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Sample records for cb prevention program

  1. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

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    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  2. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  3. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  4. Pharmacological blockade of either cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors prevents both cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion and cocaine-induced reduction of cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male rat

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    Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Rivera, Patricia; Arrabal, Sergio; Vargas, Antonio; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Serrano, Antonia; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Galeano, Pablo; Rubio, Leticia; Suárez, Juan; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to major drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, has recently been linked to alterations in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The endogenous cannabinoid system modulates this proliferative response as demonstrated by the finding that pharmacological activation/blockade of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors not only modulates neurogenesis but also modulates cell death in the brain. In the present study, we evaluated whether the endogenous cannabinoid system affects cocaine-induced alterations in cell proliferation. To this end, we examined whether pharmacological blockade of either CB1 (Rimonabant, 3 mg/kg) or CB2 receptors (AM630, 3 mg/kg) would affect cell proliferation [the cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)] in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ). Additionally, we measured cell apoptosis (as monitored by the expression of cleaved caspase-3) and glial activation [by analyzing the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1] in the striatum and hippocampus during acute and repeated (4 days) cocaine administration (20 mg/kg). The results showed that acute cocaine exposure decreased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (ir) cells in the SVZ and SGZ. In contrast, repeated cocaine exposure reduced the number of BrdU-ir cells only in the SVZ. Both acute and repeated cocaine exposure increased the number of cleaved caspase-3-, GFAP- and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus, and this effect was counteracted by AM630 or Rimonabant, which increased the number of BrdU-, GFAP-, and Iba1-ir cells in the hippocampus. These results indicate that the changes in neurogenic, apoptotic and gliotic processes that were produced by repeated cocaine administration were normalized by pharmacological blockade of CB1 and CB2. The restorative effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on hippocampal cell proliferation were associated with the prevention of the induction of conditioned

  5. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

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    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB 1 R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A 2A R blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A 2A Rs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB 1 Rs was assessed by using the CB 1 R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB 1 R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A 2A Rs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB 1 R drugs is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imidazopyridine CB2 agonists: optimization of CB2/CB1 selectivity and implications for in vivo analgesic efficacy.

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    Trotter, B Wesley; Nanda, Kausik K; Burgey, Christopher S; Potteiger, Craig M; Deng, James Z; Green, Ahren I; Hartnett, John C; Kett, Nathan R; Wu, Zhicai; Henze, Darrell A; Della Penna, Kimberly; Desai, Reshma; Leitl, Michael D; Lemaire, Wei; White, Rebecca B; Yeh, Suzie; Urban, Mark O; Kane, Stefanie A; Hartman, George D; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2011-04-15

    A new series of imidazopyridine CB2 agonists is described. Structural optimization improved CB2/CB1 selectivity in this series and conferred physical properties that facilitated high in vivo exposure, both centrally and peripherally. Administration of a highly selective CB2 agonist in a rat model of analgesia was ineffective despite substantial CNS exposure, while administration of a moderately selective CB2/CB1 agonist exhibited significant analgesic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors

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    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of meth-amphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’. PMID:24709540

  8. The Structure–Function Relationships of Classical Cannabinoids: CB1/CB2 Modulation

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    Bow, Eric W.; Rimoldi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoids are members of a deceptively simple class of terpenophenolic secondary metabolites isolated from Cannabis sativa highlighted by (−)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), eliciting distinct pharmacological effects mediated largely by cannabinoid receptor (CB1 or CB2) signaling. Since the initial discovery of THC and related cannabinoids, synthetic and semisynthetic classical cannabinoid analogs have been evaluated to help define receptor binding modes and structure–CB1/CB2 functional activity relationships. This perspective will examine the classical cannabinoids, with particular emphasis on the structure–activity relationship of five regions: C3 side chain, phenolic hydroxyl, aromatic A-ring, pyran B-ring, and cyclohexenyl C-ring. Cumulative structure–activity relationship studies to date have helped define the critical structural elements required for potency and selectivity toward CB1 and CB2 and, more importantly, ushered the discovery and development of contemporary nonclassical cannabinoid modulators with enhanced physicochemical and pharmacological profiles. PMID:27398024

  9. Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Modulate the Electroretinographic Waves in Vervet Monkeys

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    Joseph Bouskila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R are well documented in rodents and primates. In vervet monkeys, CB1R is present in the retinal neurons (photoreceptors, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells and CB2R is exclusively found in the retinal glia (Müller cells. However, the role of these cannabinoid receptors in normal primate retinal function remains elusive. Using full-field electroretinography in adult vervet monkeys, we recorded changes in neural activity following the blockade of CB1R and CB2R by the intravitreal administration of their antagonists (AM251 and AM630, resp. in photopic and scotopic conditions. Our results show that AM251 increases the photopic a-wave amplitude at high flash intensities, whereas AM630 increases the amplitude of both the photopic a- and b-waves. In scotopic conditions, both blockers increased the b-wave amplitude but did not change the a-wave amplitude. These findings suggest an important role of CB1R and CB2R in primate retinal function.

  10. The Effect of Nonnormality on CB-SEM and PLS-SEM Path Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jannoo; B. W. Yap; N. Auchoybur; M. A. Lazim

    2014-01-01

    The two common approaches to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) are the Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM) and Partial Least Squares SEM (PLS-SEM). There is much debate on the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM for small sample size and when distributions are nonnormal. This study evaluates the performance of CB-SEM and PLS-SEM under normality and nonnormality conditions via a simulation. Monte Carlo Simulation in R programming language was employed to generate data based on the theoretical model w...

  11. CB1 and CB2 receptors are novel molecular targets for Tamoxifen and 4OH-Tamoxifen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, Paul L.; FrancisDevaraj, FeAna; Dates, Centdrika R.; Greer, Aleksandra K.; Bratton, Stacie M.; Ford, Benjamin M.; Franks, Lirit N.; Radominska-Pandya, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tamoxifen produces cytotoxicity via estrogen-receptor (ER) independent mechanisms. •Tamoxifen binds to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and acts as an inverse agonist. •CB1 and CB2 receptors are novel molecular targets for Tamoxifen. •ER-independent effects for Tamoxifen may be mediated via CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. -- Abstract: Tamoxifen (Tam) is classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and is used for treatment of patients with ER-positive breast cancer. However, it has been shown that Tam and its cytochrome P450-generated metabolite 4-hydroxy-Tam (4OH-Tam) also exhibit cytotoxic effects in ER-negative breast cancer cells. These observations suggest that Tam and 4OH-Tam can produce cytotoxicity via estrogen receptor (ER)-independent mechanism(s) of action. The molecular targets responsible for the ER-independent effects of Tam and its derivatives are poorly understood. Interestingly, similar to Tam and 4OH-Tam, cannabinoids have also been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in ER-negative breast cancer cells, and estrogen can regulate expression levels of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). Therefore, this study investigated whether CBRs might serve as novel molecular targets for Tam and 4OH-Tam. We report that both compounds bind to CB1 and CB2Rs with moderate affinity (0.9–3 μM). Furthermore, Tam and 4OH-Tam exhibit inverse activity at CB1 and CB2Rs in membrane preparations, reducing basal G-protein activity. Tam and 4OH-Tam also act as CB1/CB2R-inverse agonists to regulate the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase in intact cells, producing concentration-dependent increases in intracellular cAMP. These results suggest that CBRs are molecular targets for Tam and 4OH-Tam and may contribute to the ER-independent cytotoxic effects reported for these drugs. Importantly, these findings also indicate that Tam and 4OH-Tam might be used as structural scaffolds for development of novel

  12. CB1 and CB2 receptors are novel molecular targets for Tamoxifen and 4OH-Tamoxifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prather, Paul L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); FrancisDevaraj, FeAna; Dates, Centdrika R.; Greer, Aleksandra K.; Bratton, Stacie M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Ford, Benjamin M.; Franks, Lirit N. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Radominska-Pandya, Anna, E-mail: RadominskaAnna@uams.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Tamoxifen produces cytotoxicity via estrogen-receptor (ER) independent mechanisms. •Tamoxifen binds to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and acts as an inverse agonist. •CB1 and CB2 receptors are novel molecular targets for Tamoxifen. •ER-independent effects for Tamoxifen may be mediated via CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. -- Abstract: Tamoxifen (Tam) is classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and is used for treatment of patients with ER-positive breast cancer. However, it has been shown that Tam and its cytochrome P450-generated metabolite 4-hydroxy-Tam (4OH-Tam) also exhibit cytotoxic effects in ER-negative breast cancer cells. These observations suggest that Tam and 4OH-Tam can produce cytotoxicity via estrogen receptor (ER)-independent mechanism(s) of action. The molecular targets responsible for the ER-independent effects of Tam and its derivatives are poorly understood. Interestingly, similar to Tam and 4OH-Tam, cannabinoids have also been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in ER-negative breast cancer cells, and estrogen can regulate expression levels of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). Therefore, this study investigated whether CBRs might serve as novel molecular targets for Tam and 4OH-Tam. We report that both compounds bind to CB1 and CB2Rs with moderate affinity (0.9–3 μM). Furthermore, Tam and 4OH-Tam exhibit inverse activity at CB1 and CB2Rs in membrane preparations, reducing basal G-protein activity. Tam and 4OH-Tam also act as CB1/CB2R-inverse agonists to regulate the downstream intracellular effector adenylyl cyclase in intact cells, producing concentration-dependent increases in intracellular cAMP. These results suggest that CBRs are molecular targets for Tam and 4OH-Tam and may contribute to the ER-independent cytotoxic effects reported for these drugs. Importantly, these findings also indicate that Tam and 4OH-Tam might be used as structural scaffolds for development of novel

  13. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

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    Eleftheria Lakiotaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins’ expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n=43 and malignant (n=44 lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells’ proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p=0.0010 and p=0.0005, resp.. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p=0.0097 and p=0.0110, resp.. In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p=0.0301. Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p=0.1165, lymphatic (p=0.1989, and vascular invasion (p=0.0555, as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p=0.1165, at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia.

  14. CB2 cannabinoid receptors contribute to bacterial invasion and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis.

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    Balázs Csóka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and current estimates suggest that the incidence of sepsis is approximately 750,000 annually. Sepsis is caused by an inability of the immune system to eliminate invading pathogens. It was recently proposed that endogenous mediators produced during sepsis can contribute to the immune dysfunction that is observed in sepsis. Endocannabinoids that are produced excessively in sepsis are potential factors leading to immune dysfunction, because they suppress immune cell function by binding to G-protein-coupled CB(2 receptors on immune cells. Here we examined the role of CB(2 receptors in regulating the host's response to sepsis.The role of CB(2 receptors was studied by subjecting CB(2 receptor wild-type and knockout mice to bacterial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. We report that CB(2 receptor inactivation by knockout decreases sepsis-induced mortality, and bacterial translocation into the bloodstream of septic animals. Furthermore, CB(2 receptor inactivation decreases kidney and muscle injury, suppresses splenic nuclear factor (NF-kappaB activation, and diminishes the production of IL-10, IL-6 and MIP-2. Finally, CB(2 receptor deficiency prevents apoptosis in lymphoid organs and augments the number of CD11b(+ and CD19(+ cells during CLP.Taken together, our results establish for the first time that CB(2 receptors are important contributors to septic immune dysfunction and mortality, indicating that CB(2 receptors may be therapeutically targeted for the benefit of patients suffering from sepsis.

  15. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

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    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  16. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

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    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  17. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    on axon guidance. These effects are specific to CB2R since no changes were observed in mice where the gene coding for this receptor was altered (cnr2 (-/-)). The CB2R induced morphological changes observed at the growth cone are PKA dependent and require the presence of the netrin-1 receptor, Deleted...... CB2R's implication in retinothalamic development. Overall, this study demonstrates that the contribution of endocannabinoids to brain development is not solely mediated by CB1R, but also involves CB2R....

  18. THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice.

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    Clara Touriño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of MDMA (ecstasy recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses. MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC, the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, THC may have a neuroprotective effect against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Mice receiving a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (20 mg/kg x 4 were pretreated with THC (3 mg/kg x 4 at room (21 degrees C and at warm (26 degrees C temperature, and body temperature, striatal glial activation and DA terminal loss were assessed. To find out the mechanisms by which THC may prevent MDMA hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, the same procedure was carried out in animals pretreated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251 and the CB(2 receptor antagonist AM630, as well as in CB(1, CB(2 and CB(1/CB(2 deficient mice. THC prevented MDMA-induced-hyperthermia and glial activation in animals housed at both room and warm temperature. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration. However, THC did not prevent MDMA-induced hyperthermia, glial activation, and DA terminal loss in animals treated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251, neither in CB(1 and CB(1/CB(2 knockout mice. On the other hand, THC prevented MDMA-induced hyperthermia and DA terminal loss, but only partially suppressed glial activation in animals treated with the CB(2 cannabinoid antagonist and in CB(2 knockout animals. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB(1 receptor, although CB(2 receptors may also contribute to

  19. Expression and function of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their cognate cannabinoid ligands in murine embryonic stem cells.

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    Shuxian Jiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulating the self-renewal/division and differentiation of stem cells is crucial in determining embryonic stem (ES cell fate. ES cells differentiate into multiple hematopoietic lineages during embryoid body (EB formation in vitro, which provides an experimental platform to define the molecular mechanisms controlling germ layer fate determination and tissue formation.The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2 are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family, that are activated by endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. CB1 receptor expression is abundant in brain while CB2 receptors are mostly expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, the expression and the precise roles of CB1 and CB2 and their cognate ligands in ES cells are not known. We observed significant induction of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors during the hematopoietic differentiation of murine ES (mES-derived embryoid bodies. Furthermore, mES cells as well as ES-derived embryoid bodies at days 7 and 14, expressed endocannabinoids, the ligands for both CB1 and CB2. The CB1 and CB2 antagonists (AM251 and AM630, respectively induced mES cell death, strongly suggesting that endocannabinoids are involved in the survival of mES cells. Treatment of mES cells with the exogenous cannabinoid ligand Delta(9-THC resulted in the increased hematopoietic differentiation of mES cells, while addition of AM251 or AM630 blocked embryoid body formation derived from the mES cells. In addition, cannabinoid agonists induced the chemotaxis of ES-derived embryoid bodies, which was specifically inhibited by the CB1 and CB2 antagonists.This work has not been addressed previously and yields new information on the function of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as components of a novel pathway regulating murine ES cell differentiation. This study provides insights into cannabinoid system involvement in ES cell

  20. Expression Analysis of CB2-GFP BAC Transgenic Mice.

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    Schmöle, Anne-Caroline; Lundt, Ramona; Gennequin, Benjamin; Schrage, Hanna; Beins, Eva; Krämer, Alexandra; Zimmer, Till; Limmer, Andreas; Zimmer, Andreas; Otte, David-Marian

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a retrograde messenger system, consisting of lipid signaling molecules that bind to at least two G-protein-coupled receptors, Cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1 and 2). As CB2 is primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and microglia, it is of great interest how CB2 contributes to immune cell development and function in health and disease. Here, understanding the mechanisms of CB2 involvement in immune-cell function as well as the trafficking and regulation of CB2 expressing cells are crucial issues. Up to now, CB2 antibodies produce unclear results, especially those targeting the murine protein. Therefore, we have generated BAC transgenic GFP reporter mice (CB2-GFPTg) to trace CB2 expression in vitro and in situ. Those mice express GFP under the CB2 promoter and display GFP expression paralleling CB2 expression on the transcript level in spleen, thymus and brain tissue. Furthermore, by using fluorescence techniques we show that the major sources for GFP-CB2 expression are B cells in spleen and blood and microglia in the brain. This novel CB2-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource to study CB2 expression in different cell types. Furthermore, it could be used for analyzing CB2-mediated mobilization and trafficking of immune cells as well as studying the fate of recruited immune cells in models of acute and chronic inflammation.

  1. Expression Analysis of CB2-GFP BAC Transgenic Mice.

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    Anne-Caroline Schmöle

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a retrograde messenger system, consisting of lipid signaling molecules that bind to at least two G-protein-coupled receptors, Cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1 and 2. As CB2 is primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and microglia, it is of great interest how CB2 contributes to immune cell development and function in health and disease. Here, understanding the mechanisms of CB2 involvement in immune-cell function as well as the trafficking and regulation of CB2 expressing cells are crucial issues. Up to now, CB2 antibodies produce unclear results, especially those targeting the murine protein. Therefore, we have generated BAC transgenic GFP reporter mice (CB2-GFPTg to trace CB2 expression in vitro and in situ. Those mice express GFP under the CB2 promoter and display GFP expression paralleling CB2 expression on the transcript level in spleen, thymus and brain tissue. Furthermore, by using fluorescence techniques we show that the major sources for GFP-CB2 expression are B cells in spleen and blood and microglia in the brain. This novel CB2-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource to study CB2 expression in different cell types. Furthermore, it could be used for analyzing CB2-mediated mobilization and trafficking of immune cells as well as studying the fate of recruited immune cells in models of acute and chronic inflammation.

  2. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

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    Haibin Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events.Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth.CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase-1. Moreover, CB1 inactivation resulted in

  3. Artificial Intelligence in Prediction of Secondary Protein Structure Using CB513 Database

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    Avdagic, Zikrija; Purisevic, Elvir; Omanovic, Samir; Coralic, Zlatan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe CB513 a non-redundant dataset, suitable for development of algorithms for prediction of secondary protein structure. A program was made in Borland Delphi for transforming data from our dataset to make it suitable for learning of neural network for prediction of secondary protein structure implemented in MATLAB Neural-Network Toolbox. Learning (training and testing) of neural network is researched with different sizes of windows, different number of neurons in the hidden layer and different number of training epochs, while using dataset CB513. PMID:21347158

  4. Participation of hypothalamic CB1 receptors in reproductive axis disruption during immune challenge.

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    Surkin, P N; Di Rosso, M E; Correa, F; Elverdin, J C; Genaro, A M; De Laurentiis, A; Fernández-Solari, J

    2017-08-01

    Immune challenge inhibits reproductive function and endocannabinoids (eCB) modulate sexual hormones. However, no studies have been performed to assess whether the eCB system mediates the inhibition of hormones that control reproduction as a result of immune system activation during systemic infections. For that reason, we evaluated the participation of the hypothalamic cannabinoid receptor CB1 on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity in rats submitted to immune challenge. Male adult rats were treated i.c.v. administration with a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist (AM251) (500 ng/5 μL), followed by an i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) 15 minutes later. Plasmatic, hypothalamic and adenohypophyseal pro-inflammatory cytokines, hormones and neuropeptides were assessed 90 or 180 minutes post-LPS. The plasma concentration of tumour necrosis factor α and adenohypophyseal mRNA expression of Tnfα and Il1β increased 90 and 180 minutes post i.p. administration of LPS. However, cytokine mRNA expression in the hypothalamus increased only 180 minutes post-LPS, suggesting an inflammatory delay in this organ. CB1 receptor blockade with AM251 increased LPS inflammatory effects, particularly in the hypothalamus. LPS also inhibited the HPG axis by decreasing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone hypothalamic content and plasma levels of luteinising hormone and testosterone. These disruptor effects were accompanied by decreased hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 content, as well as by increased gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (Rfrp3) mRNA expression. All these disruptive effects were prevented by the presence of AM251. In summary, our results suggest that, in male rats, eCB mediate immune challenge-inhibitory effects on reproductive axis at least partially via hypothalamic CB1 activation. In addition, this receptor also participates in homeostasis recovery by modulating the inflammatory process taking place after LPS

  5. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2–3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent......1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state....

