mixture of PPCPs was examined. Most of the tested PPCPs were removed consistently by the biofilms regardless of the concentration of acetate, although the extent of removal for three compounds showed dependence on acetate concentration, and two behaved with no reproducible pattern over time. Biofilm protein measurements indicated that the mixture of PPCPs supplied to columns suppressed biofilm growth, suggesting toxicity of the PPCPs to the biofilm communities. This laboratory-scale experiment suggests that biofilm-based water treatment strategies, such as soil aquifer treatment and slow sand filtration, may be well-suited for the removal of many PPCPs from impacted water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  10. Toward Synthetic Biology Strategies for Adipic Acid Production: An in Silico Tool for Combined Thermodynamics and Stoichiometric Analysis of Metabolic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averesch, Nils J H; Martínez, Verónica S; Nielsen, Lars K; Krömer, Jens O

    2018-02-16

    Adipic acid, a nylon-6,6 precursor, has recently gained popularity in synthetic biology. Here, 16 different production routes to adipic acid were evaluated using a novel tool for network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of elementary flux modes. The tool distinguishes between thermodynamically feasible and infeasible modes under determined metabolite concentrations, allowing the thermodynamic feasibility of theoretical yields to be assessed. Further, patterns that always caused infeasible flux distributions were identified, which will aid the development of tailored strain design. A review of cellular efflux mechanisms revealed that significant accumulation of extracellular product is only possible if coupled with ATP hydrolysis. A stoichiometric analysis demonstrated that the maximum theoretical product carbon yield heavily depends on the metabolic route, ranging from 32 to 99% on glucose and/or palmitate in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic models. Equally important, metabolite concentrations appeared to be thermodynamically restricted in several pathways. Consequently, the number of thermodynamically feasible flux distributions was reduced, in some cases even rendering whole pathways infeasible, highlighting the importance of pathway choice. Only routes based on the shikimate pathway were thermodynamically favorable over a large concentration and pH range. The low pH capability of S. cerevisiae shifted the thermodynamic equilibrium of some pathways toward product formation. One identified infeasible-pattern revealed that the reversibility of the mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase contradicted the current state of knowledge, which imposes a major restriction on the metabolism of S. cerevisiae. Finally, the evaluation of industrially relevant constraints revealed that two shikimate pathway-based routes in E. coli were the most robust.

  11. Advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde - the new biological markers of oxidative stress - are elevated in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Tansel; Goktas, Bulent; Mutlu, Mehmet F; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bilgihan, Ayse; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as markers for oxidative stress to evaluate cardiovascular risk in pre- and postmenopausal women and to compare the results with malondialde-hyde (MDA) levels. Twenty premenopausal women and 84 naturally postmenopausal patients were enrolled in the study. AOPP and MDA plasma levels were measured. The postmenopausal group was further subdivided into two groups: postmenopausal age of 40-49 and of 50-59 years. AOPP and MDA levels were compared between premenopausal, 40-49 and 50-59 year old menopausal women. Plasma AOPP and MDA levels in postmenopausal women were increased when compared with their premeno-pausal peers (123.83 ± 55.51 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.05 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). Mean plasma AOPP levels in the two menopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (118.64 ± 59.1 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L and 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L vs. 61.59 ± 16.42 μmol/L; respectively). No significant difference was found in mean AOPP levels between postmenopausal subjects of 40-49 and 50-59 years age (118.64 ± 59.12 μmol/L vs. 132.31 ± 48.97 μmol/L). Mean plasma MDA levels of each of two postmenopausal age groups were both significantly higher from the premenopausal group (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L and 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L vs. 5.98 ± 0.77 μmol/L; respectively). However, no statistically significant difference between the two postmenopausal age groups (6.50 ± 1.04 μmol/L vs. 6.50 ± 1.10 μmol/L) was found. AOPP and MDA levels are elevated in postmenopausal women as compared to their premenopausal peers, suggesting they can be used as markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  12. Transforming Ocean Observations of the Carbon Budget, Acidification, Hypoxia, Nutrients, and Biological Productivity: a Global Array of Biogeochemical Argo Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Claustre, H.; Boss, E.; Emerson, S. R.; Westberry, T. K.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Mazloff, M. R.; Riser, S.; Russell, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    ), and Indian Ocean (IOBioArgo). As examples, bio-optical sensors are identifying regional anomalies in light attenuation/scattering, with implications for ocean productivity and carbon export; SOCCOM floats show high CO2 outgassing in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, due to previously unmeasured winter fluxes.

  13. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  14. Biological assets and the agricultural products in the context of the implementation of the IAS 41: A case study of the Romanian agro-food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mates Dorel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the contribution of agriculture and agro-food industry to the GDP is a significant, in Romania’s case we appreciate that the economic aspects of this area also deserve a specific approach. The aim of this paper was to identify the incompatibility of the recognition and assessment criteria of agriculture production, biological assets and agriculture products imposed by the application of these standards in agro-food companies, and to analyze its effects concerning the financial position and performance of these entities. The paper takes into consideration the economic-financial harmonization process, which is now in full progress, both in the EU and other states, by applying the specific standards (IAS/IFRS in the preparation of annual/interim financial reports. Finally, referring strictly to the case of Romania, after thorough research into the field in question, we suggest a presentation of the controversial assessment criteria provided by the IAS 41 standard, and also refer to the difficulties related to the implementation of this standard in the agro-food industry.