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffal, E; Cron, M; Glodde, N; Tüting, T

    2013-08-01

    ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of Cannabis sativa, exerts its biological effects in part through the G-protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors, which were initially discovered in brain and spleen tissue, respectively. However, THC also has CB1/2 receptor-independent effects. Because of its immune-inhibitory potential, THC and related cannabinoids are being considered for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Here we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of THC and the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We evaluated the impact of topically applied THC on DNFB-mediated allergic contact dermatitis in wild-type and CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for infiltrating immune cells and studied the influence of THC on the interaction between T cells, keratinocytes and myeloid immune cells in vitro. Topical THC application effectively decreased contact allergic ear swelling and myeloid immune cell infiltration not only in wild-type but also in CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We found that THC (1) inhibited the production of IFNγ by T cells, (2) decreased the production of CCL2 and of IFNγ-induced CCL8 and CXL10 by epidermal keratinocytes and (3) thereby limited the recruitment of myeloid immune cells in vitro in a CB1/2 receptor-independent manner. Topically applied THC can effectively attenuate contact allergic inflammation by decreasing keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory mediators that orchestrate myeloid immune cell infiltration independent of CB1/2 receptors. This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Receptor-heteromer mediated regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in activated microglia. Role of CB1 and CB2 receptors and relevance for Alzheimer's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Angelats, Edgar; Etayo, Íñigo; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Pulido-Salgado, Marta; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ana I; Canela, Enric I; Saura, Josep; Lanciego, José Luis; Labandeira-García, José Luis; Saura, Carlos A; Fuxe, Kjell; Franco, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are important regulators of neurotransmission and, acting on activated microglia, they are postulated as neuroprotective agents. Endocannabinoid action is mediated by CB 1 and CB 2 receptors, which may form heteromeric complexes (CB 1 -CB 2 Hets) with unknown function in microglia. We aimed at establishing the expression and signaling properties of cannabinoid receptors in resting and LPS/IFN-γ-activated microglia. In activated microglia mRNA transcripts increased (2 fold for CB 1 and circa 20 fold for CB 2 ), whereas receptor levels were similar for CB 1 and markedly upregulated for CB 2 ; CB 1 -CB 2 Hets were also upregulated. Unlike in resting cells, CB 2 receptors became robustly coupled to G i in activated cells, in which CB 1 -CB 2 Hets mediated a potentiation effect. Hence, resting cells were refractory while activated cells were highly responsive to cannabinoids. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in cultures treated with ß-amyloid (Aß 1-42 ). Microglial activation markers were detected in the striatum of a Parkinson's disease (PD) model and, remarkably, in primary microglia cultures from the hippocampus of mutant β-amyloid precursor protein (APP Sw,Ind ) mice, a transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) model. Also of note was the similar cannabinoid receptor signaling found in primary cultures of microglia from APP Sw,Ind and in cells from control animals activated using LPS plus IFN-γ. Expression of CB 1 -CB 2 Hets was increased in the striatum from rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic levodopa treatment. In summary, our results showed sensitivity of activated microglial cells to cannabinoids, increased CB 1 -CB 2 Het expression in activated microglia and in microglia from the hippocampus of an AD model, and a correlation between levodopa-induced dyskinesia and striatal microglial activation in a PD model. Cannabinoid receptors and the CB 1 -CB 2 heteroreceptor complex in activated microglia have potential as targets in the

  8. Spitzer Observations of a 24 μm Shadow: Bok Globule CB 190

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bieging, John H.; Rieke, George H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Balog, Zoltan; Gordon, Karl D.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Keene, Jocelyn; Kelly, Brandon C.; Rubin, Mark; Werner, Michael W.

    2007-08-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dark globule CB 190 (LDN 771). We observe a roughly circular 24 μm shadow with a 70" radius. The extinction profile of this shadow matches the profile derived from 2MASS photometry at the outer edges of the globule and reaches a maximum of ~32 visual magnitudes at the center. The corresponding mass of CB 190 is ~10 Msolar. Our 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 data over a 10'×10' region centered on the shadow show a temperature ~10 K. The thermal continuum indicates a similar temperature for the dust. The molecular data also show evidence of freezeout onto dust grains. We estimate a distance to CB 190 of 400 pc using the spectroscopic parallax of a star associated with the globule. Bonnor-Ebert fits to the density profile, in conjunction with this distance, yield ξmax=7.2, indicating that CB 190 may be unstable. The high temperature (56 K) of the best-fit Bonnor-Ebert model is in contradiction with the CO and thermal continuum data, leading to the conclusion that the thermal pressure is not enough to prevent free-fall collapse. We also find that the turbulence in the cloud is inadequate to support it. However, the cloud may be supported by the magnetic field, if this field is at the average level for dark globules. Since the magnetic field will eventually leak out through ambipolar diffusion, it is likely that CB 190 is collapsing or in a late precollapse stage. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407.

  9. The role of CB1 receptors in psychostimulant addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiskerke, J.; Pattij, T.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; de Vries, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the neuronal mechanisms underlying substance dependence. Here, we review results of studies using cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1) knockout mice as well as CB1 antagonists to elucidate the role of this neurotransmitter system in

  10. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program 3. (a) For each Program 3 process, the owner or operator shall provide the information indicated in paragraphs (b) through (p) of this section. If the same information applies to more than one covered process...

  11. Stimulation of brain glucose uptake by cannabinoid CB2 receptors and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köfalvi, Attila; Lemos, Cristina; Martín-Moreno, Ana M; Pinheiro, Bárbara S; García-García, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A; Valério-Fernandes, Ângela; Beleza, Rui O; Agostinho, Paula; Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Pasquaré, Susana J; Cunha, Rodrigo A; de Ceballos, María L

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) are emerging as important therapeutic targets in brain disorders that typically involve neurometabolic alterations. We here addressed the possible role of CB2Rs in the regulation of glucose uptake in the mouse brain. To that aim, we have undertaken 1) measurement of (3)H-deoxyglucose uptake in cultured cortical astrocytes and neurons and in acute hippocampal slices; 2) real-time visualization of fluorescently labeled deoxyglucose uptake in superfused hippocampal slices; and 3) in vivo PET imaging of cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. We now show that both selective (JWH133 and GP1a) as well as non-selective (WIN55212-2) CB2R agonists, but not the CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA, stimulate glucose uptake, in a manner that is sensitive to the CB2R-selective antagonist, AM630. Glucose uptake is stimulated in astrocytes and neurons in culture, in acute hippocampal slices, in different brain areas of young adult male C57Bl/6j and CD-1 mice, as well as in middle-aged C57Bl/6j mice. Among the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, the selective inhibition of COX-2, rather than that of FAAH, MAGL or α,βDH6/12, also stimulates the uptake of glucose in hippocampal slices of middle-aged mice, an effect that was again prevented by AM630. However, we found the levels of the endocannabinoid, anandamide reduced in the hippocampus of TgAPP-2576 mice (a model of β-amyloidosis), and likely as a consequence, COX-2 inhibition failed to stimulate glucose uptake in these mice. Together, these results reveal a novel general glucoregulatory role for CB2Rs in the brain, raising therapeutic interest in CB2R agonists as nootropic agents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program 2. (a) For each Program 2 process, the owner or operator shall provide in the RMP the information... the process. (c) The name(s) of the chemical(s) covered. (d) The date of the most recent review or...

  13. Postnatal Development of CB1 Receptor Expression in Rodent Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Suvarna; Onozuka, Kaori; Bender, Kevin J.; Bender, Vanessa A.; Lutz, Beat; Mackie, Ken; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are powerful modulators of synaptic transmission that act on presynaptic cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is the dominant receptor in the CNS, and is present in many brain regions, including sensory cortex. To investigate the potential role of CB1 receptors in cortical development, we examined the developmental expression of CB1 in rodent primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using immunohistochemistry with a CB1-specific antibody. We found that before postnatal day (P) 6, CB1 receptor staining was present exclusively in the cortical white matter, and that CB1 staining appeared in the grey matter between P6 and P20 in a specific laminar pattern. CB1 staining was confined to axons, and was most prominent in cortical layers 2/3, 5a, and 6. CB1 null (−/−) mice showed altered anatomical barrel maps in layer 4, with enlarged inter-barrel septa, but normal barrel size. These results indicate that CB1 receptors are present in early postnatal development and influence development of sensory maps. PMID:17210229

  14. Cannabinoids Modulate Neuronal Activity and Cancer by CB1 and CB2 Receptor-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Soderstrom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids include the active constituents of Cannabis or are molecules that mimic the structure and/or function of these Cannabis-derived molecules. Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the well-characterized CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, it has become clear that not all effects of cannabinoid drugs are attributable to their interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors. Evidence now demonstrates that cannabinoid agents produce effects by modulating activity of the entire array of cellular macromolecules targeted by other drug classes, including: other receptor types; ion channels; transporters; enzymes, and protein- and non-protein cellular structures. This review summarizes evidence for these interactions in the CNS and in cancer, and is organized according to the cellular targets involved. The CNS represents a well-studied area and cancer is emerging in terms of understanding mechanisms by which cannabinoids modulate their activity. Considering the CNS and cancer together allow identification of non-cannabinoid receptor targets that are shared and divergent in both systems. This comparative approach allows the identified targets to be compared and contrasted, suggesting potential new areas of investigation. It also provides insight into the diverse sources of efficacy employed by this interesting class of drugs. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse mechanisms of cannabinoid action may lead to the design and development of therapeutic agents with greater efficacy and specificity for their cellular targets.

  15. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  16. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  17. CB1R-Mediated Activation of Caspase-3 Causes Epigenetic and Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Postnatal Ethanol-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar Subbanna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7 mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2 levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation. It was shown that ethanol treatment of P7 mice enhanced Mecp2 mRNA levels but reduced protein levels. The genetic deletion of CB1R prevented, and administration of a CB1R antagonist before ethanol treatment of P7 mice inhibited caspase-3 activation. Additionally, it reversed the loss of MeCP2 protein, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activation, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression. The inhibition of caspase-3 activity prior to ethanol administration prevented ethanol-induced loss of MeCP2, CREB activation, epigenetic regulation of Arc expression, long-term potentiation (LTP, spatial memory deficits and activity-dependent impairment of several signaling molecules, including MeCP2, in adult mice. Collectively, these results reveal that the ethanol-induced CB1R-mediated activation of caspase-3 degrades the MeCP2 protein in the P7 mouse brain and causes long-lasting neurobehavioral deficits in adult mice. This CB1R-mediated instability of MeCP2 during active synaptic maturation may disrupt synaptic circuit maturation and lead to neurobehavioral abnormalities, as observed in this animal model of FASD.

  18. Vibrational spectra and structure of icosahedral anion of monocarba-closo-dodecaborane [CB11H12]- and its nido-derivative: [CB10H13]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononova, E.G.; Bukalov, S.S.; Lejtes, L.A.; Lysenko, K.A.; Ol'shevskaya, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    Raman and IR spectra of cesium salts of monocarborane anions [closo-CB 11 H 12 ] - and [nido-CB 10 H 13 ] - were recorded, assignment of frequencies being provided. Quantum-chemical calculation of geometry of the closo-polyhedrons [B 12 H 12 ] 2- and [CB 11 H 12 ] - along with that of frequencies and forms of normal vibrations of the latter was made. Comparison of structural and spectral characteristics in the series of isoelectronic closo-polyhedrons [B 12 H 12 ] 2- , [CB 11 H 12 ] - and p-C 2 B 10 H 12 , as well as those of the closo- and nido structures, was made [ru

  19. Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockers as medicines: beyond obesity and cardiometabolic disorders to substance abuse/drug addiction with CB1R neutral antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2012-03-01

    Addiction to chemical substances with abuse potential presents medical needs largely unsolved by extant therapeutic strategies. Signal transmission through the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates neurotransmitters/neuronal pathways contributing to the rewarding properties and hedonic effects of certain nondrug stimuli (e.g., food) and many prototypical addictive drugs, promoting excessive intake and its pathological consequences. Typical CB1R antagonists/inverse agonists reduce the rewarding effects and normalize behavioral phenotypes associated with food and abused drugs, but carry an unacceptable adverse-event profile that may reflect, at least partly, their intrinsic ability to alter basal homeostatic CB1R signaling in the CNS and elicit a negative efficacy response. Alternatively, peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists with limited CNS permeability and putative CB1R neutral antagonists expressing modest (if any) inverse-agonist efficacy are garnering attention for treating obesity and related cardiometabolic complications with a potentially enhanced benefit-to-risk profile. This mini-review calls attention to the proposition that CB1R neutral antagonists offer attractive opportunities for pharmacotherapeutic exploitation in the substance abuse/drug addiction space, whereas the restricted CNS accessibility of peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists circumscribes their therapeutic utility for this indication. The unique preclinical pharmacology, efficacy profiles, and reduced adverse-event risk of CB1R neutral antagonists make them worthy of translational study for their potential therapeutic application beyond obesity/cardiometabolic disease to include substance-abuse/drug-addiction disorders.

  20. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  1. Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huibing; Lauzon, Nicole M; Bishop, Stephanie F; Bechard, Melanie A; Laviolette, Steven R

    2010-06-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor system is functionally involved in the processing and encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, learning and memory. The CB1 receptor is found in high concentrations in brain structures that are critical for emotional processing, including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) within the BLA > mPFC pathway is an established correlate of exposure to emotionally salient events. We performed a series of in vivo LTP studies by applying tetanic stimulation to the BLA combined with recordings of local field potentials within prelimbic cortical (PLC) region of the rat mPFC. Systemic pretreatment with AM-251 dose dependently blocked LTP along the BLA-PLC pathway and also the behavioral acquisition of conditioned fear memories. We next performed a series of microinfusion experiments wherein CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC circuit was pharmacologically blocked. Asymmetrical, interhemispheric blockade of CB1 receptor transmission along the BLA > PLC pathway prevented the acquisition of emotionally salient associative memory. Our results indicate that coordinated CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC pathway is critically involved in the encoding of emotional fear memories and modulates neural plasticity related to the encoding of emotionally salient associative learning.

  2. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  3. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  4. Consequence of dopamine D2 receptor blockade on the hyperphagic effect induced by cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, M; Zendehdel, M; Baghbanzadeh, A; Babapour, V

    2017-10-01

    1. Endocannabinoids (ECBs) and their receptors play a regulatory function on several physiological processes such as feed-intake behaviour, mainly in the brain. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors on CB1/CB2 ECB receptor-induced hyperphagia in 3-h feed-deprived neonatal layer chickens. 2. A total of 8 experiments were designed to explore the interplay of these two modulatory systems on feed intake in neonatal chickens. In Experiment 1, chickens were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with control solution, l-DOPA (levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine as precursor of dopamine; 125 nmol), 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol as CB 1 receptor agonist; 2 µg) and co-administration of l-DOPA (125 nmol) plus 2-AG (2 µg). Experiments 2-4 were similar to Experiment 1 except birds were injected with either 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine as dopamine synthesis inhibitor; 150 nmol), SCH23390 (D1 receptor antagonist; 5 nmol) and AMI-193 (D2 receptor antagonist; 5 nmol) instead of l-DOPA, respectively. Additionally, Experiments 5-8 followed the previous ones using the same dose of l-DOPA, 6-OHDA and dopamine antagonists except that birds were injected with CB65 (CB2 receptor agonist; 5 µg) instead of 2-AG. Coadministrations were at the same dose for each experiment. Cumulative feed intakes were measured until 120 min after each injection. 3. ICV administration of 6-OHDA and AMI-193 significantly attenuated 2-AG-induced hyperphagia. Interestingly, the hyperphagic effect of CB65 was significantly attenuated by administration of l-DOPA, whereas the administration of 6-OHDA and AMI-193 together amplified the hyperphagic effect of CB65. 4. It was concluded that cannabinoid-induced feeding behaviour is probably modulated by dopamine receptors in neonatal layer-type chickens. It seems that their interaction may be mediated by the D2-dopamine receptor.

  5. Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors Are Localized in Striated Muscle Mitochondria and Regulate Mitochondrial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs where it regulates cellular functions and metabolism. In the brain, CB1 is mainly localized on presynaptic axon terminals but is also found on mitochondria (mtCB1, where it regulates cellular respiration and energy production. Likewise, CB1 is localized on muscle mitochondria, but very little is known about it. The aim of this study was to further investigate in detail the distribution and functional role of mtCB1 in three different striated muscles. Immunoelectron microscopy for CB1 was used in skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis and myocardium from wild-type and CB1-KO mice. Functional assessments were performed in mitochondria purified from the heart of the mice and the mitochondrial oxygen consumption upon application of different acute delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol (Δ9-THC concentrations (100 nM or 200 nM was monitored. About 26% of the mitochondrial profiles in gastrocnemius, 22% in the rectus abdominis and 17% in the myocardium expressed CB1. Furthermore, the proportion of mtCB1 versus total CB1 immunoparticles was about 60% in the gastrocnemius, 55% in the rectus abdominis and 78% in the myocardium. Importantly, the CB1 immunolabeling pattern disappeared in muscles of CB1-KO mice. Functionally, acute 100 nM or 200 nM THC treatment specifically decreased mitochondria coupled respiration between 12% and 15% in wild-type isolated mitochondria of myocardial muscles but no significant difference was noticed between THC treated and vehicle in mitochondria isolated from CB1-KO heart. Furthermore, gene expression of key enzymes involved in pyruvate synthesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated in the striated muscle of CB1-WT and CB1-KO. CB1-KO showed an increase in the gene expression of Eno3, Pkm2, and Pdha1, suggesting an increased production of pyruvate. In contrast, no significant

  6. CB1 receptor antagonism increases hippocampal acetylcholine release: site and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroot, Aldemar; Köfalvi, Attila; Wade, Mark R; Davis, Richard J; Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Rebola, Nelson; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Nomikos, George G

    2006-10-01

    Evidence indicates that blockade of cannabinoid receptors increases acetylcholine (ACh) release in brain cortical regions. Although it is assumed that this type of effect is mediated through CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonism, several in vitro functional studies recently have suggested non-CB1R involvement. In addition, neither the precise neuroanatomical site nor the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are known. We thoroughly examined these issues using a combination of systemic and local administration of CB1R antagonists, different methods of in vivo microdialysis, CB1R knockout (KO) mice, tissue measurements of ACh, and immunochemistry. First, we showed that systemic injections of the CB1R antagonists N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboximide hydrochloride (SR-141716A) and N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM251) dose-dependently increased hippocampal ACh efflux. Likewise, local hippocampal, but not septal, infusions of SR141716A or AM251 increased hippocampal ACh release. It is noteworthy that the stimulatory effects of systemically administered CB1R antagonists on hippocampal ACh release were completely abolished in CB1R KO mice. CB1R KO mice had similar basal but higher stress-enhanced hippocampal ACh levels compared with wild-type controls. It is interesting that dopamine D1 receptor antagonism counteracted the stimulatory effect of CB1R blockade on hippocampal ACh levels. Finally, immunohistochemical methods revealed that a high proportion of CB1R-positive nerve terminals were found in hippocampus and confirmed the colocalization of CB1 receptors with cholinergic and dopaminergic nerve terminals. In conclusion, hippocampal ACh release may specifically be controlled through CB1Rs located on both cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal projections, and CB1R antagonism increases hippocampal ACh release, probably through both a direct

  7. Sensitivity study applied to the CB4 VVER-440 benchmark on burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, Ludmila

    2003-01-01

    A brief overview of four completed portions (CB1, CB2, CB3, CB3+, CB4) of the international VVER-440 benchmark focused on burnup credit and a sensitivity study as one of the final views of the benchmark results are presented in the paper. Finally, the influence of real and conservative VVER-440 fuel assembly models taken for the isotopics calculation by SCALE sas2 on the system k eff is shown in the paper. (author)

  8. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. LEP measurements of $V_{cb}$ and $V_{ub}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkings, R

    2001-01-01

    The measurements of the magnitudes of the CKM matrix elements V/sub cb/ and V/sub ub/ from LEP are reviewed. V/sub cb/ is measured using the decay B/sup 0/ to D*/sup +/l/sup -/ nu , whilst V/sub ub/ is measured using inclusive charmless semileptonic b decays. Particular attention is paid to the limiting systematic errors in each case. (20 refs).

  11. A Novel Selective Inverse Agonist of the CB2 Receptor as a Radiolabeled Tool Compound for Kinetic Binding Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Andrea; Sijben, Huub; Rufer, Arne C; Grether, Uwe; Fingerle, Juergen; Ullmer, Christoph; Hartung, Thomas; IJzerman, Adriaan P; van der Stelt, Mario; Heitman, Laura H

    2017-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system, and in particular the cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R), raised the interest of many medicinal chemistry programs for its therapeutic relevance in several (patho)physiologic processes. However, the physico-chemical properties of tool compounds for CB2R (e.g., the radioligand [ 3 H]CP55,940) are not optimal, despite the research efforts in developing effective drugs to target this system. At the same time, the importance of drug-target binding kinetics is growing since the kinetic binding profile of a ligand may provide important insights for the resulting in vivo efficacy. In this context we synthesized and characterized [ 3 H]RO6957022, a highly selective CB2R inverse agonist, as a radiolabeled tool compound. In equilibrium and kinetic binding experiments [ 3 H]RO6957022 showed high affinity for human CB2R with fast association ( k on ) and moderate dissociation ( k off ) kinetics. To demonstrate the robustness of [ 3 H]RO6957022 binding, affinity studies were carried out for a wide range of CB2R reference ligands, spanning the range of full, partial, and inverse agonists. Finally, we used [ 3 H]RO6957022 to study the kinetic binding profiles (i.e., k on and k off values) of selected synthetic and endogenous (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, and noladin ether) CB2R ligands by competition association experiments. All tested ligands, and in particular the endocannabinoids, displayed distinct kinetic profiles, shedding more light on their mechanism of action and the importance of association rates in the determination of CB2R affinity. Altogether, this study shows that the use of a novel tool compound, i.e., [ 3 H]RO6957022, can support the development of novel ligands with a repertoire of kinetic binding profiles for CB2R. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 suppresses microglial activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Francisco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated microglial cells have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, multiple sclerosis (MS, and HIV dementia. It is well known that inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO, cytokines, and chemokines play an important role in microglial cell-associated neuron cell damage. Our previous studies have shown that CD40 signaling is involved in pathological activation of microglial cells. Many data reveal that cannabinoids mediate suppression of inflammation in vitro and in vivo through stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist on CD40 expression and function by cultured microglial cells activated by IFN-γ using RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and anti-CB2 small interfering RNA (siRNA analyses. Furthermore, we examined if the stimulation of CB2 could modulate the capacity of microglial cells to phagocytise Aβ1–42 peptide using a phagocytosis assay. Results We found that the selective stimulation of cannabinoid receptor CB2 by JWH-015 suppressed IFN-γ-induced CD40 expression. In addition, this CB2 agonist markedly inhibited IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of JAK/STAT1. Further, this stimulation was also able to suppress microglial TNF-α and nitric oxide production induced either by IFN-γ or Aβ peptide challenge in the presence of CD40 ligation. Finally, we showed that CB2 activation by JWH-015 markedly attenuated CD40-mediated inhibition of microglial phagocytosis of Aβ1–42 peptide. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic insight into beneficial effects provided by cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulation in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly AD.

  13. Participation in preventive care programs: individual determinants, social interactions and program design.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouckaert, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research focuses on existing medical preventive care programs. Because of externalities (e.g. in the prevention of communicable diseases) or the program cost-benefit ratio, preventive care programs require high participation rates. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have set clear participation objectives – next to quality targets – which are measured and evaluated over time (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). For example, the 2010 pa...

  14. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are involved in the protection of RAW264.7 macrophages against the oxidative stress: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Giacoppo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the last decades has widely investigated the anti-oxidant properties of natural products as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and the treatment of oxidative-stress related disorders. In this context, several studies were aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa. Here, we examined the anti-oxidant ability of Cannabigerol (CBG, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, still little known, into counteracting the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative stress in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, we tested selective receptor antagonists for cannabinoid receptors and specifically CB1R (SR141716A and CB2R (AM630 in order to investigate through which CBG may exert its action. Taken together, our in vitro results showed that CBG is able to counteract oxidative stress by activation of CB2 receptors. CB2 antagonist pre-treatment indeed blocked the protective effects of CBG in H2O2 stimulated macrophages, while CB1R was not involved. Specifically, CBG exhibited a potent action in inhibiting oxidative stress, by down-regulation of the main oxidative markers (iNOS, nitrotyrosine and PARP-1, by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation and translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and also via the modulation of MAP kinases pathway. On the other hand, CBG was found to increase anti-oxidant defense of cells by modulating superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1 expression and thus inhibiting cell death (results focused on balance between Bax and Bcl-2. Based on its antioxidant activities, CBG may hold great promise as an anti-oxidant agent and therefore used in clinical practice as a new approach in oxidative-stress related disorders.

  15. Sonographic demonstration of Cruveilhier-Baumgarten (CB) syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P J; Vogel, H M

    1982-02-01

    The term 'CB syndrome' comprises the presence of umbilical vein collateral circulation due to portal hypertension associated with cirrhosis or other recognizable structural anomalies of the liver. Usually the dilated remnant of the umbilical vein is the main collateral pathway. Demonstration of this structure not only indicates the presence of portal hypertension but also that the underlying obstruction is intra- or posthepatic rather than prehepatic. This paper reports sonographic visualization of CB syndrome in 23 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Questions of differential diagnosis and nomenclature are discussed with respect to developmental and anatomical preconditions.

  16. Sonographic demonstration of Cruveilhier-Baumgarten (CB) syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, P.J.; Vogel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The term 'CB syndrome' comprises the presence of umbilical vein collateral circulation due to portal hypertension associated with cirrhosis or other recognizable structural anomalies of the liver. Usually the dilated remnant of the umbilical vein is the main collateral pathway. Demonstration of this structure not only indicates the presence of portal hypertension but also that the underlying obstruction is intra- or posthepatic rather than prehepatic. This paper reports sonographic visualization of CB syndrome in 23 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Questions of differential diagnosis and nomenclature are discussed with respect to developmental and anatomical preconditions. (orig.)

  17. Müller cells express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) has been largely documented in the rodent and primate retinae in recent years. There is, however, some controversy concerning the presence of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) within the central nervous system. Only recently, CB2R has been found in the...

  18. Carbon Incorporation and Anion Dynamics as Synergistic Drivers for Ultrafast Diffusion in Superionic LiCB11H12 and NaCB11H12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shea, Patrick [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Kweon, Kyoung E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Bercx, Marnik [University of Antwerp; Varley, Joel B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Tang, Wan Si [National Institute of Standards and Technology; University of Maryland; Skripov, Alexander V. [Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Laboratories; Udovic, Terrence J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology; Wood, Brandon C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2018-02-02

    The disordered phases of LiCB11H12 and NaCB11H12 possess superb superionic conductivities that make them suitable as solid electrolytes. In these materials, cation diffusion correlates with high orientational mobilities of the CB11H12- anions; however, the precise relationship has yet to be demonstrated. In this work, ab initio molecular dynamics and quasielastic neutron scattering are combined to probe anion reorientations and their mechanistic connection to cation mobility over a range of timescales and temperatures. It is found that anions do not rotate freely, but rather transition rapidly between orientations defined by the cation sublattice symmetry. The symmetry-breaking carbon atom in CB11H12- also plays a critical role by perturbing the energy landscape along the instantaneous orientation of the anion dipole, which couples fluctuations in the cation probability density directly to the anion motion. Anion reorientation rates exceed 3 x 1010 s-1, suggesting the underlying energy landscape fluctuates dynamically on diffusion-relevant timescales. Furthermore, carbon is found to modify the orientational preferences of the anions and aid rotational mobility, creating additional symmetry incompatibilities that inhibit ordering. The results suggest that synergy between the anion reorientational dynamics and the carbon-modified cation-anion interaction accounts for the higher ionic conductivity in CB11H12- salts compared with B12H122-.

  19. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  20. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  1. CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: Association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent eVan Waes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits mediate various aspects of goal-directed behavior and are critically important for basal ganglia-related disorders. Activity in these circuits is regulated by the endocannabinoid system via stimulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are highly expressed in projection neurons and select interneurons of the striatum, but expression levels vary considerably between different striatal regions (functional domains. We investigated CB1 receptor expression within specific corticostriatal circuits by mapping CB1 mRNA levels in striatal sectors defined by their cortical inputs in rats. We also assessed changes in CB1 expression in the striatum during development. Our results show that CB1 expression is highest in juveniles (P25 and then progressively decreases towards adolescent (P40 and adult (P70 levels. At every age, CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed in sensorimotor striatal sectors, with considerably lower expression in associative and limbic sectors. Moreover, for most corticostriatal circuits there is an inverse relationship between cortical and striatal expression levels. Thus, striatal sectors with high CB1 expression (sensorimotor sectors tend to receive inputs from cortical areas with low expression, while striatal sectors with low expression (associative/limbic sectors receive inputs from cortical regions with higher expression (medial prefrontal cortex. In so far as CB1 mRNA levels reflect receptor function, our findings suggest differential CB1 signaling between different developmental stages and between sensorimotor and associative/limbic circuits. The regional distribution of CB1 receptor expression in the striatum further suggests that, in sensorimotor sectors, CB1 receptors mostly regulate GABA inputs from local axon collaterals of projection neurons, whereas in associative/limbic sectors, CB1 regulation of GABA inputs from interneurons and glutamate inputs may be more important.

  2. Targeting the endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor system for treating obesity in Prader–Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Knani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extreme obesity is a core phenotypic feature of Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS. Among numerous metabolic regulators, the endocannabinoid (eCB system is critically involved in controlling feeding, body weight, and energy metabolism, and a globally acting cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R blockade reverses obesity both in animals and humans. The first-in-class CB1R antagonist rimonabant proved effective in inducing weight loss in adults with PWS. However, it is no longer available for clinical use because of its centrally mediated, neuropsychiatric, adverse effects. Methods: We studied eCB ‘tone’ in individuals with PWS and in the Magel2-null mouse model that recapitulates the major metabolic phenotypes of PWS and determined the efficacy of a peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist, JD5037 in treating obesity in these mice. Results: Individuals with PWS had elevated circulating levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and its endogenous precursor and breakdown ligand, arachidonic acid. Increased hypothalamic eCB ‘tone’, manifested by increased eCBs and upregulated CB1R, was associated with increased fat mass, reduced energy expenditure, and decreased voluntary activity in Magel2-null mice. Daily chronic treatment of obese Magel2-null mice and their littermate wild-type controls with JD5037 (3 mg/kg/d for 28 days reduced body weight, reversed hyperphagia, and improved metabolic parameters related to their obese phenotype. Conclusions: Dysregulation of the eCB/CB1R system may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in Magel2-null mice and in individuals with PWS. Our results demonstrate that treatment with peripherally restricted CB1R antagonists may be an effective strategy for the management of severe obesity in PWS. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Endocannabinoids, PWS, Magel2, Peripheral CB1 blockade, Metabolic syndrome

  3. Acute Pharmacological Effects of 2C-B in Humans: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Papaseit

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A, 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B. Sixteen healthy, experienced drug users self-administered an oral dose of 2C-B (10, 15, or 20 mg. Vital signs (blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours (h. Each participant completed subjective effects using three rating scales: the visual analog scale (VAS, the Addiction Research Centre Inventory (ARCI, and the Evaluation of the Subjective Effects of Substances with Abuse Potential (VESSPA-SSE at baseline, 2–3 and 6 h after self-administration (maximum effects along 6 h, and the Hallucinogenic Rating Scale (maximum effects along 6 h. Oral fluid (saliva was collected to assess 2C-B and cortisol concentrations during 24 h. Acute administration of 2C-B increased blood pressure and heart rate. Scores of scales related to euphoria increased (high, liking, and stimulated, and changes in perceptions (distances, colors, shapes, and lights and different body feelings/surrounding were produced. Mild hallucinating effects were described in five subjects. Maximum concentrations of 2C-B and cortisol were reached at 1 and 3 h after self-administration, respectively. Oral 2C-B at recreational doses induces a constellation of psychedelic/psychostimulant-like effects similar to those associated with serotonin-acting drugs.

  4. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  5. The Caulobacter crescentus phage phiCbK: genomics of a canonical phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Jason J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is a popular model for the study of cell cycle regulation and senescence. The large prolate siphophage phiCbK has been an important tool in C. crescentus biology, and has been studied in its own right as a model for viral morphogenesis. Although a system of some interest, to date little genomic information is available on phiCbK or its relatives. Results Five novel phiCbK-like C. crescentus bacteriophages, CcrMagneto, CcrSwift, CcrKarma, CcrRogue and CcrColossus, were isolated from the environment. The genomes of phage phiCbK and these five environmental phage isolates were obtained by 454 pyrosequencing. The phiCbK-like phage genomes range in size from 205 kb encoding 318 proteins (phiCbK to 280 kb encoding 448 proteins (CcrColossus, and were found to contain nonpermuted terminal redundancies of 10 to 17 kb. A novel method of terminal ligation was developed to map genomic termini, which confirmed termini predicted by coverage analysis. This suggests that sequence coverage discontinuities may be useable as predictors of genomic termini in phage genomes. Genomic modules encoding virion morphogenesis, lysis and DNA replication proteins were identified. The phiCbK-like phages were also found to encode a number of intriguing proteins; all contain a clearly T7-like DNA polymerase, and five of the six encode a possible homolog of the C. crescentus cell cycle regulator GcrA, which may allow the phage to alter the host cell’s replicative state. The structural proteome of phage phiCbK was determined, identifying the portal, major and minor capsid proteins, the tail tape measure and possible tail fiber proteins. All six phage genomes are clearly related; phiCbK, CcrMagneto, CcrSwift, CcrKarma and CcrRogue form a group related at the DNA level, while CcrColossus is more diverged but retains significant similarity at the protein level. Conclusions Due to their lack of any apparent relationship to

  6. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  7. Developmental and visual input-dependent regulation of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the mouse visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoneda

    Full Text Available The mammalian visual system exhibits significant experience-induced plasticity in the early postnatal period. While physiological studies have revealed the contribution of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 to developmental plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1, it remains unknown whether the expression and localization of CB1 is regulated during development or by visual experience. To explore a possible role of the endocannabinoid system in visual cortical plasticity, we examined the expression of CB1 in the visual cortex of mice. We found intense CB1 immunoreactivity in layers II/III and VI. CB1 mainly localized at vesicular GABA transporter-positive inhibitory nerve terminals. The amount of CB1 protein increased throughout development, and the specific laminar pattern of CB1 appeared at P20 and remained until adulthood. Dark rearing from birth to P30 decreased the amount of CB1 protein in V1 and altered the synaptic localization of CB1 in the deep layer. Dark rearing until P50, however, did not influence the expression of CB1. Brief monocular deprivation for 2 days upregulated the localization of CB1 at inhibitory nerve terminals in the deep layer. Taken together, the expression and the localization of CB1 are developmentally regulated, and both parameters are influenced by visual experience.

  8. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  9. Blockade of cannabinoid CB receptor function protects against in vivo disseminating brain damage following NMDA-induced excitotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Ramos, J.A.; Fernández-Ruiz, J.

    2002-01-01

    -induced excitotoxic damage in the ipsilateral forebrain was not influenced by agonist-stimulated CB receptor function. In contrast, blockade of CB, but not CB, receptor activity evoked a robust neuroprotective response by reducing the infarct area and the number of cortical degenerating neurons. These results suggest...... receptor function on NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Neonatal (6-day-old) rat pups received a systemic injection of a mixed CB/CB receptor agonist (WIN55,212-2) or their respective antagonists (SR141716A for CB and SR144528 for CB) prior to an unilateral intrastriatal microinjection of NMDA. The NMDA...... a critical involvement of CB receptor tonus on neuronal survival following NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity in vivo....

  10. Molecular basis of cannabinoid CB1 receptor coupling to the G protein heterotrimer Gαiβγ: identification of key CB1 contacts with the C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Ahn, Kwang H; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-11-08

    The cannabinoid (CB1) receptor is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The human CB1 receptor, which is among the most expressed receptors in the brain, has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. Different classes of CB1 agonists evoke signaling pathways through the activation of specific subtypes of G proteins. The molecular basis of CB1 receptor coupling to its cognate G protein is unknown. As a first step toward understanding CB1 receptor-mediated G protein signaling, we have constructed a ternary complex structural model of the CB1 receptor and Gi heterotrimer (CB1-Gi), guided by the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in complex with Gs (β2AR-Gs), through 824-ns duration molecular dynamics simulations in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer environment. We identified a group of residues at the juxtamembrane regions of the intracellular loops 2 and 3 (IC2 and IC3) of the CB1 receptor, including Ile-218(3.54), Tyr-224(IC2), Asp-338(6.30), Arg-340(6.32), Leu-341(6.33), and Thr-344(6.36), as potential key contacts with the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. Ala mutations of these residues at the receptor-Gi interface resulted in little G protein coupling activity, consistent with the present model of the CB1-Gi complex, which suggests tight interactions between CB1 and the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. The model also suggests that unique conformational changes in the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gα play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated G protein activation.

  11. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  12. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Association of cannabis use during adolescence, prefrontal CB1 receptor signaling and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eCaballero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R is the G-protein coupled receptor responsible for the majority of the endocannabinoid signaling in the human brain. It is widely distributed in the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, which are areas responsible for cognition, memory, and motor control. Because of this widespread distribution, it is not surprising that drugs that co-opt CB1R have expected behavioral outcomes consistent with dysregulated signaling from these areas (e.g. memory loss, cognitive deficits, etc. In the context of this review, we present evidence for the role of CB1R signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, an area involved in executive functions, with emphasis on the developmental regulation of CB1R signaling in the acquisition of mature PFC function. We further hypothesize how alterations of CB1R signaling specifically during adolescent maturation might confer liability to psychiatric disorders.

  15. Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S Onaivi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addiction and major depression are mental health problems associated with stressful events in life with high relapse and reoccurrence even after treatment. Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2-Rs in healthy brains, but there has been demonstration of CB2-R expression in rat microglial cells and other brain associated cells during inflammation. Therefore, neuronal expression of CB2-Rs had been ambiguous and controversial and its role in depression and substance abuse is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of CB2 gene might be associated with depression in a human population and that alteration in CB2 gene expression may be involved in the effects of abused substances including opiates, cocaine and ethanol in rodents. Here we demonstrate that a high incidence of (Q63R but not (H316Y polymorphism in the CB2 gene was found in Japanese depressed subjects. CB2-Rs and their gene transcripts are expressed in the brains of naïve mice and are modulated following exposure to stressors and administration of abused drugs. Mice that developed alcohol preference had reduced CB2 gene expression and chronic treatment with JWH015 a putative CB2-R agonist, enhanced alcohol consumption in stressed but not in control mice. The direct intracerebroventricular microinjection of CB2 anti-sense oligonucleotide into the mouse brain reduced mouse aversions in the plus-maze test, indicating the functional presence of CB2-Rs in the brain that modifies behavior. We report for the using electron microscopy the sub cellular localization of CB2-Rs that are mainly on post-synaptic elements in rodent brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate the functional expression of CB2-Rs in brain that may provide novel targets for the effects of cannabinoids in depression and substance abuse disorders beyond neuro-immunocannabinoid activity.

  16. Cannabinoid CB1 /CB2 receptor agonists attenuate hyperactivity and body weight loss in a rat model of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherma, Maria; Satta, Valentina; Collu, Roberto; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by excessive body weight loss and disturbed perceptions of body shape and size, often associated with excessive physical activity. There is currently no effective drug-related therapy of this disease and this leads to high relapse rate. Clinical data suggest that a promising therapy to treat and reduce reoccurrence of AN may be based on the use of drugs that target the endocannabinoid (EC) system, which appears dysregulated in AN patients. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model mimics the severe body weight loss and increased physical activity, as well as the neuroendocrine disturbances (i.e. hypoleptinaemia and hypercortisolaemia) in AN. This study investigated whether cannabinoid agonists can effectively modify anorexic-like behaviours and neuroendocrine changes in rats subjected to a repeated ABA regime that mimics the human condition in which patients repeatedly undergo a recovery and illness cycle. Our data show that subchronic treatment with both the natural CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and the synthetic CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist CP-55,940 significantly reduced body weight loss and running wheel activity in ABA rats. These behavioural effects were accompanied by an increase in leptin signalling and a decrease in plasma levels of corticosterone. Taken together, our results further demonstrate the involvement of the EC system in AN pathophysiology and that strategies which modulate EC signalling are useful to treat this disorder, specifically in patients where physical hyperactivity plays a central role in its progression and maintenance. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Role of cannabinoid receptor CB2 in HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Andradas, Clara; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Caffarel, María M; García-Taboada, Elena; Villa-Morales, María; Moreno, Estefanía; Hamann, Sigrid; Martín-Villar, Ester; Flores, Juana M; Wenners, Antonia; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Klapper, Wolfram; Röcken, Christoph; Bronsert, Peter; Stickeler, Elmar; Staebler, Annette; Bauer, Maret; Arnold, Norbert; Soriano, Joaquim; Pérez-Martínez, Manuel; Megías, Diego; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Silvia; Artola, Marta; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Quintanilla, Miguel; Fernández-Piqueras, José; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptors elicits antitumoral responses in different cancer models. However, the biological role of these receptors in tumor physio-pathology is still unknown. We analyzed CB2 cannabinoid receptor protein expression in two series of 166 and 483 breast tumor samples operated in the University Hospitals of Kiel, Tübingen, and Freiburg between 1997 and 2010 and CB2 mRNA expression in previously published DNA microarray datasets. The role of CB2 in oncogenesis was studied by generating a mouse line that expresses the human V-Erb-B2 Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 (HER2) rat ortholog (neu) and lacks CB2 and by a variety of biochemical and cell biology approaches in human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo, upon modulation of CB2 expression by si/shRNAs and overexpression plasmids. CB2-HER2 molecular interaction was studied by colocalization, coimmunoprecipitation, and proximity ligation assays. Statistical tests were two-sided. We show an association between elevated CB2 expression in HER2+ breast tumors and poor patient prognosis (decreased overall survival, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.09 to 0.71, P = .009) and higher probability to suffer local recurrence (HR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.049 to 0.54, P = .003) and to develop distant metastases (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.75, P = .009). We also demonstrate that genetic inactivation of CB2 impairs tumor generation and progression in MMTV-neu mice. Moreover, we show that HER2 upregulates CB2 expression by activating the transcription factor ELK1 via the ERK cascade and that an increased CB2 expression activates the HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling at the level of the tyrosine kinase c-SRC. Finally, we show HER2 and CB2 form heteromers in cancer cells. Our findings reveal an unprecedented role of CB2 as a pivotal regulator of HER2 pro-oncogenic signaling in breast cancer, and they suggest that CB2 may be a biomarker with

  18. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  19. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  20. Review of $V_{cb}$ and $V_{td}/V_{ts}$

    OpenAIRE

    Forty, Roger W

    1997-01-01

    The current experimental status of the CKM matrix element V_cb and the ratio V_td/V_ts is reviewed. Knowledge of these elements has a strong impact on the unitarity triangle, of interest for studies of CP violation in the B system. The measurements of V_cb from both inclusive semileptonic b decays and the exclusive channel B -> D* l nu are reaching high precision. For V_td/V_ts the strongest upper limit is derived from studies of B-Bbar mixing.