  15. Material and energy balances of an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system and their implications for its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Huang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Hung-Chun; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chu, Hsin; Lo, Young-Chong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    The materials and energy in an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system involving hydrolysis, dark fermentation, photo fermentation, CO2 fixation and anaerobic digestion are balanced by integrating the results from multiple experiments, simulations and the literature. The findings are two fold. First, using 1000 kg rice straw as a substrate, 19.8 kg H2 and 138.0 kg CH4 are obtained. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) are -738.4 kWh and 77.8%, respectively, both of which imply an unfavorable energy production system. Opportunities to improve the performance particularly lie in the photo fermentation process. Second, greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated for various options. The results were comparable with the emission inventory of electricity generated from fossil fuels. NEB and NER under a zero-carbon-emission constraint were discussed in detail to clarify completely the implications of the energy and material balances on greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from municipal wastewater treatment with biological carbon and nitrogen removal demonstrated at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Simon; Karlsson, Anton; Alexandersson, Tomas; Quadri, Luca; Hjort, Markus; Johansson, Peter; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Anterrieu, Simon; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica; Karabegovic, Lamija; Magnusson, Per; Werker, Alan

    2017-03-25

    A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates. Robust performance in wastewater treatment and enrichment of PHA-producing biomass was demonstrated under realistic conditions including influent variability during 225days of operation. The IFAS system was found to be advantageous since maintaining nitrification on the biofilm allowed for a relatively low (2days) solids retention time (SRT) for the suspended biomass in the bulk phase. Lower SRT has advantages in higher biomass yield and higher active fraction in the biomass which leads to higher PHA productivity and content. The outcomes show that production of added-value biopolymers may be readily integrated with carbon and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  18. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  19. A novel function for selenium in biological system: selenite as a highly effective iron carrier for Chinese hamster ovary cell growth and monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyou; Robinson, David; Salmon, Peter

    2006-12-20

    As the market for biopharmaceuticals especially monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) rapidly grows, their manufacturing methods are coming under increasing regulatory scrutiny, particularly due to concerns about the potential introduction of adventitious agents from animal-sourced components in the media used for their production in mammalian cell culture. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are by far the most commonly used production vehicles for these recombinant glycoproteins. In developing animal-component free media for CHO and other mammalian cell lines, the iron-transporter function of serum or human/bovine transferrin is usually replaced by certain organic or inorganic chelators capable of delivering iron for cell respiration and metabolism, but few of them are sufficiently effective. Selenium is a well-known essential trace element (TE) for cell growth and development, and its positive role in biological system includes detoxification of free radicals by activating glutathione peroxidase. In cell culture, selenium in the form of selenite can help cells to detoxify the medium thus protect them from oxidative damage. In this presentation, we describe the discovery and application of a novel function of selenite, that is, as a highly effective carrier to deliver iron for cell growth and function. In our in-house-developed animal protein-free (APF) medium for CHO cells, using an iron-selenite compound to replace the well-established tropolone delivery system for iron led to comparable or better cell growth and antibody production. A high cell density of >10 x 10(6) viable cells/mL and excellent antibody titer of approximately 3 g/L were achieved in 14-day fed-batch cultures in shake flasks, followed by successful scale-up to stirred bioreactors. The preparation of the commercially unavailable iron-selenite compound from respective ions, and its effectiveness in cell-culture performance, were dependent on reaction time, substrates, and other conditions. Copyright 2006

  20. Short-chain fatty acid production from different biological phosphorus removal sludges: the influences of PHA and Gram-staining bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Feng, Leiyu

    2013-03-19

    Recently, the reuse of waste activated sludge to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) has attracted much attention. However, the influences of sludge characteristics, especially polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and Gram-staining bacteria, on SCFA production have seldom been investigated. It was found in this study that during sludge anaerobic fermentation not only the fermentation time but also the SCFA production were different between two sludges, which had different PHA contents and Gram-negative bacteria to Gram-positive bacteria (GNB/GPB) ratios and were generated respectively from the anaerobic/oxic (AO) and aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) biological phosphorus removal processes. The optimal fermentation time for the AEI and AO sludges was respectively 4 and 8 d, and the corresponding SCFA production was 304.6 and 231.0 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) in the batch test and 143.4 and 103.9 mg COD/g VSS in the semicontinuous experiment. The mechanism investigation showed that the AEI sludge had greater PHA content and GNB/GPB ratio, and the increased PHA content accelerated cell lysis and soluble substrate hydrolysis while the increased GNB/GPB ratio benefited cell lysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed that the microbial community in the AEI sludge fermentation reactor was dominated by Clostridium sp., which was reported to be SCFA-producing microbes. Further enzyme analyses indicated that the activities of key hydrolytic and acids-forming enzymes in the AEI sludge fermentation reactor were higher than those in the AO one. Thus, less fermentation time was required, but higher SCFA was produced in the AEI sludge fermentation system.