  1. Cultural adaptation of a peer-led lifestyle intervention program for diabetes prevention in India: the Kerala diabetes prevention program (K-DPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Elezebeth; Thomas, Emma; Absetz, Pilvikki; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Aziz, Zahra; Balachandran, Sajitha; Daivadanam, Meena; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Oldenburg, Brian

    2018-01-04

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now one of the leading causes of disease-related deaths globally. India has the world's second largest number of individuals living with diabetes. Lifestyle change has been proven to be an effective means by which to reduce risk of T2DM and a number of "real world" diabetes prevention trials have been undertaken in high income countries. However, systematic efforts to adapt such interventions for T2DM prevention in low- and middle-income countries have been very limited to date. This research-to-action gap is now widely recognised as a major challenge to the prevention and control of diabetes. Reducing the gap is associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality and reduced health care costs. The aim of this article is to describe the adaptation, development and refinement of diabetes prevention programs from the USA, Finland and Australia to the State of Kerala, India. The Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program (K-DPP) was adapted to Kerala, India from evidence-based lifestyle interventions implemented in high income countries, namely, Finland, United States and Australia. The adaptation process was undertaken in five phases: 1) needs assessment; 2) formulation of program objectives; 3) program adaptation and development; 4) piloting of the program and its delivery; and 5) program refinement and active implementation. The resulting program, K-DPP, includes four key components: 1) a group-based peer support program for participants; 2) a peer-leader training and support program for lay people to lead the groups; 3) resource materials; and 4) strategies to stimulate broader community engagement. The systematic approach to adaptation was underpinned by evidence-based behavior change techniques. K-DPP is the first well evaluated community-based, peer-led diabetes prevention program in India. Future refinement and utilization of this approach will promote translation of K-DPP to other contexts and population groups within India as

  2. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  3. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor potentiates obesity-associated inflammation, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Deveaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity-associated inflammation is of critical importance in the development of insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Since the cannabinoid receptor CB2 regulates innate immunity, the aim of the present study was to investigate its role in obesity-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and fatty liver. METHODOLOGY: Murine obesity models included genetically leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and wild type (WT mice fed a high fat diet (HFD, that were compared to their lean counterparts. Animals were treated with pharmacological modulators of CB2 receptors. Experiments were also performed in mice knock-out for CB2 receptors (Cnr2 -/-. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In both HFD-fed WT mice and ob/ob mice, Cnr2 expression underwent a marked induction in the stromal vascular fraction of epididymal adipose tissue that correlated with increased fat inflammation. Treatment with the CB2 agonist JWH-133 potentiated adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed WT mice. Moreover, cultured fat pads isolated from ob/ob mice displayed increased Tnf and Ccl2 expression upon exposure to JWH-133. In keeping, genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB2 receptors decreased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration associated with obesity, and reduced inductions of Tnf and Ccl2 expressions. In the liver of obese mice, Cnr2 mRNA was only weakly induced, and CB2 receptors moderately contributed to liver inflammation. HFD-induced insulin resistance increased in response to JWH-133 and reduced in Cnr2 -/- mice. Finally, HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was enhanced in WT mice treated with JWH-133 and blunted in Cnr2 -/- mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These data unravel a previously unrecognized contribution of CB2 receptors to obesity-associated inflammation, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists may open a new therapeutic approach for the management of obesity-associated metabolic disorders.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  5. GABAergic and cortical and subcortical glutamatergic axon terminals contain CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Reguero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB(1R are enriched in the hypothalamus, particularly in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH that participates in homeostatic and behavioral functions including food intake. Although CB(1R activation modulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain, CB(1R contribution to the molecular architecture of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic terminals in the VMH is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the precise subcellular distribution of CB(1R in the VMH to better understand the modulation exerted by the endocannabinoid system on the complex brain circuitries converging into this nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light and electron microscopy techniques were used to analyze CB(1R distribution in the VMH of CB(1R-WT, CB(1R-KO and conditional mutant mice bearing a selective deletion of CB(1R in cortical glutamatergic (Glu-CB(1R-KO or GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB(1R-KO. At light microscopy, CB(1R immunolabeling was observed in the VMH of CB(1R-WT and Glu-CB(1R-KO animals, being remarkably reduced in GABA-CB(1R-KO mice. In the electron microscope, CB(1R appeared in membranes of both glutamatergic and GABAergic terminals/preterminals. There was no significant difference in the percentage of CB(1R immunopositive profiles and CB(1R density in terminals making asymmetric or symmetric synapses in CB(1R-WT mice. Furthermore, the proportion of CB(1R immunopositive terminals/preterminals in CB(1R-WT and Glu-CB(1R-KO mice was reduced in GABA-CB(1R-KO mutants. CB(1R density was similar in all animal conditions. Finally, the percentage of CB(1R labeled boutons making asymmetric synapses slightly decreased in Glu-CB(1R-KO mutants relative to CB(1R-WT mice, indicating that CB(1R was distributed in cortical and subcortical excitatory synaptic terminals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our anatomical results support the idea that the VMH is a relevant hub candidate in

  6. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  7. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  8. Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Andradas, Clara; Medrano, Mireia; Caffarel, María M.; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M. Ruth; Irving, Andrew J.; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; McCormick, Peter J.; Sánchez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors CB2 (CB2R) and GPR55 are overexpressed in cancer cells and human tumors. Because a modulation of GPR55 activity by cannabinoids has been suggested, we analyzed whether this receptor participates in cannabinoid effects on cancer cells. Here we show that CB2R and GPR55 form heteromers in cancer cells, that these structures possess unique signaling properties, and that modulation of these heteromers can modify the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings unveil the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms that help explain the complex behavior of cannabinoids and may constitute new targets for therapeutic intervention in oncology. PMID:24942731

  9. What Determines Lean Manufacturing Implementation? A CB-SEM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ching Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to ascertain the determinants of effective Lean Manufacturing (LM. In this research, Covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM analysis will be used in order to analyze the determinants. Through CB-SEM analysis, the significant key determinants can be determined and the direct relationships among determinants can be analyzed. Thus, the findings of this research can act as guidelines for achievement of LM effectiveness, not only providing necessary steps for successful implementation of lean, but also helping lean companies to achieve higher level of lean cost and time savings.

  10. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Lessio, Anne; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Best practices identified solely on the strength of research evidence may not be entirely relevant or practical for use in community-based public health and the practice of chronic disease prevention. Aiming to bridge the gap between best practices literature and local knowledge and expertise, the Ontario Public Health Association, through the Toward Evidence-Informed Practice initiative, developed a set of resources to strengthen evidence-informed decision making in chronic disease prevention programs. A Program Assessment Tool, described in this article, emphasizes better processes by incorporating review criteria into the program planning and implementation process. In a companion paper, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool,” we describe another tool, which emphasizes better evidence by providing guidelines and worksheets to identify, synthesize, and incorporate evidence from a range of sources (eg, peer-reviewed literature, gray literature, local expertise) to strengthen local programs. The Program Assessment Tool uses 19 criteria derived from literature on best and promising practices to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation. We describe the benefits, strengths, and challenges in implementing the tool in 22 community-based chronic disease prevention projects in Ontario, Canada. The Program Assessment Tool helps put best processes into operation to complement adoption and adaptation of evidence-informed practices for chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721789

  11. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  12. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  13. METHODS FOR RECOMBINANT EXPRESSION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN CANNABINOID RECEPTOR CB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Yeliseev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is a seven transmembrane-domain integral membrane protein that belongs to a large superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. CB2 is a part of the endocannabinoid system that plays vital role in regulation of immune response, inflammation, pain sensitivity, obesity and other physiological responses. Information about the structure and mechanisms of functioning of this receptor in cell membranes is essential for the rational development of specific pharmaceuticals. Here we review the methodology for recombinant expression, purification, stabilization and biochemical characterization of CB2 suitable for preparation of multi-milligram quantities of functionally active receptor. The biotechnological protocols include expression of the recombinant CB2 in E. coli cells as a fusion with the maltose binding protein, stabilization with a high affinity ligand and a derivative of cholesterol in detergent micelles, efficient purification by tandem affinity chromatography, and reconstitution of the receptor into lipid bilayers. The purified recombinant CB2 receptor is amenable to functional and structural studies including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a wide range of biochemical and biophysical techniques.

  14. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Onintza; González, Sara; Aroyo, Ilia; Pazos, María Ruth; Benito, Cristina; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Romero, Juan P.; Tolón, Rosa M.; Mechoulam, Raphael; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Romero, Julián; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid agonists might serve as neuroprotective agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined this hypothesis in a rat model of Huntington’s disease (HD) generated by intrastriatal injection of the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. Our results showed that only compounds able to activate CB2 receptors were capable of protecting striatal projection neurons from malonate-induced death. That CB2 receptor agonists are neuroprotective was confirmed by using the selective CB2 receptor antagonist, SR144528, and by the observation that mice deficient in CB2 receptor were more sensitive to malonate than wild-type animals. CB2 receptors are scarce in the striatum in healthy conditions but they are markedly up-regulated after the lesion with malonate. Studies of double immunostaining revealed a significant presence of CB2 receptors in cells labelled with the marker of reactive microglia OX-42, and also in cells labelled with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes). We further showed that the activation of CB2 receptors significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) that had been increased by the lesion with malonate. In summary, our results demonstrate that stimulation of CB2 receptors protect the striatum against malonate toxicity, likely through a mechanism involving glial cells, in particular reactive microglial cells in which CB2 receptors would be up-regulated in response to the lesion. Activation of these receptors would reduce the generation of proinflammatory molecules like TNF-α. Altogether our results support the hypothesis that CB2 receptors could constitute a therapeutic target to slowdown neurodegeneration in HD. PMID:19115380

  15. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  16. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  17. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  18. SR 144528, the first potent and selective antagonist of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Barth, F; Millan, J; Derocq, J M; Casellas, P; Congy, C; Oustric, D; Sarran, M; Bouaboula, M; Calandra, B; Portier, M; Shire, D; Brelière, J C; Le Fur, G L

    1998-02-01

    Based on both binding and functional data, this study introduces SR 144528 as the first, highly potent, selective and orally active antagonist for the CB2 receptor. This compound which displays subnanomolar affinity (Ki = 0.6 nM) for both the rat spleen and cloned human CB2 receptors has a 700-fold lower affinity (Ki = 400 nM) for both the rat brain and cloned human CB1 receptors. Furthermore it shows no affinity for any of the more than 70 receptors, ion channels or enzymes investigated (IC50 > 10 microM). In vitro, SR 144528 antagonizes the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 on forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in cell lines permanently expressing the h CB2 receptor (EC50 = 10 nM) but not in cells expressing the h CB1 (no effect at 10 microM). Furthermore, SR 144528 is able to selectively block the mitogen-activated protein kinase activity induced by CP 55,940 in cell lines expressing h CB2 (IC50 = 39 nM) whereas in cells expressing h CB1 an IC50 value of more than 1 microM is found. In addition, SR 144528 is shown to antagonize the stimulating effects of CP 55,940 on human tonsillar B-cell activation evoked by cross-linking of surface Igs (IC50 = 20 nM). In vivo, after oral administration SR 144528 totally displaced the ex vivo [3H]-CP 55,940 binding to mouse spleen membranes (ED50 = 0.35 mg/kg) with a long duration of action. In contrast, after the oral route it does not interact with the cannabinoid receptor expressed in the mouse brain (CB1). It is expected that SR 144528 will provide a powerful tool to investigate the in vivo functions of the cannabinoid system in the immune response.

  19. Youth exposure to violence prevention programs in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry

    2014-04-01

    This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  1. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  2. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  3. Innovation in HIV prevention: organizational and intervention characteristics affecting program adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R L

    2001-08-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore the organizational characteristics of community-based organizations that provide HIV prevention programs and the criteria these organizations employ when judging the merits of externally-developed HIV prevention programs. In-depth interviews were conducted with organizational representatives of 38 randomly-selected HIV prevention providers throughout Illinois. Results indicated that there were three main types of adopting organizations: adopters of entire programs, adopters of program components and practices, and adopters of common ideas. These three types of organizations were distinguished by their level of organizational commitment to HIV prevention, organizational resources, and level of organizational maturity. Narrative data from the interviews are used to describe the dimensions that underlie the organizations' program adoption criteria. The criteria of merit used by these organizations to evaluate prevention programs provide partial empirical support for existing theories of technology transfer. Implications for designing and disseminating HIV prevention programs are discussed.

  4. A Feedforward Inhibitory Circuit Mediated by CB1-Expressing Fast-Spiking Interneurons in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William J; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) gates motivated behaviors through the functional output of principle medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whereas dysfunctional output of NAc MSNs contributes to a variety of psychiatric disorders. Fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) are sparsely distributed throughout the NAc, forming local feedforward inhibitory circuits. It remains elusive how FSI-based feedforward circuits regulate the output of NAc MSNs. Here, we investigated a distinct subpopulation of NAc FSIs that express the cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1). Using a combination of paired electrophysiological recordings and pharmacological approaches, we characterized and compared feedforward inhibition of NAc MSNs from CB1 + FSIs and lateral inhibition from recurrent MSN collaterals. We observed that CB1 + FSIs exerted robust inhibitory control over a large percentage of nearby MSNs in contrast to local MSN collaterals that provided only sparse and weak inhibitory input to their neighboring MSNs. Furthermore, CB1 + FSI-mediated feedforward inhibition was preferentially suppressed by endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling, whereas MSN-mediated lateral inhibition was unaffected. Finally, we demonstrated that CB1 + FSI synapses onto MSNs are capable of undergoing experience-dependent long-term depression in a voltage- and eCB-dependent manner. These findings demonstrated that CB1 + FSIs are a major source of local inhibitory control of MSNs and a critical component of the feedforward inhibitory circuits regulating the output of the NAc.

  5. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  6. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  7. Risperidone treatment increases CB1 receptor binding in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Husum, Henriette; Holst, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    , the ghrelin receptor, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin and proopiomelanocortin. We investigated whether the expression of these factors was affected in rats chronically treated with the antipsychotic risperidone. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with risperidone (1.0 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (20...... showed that risperidone treatment altered CB(1) receptor binding in the rat brain. Risperidone-induced adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in the clinic may be explained by increased CB(1) receptor density in brain regions involved in appetite and regulation of metabolic function....

  8. Comparison of Corner-Butt 45 (Cb-45 and Corner-Lap (Cl joints in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Widia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10 mm thick Aluminum 6061 plates have been corner joined using varied design and those were 45° Corner Butt and Corner Lap Joints (CB-45 & CL. Friction tool was hardened EMS 45. True experimental method was used with independent parameters is feed rate which varied at 10 mm/min, 15 mm/min and 30 mm/min respectively. Other parameter such as rotating speed was kept constant. Experiment results show that, CB-45 yields better properties than CL. The tensile strength of CB-45 reaches 163.7 MPa for 10 mm/min feed rate. Whilst CL produces joint with tensile strength equal 120 MPa for equal parameters. Microstructure observation showed that CB-45 produces fine and homogenous appearance of MgO compared to CL. This phenomenon is caused by the pin of CB-45 joint which fully penetrates the nugget zone which is not found in CL design. This microstructure in turn promotes higher tensile strength of CB-45.

  9. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming. The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool’s benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

  10. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  11. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Varani, Katia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Angelats, Edgar; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Oyarzabal, Julen; Canela, Enric I; Lanciego, José L; Nadal, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Borea, Pier Andrea; Franco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB 2 R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB 2 R. Using membrane preparations from CB 2 R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB 2 R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [ 3 H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB 2 R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB 2 R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the K D . CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB 2 R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities.

  12. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Martínez-Pinilla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB2R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB2R. Using membrane preparations from CB2R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB2R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [3H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB2R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the KD. CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities.

  13. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  14. Simultaneous biodegradation of bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas sp. CB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Li, Shuhuai; Ma, Chen; Wu, Nancun; Li, Chunli; Yang, Xinfeng

    2018-05-04

    The degradation of bifenthrin (BF) and chlorpyrifos (CP), either together or individually, by a bacterial strain (CB2) isolated from activated sludge was investigated. Strain CB2 was identified as belonging to genus Pseudomonas based on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and a homological analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. Strain CB2 has the potential to degrade BF and CP, either individually or in a mixture. The optimum conditions for mixture degradation were as follows: OD 600nm = 0.5; incubation temperature = 30°C; pH = 7.0; BF-CP mixture (10 mg L -1 of each). Under these optimal conditions, the degradation rate constants (and half-lives) were 0.4308 d -1 (1.61 d) and 0.3377 d -1 (2.05 d) for individual BF and CP samples, respectively, and 0.3463 d -1 (2.00 d) and 0.2931 d -1 (2.36 d) for the BF-CP mixture. Major metabolites of BF and CP were 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, respectively. No metabolite bioaccumulation was observed. The ability of CB2 to efficiently degrade BF and CP, particularly in a mixture, may be useful in bioremediation efforts.

  15. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  16. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders.

  17. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  18. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUTC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 2QUT C 2QUTC ...ain>C 2QUTC ence>INKCPLLKPWA HH...T C 2QUTC ence>LKIGE--HTPSA...1A5CB-2QUTC 1A5C 2QUT B C ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI... 1A5CB LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH - <

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUVA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n14> 2QUV A 2QUVA ...V A 2QUVA ... 2QUVA LKIGE--HTPSAence> E -- H...1A5CB-2QUVA 1A5C 2QUV B A ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI... 1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  1. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Korobeynikov; V.U. Drojjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results...

  2. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  3. Mice expressing a "hyper-sensitive" form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6% but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg, morphine (10 mg/kg, and cocaine (10 mg/kg, demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model.

  4. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system mediates hypophagic and anxiety-like effects of CB1 receptor blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchio, Luigi; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Quarta, Carmelo; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Cardinal, Pierre; Binder, Elke; Cannich, Astrid; Delamarre, Anna; Häring, Martin; Martín-Fontecha, Mar; Vega, David; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Chaouloff, Francis; Pagotto, Uberto; Guzman, Manuel; Cota, Daniela; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Complex interactions between periphery and the brain regulate food intake in mammals. Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor antagonists are potent hypophagic agents, but the sites where this acute action is exerted and the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the hypophagic effect of CB1 receptor blockade, we combined the acute injection of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant with the use of conditional CB1-knockout mice, as well as with pharmacological modulation of different central and peripheral circuits. Fasting/refeeding experiments revealed that CB1 receptor signaling in many specific brain neurons is dispensable for the acute hypophagic effects of rimonabant. CB1 receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia was fully abolished by peripheral blockade of β-adrenergic transmission, suggesting that this effect is mediated by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Consistently, we found that rimonabant increases gastrointestinal metabolism via increased peripheral β-adrenergic receptor signaling in peripheral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Blockade of both visceral afferents and glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus tractus solitarii abolished rimonabant-induced hypophagia. Importantly, these mechanisms were specifically triggered by lipid-deprivation, revealing a nutrient-specific component acutely regulated by CB1 receptor blockade. Finally, peripheral blockade of sympathetic neurotransmission also blunted central effects of CB1 receptor blockade, such as fear responses and anxiety-like behaviors. These data demonstrate that, independently of their site of origin, important effects of CB1 receptor blockade are expressed via activation of peripheral sympathetic activity. Thus, CB1 receptors modulate bidirectional circuits between the periphery and the brain to regulate feeding and other behaviors. PMID:23487769

  5. Motor, visual and emotional deficits in mice after closed-head mild traumatic brain injury are alleviated by the novel CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton; Heldt, Scott A; Presley, Chaela S; Guley, Natalie H; Elberger, Andrea J; Deng, Yunping; D'Surney, Lauren; Rogers, Joshua T; Ferrell, Jessica; Bu, Wei; Del Mar, Nobel; Honig, Marcia G; Gurley, Steven N; Moore, Bob M

    2014-12-31

    We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50-60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2), we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50-60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  6. Studies on the effects of EPDM, SR on PTC- of HDPE/CB before and after γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Shaojin; Jiang Pingkai; Xiu Qihui; Wang Zongguang; Zhang Zhicheng

    2004-01-01

    High-density-polyethylene (HDPE), Si rubber (SR) and ethylene-density-polyethylene (EPDM) were used as the polymer matrices. A kinds of carbon blacks was used as the conductive filler. The positive temperature coefficient (PTC) intensity of the HDPE/CB, HDPE/EPDM/CB composites flow during extrusion to produced was tested before and after irradiation. Compared to that of HDPE/CB composites, the electrical reproducibility of the irradiated HDPE/EPDM/CB composites of is better. The effects of γ-rays irradiation were also estimated. The results showed that the reproductive of the PTC effect was related to the adhesion between the interface of the polymer matrices and CB particles. These PTC phenomena and their distinctive aspects were described. The explanations were given from the structural characteristics of the blends, CB particles distribution and motion of polymer segments. (authors)

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUUC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2QUU C 2QUUC ...in>C 2QUUC INKCPLLKPWAence> HHH...>2 2QUU C 2QUUC LKIGE--HTPSA...1A5CB-2QUUC 1A5C 2QUU B C ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI.../pdbChain> 1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  8. Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05. Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  9. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  11. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  12. Modulación del tono vascular por la sobre-expresión de receptores a canabinoides CB1 y CB2 en arterioesclerosis inducida en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza P., María Rosa

    2013-01-01

    La arteriosclerosis, es un proceso degenerativo responsable de la mayor parte de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, es una enfermedad compleja que se produce a partir de múltiples factores de riesgo. Se ha observado que los compuestos derivados de la planta cannabis sativa provocan efectos vasorelajantes por medio de receptores específicos CB1 y CB2. ACPA y JWH 133 son potentes agonistas a estos receptores, se desconoce el papel que desempeñan en la arteriosclerosis provocando una relajación ...

  13. The central cannabinoid CB1 receptor is required for diet-induced obesity and rimonabant's antiobesity effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhen; Wu, Nancy N; Zhao, Weiguang; Chain, David C; Schaffer, Erica; Zhang, Xin; Yamdagni, Preeti; Palejwala, Vaseem A; Fan, Chunpeng; Favara, Sarah G; Dressler, Holly M; Economides, Kyriakos D; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean S; Naimi, Souad; Galzin, Anne-Marie; Guillot, Etienne; Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Tocci, Michael J; Polites, H Greg

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid receptor CB1 is expressed abundantly in the brain and presumably in the peripheral tissues responsible for energy metabolism. It is unclear if the antiobesity effects of rimonabant, a CB1 antagonist, are mediated through the central or the peripheral CB1 receptors. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice with central nervous system (CNS)-specific knockdown (KD) of CB1, by expressing an artificial microRNA (AMIR) under the control of the neuronal Thy1.2 promoter. In the mutant mice, CB1 expression was reduced in the brain and spinal cord, whereas no change was observed in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), sympathetic trunk, enteric nervous system, and pancreatic ganglia. In contrast to the neuronal tissues, CB1 was undetectable in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the liver. Consistent with the selective loss of central CB1, agonist-induced hypothermia was attenuated in the mutant mice, but the agonist-induced delay of gastrointestinal transit (GIT), a primarily peripheral nervous system-mediated effect, was not. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, the mutant mice displayed reduced body weight (BW), adiposity, and feeding efficiency, and when fed a high-fat diet (HFD), showed decreased plasma insulin, leptin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and elevated adiponectin levels. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of rimonabant on food intake (FI), BW, and serum parameters were markedly reduced and correlated with the degree of CB1 KD. Thus, KD of CB1 in the CNS recapitulates the metabolic phenotype of CB1 knockout (KO) mice and diminishes rimonabant's efficacy, indicating that blockade of central CB1 is required for rimonabant's antiobesity actions.

  14. Electrodeposited ultrafine TaOx/CB catalysts for PEFC cathode application: Their oxygen reduction reaction kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2014-12-01

    Ultrafine TaOx nanoparticles were electrodeposited on carbon black (CB) powder in a nonaqueous Ta complex solution at room temperature, and the resultant TaOx/CB catalysts were assessed as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) cathodes. The Ta electrodeposition process was scaled up using a newly designed working electrode containing a CB dense layer, without introducing any binder such as the ionomer Nafion in the electrode for electrodeposition. The electrodeposited TaOx/CB powders were removed from the deposition electrode and subsequent H2 treatment at varying temperatures between 523 and 1073 K was attempted to increase the ORR performance. The TaOx/CB samples were characterized by SEM, STEM, XPS, and EELS measurements. XPS and EELS results indicated the reduced nature of the Ta species caused by the high-temperature treatment in H2, while STEM images clearly revealed that the TaOx particles aggregated as the treatment temperature increased. When the TaOx/CB catalyst, which was treated at 873 K for 2 h, was deposited on a glassy carbon substrate with Nafion ionomer, it resulted in the highest activity among the samples investigated, giving an onset potential of 0.95 VRHE at -2 μA cm-2 in a 0.1 M H2SO4 solution. Moreover, the long-term stability test with 10,000 cycles of the voltammetry only led to a 6% loss in the ORR currents, demonstrating the high stability of the TaOx/CB catalysts. Kinetic analysis by R(R)DE indicated that the four-electron transfer pathway in the ORR process was dominant for this TaOx/CB catalyst, and Tafel plots showed a slope corresponding to a one-electron reaction for the rate-determining step.

  15. Electrodeposited ultrafine TaOx/CB catalysts for PEFC cathode application: Their oxygen reduction reaction kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine TaOx nanoparticles were electrodeposited on carbon black (CB) powder in a nonaqueous Ta complex solution at room temperature, and the resultant TaOx/CB catalysts were assessed as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) cathodes. The Ta electrodeposition process was scaled up using a newly designed working electrode containing a CB dense layer, without introducing any binder such as the ionomer Nafion in the electrode for electrodeposition. The electrodeposited TaOx/CB powders were removed from the deposition electrode and subsequent H2 treatment at varying temperatures between 523 and 1073 K was attempted to increase the ORR performance. The TaOx/CB samples were characterized by SEM, STEM, XPS, and EELS measurements. XPS and EELS results indicated the reduced nature of the Ta species caused by the high-temperature treatment in H2, while STEM images clearly revealed that the TaOx particles aggregated as the treatment temperature increased. When the TaOx/CB catalyst, which was treated at 873 K for 2 h, was deposited on a glassy carbon substrate with Nafion ionomer, it resulted in the highest activity among the samples investigated, giving an onset potential of 0.95 VRHE at -2 μA cm-2 in a 0.1 M H2SO4 solution. Moreover, the long-term stability test with 10,000 cycles of the voltammetry only led to a 6% loss in the ORR currents, demonstrating the high stability of the TaOx/CB catalysts. Kinetic analysis by R(R)DE indicated that the four-electron transfer pathway in the ORR process was dominant for this TaOx/CB catalyst, and Tafel plots showed a slope corresponding to a one-electron reaction for the rate-determining step.

  16. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  17. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  18. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  19. Jump start: a targeted substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, N G; Donohew, L

    1997-10-01

    A substance abuse prevention and life skills program for economically disadvantaged, high sensation seeking African American teens was developed and tested in Cincinnati, Ohio. Formative research was conducted to determine program content and format. Over two implementations, 289 individuals in the target population were recruited as participants for the field test of the program. For the first implementation, participants were randomly selected from the city's summer youth employment program. For the second, a media campaign was designed to recruit participants. Process evaluation indicated that participants evaluated the program extremely positively. Outcome evaluation indicated that significant pretest differences between high and low sensation seekers were neutralized for liquor and marijuana in both years of the program and for attitude toward drugs in the first year of the program. These results suggest that sensation seeking is a useful message design and audience-targeting variable for substance abuse prevention program design. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4> 2QUT A 2QUTA ...yChain> 2QUT A 2QUTA ...hain>A 2QUTA ence>LKIGE--HTPSAence> ...1A5CB-2QUTA 1A5C 2QUT B A ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI...entryIDChain>1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  1. Psychological Treatment as Part of Dropout Prevention: An Israeli Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…

  2. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  3. Resources for Developing Acquaintance Rape Prevention Programs for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, James P.; Nies, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of videos and printed materials that may be used as educational tools in rape prevention programs. Focuses on sources that are aimed directly at men. Also outlines the use of consultants or lecturers as one of many resources in the construction and implementation of rape prevention programs. (KW)

  4. Mice expressing a “hyper-sensitive” form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonek, Maciej; Zee, Michael L.; Farnsworth, Jill C.; Amin, Randa A.; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Davis, Brian J.; Mackie, Ken; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a “hyper-sensitive” form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), and cocaine (10 mg/kg), demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model. PMID:28426670

  5. Magnesium isotope evidence for single stage formation of CB chondrules by colliding planetesimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrit...... planetesimals. The inferred μMg* value of -3.87 ± 0.93 ppm for the CB parent body is significantly lower than the bulk solar system value of 4.5 ± 1.1 ppm inferred from CI chondrites, suggesting that CB chondrites accreted material comprising an early formed Al-free component.......Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite......, indicating substantial suppression of isotopic fractionation during evaporative loss of Mg, possibly due to evaporation at high Mg partial pressure. Thus, the Mg-isotope data of skeletal chondrules from HH237 are consistent with their origin as melts produced in the impact-generated plume of colliding...

  6. Localization and function of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore Puente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST is involved in behaviors related to natural reward, drug addiction and stress. In spite of the emerging role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB system in these behaviors, little is known about the anatomy and function of this system in the anterolateral BNST (alBNST. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphological characterization of the localization of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptor a necessary step toward a better understanding of the physiological roles of the eCB system in this region of the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have combined anatomical approaches at the confocal and electron microscopy level to ex-vivo electrophysiological techniques. Here, we report that CB1 is localized on presynaptic membranes of about 55% of immunopositive synaptic terminals for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1, which contain abundant spherical, clear synaptic vesicles and make asymmetrical synapses with alBNST neurons. About 64% of vGluT1 immunonegative synaptic terminals show CB1 immunolabeling. Furthermore, 30% and 35% of presynaptic boutons localize CB1 in alBNST of conditional mutant mice lacking CB1 mainly from GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO mice and mainly from cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO mice, respectively. Extracellular field recordings and whole cell patch clamp in the alBNST rat brain slice preparation revealed that activation of CB1 strongly inhibits excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the anterolateral BNST as a potential neuronal substrate of the effects of cannabinoids on stress-related behaviors.

  7. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  8. Role of CB1 cannabinoid receptors on GABAergic neurons in brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayram, Onder; Alferink, Judith; Pitsch, Julika; Piyanova, Anastasia; Neitzert, Kim; Poppensieker, Karola; Mauer, Daniela; Michel, Kerstin; Legler, Anne; Becker, Albert; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Zimmer, Andreas; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2011-07-05

    Brain aging is associated with cognitive decline that is accompanied by progressive neuroinflammatory changes. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of glial activity and influences the progression of age-related learning and memory deficits. Mice lacking the Cnr1 gene (Cnr1(-/-)), which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), showed an accelerated age-dependent deficit in spatial learning accompanied by a loss of principal neurons in the hippocampus. The age-dependent decrease in neuronal numbers in Cnr1(-/-) mice was not related to decreased neurogenesis or to epileptic seizures. However, enhanced neuroinflammation characterized by an increased density of astrocytes and activated microglia as well as an enhanced expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 during aging was present in the hippocampus of Cnr1(-/-) mice. The ongoing process of pyramidal cell degeneration and neuroinflammation can exacerbate each other and both contribute to the cognitive deficits. Deletion of CB1 receptors from the forebrain GABAergic, but not from the glutamatergic neurons, led to a similar neuronal loss and increased neuroinflammation in the hippocampus as observed in animals lacking CB1 receptors in all cells. Our results suggest that CB1 receptor activity on hippocampal GABAergic neurons protects against age-dependent cognitive decline by reducing pyramidal cell degeneration and neuroinflammation.

  9. Motor, Visual and Emotional Deficits in Mice after Closed-Head Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Are Alleviated by the Novel CB2 Inverse Agonist SMM-189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Reiner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a focal blast model of closed-head mild traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. As true for individuals that have experienced mild TBI, mice subjected to 50–60 psi blast show motor, visual and emotional deficits, diffuse axonal injury and microglial activation, but no overt neuron loss. Because microglial activation can worsen brain damage after a concussive event and because microglia can be modulated by their cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2, we evaluated the effectiveness of the novel CB2 receptor inverse agonist SMM-189 in altering microglial activation and mitigating deficits after mild TBI. In vitro analysis indicated that SMM-189 converted human microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the pro-healing M2 phenotype. Studies in mice showed that daily administration of SMM-189 for two weeks beginning shortly after blast greatly reduced the motor, visual, and emotional deficits otherwise evident after 50–60 psi blasts, and prevented brain injury that may contribute to these deficits. Our results suggest that treatment with the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189 after a mild TBI event can reduce its adverse consequences by beneficially modulating microglial activation. These findings recommend further evaluation of CB2 inverse agonists as a novel therapeutic approach for treating mild TBI.

  10. Evaluation of high myopia complications prevention program in university freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2016-10-01

    High myopia is a global eye health problem because of its high incidence of sight-threatening complications. Due to the role of awareness, self-examination, and preventive behavior in prevention of morbidity of high myopia complications, promoting knowledge, capabilities, and attitude of high myopic personnel are required in this regard.In this quasi-experiment study, 31 freshmen with high myopia in a national university were enrolled in 2014. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire based on health belief model (HBM) and self-efficacy theory. The intervention program consisted of 1 educational session lasting 150 minutes by lecturing of high myopia complications, virtual reality experiencing, similarity modeling, and quibbling a film made on high myopia complications preventive concepts.Implementing the educational program showed immediate effect in knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention. While 6 weeks after the educational program, significant increases were observed in cues to action, self-efficacy, and preventive behavior intention.This article provided that, after a single session, there was positive improvement in high myopia complication prevention behavior intention among participants. These positive effects confirmed the efficacy of the education program and will probably induce behavior change.

  11. Controlled-Deactivation CB1 Receptor Ligands as a Novel Strategy to Lower Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half a century has passed since the demonstration that cannabis and its chief psychoactive component Δ9-THC lowers intraocular pressure (IOP. Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a condition that places millions at risk of blindness. It is likely that Δ9-THC exerts much of its IOP-lowering effects via the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. However, the initial promise of CB1 as a target for treating glaucoma has not thus far translated into a credible therapeutic strategy. We have recently shown that blocking monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, an enzyme that breaks the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG, substantially lowers IOP. Another strategy is to develop cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists that are optimized for topical application to the eye. Recently we have reported on a controlled-deactivation approach where the “soft” drug concept of enzymatic deactivation was combined with a “depot effect” that is commonly observed with Δ9-THC and other lipophilic cannabinoids. This approach allowed us to develop novel cannabinoids with a predictable duration of action and is particularly attractive for the design of CB1 activators for ophthalmic use with limited or no psychoactive effects. We have tested a novel class of compounds using a combination of electrophysiology in autaptic hippocampal neurons, a well-characterized model of endogenous cannabinoid signaling, and measurements of IOP in a mouse model. We now report that AM7410 is a reasonably potent and efficacious agonist at CB1 in neurons and that it substantially (30% lowers IOP for as long as 5 h after a single topical treatment. This effect is absent in CB1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that the direct targeting of CB1 receptors with controlled-deactivation ligands is a viable approach to lower IOP in a murine model and merits further study in other model systems.

  12. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  13. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (−/−) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5–6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82–95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 μM) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20–23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: ► C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. ► Wild type and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout littermates

  14. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  15. Primary prevention research: a preliminary review of program outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaps, E; Churgin, S; Palley, C S; Takata, B; Cohen, A Y

    1980-07-01

    This article reviews 35 drug abuse prevention program evaluations employing drug-specific outcome measures. Many of these evaluations assessed the effects of "new generation" prevention strategies: affective, peer-oriented, and multidimensional approaches. Only 14 studies evaluated purely informational programs. Evaluations were analyzed to ascertain (1) characteristics of the programs under study, (2) characteristics of the research designs, and (3) patterns among findings. This review provides some evidence that the newer prevention strategies may produce more positive and fewer negative outcomes than did older drug information approaches. Over 70% of the programs using the newer strategies produced some positive effects; only 29% showed negative effects. In contrast, 46% of informational programs showed positive effects; 46% showed negative effects. These findings must be approached with great caution, since the research was frequently scientifically inadequate, and since rigor of research was negatively correlated with intensity and duration of program services.

  16. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  17. Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized by increased CB1 receptor binding in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Victoria S; Long, Leonora E; Weickert, Cyndi Shannon; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2011-07-01

    A number of studies suggest a dysregulation of the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia (SCZ). In the present study, we examined cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (CB(1)R) binding and mRNA expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (Brodmann's area 46) of SCZ patients and controls, post-mortem. Receptor density was investigated using autoradiography with the CB(1)R ligand [(3)H] CP 55,940 and CB(1)R mRNA expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR in a cohort of 16 patients with paranoid SCZ, 21 patients with non-paranoid SCZ and 37 controls matched for age, post-mortem interval and pH. All cases were obtained from the University of Sydney Tissue Resource Centre. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni tests and with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to control for demographic factors that would potentially influence CB(1)R expression. There was a main effect of diagnosis on [(3)H] CP 55,940 binding quantified across all layers of the DLPFC (F(2,71) = 3.740, p = 0.029). Post hoc tests indicated that this main effect was due to patients with paranoid SCZ having 22% higher levels of CB(1)R binding compared with the control group. When ANCOVA was employed, this effect was strengthened (F(2,67) = 6.048, p = 0.004) with paranoid SCZ patients differing significantly from the control (p = 0.004) and from the non-paranoid group (p = 0.016). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in mRNA expression between the different disease subtypes and the control group. Our findings confirm the existence of a CB(1)R dysregulation in SCZ and underline the need for further investigation of the role of this receptor particularly in those diagnosed with paranoid SCZ.

  18. Endogenous vs Exogenous Allosteric Modulators in GPCRs: A dispute for shuttling CB1 among different membrane microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornaiuolo, Mariano; Bruno, Agostino; Botta, Lorenzo; Regina, Giuseppe La; Cosconati, Sandro; Silvestri, Romano; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-10-01

    A Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) binding site for the selective allosteric modulator ORG27569 is here identified through an integrate approach of consensus pocket prediction, mutagenesis studies and Mass Spectrometry. This unprecedented ORG27569 pocket presents the structural features of a Cholesterol Consensus Motif, a cholesterol interacting region already found in other GPCRs. ORG27569 and cholesterol affects oppositely CB1 affinity for orthosteric ligands. Moreover, the rise in cholesterol intracellular level results in CB1 trafficking to the axonal region of neuronal cells, while, on the contrary, ORG27568 binding induces CB1 enrichment at the soma. This control of receptor migration among functionally different membrane regions of the cell further contributes to downstream signalling and adds a previously unknown mechanism underpinning CB1 modulation by ORG27569 , that goes beyond a mere control of receptor affinity for orthosteric ligands.

  19. Gz mediates the long-lasting desensitization of brain CB1 receptors and is essential for cross-tolerance with morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz María

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the systemic administration of cannabinoids produces antinociception, their chronic use leads to analgesic tolerance as well as cross-tolerance to morphine. These effects are mediated by cannabinoids binding to peripheral, spinal and supraspinal CB1 and CB2 receptors, making it difficult to determine the relevance of each receptor type to these phenomena. However, in the brain, the CB1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed at high levels in neurons, whereas the expression of CB2Rs is marginal. Thus, CB1Rs mediate the effects of smoked cannabis and are also implicated in emotional behaviors. We have analyzed the production of supraspinal analgesia and the development of tolerance at CB1Rs by the direct injection of a series of cannabinoids into the brain. The influence of the activation of CB1Rs on supraspinal analgesia evoked by morphine was also evaluated. Results Intracerebroventricular (icv administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2, ACEA or methanandamide, generated a dose-dependent analgesia. Notably, a single administration of these compounds brought about profound analgesic tolerance that lasted for more than 14 days. This decrease in the effect of cannabinoid receptor agonists was not mediated by depletion of CB1Rs or the loss of regulated G proteins, but, nevertheless, it was accompanied by reduced morphine analgesia. On the other hand, acute morphine administration produced tolerance that lasted only 3 days and did not affect the CB1R. We found that both neural mu-opioid receptors (MORs and CB1Rs interact with the HINT1-RGSZ module, thereby regulating pertussis toxin-insensitive Gz proteins. In mice with reduced levels of these Gz proteins, the CB1R agonists produced no such desensitization or morphine cross-tolerance. On the other hand, experimental enhancement of Gz signaling enabled an acute icv administration of morphine to produce a long-lasting tolerance at MORs that persisted for more than

  20. Targeting the Endocannabinoid/CB1 Receptor System For Treating Major Depression Through Antidepressant Activities of Curcumin and Dexanabinol-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolie He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of curcumin and dexanabinol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in corticosterone-induced cell and mice depression models. Methods: Curcumin and dexanabinol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur/SLNs-HU-211 were synthesized via an emulsifcation and low-temperature solidification method. Antidepressant activities of nanoparticles in a corticosterone-induced major depression model were investigated by MTT assay, cellular uptake by flow cytometry, behaviour by Forced Swimming Test and rotarod test, neurotransmitters by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Western blotting, qPCR and immunofluorescence. Results: Treatment with Cur/SLNs-HU-211 induced greater dopamine (DA/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT release with reduced corticosterone-induced apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. Additionally, in vivo Cur/SLNs-HU-211 significantly induced recovery from depressive behaviour with increased DA/5-HT levels, CB1 mRNA levels and CB1, p-MEK1 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 improved CB1 expression and inspired the proliferation of astrocytes in the hippocampus and striatum, exerted neuroprotective effects by preventing corticosterone -induced BDNF/NeuN expression reduction. Conclusion: Our study implies that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 may be a useful approach for treatment of major depression.

  1. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  2. Neurophysiological evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soni, Neeraj; Satpathy, Shankha; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana, which acts within the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as an agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), exhibits addictive properties and has powerful actions on the state of arousal of an organism. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), as a component of the reticular activating...... the firing frequency and synaptic activity of neurons in this nucleus. Therefore, endogenous eCB transmission could play a role in processes involving the LDT, such as cortical activation and motivated behaviours and, further, behavioural actions of marijuana are probably mediated, in part, via cellular...

  3. Epigenetic programming of autonomic functions in an experimental model of apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Nanduri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH is a hallmark manifestation of recurrent apneas, which is a major clinical problem in infants born preterm. Carotid body (CB chemoreflex and catecholamine (CA secretion from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells (AMCs are two major mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of cardiorespiratory homeostasis during hypoxia. The purpose of this article is to highlight recent studies showing how neonates experiencing IH affect the CB and AMC function and their consequences in adult life. To simulate apneas, rat pups were treated with IH consisting of alternating cycles of hypoxia (1.5% O2 for 15 s and room air for 5 min, 8 h/day from ages P0–P10. Rats treated neonatal IH displayed augmented CB response to hypoxia and augmented CA secretion from AMC. Rats treated for 10 days of IH in the neonatal period were allowed to grow into adulthood. Remarkably, the effects of neonatal IH on CB and AMC persisted in the adulthood. Moreover, adult rats that were exposed to IH in neonatal period exhibited hypertension, increased incidence apnea. Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed re-programming of the redox state by epigenetic mechanisms involving suppression of transcription of antioxidant enzyme genes by DNA hypermethylation. DNA hypomethylating agents might offer a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent early onset of cardiorespiratory morbidities caused by neonatal IH.

  4. Advantages and pitfalls of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008

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    Anna Baran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization report (2014 recommends the introduction of national programs for suicide prevention. However, the research on their effectiveness is scarce. As a result, policy makers do not have sufficient data for their decisions on the appropriate level of investment in suicide prevention. It is of great importance to know whether the introduction of a national prevention program results in a reduction in suicide rates, and if so, in what age groups and over what period of time after the announcement of the program. Sweden introduced the first suicide prevention program in 1995. It was then modified in 2008, and most recently in 2015. Objectives: The aim of this study was to answer the question about the impact of the suicide prevention program in Sweden (2008 on the total suicide rate as well as the age- and gender-specific suicide rates in the subsequent years. Material and methods: The study provides the overview of the suicide prevention program and suicide rates in Sweden in males and females, in the age groups 0–24, 25–44, 45–64 and over 65, 1, 3 and 6 years before and after the introduction of the national program for suicide prevention. The study presents the statistical analysis of changes in average suicide rates following the announcement of the Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention 2008 with reference to chosen periods. Conclusions: The Swedish National Program for Suicide Prevention did not result in the reduction of suicide rates in the year after its introduction, whereas suicide rates decreased in all groups, except for the youth (under 24 years old, in 2009–2011 and 2009–2014.

  5. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  6. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor and mTORC1 signalling pathways interact to modulate glucose homeostasis in mice

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    Francisco J. Bermudez-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system (ECS is an intercellular signalling mechanism that is present in the islets of Langerhans and plays a role in the modulation of insulin secretion and expansion of the β-cell mass. The downstream signalling pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 signalling is a key intracellular pathway involved in energy homeostasis and is known to importantly affect the physiology of pancreatic islets. We investigated the possible relationship between cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor signalling and the mTORC1 pathway in the endocrine pancreas of mice by using pharmacological analysis as well as mice genetically lacking the CB1 receptor or the downstream target of mTORC1, the kinase p70S6K1. In vitro static secretion experiments on islets, western blotting, and in vivo glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS at 0.1 µM while increasing phosphorylation of p70S6K1 and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6 within the islets. Specific pharmacological blockade of mTORC1 by 3 nM rapamycin, as well as genetic deletion of p70S6K1, impaired the CB1-antagonist-mediated decrease in GSIS. In vivo experiments showed that 3 mg/kg body weight rimonabant decreased insulin levels and induced glucose intolerance in lean mice without altering peripheral insulin sensitivity; this effect was prevented by peripheral administration of low doses of rapamycin (0.1 mg/kg body weight, which increased insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest a functional interaction between the ECS and the mTORC1 pathway within the endocrine pancreas and at the whole-organism level, which could have implications for the development of new therapeutic approaches for pancreatic β-cell diseases.

  7. Case Study of a School-Based Universal Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    Michele Cascardi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of universal dating violence prevention programs has rapidly expanded in the past two decades. Many programs demonstrate change in attitudes supportive of dating violence, and a few show evidence of behavior change; however, detailed analysis of process and fidelity of program implementation is generally neglected. An important goal of prevention research is to identify successful initiatives that can be replicated and disseminated in the field. The purpose of the current case study is to document the implementation process of a middle school–based dating violence prevention curriculum in economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Particular attention is given to the school context, such as the process of school and teacher recruitment, the program model, and classroom implementation of the dating violence prevention program in four areas: teacher training, student outcomes, program fidelity, and student engagement. Nine health and physical education teachers from six urban middle schools participated. Results describe effective strategies to secure school participation and engagement, and provide evidence regarding methods to train health and physical education teachers in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Furthermore, classroom observations demonstrate that teachers successfully implemented the five-lesson curriculum, which resulted in positive student outcomes to prevent dating violence. This case study represents an important step in deepening our understanding of the mechanisms of program delivery.

  8. The promise and limitations of cash transfer programs for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieno, John; Leclerc-Madlala, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    As the search for more effective HIV prevention strategies continues, increased attention is being paid to the potential role of cash transfers in prevention programming in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, studies testing the impact of both conditional and unconditional cash transfers on HIV-related behaviours and outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa have been relatively small-scale and their potential feasibility, costs and benefits at scale, among other things, remain largely unexplored. This article examines elements of a successful cash transfer program from Latin America and discusses challenges inherent in scaling-up such programs. The authors attempt a cost simulation of a cash transfer program for HIV prevention in South Africa comparing its cost and relative effectiveness--in number of HIV infections averted--against other prevention interventions. If a cash transfer program were to be taken to scale, the intervention would not have a substantial effect on decreasing the force of the epidemic in middle- and low-income countries. The integration of cash transfer programs into other sectors and linking them to a broader objective such as girls' educational attainment may be one way of addressing doubts raised by the authors regarding their value for HIV prevention.

  9. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Trapero, María; Espejo-Porras, Francisco; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Coates, Joan R.; Pérez-Díaz, Carmen; de Lago, Eva; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeting of the CB2 receptor results in neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors are facilitated by their upregulation in the spinal cord of the mutant mice. Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1). We used well-characterized post-mortem spinal cords from unaffected and DM-affected dogs. Tissues were used first to confirm the loss of motor neurons using Nissl staining, which was accompanied by glial reactivity (elevated GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity). Next, we investigated possible differences in the expression of endocannabinoid genes measured by qPCR between DM-affected and control dogs. We found no changes in expression of the CB1 receptor (confirmed with CB1 receptor immunostaining) or NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes. In contrast, CB2 receptor levels were significantly elevated in DM-affected dogs determined by qPCR and western blotting, which was confirmed in the grey matter using CB2 receptor immunostaining. Using double-labelling immunofluorescence, CB2 receptor immunolabelling colocalized with GFAP but not Iba-1, indicating upregulation of CB2 receptors on astrocytes in DM-affected dogs. Our results demonstrate a marked upregulation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord in canine DM, which is concentrated in activated astrocytes. Such receptors could be used as a potential target to enhance the neuroprotective effects exerted by these glial cells. PMID:28069688

  10. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández-Trapero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of the CB2 receptor results in neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors are facilitated by their upregulation in the spinal cord of the mutant mice. Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1. We used well-characterized post-mortem spinal cords from unaffected and DM-affected dogs. Tissues were used first to confirm the loss of motor neurons using Nissl staining, which was accompanied by glial reactivity (elevated GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity. Next, we investigated possible differences in the expression of endocannabinoid genes measured by qPCR between DM-affected and control dogs. We found no changes in expression of the CB1 receptor (confirmed with CB1 receptor immunostaining or NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes. In contrast, CB2 receptor levels were significantly elevated in DM-affected dogs determined by qPCR and western blotting, which was confirmed in the grey matter using CB2 receptor immunostaining. Using double-labelling immunofluorescence, CB2 receptor immunolabelling colocalized with GFAP but not Iba-1, indicating upregulation of CB2 receptors on astrocytes in DM-affected dogs. Our results demonstrate a marked upregulation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord in canine DM, which is concentrated in activated astrocytes. Such receptors could be used as a potential target to enhance the neuroprotective effects exerted by these glial cells.

  11. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 mediates baseline and activity-induced survival of new neurons in adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Anke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. Therefore we here focused on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD fed to female C57Bl/6 and Nestin-GFP-reporter mice on proliferation and maturation of neuronal progenitor cells and spatial learning performance. In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. Results THC and CBD differed in their effects on spatial learning and adult neurogenesis. CBD did not impair learning but increased adult neurogenesis, whereas THC reduced learning without affecting adult neurogenesis. We found the neurogenic effect of CBD to be dependent on the CB1 receptor, which is expressed over the whole dentate gyrus. Similarly, the neurogenic effect of environmental enrichment and voluntary wheel running depends on the presence of the CB1 receptor. We found that in the absence of CB1 receptors, cell proliferation was increased and neuronal differentiation reduced, which could be related to CB1 receptor mediated signaling in Doublecortin (DCX-expressing intermediate progenitor cells. Conclusion CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. The pro-neurogenic effects of CBD might explain some of the positive therapeutic features of CBD-based compounds.

  12. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan.

  13. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  14. The numerical benchmark CB2-S, final evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper are final results of numerical benchmark CB2-S compared (activity, gamma and neutron sources, concentration of important nuclides and decay heat). The participants are: Vladimir Chrapciak (SCALE), Ludmila Markova (SCALE), Svetlana Zabrodskaja (SCALA), Pavel Mikolas (WIMS). Eva Tinkova (HELIOS) and Maria Manolova (SCALE) (Authors)

  15. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  16. LEP measurements of $V_{cb}$ using $B^{0} \\to D^{*}^{+}l^{-}\

    CERN Document Server

    Tarem, S

    2001-01-01

    CKM elements are free parameters to be measured. V/sub cb/ is the main CKM element allowing b decay. Its smallness accounts for the long b lifetime and our ability to observe higher order effects such as B oscillations. V/sub cb/ can be measured from the inclusive semileptonic decay rate of B hadrons to charm states or from the study of the decay rate of B/sup 0/ to D*/sup +/l/sup -/ nu as a function of D*+ recoil kinematics. Inclusive and exclusive channels, a four-velocity product and errors are discussed. (8 refs).CER 1121756 BASE L 13

  17. Phencyclidine-Induced Social Withdrawal Results from Deficient Stimulation of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors: Implications for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Martinez, Alex A; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying social withdrawal, one of the core negative symptoms of schizophrenia, are not well understood. Recent studies suggest an involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, in particular, of negative symptoms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the role played by the endocannabinoid system in social withdrawal induced by sub-chronic administration of phencyclidine (PCP). Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid levels via systemic administration of URB597, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid degradation, reversed social withdrawal in PCP-treated rats via stimulation of CB1 receptors, but reduced social interaction in control animals through activation of a cannabinoid/vanilloid-sensitive receptor. In addition, the potent CB agonist CP55,940 reversed PCP-induced social withdrawal in a CB1-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors by either AM251 or SR141716 reduced the time spent in social interaction in control animals. PCP-induced social withdrawal was accompanied by a decrease of anandamide (AEA) levels in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, and these deficits were reversed by URB597. As CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed on GABAergic interneurons containing the anxiogenic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK), we also examined whether the PCP-induced social withdrawal resulted from deficient CB1-mediated modulation of CCK transmission. The selective CCK2 antagonist LY225910 blocked both PCP- and AM251-induced social withdrawal, but not URB597 effect in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that AEA-mediated activation of CB1 receptors is crucial for social interaction, and that PCP-induced social withdrawal results from deficient endocannabinoid transmission. PMID:23563893

  18. Logic models as a tool for sexual violence prevention program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane

    2009-01-01

    Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.

  19. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Contribute to Upregulation of β-endorphin in Inflamed Skin Tissues by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Tang-feng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electroacupuncture (EA can produce analgesia by increasing the β-endorphin level and activation of peripheral μ-opioid receptors in inflamed tissues. Endogenous cannabinoids and peripheral cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs are also involved in the antinociceptive effect of EA on inflammatory pain. However, little is known about how peripheral CB2Rs interact with the endogenous opioid system at the inflammatory site and how this interaction contributes to the antinociceptive effect of EA on inflammatory pain. In this study, we determined the role of peripheral CB2Rs in the effects of EA on the expression of β-endorphin in inflamed skin tissues and inflammatory pain. Results Inflammatory pain was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the left hindpaw of rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested with a radiant heat stimulus, and mechanical allodynia was quantified using von Frey filaments. The mRNA level of POMC and protein level of β-endorphin were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The β-endorphin-containing keratinocytes and immune cells in the inflamed skin tissues were detected by double-immunofluorescence labeling. The CB2R agonist AM1241 or EA significantly reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, whereas the selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine significantly attenuated the antinociceptive effect produced by them. AM1241 or EA significantly increased the mRNA level of POMC and the protein level of β-endorphin in inflamed skin tissues, and these effects were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with the CB2R antagonist AM630. AM1241 or EA also significantly increased the percentage of β-endorphin-immunoreactive keratinocytes, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes in inflamed skin tissues, and these effects were blocked by AM630. Conclusions EA and CB2R stimulation reduce inflammatory pain through activation of μ-opioid receptors. EA increases

  20. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The...

  1. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Melanie S.; Adelson, Jill L.; Patak, Margarete A.; Pössel, Patrick; Hautzinger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207) or psychologists (n = 213), or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226). The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention). The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects. PMID:24837667

  2. Teachers or Psychologists: Who Should Facilitate Depression Prevention Programs in Schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie S. Wahl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluates a depression prevention program for adolescents led by psychologists vs. teachers in comparison to a control. The universal school-based prevention program has shown its efficacy in several studies when implemented by psychologists. The current study compares the effects of the program as implemented by teachers versus that implemented by psychologists under real-life conditions. A total of 646 vocational track 8th grade students from Germany participated either in a universal prevention program, led by teachers (n = 207 or psychologists (n = 213, or a teaching-as-usual control condition (n = 226. The design includes baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. The cognitive-behavioral program includes 10 sessions held in a regular school setting in same-gender groups and is based on the social information-processing model of social competence. Positive intervention effects were found on the change in girls’ depressive symptoms up to 12 months after program delivery when the program was implemented by psychologists. No such effects were found on boys or when program was delivered by teachers. The prevention program can successfully be implemented for girls by psychologists. Further research is needed for explanations of these effects.

  3. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  4. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, R S; Li, C-T; Terry, G E; Zoghbi, S S; Morse, C; Pike, V W; Volkow, N D; Huestis, M A; Innis, R B

    2012-06-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke cannabis. Downregulation correlated with years of cannabis smoking and was selective to cortical brain regions. After ∼4 weeks of continuously monitored abstinence from cannabis on a secure research unit, CB(1) receptor density returned to normal levels. This is the first direct demonstration of cortical cannabinoid CB(1) receptor downregulation as a neuroadaptation that may promote cannabis dependence in human brain.

  5. Preliminary program evaluation of emergency department HIV prevention counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitlinger, Andrea P; Lindsell, Christopher J; Ruffner, Andrew H; Wayne, D Beth; Hart, Kimberly W; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    Controversy surrounds the linkage of prevention counseling with emergency department (ED)-based HIV testing. Further, the effectiveness and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED setting is unknown. We investigate these issues by conducting a preliminarily exploration of several related aspects of our ED's HIV prevention counseling and testing program. Our urban, academic ED provides formal client-centered prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing. Five descriptive, exploratory observations were conducted, involving surveys and analysis of electronic medical records and programmatic data focused on (1) patient perception and feasibility of prevention counseling in the ED, (2) patient perceptions of the need to link prevention counseling with testing, and (3) potential effectiveness of providing prevention counseling in conjunction with ED-based HIV testing. Of 110 ED patients surveyed after prevention counseling and testing, 98% believed privacy was adequate, and 97% reported that their questions were answered. Patients stated that counseling would lead to improved health (80%), behavioral changes (72%), follow-up testing (77%), and discussion with partners (74%). However, 89% would accept testing without counseling, 32% were willing to seek counseling elsewhere, and 26% preferred not to receive the counseling. Correct responses to a 16-question knowledge quiz increased by 1.6 after counseling (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 12.0). The program completed counseling for 97% of patients tested; however, 6% of patients had difficulty recalling the encounter and 13% denied received testing. Among patients undergoing repeated testing, there was no consistent change in self-reported risk behaviors. Participants in the ED prevention counseling and testing program considered counseling acceptable and useful, though not required. Given adequate resources, prevention counseling can be provided in the ED, but it is unlikely that all patients benefit

  6. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB; Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix{sub TM} CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix{sub TM} CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB. Shinzoyo junkanki shindan system Infinix[sub TM] CB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-03-01

    A cardiovascular angiography system Infinix[sub TM] CB is developed, which is a dedicated system for cardiovascular catheter treatment (intervention), from PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) down, capable of two-way biplanar photography. It is designed to be thoroughly operator-friendly, and some of its features are stated below. It is capable of high-speed biplanar positioning at the maximum speed of 10 degrees/second (25% faster than in the conventional type). A side beam vertical motion mechanism is provided rendering biplanar framing faster and easier. Hyper-handling is embodied with ergonomics introduced into the system. (translated by NEDO)

  8. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  9. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  10. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  11. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  13. Common elements of adolescent prevention programs: minimizing burden while maximizing reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya M; Frazier, Stacy L; Becker, Kimberly D; Bechor, Michele; Dinizulu, Sonya M; Hedemann, Erin R; Ogle, Robert R; Pasalich, Dave S

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of evidence-based youth prevention programs are available, but challenges related to dissemination and implementation limit their reach and impact. The current review identifies common elements across evidence-based prevention programs focused on the promotion of health-related outcomes in adolescents. We reviewed and coded descriptions of the programs for common practice and instructional elements. Problem-solving emerged as the most common practice element, followed by communication skills, and insight building. Psychoeducation, modeling, and role play emerged as the most common instructional elements. In light of significant comorbidity in poor outcomes for youth, and corresponding overlap in their underlying skills deficits, we propose that synthesizing the prevention literature using a common elements approach has the potential to yield novel information and inform prevention programming to minimize burden and maximize reach and impact for youth.

  14. Identifying the causes of differences in ozone production from the CB05 and CBMIV chemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Saylor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to identify the mechanistic differences between two versions of the carbon bond gas-phase chemical mechanism (CB05 and CBMIV which consistently lead to larger ground-level ozone concentrations being produced in the CB05 version of the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC modeling system even though the two parallel forecast systems utilize the same meteorology and base emissions and similar initial and boundary conditions. Box models of each of the mechanisms as they are implemented in the NAQFC were created and a set of 12 sensitivity simulations was designed. The sensitivity simulations independently probed the conceptual mechanistic differences between CB05 and CBMIV and were exercised over a 45-scenario simulation suite designed to emulate the wide range of chemical regimes encountered in a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Results of the sensitivity simulations indicate that two sets of reactions that were included in the CB05 mechanism, but which were absent from the CBMIV mechanism, are the primary causes of the greater ozone production in the CB05 version of the NAQFC. One set of reactions recycles the higher organic peroxide species of CB05 (ROOH, resulting in additional photochemically reactive products that act to produce additional ozone in some chemical regimes. The other set of reactions recycles reactive nitrogen from less reactive forms back to NO2, increasing the effective NOx concentration of the system. In particular, the organic nitrate species (NTR, which was a terminal product for reactive nitrogen in the CBMIV mechanism, acts as a reservoir species in CB05 to redistribute NOx from major source areas to potentially NOx-sensitive areas where additional ozone may be produced in areas remote from direct NOx sources.

  15. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Combined antitumor activity of the nitroreductase/CB1954 suicide gene system and γ-rays in HeLa cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Geling; Ju, Yuanrong; Yang, Yepeng; Hua, Hu; Chi, Jingyu; Mu, Xiuan

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) may convert the prodrug CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) into a bifunctional alkylating agent, which may lead to DNA crosslinks and the apoptosis of cancer cells. NTR/CB1954 has been demonstrated to be an effective gene therapy in cancer cells. The present study examined whether the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system had cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and may improve the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ-rays. It was observed that the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system exerted marked cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The combined therapeutic effects of NTR/CB1954 and γ-rays on HeLa cells demonstrated a synergistic effect. CB1954 at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µmol/l increased the sensitization enhancement ratio of HeLa cells to 1.54 and 1.66, respectively. Therefore, when compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy of NTR/CB1954 and γ-rays may increase the apoptotic rate and enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combined therapy of γ-ray radiation and the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system may be a novel and potent therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. PMID:27840931

  17. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER AND THE TIDEWATER INTERAGENCY POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Langley Research Center (LaRC) is an 807-acre research center devoted to aeronautics and space research. aRC has initiated a broad-based pollution prevention program guided by a Pollution Prevention Program Plan and implement...

  19. The effectiveness of a multimedia program to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachausse, Robert G

    2008-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) continues to be the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States. Because abstaining from alcohol prior to and throughout pregnancy is the only way to prevent FAS, some prevention programs try to target women before they become pregnant. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Teaching and Research Awareness Campaign (FASTRAC) is a multimedia, peer-delivered educational presentation designed to reduce the incidence of FAS. Results from an ethnically diverse sample of high school students indicate that the program increased participants' knowledge regarding FAS but had no significant effect on participants' attitudes, beliefs about the dangers of FAS or intention to use alcohol during pregnancy. The FASTRAC program failed partly because of its didactic approach and the lack of health education principles that have been shown to be effective in changing other substance use behaviors. Suggestions for improving FAS prevention education programs are offered.

  20. Effects of caffeine on striatal neurotransmission: focus on cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Silvia; De Chiara, Valentina; Musella, Alessandra; Mataluni, Giorgia; Sacchetti, Lucia; Siracusano, Alberto; Bernardi, Giorgio; Usiello, Alessandro; Centonze, Diego

    2010-04-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly self-administered psychoactive substance worldwide. At usual doses, the effects of caffeine on vigilance, attention, mood and arousal largely depend on the modulation of central adenosine receptors. The present review article describes the action of caffeine within the striatum, to provide a possible molecular mechanism at the basis of the psychomotor and reinforcing properties of this pharmacological agent. The striatum is in fact a subcortical area involved in sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional processes, and recent experimental findings showed that chronic caffeine consumption enhances the sensitivity of striatal GABAergic synapses to the stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. The endocannabinoid system is involved in the psychoactive effects of many compounds, and adenosine A2A receptors (the main receptor target of caffeine) elicit a permissive effect towards CB1 receptors, thus suggesting that A2A-CB1 receptor interaction plays a major role in the generation and maintenance of caffeine reinforcing behavior. Aim of this review is to describe the effects of caffeine on striatal neurotransmission with special reference to the modulation of the endocannabinoid system.

  1. Is compulsive buying related to materialism, depression or temperament? Findings from a sample of treatment-seeking patients with CB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Möllenkamp, Maike; Voth, Eva M; Faber, Ron J; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2014-04-30

    The aim of the present work was to examine the influence of reactive and regulatory temperament on compulsive buying (CB) in a sample of 102 patients (79 women, 23 men) with clinical CB. All participants answered the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Effortful Control subscale (ATQ-EC) of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form. Based on previous studies demonstrating that depression and materialism are linked with CB, in addition, the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and the Materialistic Values Scale (MVS) were administered. CBS scores were significantly correlated with the MVS, PHQ-9, and BAS scores. The findings of the hierarchical regression analysis, however, indicated that in the present sample of treatment-seeking patients the only significant association was found between CB and depression. The results highlight the prominent role of depression in CB. There is a need for longitudinal studies in order to answer the question whether depression is the cause or the consequence of CB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  3. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  4. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  5. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  6. Cannabinoids prevent the differential long-term effects of exposure to severe stress on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent memory and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Noa; Segev, Amir; Abush, Hila; Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Tomer; Akirav, Irit

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to excessive or uncontrolled stress is a major factor associated with various diseases including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The consequences of exposure to trauma are affected not only by aspects of the event itself, but also by the frequency and severity of trauma reminders. It was suggested that in PTSD, hippocampal-dependent memory is compromised while amygdala-dependent memory is strengthened. Several lines of evidence support the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system as a modulator of the stress response. In this study we aimed to examine cannabinoids modulation of the long-term effects (i.e., 1 month) of exposure to a traumatic event on memory and plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. Following exposure to the shock and reminders model of PTSD in an inhibitory avoidance light-dark apparatus rats demonstrated: (i) enhanced fear retrieval and impaired inhibitory extinction (Ext), (ii) no long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1, (iii) impaired hippocampal-dependent short-term memory in the object location task, (iv) enhanced LTP in the amygdala, and (v) enhanced amygdala-dependent conditioned taste aversion memory. The cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55-212,2 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), administered 2 hr after shock exposure prevented these opposing effects on hippocampal- and amygdala-dependent processes. Moreover, the effects of WIN55-212,2 and URB597 on Ext and acoustic startle were prevented by co-administration of a low dose of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting that the preventing effects of both drugs are mediated by CB1 receptors. Exposure to shock and reminders increased CB1 receptor levels in the CA1 and basolateral amygdala 1 month after shock exposure and this increase was also prevented by administering WIN55-212,2 or URB597. Taken together, these findings suggest the involvement of the eCB system, and specifically CB1

  7. Marketingový mix firmy ALU KOLA CB

    OpenAIRE

    URBAN, Karel

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on a marketing mix practical application in my own company ALU KOLA CB. My company sells alloy wheels and tyres for personal cars. In a literary review are introduced and explained terms marketing, marketing mix and its parts - product, price, place and promotion. In a practical part of this thesis are these terms applied on my company. The end of this part contains results and improvement suggestions.

  8. Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafian, Theodore; Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi; Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Kiertscher, Sylvia; Stripecke, Renata; Hossepian, Derik; Kitchen, Christina; Kern, Rita; Belperio, John; Roth, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 [Sarafian, T. A., Kouyoumjian, S., Khoshaghideh, F., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2003). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts mitochondrial function and cell energetics. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L298-306; Sarafian, T., Habib, N., Mao, J. T., Tsu, I. H., Yamamoto, M. L., Hsu, E., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2005). Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelial cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Toxicol Lett 158, 95-107]. The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. This transduction resulted in a 60-fold increase in CB2R mRNA relative to cells transduced with a control vector. Transduced cell lines were used to study the effects of THC on chemotactic activity and mitochondrial function. Chemotaxis in response to a 10% serum gradient was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to THC. CB2R-transduced cells exhibited less intrinsic chemotactic activity (p m ) in both control and CB2R-transduced cells. However, these decreases did not play a significant role in chemotaxis inhibition since cyclosporine A, which protected against ATP loss, did not increase cell migration. Moreover, CB2R-transduced cells displayed higher Ψ m than did control cells. Since both Ψ m and chemotaxis are regulated by intracellular signaling, we investigated the effects of THC on the activation of multiple signaling pathways. Serum exposure activated several signaling events of which phosphorylation of IκB-α and JNK was regulated in a CB2R- and THC

  9. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: a novel multimodal community intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yutaka; Awata, Shuichi; Iida, Hideharu; Ishida, Yasushi; Ishizuka, Naoki; Iwasa, Hiroto; Kamei, Yuichi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Nakamura, Jun; Nishi, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Kotaro; Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakai, Akio; Sakai, Hironori; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tajima, Miyuki; Tanaka, Eriko; Uda, Hidenori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yotsumoto, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Naoki

    2008-09-15

    To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP) have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. This study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals). The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000000460.

  10. Expression analysis and functional characterization of a novel cold-responsive gene CbCOR15a from Capsella bursa-pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingqi; Wu, Lihua; Liang, Jing; Shen, Chen; Lin, Juan

    2012-05-01

    The cold-responsive (COR) genes involved in C-repeat binding factor signaling pathway function essentially in cold acclimation of higher plants. A novel COR gene CbCOR15a from shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) was predicted to be a homolog of COR15 in Arabidopsis. The analysis of tissue specific expression pattern as well as characterization of the CbCOR15a promoter revealed that the expression of CbCOR15a was induced by coldness not only in leaves and stem but also in roots. Sequence analysis showed that a 909 bp promoter region of CbCOR15a contained two CRT/DRE elements, two ABRE elements, one auxin-responsive TGA-element and one MeJA-responsive CGTCA-motif. In young seedlings the expression of CbCOR15a could be apparently increased by SA, ABA, MeJA and IAA, and transiently increased by GA(3) accompanied by obvious feedback suppression. According to the altered physiological index values in tobacco under cold treatments, the overexpression of CbCOR15a significantly increased the cold tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants. It can be suggested that CbCOR15a was involved in cold response of Capsella bursa-pastoris associated with SA, ABA, MeJA, IAA and GA(3) regulation and confers enhanced cold acclimation in transgenic plants.

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Combined antitumor activity of the nitroreductase/CB1954 suicide gene system and γ-rays in HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Geling; Ju, Yuanrong; Yang, Yepeng; Hua, Hu; Chi, Jingyu; Mu, Xiuan

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) may convert the prodrug CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) into a bifunctional alkylating agent, which may lead to DNA crosslinks and the apoptosis of cancer cells. NTR/CB1954 has been demonstrated to be an effective gene therapy in cancer cells. The present study examined whether the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system had cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and may improve the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ‑rays. It was observed that the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system exerted marked cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The combined therapeutic effects of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays on HeLa cells demonstrated a synergistic effect. CB1954 at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µmol/l increased the sensitization enhancement ratio of HeLa cells to 1.54 and 1.66, respectively. Therefore, when compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays may increase the apoptotic rate and enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combined therapy of γ‑ray radiation and the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system may be a novel and potent therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  13. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  14. Effects of a selective cannabinoid CB2 agonist and antagonist on intravenous nicotine self administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Gamaleddin

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been significant advances in the discovery and understanding of the cannabinoid system along with the development of pharmacologic tools that modulate its function. Characterization of the crosstalk between nicotine addiction and the cannabinoid system may have significant implications on our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. Two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 have been identified. CB1 receptors are expressed in the brain and modulate drug taking and drug seeking for various drugs of abuse, including nicotine. CB2 receptors have been recently identified in the brain and have been proposed to play a functional role in mental disorders and drug addiction. Our objective was to explore the role of CB2 receptors on intravenous nicotine self administration under two schedules of reinforcement (fixed and progressive ratio and on nicotine seeking induced by nicotine priming or by nicotine associated cues. For this, we evaluated the effects of various doses of the selective CB2 antagonist AM630 (1.25 to 5 mg/kg and CB2 agonist AM1241 (1 to 10 mg/kg on these behavioral responses in rats. Different groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to lever press for nicotine at a unit dose of 30 µg/kg/infusion. Subsequently, animals were randomized using a Latin-square design and injected with either AM1241 or AM630 using a counterbalanced within subject design. Administration of the CB2 ligands did not affect either nicotine-taking nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results do not support the involvement of CB2 receptors in nicotine-taking or nicotine-seeking behavior.

  15. Climate schools plus: An online, combined student and parent, universal drug prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K. Thornton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242. This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10, and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15. The CSP parent component consists of 1 a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2 online modules and 3 summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method. Keywords: Development, Prevention, Adolescent, Alcohol, Parent

  16. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal

    2016-01-01

    release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1...

  18. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  19. Drug use prevention: factors associated with program implementation in Brazilian urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Sanchez, Zila M

    2018-03-07

    A school is a learning environment that contributes to the construction of personal values, beliefs, habits and lifestyles, provide convenient settings for the implementation of drug use prevention programs targeting adolescents, who are the population group at highest risk of initiating drug use. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in Brazilian public and private middle and high urban schools. The present population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with a probability sample of 1151 school administrators stratified by the 5 Brazilian administrative divisions, in 2014. A close-ended, self-reported online questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with implementing drug use prevention programs in schools. A total of 51.1% of the schools had adopted drug use prevention programs. The factors associated with program implementation were as follows: belonging to the public school network; having a library; development of activities targeting sexuality; development of "Health at School Program" activities; offering extracurricular activities; and having an administrator that participated in training courses on drugs. The adoption of drug use prevention practices in Brazilian schools may be expanded with greater orchestration of schools through specialized training of administrators and teachers, expansion of the School Health Program and concomitant development of the schools' structural and curricular attributes.

  20. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  1. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  2. Genome Sequence of the 1,4-Dioxane-Degrading Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransStrain CB1190▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Christopher M.; Mahendra, Shaily; Grostern, Ariel; Parales, Rebecca E.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Chertkov, Olga; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Sczyrba, Alexander; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 is the first bacterium reported to be capable of growth on the environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane and the first member of the genus Pseudonocardiafor which there is an annotated genome sequence. Preliminary analysis of the genome (chromosome and three plasmids) indicates that strain CB1190 possesses several multicomponent monooxygenases that could be involved in the aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane and other environmental contaminants. PMID:21725009

  3. Perception of HIV prevention programs among Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José

    2015-11-01

    The Ayoreo population constitutes one of Bolivia's most vulnerable ethnic groups in terms of HIV/AIDS. Being a woman, indigenous, and a sex worker signifies belonging to a high-risk group. The aim of this study is to explore the Ayoreo sex workers' and health agents' perceptions of HIV/AIDS prevention programs in order to identify variables that could influence their success or failure. This study used an ethnographic methodology that included participant observation and semistructured interviews. In the data collection, participant observation and semistructured interviews with sex workers and key informants were conducted. Three themes emerged from the inductive data analysis: health prevention efforts, cultural inadequacy of prevention programs, and the eventuality of interventions. We conclude that nursing can develop culturally-adequate HIV/AIDS prevention interventions and programs as well as promote health within these populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing a telephone- and a group-delivered diabetes prevention program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S, Lim; Dunbar, James; Versace, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Methods Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivere...

  7. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...7 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………..7 1 Annual Report for Period: Sep 30, 2016 to Sept 29, 2017 Strength at Home

  8. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  9. Older Adults' Perceptions of Clinical Fall Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Calhoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate motivational factors and barriers to participating in fall risk assessment and management programs among diverse, low-income, community-dwelling older adults who had experienced a fall. Methods. Face-to-face interviews with 20 elderly who had accepted and 19 who had not accepted an invitation to an assessment by one of two fall prevention programs. Interviews covered healthy aging, core values, attributions/consequences of the fall, and barriers/benefits of fall prevention strategies and programs. Results. Joiners and nonjoiners of fall prevention programs were similar in their experience of loss associated with aging, core values they expressed, and emotional response to falling. One difference was that those who participated endorsed that they “needed” the program, while those who did not participate expressed a lack of need. Conclusions. Interventions targeted at a high-risk group need to address individual beliefs as well as structural and social factors (transportation issues, social networks to enhance participation.

  10. The CB1 Receptor as an Important Mediator of Hedonic Reward Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemel, Chris M; Zimmer, Andreas; Schneider, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has emerged recently as a key mediator for reward processing. It is well known that cannabinoids affect appetitive learning processes and can induce reinforcing and rewarding effects. However, the involvement of the ECB system in hedonic aspects of reward-related behavior is not completely understood. With the present study, we investigated the modulatory role of the ECB system on hedonic perception, measured by the pleasure attenuated startle (PAS) paradigm for a palatable food reward. Here, a conditioned odor is thought to induce a pleasant affective state that attenuates an aversive reflex—the acoustic startle response. Modulatory effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist SR1411716 and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55 212-2 on PAS were examined in rats. PAS was also measured in CB1 receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Pharmacological inhibition as well as the absence of CB1 receptors was found to reduce PAS, whereas WIN 55 212-2 administration increased PAS. Finally, presentation of a conditioned reward cue was found to induce striatal FosB/ΔFosB expression in WT mice, but not in KO mice, indicating a reduced stimulation of reward-related brain regions in conditioned KO mice by odor presentation. We here show that in addition to our previous studies in rats, PAS may also serve as a valuable and suitable measure to assess hedonic processing in mice. Our data further indicate that the ECB system, and in particular CB1 receptor signaling, appears to be highly important for the mediation of hedonic aspects of reward processing. PMID:24718372

  11. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  12. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  13. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  14. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  15. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  16. Native CB1 receptor affinity, intrinsic activity and accumbens shell dopamine stimulant properties of third generation SPICE/K2 cannabinoids: BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Castelli, M Paola; Loi, Barbara; Porcu, Alessandra; Martorelli, Mariella; Miliano, Cristina; Kellett, Kathryn; Davidson, Colin; Stair, Jacqueline L; Schifano, Fabrizio; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo dopamine (DA) stimulant properties of selected 3rd generation Spice/K2 cannabinoids, BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135, their in vitro affinity and agonist potency at native rat and mice CB1 receptors was studied. The compounds bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors in rat cerebral cortex homogenates and stimulate CB1-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding with high potency and efficacy. BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 showed the lowest Ki of binding to CB1 receptors (0.11 and 0.13 nM), i.e., 30 and 26 times lower respectively than that of JWH-018 (3.38 nM), and a potency (EC50, 2.9 and 3.7 nM, respectively) and efficacy (Emax, 217% and 203%, respectively) as CB1 agonists higher than JWH-018 (EC50, 20.2 nM; Emax, 163%). 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135 had higher Ki for CB1 binding, higher EC50 and lower Emax as CB1 agonists than BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 but still comparatively more favourable than JWH-018. The agonist properties of all the compounds were abolished or drastically reduced by the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (0.1 μM). No activation of G-protein was observed in CB1-KO mice. BB-22 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg i.v.) increased dialysate DA in the accumbens shell but not in the core or in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a bell shaped dose-response curve and an effect at 0.01 mg/kg and a biphasic time-course. Systemic AM251 (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) completely prevented the stimulant effect of BB-22 on dialysate DA in the NAc shell. All the other compounds increased dialysate DA in the NAc shell at doses consistent with their in vitro affinity for CB1 receptors (5F-PB-22, 0.01 mg/kg; 5F-AKB-48, 0.1 mg/kg; STS-135, 0.15 mg/kg i.v.). 3rd generation cannabinoids can be even more potent and super-high CB1 receptor agonists compared to JWH-018. Future research will try to establish if these properties can explain the high toxicity and lethality associated with these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Empirically Tested School-Based Dating Violence Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Edwards

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teen dating violence prevention programs implemented in schools and empirically tested were subjected to meta-analysis. Eight studies met criteria for inclusion, consisting of both within and between designs. Overall, the weighted mean effect size (ES across studies was significant, ESr = .11; 95% confidence interval (CI = [.08, .15], p < .0001, showing an overall positive effect of the studied prevention programs. However, 25% of the studies showed an effect in the negative direction, meaning students appeared to be more supportive of dating violence after participating in a dating violence prevention program. This heightens the need for thorough program evaluation as well as the need for decision makers to have access to data about the effectiveness of programs they are considering implementing. Further implications of the results and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Stabilization of functional recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB(2 in detergent micelles and lipid bilayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vukoti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is among the most challenging tasks for modern membrane biology. For studies by high resolution analytical methods, these integral membrane receptors have to be expressed in large quantities, solubilized from cell membranes and purified in detergent micelles, which may result in a severe destabilization and a loss of function. Here, we report insights into differential effects of detergents, lipids and cannabinoid ligands on stability of the recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB(2, and provide guidelines for preparation and handling of the fully functional receptor suitable for a wide array of downstream applications. While we previously described the expression in Escherichia coli, purification and liposome-reconstitution of multi-milligram quantities of CB(2, here we report an efficient stabilization of the recombinant receptor in micelles - crucial for functional and structural characterization. The effects of detergents, lipids and specific ligands on structural stability of CB(2 were assessed by studying activation of G proteins by the purified receptor reconstituted into liposomes. Functional structure of the ligand binding pocket of the receptor was confirmed by binding of (2H-labeled ligand measured by solid-state NMR. We demonstrate that a concerted action of an anionic cholesterol derivative, cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS and high affinity cannabinoid ligands CP-55,940 or SR-144,528 are required for efficient stabilization of the functional fold of CB(2 in dodecyl maltoside (DDM/CHAPS detergent solutions. Similar to CHS, the negatively charged phospholipids with the serine headgroup (PS exerted significant stabilizing effects in micelles while uncharged phospholipids were not effective. The purified CB(2 reconstituted into lipid bilayers retained functionality for up to several weeks enabling high resolution structural studies of this GPCR at

  19. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  20. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  1. An Online Bystander Intervention Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David

    2015-07-01

    Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.

  2. Elevation of endogenous anandamide impairs LTP, learning, and memory through CB1 receptor signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Nagre, Nagaraja N; Xie, Shan; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-07-01

    In rodents, many exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), have been shown to play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes. However, the mechanisms by which endogenous AEA regulate this processes are not well understood. Here the effects of AEA on long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, pERK1/2, pCaMKIV, and pCREB signaling events in both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were assessed following administration of URB597, an inhibitor of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Acute administration of URB597 enhanced AEA levels without affecting the levels of 2-AG or CB1R in the hippocampus and neocortex as compared to vehicle. In hippocampal slices, URB597 impaired LTP in CB1R WT but not in KO littermates. URB597 impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory in the Y-maze test in CB1R WT mice but not in KO mice. Furthermore, URB597 enhanced ERK phosphorylation in WT without affecting total ERK levels in WT or KO mice. URB597 impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in WT but not in KO mice. CB1R KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio as compared to WT littermates. Our results indicate that pharmacologically elevated AEA impair LTP, learning and memory and inhibit CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, via the activation of CB1Rs. Collectively, these findings also suggest that pharmacological elevation of AEA beyond normal concentrations is also detrimental for the underlying physiological responses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Programming A Molecular Relay for Ultrasensitive Biodetection through 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfei [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Roose, Benjamin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Philbin, John P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Doman, Jordan L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA; Dmochowski, Ivan J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street Philadelphia PA 19104-6323 USA

    2015-12-21

    We reported a supramolecular strategy for detecting specific proteins in complex media by using hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR. A cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6])-based molecular relay was programmed for three sequential equilibrium conditions by designing a two-faced guest (TFG) that initially binds CB[6] and blocks the CB[6]–Xe interaction. Moreover, the protein analyte recruits the TFG and frees CB[6] for Xe binding. TFGs containing CB[6]- and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII)-binding domains were synthesized in one or two steps. X-ray crystallography confirmed TFG binding to Zn2+ in the deep CAII active-site cleft, which precludes simultaneous CB[6] binding. The molecular relay was reprogrammed to detect avidin by using a different TFG. Finally, Xe binding by CB[6] was detected in buffer and in E. coli cultures expressing CAII through ultrasensitive 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  6. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  7. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  8. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  9. Effects of the cyberbullying prevention program media heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; Velásquez, Ana María; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate over whether cyberbullying is just another form of bullying, or whether it is a problem distinct enough to require specific intervention. One way to explore this issue is to analyze whether programs designed to prevent traditional bullying help prevent cyberbullying, and whether programs designed to prevent cyberbullying prevent traditional bullying. The main goal of the current study was to analyze the spillover effects of the cyberbullying prevention program Media Heroes (Medienhelden) on traditional bullying. Media Heroes promotes empathy, knowledge of risks and consequences, and strategies that allow bystanders to defend victims from cyberbullying. Mixed ANOVAs were conducted comparing pretest and post-test (6 months after intervention) measures of 722 students (ages 11-17) assigned to a long (15 sessions) intervention, a short (1 day) intervention, and a control group. In addition to confirming the previously reported effects on cyberbullying, Media Heroes was found to reduce traditional bullying. Effects were larger for the long-version of the program than for the short 1-day version. No effects were found on victimization by either cyberbullying or traditional bullying. Strategies to complement traditional and cyberbullying prevention efforts are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:157-165, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Factors associated with the completion of falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Page, Timothy; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling can affect independence and quality of life of older adults. Falls prevention programs may help avoiding these issues if completed. Understanding factors that are associated with completion of falls prevention programs is important. To reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels, a Matter of Balance (MOB) and un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered to 3420 older adults in South Florida between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2011. Workshops were conducted in English or Spanish over eight, 2-hour sessions. Participants completed a demographic and a pre-post questionnaire. Factors associated with program completion were identified using logistic regression. For MOB, females were more likely to complete the program (OR = 2.076, P = 0.02). For ADE, females, moderate and extreme interference by falls in social activities were found to affect completion (OR = 2.116, P = 0.001; OR = 2.269, P = 0.003 and OR = 4.133, P = 0.008, respectively). Different factors predicted completion of both programs. Awareness of these factors can help lower the attrition rates, increase benefits and cost effectiveness of program. Future research needs to explore why certain groups had a higher likelihood of completing either program.

  11. Empowerment of Waria Ludruk Artists in AIDS/HIV Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Maimunah Maimunah; Aribowo Aribowo

    2015-01-01

    Waria or transgender is one of the key population which has a significant role in the success of HIV/AIDS prevention program in East Java. It is estimated that the biggest waria community is in East Java, particularly in Surabaya. The main objective of this research is improving capacity building of ludruk artist waria through HIV/AIDS prevention program. The study has two objectives; firstly to find the effective strategies in improving waria’s feminine skills such as knitting, hair dressing...

  12. Prevention programs for chronic kidney disease in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, Norberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important determinant of the poor health outcome for major noncommunicable diseases that are the leading cause of death worldwide. Early recognition with screening programs of CKD and co-morbid conditions, like hypertension, diabetes, or toxic environments, can potentially slow progression to renal failure, improve quality of life and reduce healthcare cost. Effective multimodal tools are available to prevent CKD by managing its risk factors, and to slow or even halt disease progression to end-stage renal failure (ESRF). They can be adapted even to poor-resource settings of low- and middle-income countries for individual at high risk of CKD. CKD is also linked to acute kidney injury (AKI), that in poorest part of Africa, Asia and Latin America is preventable, treatable and often reversible, if managed adequately and in timely manner as proposed by the program "AKI 0by25" launched by the international Society of Nephrology in 2013. In addition to saving lives, prevention programs will create major heath gains, eventually reducing the current health inequity that arises from unaffordable or unobtainable renal replacement therapies in many part of the developing world if ESRF is not prevented.

  13. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  14. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  15. Status of the SPES-charge breeder (SPES-CB) and its beam line at INFN-LNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatá, Àlessio; Comunian, M.; Bellan, L.; Maggiore, M.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Russo, A.D.; Calabretta, L.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) facility is under construction at INFN-LNL: aim of this project is the production, ionization and post-acceleration of radioactive ions to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive species will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UC_x target: the proton beam will be delivered by a room temperature cyclotron (built by the Best Company) with a maximum energy of 40 MeV and 0.25 mA of maximum current. The radioactive species produced in the Target-Ion-Source system, extracted as a 1+ beam, cooled in a RFQ-cooler and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). In order to allow post acceleration with the superconducting linac ALPI at INFN-LNL (up to 10 MeV/A for A/q = 7), an ECR-based charge breeding technique (ECR-CB) was chosen: in particular the SPES-CB was developed by the LPSC Grenoble on the basis of the Phoenix booster. The SPES-CB will be equipped with a complete test bench, totally integrated with the SPES beam line: in particular, in order to avoid beam contaminations induced by the impurities present inside the SPES-CB, and to have high transmission for a beam of very low intensity, special attention was paid not only to the transport efficiency but also to the resolution of the spectrometer downstream the charge breeder, with the design of a Medium Resolution Mass Spectrometer (MRMS). In the following paper the technical aspects connected with SPES-CB, its beam line and the transport of highly charged radioactive ions will be described.

  16. Status of the SPES-charge breeder (SPES-CB) and its beam line at INFN-LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galatá, Àlessio; Comunian, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universitá 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Bellan, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universitá 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova e Sezione INFN, Padova (Padova) (Italy); Maggiore, M.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universitá 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Russo, A.D.; Calabretta, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T. [LPSC – Université Grenoble Alpes – CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2016-06-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) facility is under construction at INFN-LNL: aim of this project is the production, ionization and post-acceleration of radioactive ions to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive species will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UC{sub x} target: the proton beam will be delivered by a room temperature cyclotron (built by the Best Company) with a maximum energy of 40 MeV and 0.25 mA of maximum current. The radioactive species produced in the Target-Ion-Source system, extracted as a 1+ beam, cooled in a RFQ-cooler and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). In order to allow post acceleration with the superconducting linac ALPI at INFN-LNL (up to 10 MeV/A for A/q = 7), an ECR-based charge breeding technique (ECR-CB) was chosen: in particular the SPES-CB was developed by the LPSC Grenoble on the basis of the Phoenix booster. The SPES-CB will be equipped with a complete test bench, totally integrated with the SPES beam line: in particular, in order to avoid beam contaminations induced by the impurities present inside the SPES-CB, and to have high transmission for a beam of very low intensity, special attention was paid not only to the transport efficiency but also to the resolution of the spectrometer downstream the charge breeder, with the design of a Medium Resolution Mass Spectrometer (MRMS). In the following paper the technical aspects connected with SPES-CB, its beam line and the transport of highly charged radioactive ions will be described.

  17. 76 FR 31613 - NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) requests stakeholder input on the progress and future directions of the NIOSH Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program (FFFIPP). NIOSH is seeking stakeholder input... service, and to identify ways in which the program can be improved to increase its impact on the safety...

  18. Teacher and Principal Survey Results in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of combinations of school-based preventive dental care procedures. The program involved almost 30,000 elementary school children from 10 sites across the country. Classroom procedures, such as weekly fluoride mouthrinse, were administered or…

  19. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program: building a community partnership through a community health worker training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A; De La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida.

  20. The US Air Force suicide prevention program: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kerry L; Pflanz, Steven; Talcott, Gerald W; Campise, Rick L; Lavigne, Jill E; Bajorska, Alina; Tu, Xin; Caine, Eric D

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) in reducing suicide, and we measured the extent to which air force installations implemented the program. We determined the AFSPP's impact on suicide rates in the air force by applying an intervention regression model to data from 1981 through 2008, providing 16 years of data before the program's 1997 launch and 11 years of data after launch. Also, we measured implementation of program components at 2 points in time: during a 2004 increase in suicide rates, and 2 years afterward. Suicide rates in the air force were significantly lower after the AFSPP was launched than before, except during 2004. We also determined that the program was being implemented less rigorously in 2004. The AFSPP effectively prevented suicides in the US Air Force. The long-term effectiveness of this program depends upon extensive implementation and effective monitoring of implementation. Suicides can be reduced through a multilayered, overlapping approach that encompasses key prevention domains and tracks implementation of program activities.

  1. The Process of Adoption of Evidence-based Tobacco Use Prevention Programs in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melissa A.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although there are a number of research-validated substance use prevention programs available for wide-scale dissemination, very little is known about the factors that influence adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in schools. We tested a model of the mechanisms of program adoption in schools that was guided by diffusion of innovations and social ecological theories. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of school district and county office of education tobacco use prevention education coordinators throughout California. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effects of community- and organizational variables on the adoption of prevention programs via school administrators’ beliefs and the organization’s receipt of funding for the program. Results supported the hypothesis that the process of adoption begins with forming beliefs about the program, leading to adoption through the receipt of funding. In addition, we found direct effects of various community- and organizational-level factors on beliefs, receipt of funding, and adoption. These results are likely to inform policies that affect school districts’ use of evidence-based substance use prevention programming, which should ultimately lead to reductions in negative health outcomes among adolescents. Specifically, this study identifies various factors that could be targeted for improvement to enhance evidence-based program adoption. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically elucidate the process of adoption of evidence-based tobacco prevention programs in schools. PMID:24398826

  2. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Schoolwide Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…

  3. Pasos Adelante: the effectiveness of a community-based chronic disease prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Lisa K; Scheu, Linda L; Bronson, Dan; Peña, Veronica; Elenes, JoJean

    2005-01-01

    Implementing programs that target primary prevention of chronic diseases is critical for at-risk populations. Pasos Adelante, or "Steps Forward," is a curriculum aimed at preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases in Hispanic populations. Pasos Adelante is adapted from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's cardiovascular disease prevention curriculum, Su Corazon, Su Vida, and includes sessions on diabetes and community advocacy and incorporates walking clubs. The Pasos Adelante curriculum was implemented in two Arizona, United States-Sonora, Mexico border counties. Key issues in these communities are safety, access to recreational facilities, climate, and cultural beliefs. Pasos Adelante is a 12-week program facilitated by community health workers. The program includes interactive sessions on chronic disease prevention, nutrition, and physical activity. Evaluation of the program included precurriculum and postcurriculum questionnaires with self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary patterns. Approximately 250 people participated in the program in Yuma and Santa Cruz counties. Postprogram evaluation results demonstrate a significant increase in moderate to vigorous walking among participants and shifts in nutritional patterns. The Pasos Adelante program demonstrates that an educational curriculum in conjunction with the support of community health workers can motivate people in Arizona/Sonora border communities to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  4. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  5. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  6. Constructing "Packages" of Evidence-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence: Processes and Illustrative Examples From the CDC's Youth Violence Prevention Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Beverly; Bacallao, Martica; Smokowski, Paul; Sullivan, Terri; Sutherland, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the strategic efforts of six National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPC), funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to work in partnership with local communities to create comprehensive evidence-based program packages to prevent youth violence. Key components of a comprehensive evidence-based approach are defined and examples are provided from a variety of community settings (rural and urban) across the nation that illustrate attempts to respond to the unique needs of the communities while maintaining a focus on evidence-based programming and practices. At each YVPC site, the process of selecting prevention and intervention programs addressed the following factors: (1) community capacity, (2) researcher and community roles in selecting programs, (3) use of data in decision-making related to program selection, and (4) reach, resources, and dosage. We describe systemic barriers to these efforts, lessons learned, and opportunities for policy and practice. Although adopting an evidence-based comprehensive approach requires significant upfront resources and investment, it offers great potential for preventing youth violence and promoting the successful development of children, families and communities.

  7. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 contributes to the development of ectopic lesions in a mouse model of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana-Maria; Quattrone, Federica; Pannese, Maria; Ulisse, Adele; Candiani, Massimo; Diaz-Alonso, Javier; Velasco, Guillermo; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Does signaling via the cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptor play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a mouse model? Mice treated with a CB 1 agonist developed larger ectopic lesions, while less severe lesions developed in the absence of functional CB 1 expression. The expression of components of the endocannabinoid system has been demonstrated in both mouse and human uteri. CB 1 receptors are expressed in human epithelial and stromal cell lines derived from eutopic endometrium and deep infiltrating endometriosis nodules. This was a randomized study in a mouse model of endometriosis. In a first set of experiments, mice with endometriosis were treated with the CB 1 receptor agonist methanandamide (MET) (5 mg/kg, n = 20) on Days 1-5 and 8-12. In a second set of experiments, endometriosis development was evaluated in CB 1 -/- mice and in their wild-type (WT) littermates. Endometriosis-like lesions were induced in Balb/c and C57/Bl6 mice. Two weeks after disease induction, the lesions were counted, measured and either included for immunohistochemistry analysis or frozen for gene expression profiling by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. To limit the role of chance, the experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with appropriate controls. The lesion total volume was significantly higher in MET-treated compared with vehicle-treated mice (P endometriosis in a mouse model. However, the relative contribution of the CB 1 -mediated signaling pathways active in inflammatory, uterine and peritoneal cells remains to be ascertained. Since the study was performed in a mouse model, the significance of the findings in the human system warrants further investigation. Clarifying the function and regulation of CB 1 and its molecular interactions with endogenous ligands, and how endocannabinoids levels are regulated in women with endometriosis, represent critical areas of research for the potential development of a novel medical treatment of the disease. A

  8. The cannabinoid quinol VCE-004.8 alleviates bleomycin-induced scleroderma and exerts potent antifibrotic effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and CB2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, Carmen; Navarrete, Carmen; Collado, Juan A; Bellido, M Luz; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M Ruth; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Pollastro, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Calzado, Marco A; Cantarero, Irene; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2016-02-18

    Scleroderma is a group of rare diseases associated with early and transient inflammation and vascular injury, followed by fibrosis affecting the skin and multiple internal organs. Fibroblast activation is the hallmark of scleroderma, and disrupting the intracellular TGFβ signaling may provide a novel approach to controlling fibrosis. Because of its potential role in modulating inflammatory and fibrotic responses, both PPARγ and CB2 receptors represent attractive targets for the development of cannabinoid-based therapies. We have developed a non-thiophilic and chemically stable derivative of the CBD quinol (VCE-004.8) that behaves as a dual agonist of PPARγ and CB2 receptors, VCE-004.8 inhibited TGFβ-induced Col1A2 gene transcription and collagen synthesis. Moreover, VCE-004.8 inhibited TGFβ-mediated myofibroblast differentiation and impaired wound-healing activity. The anti-fibrotic efficacy in vivo was investigated in a murine model of dermal fibrosis induced by bleomycin. VCE-004.8 reduced dermal thickness, blood vessels collagen accumulation and prevented mast cell degranulation and macrophage infiltration in the skin. These effects were impaired by the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 and the CB2 antagonist AM630. In addition, VCE-004.8 downregulated the expression of several key genes associated with fibrosis, qualifying this semi-synthetic cannabinoid as a novel compound for the management of scleroderma and, potentially, other fibrotic diseases.

  9. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spreading the word: A process evaluation of a voluntary AOD prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan; D'Amico, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Research on voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention programs is limited. It is important to increase understanding of students' motivation to attend these types of programs and their tendency to transfer program information to peers. This paper summarizes efforts to evaluate process information for CHOICE, a voluntary after-school AOD prevention program for middle-school youth. A survey administered to 1899 students aged 10-16 in seven schools assessed: (1) why students choose to attend CHOICE (2) barriers to attendance; and (3) how program information is disseminated to non-participants. Frequencies of responses from participants and non-participants were compared. Participants were motivated by several features, most notably, the demeanor of the group leaders and enjoyable curriculum content. Barriers to attendance were primarily logistic, but results also suggest that the promotion message should more effectively emphasize that CHOICE is appropriate for everyone. The majority of students knew about CHOICE, both through advertising and conversations with friends. Non-participants' detailed reports of what they heard from friends corresponded closely with what participants reported sharing. The use of dynamic group leaders is critical to engaging students in voluntary programs. Offering the program on different days of the week or at different times (e.g., before school) may improve attendance rates. Peer networks represent a critical pathway for prevention information that can help increase program impact. These results can be used to inform modifications to existing voluntary after-school AOD prevention programs to obtain higher attendance rates and more widespread dissemination of the intervention message. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  12. The low-temperature structural behavior of sodium 1-carba-closo-decaborate: NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hui, E-mail: hui.wu@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Tang, Wan Si [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2115 (United States); Zhou, Wei [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Tarver, Jacob D. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Energy Nanomaterials, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Brown, Craig M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Udovic, Terrence J., E-mail: udovic@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Two ordered phases of the novel solid superionic conductor sodium 1-carba-closo-decaborate (NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10}) were identified via synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction in combination with first-principles calculations and neutron vibrational spectroscopy. A monoclinic packing of the large ellipsoidal CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anions prevails at the lowest temperatures, but a first-order transformation to a slightly modified orthorhombic packing is largely complete by 240 K. The CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anion orientational alignments and Na{sup +} cation interstitial sitings in both phases are arranged so as to minimize the cation proximities to the uniquely more positive C-bonded H atoms of the anions. These results provide valuable structural information pertinent to understanding the relatively low-temperature, entropy-driven, order-disorder phase transition for this compound. - Graphical abstract: Ordered monoclinic and orthorhombic NaCB{sub 9}H{sub 10} phases were determined by XRD and DFT computations and corroborated by neutron vibrational spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Two T-dependent ordered structures of Na(1-CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}) were determined by XRD. • The lower-T monoclinic to higher-T orthorhombic transition occurs from 210 to 240 K. • The main structural differences involve changes in the canting of the CB{sub 9}H{sub 10}{sup −} anions. • DFT and neutron vibrational spectroscopy corroborate the lower-T monoclinic structure. • The results are important for understanding the nature of this superionic conductor.

  13. Optimizing Implementation of Obesity Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Investigation Within a Large-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Teede, Helena J; Harrison, Cheryce L; Klein, Ruth; Lombard, Catherine B

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in rural and remote areas is elevated in comparison to urban populations, highlighting the need for interventions targeting obesity prevention in these settings. Implementing evidence-based obesity prevention programs is challenging. This study aimed to investigate factors influencing the implementation of obesity prevention programs, including adoption, program delivery, community uptake, and continuation, specifically within rural settings. Nested within a large-scale randomized controlled trial, a qualitative exploratory approach was adopted, with purposive sampling techniques utilized, to recruit stakeholders from 41 small rural towns in Australia. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with clinical health professionals, health service managers, and local government employees. Open coding was completed independently by 2 investigators and thematic analysis undertaken. In-depth interviews revealed that obesity prevention programs were valued by the rural workforce. Program implementation is influenced by interrelated factors across: (1) contextual factors and (2) organizational capacity. Key recommendations to manage the challenges of implementing evidence-based programs focused on reducing program delivery costs, aided by the provision of a suite of implementation and evaluation resources. Informing the scale-up of future prevention programs, stakeholders highlighted the need to build local rural capacity through developing supportive university partnerships, generating local program ownership and promoting active feedback to all program partners. We demonstrate that the rural workforce places a high value on obesity prevention programs. Our results inform the future scale-up of obesity prevention programs, providing an improved understanding of strategies to optimize implementation of evidence-based prevention programs. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  15. Preventive maintenance program of motorized operated valves (MOV) at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, M.; Moldoveanu, Edy

    2001-01-01

    This is a Power Point presentation. The following objectives are addressed: A. Determine the target of MOV program; B. Define the strategy for MOV; C. Establish the MOV program execution phases; D. Identification of key parameters; E. Examples. The target of MOV program is to improve the safety by ensuring the adequacy of safety valves and the reliability of safety equipment and, subsequently, to ensure the economic operation of the plant. Consequences of MV malfunction are indicated. The strategy for MOV program development is both general, namely, to define the minimal requirements of preventive /corrective maintenance activities for all MOV's according to design/ manufacture specification and particular, namely to identify MV's specific problems and the need for increasing/decreasing the preventing maintenance tasks or frequency established in 'general' MOV program. Strategy for MOV program development implies: - Establish MOV program applicability; - Develop diagnostic strategy (define key parameters ); - Perform program for engineering review; - Establish program for preventive maintenance; - Revise procedures for operating and maintenance tests; - Dynamic evaluation of MOV. The program execution phases are listed as follows: 1. Perform risk assessment of the MOV's to determine criticality level (program applicability); 2. Collect data to fill in MOV Application Data Sheet; 3. Perform engineering review to determine functional parameters acceptable range and determine key parameters; 4. Analysis for maintenance tasks / frequencies selection and determination of implementing actions (engineer review); 5. Prepare work packages for availability confirmation; 6. Schedule and plan corrective actions or provide input to other programs; 7. Schedule and plan implementing actions in preparation for program field execution; 8. Program field implementation; 9. Program monitoring, evaluation and optimization. The criteria defining the key operational and maintenance

  16. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. The Centers for Disease Control program to prevent primary and secondary disabilities in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Houk, V N; Thacker, S B

    1989-01-01

    The Disabilities Prevention Program builds on traditional Centers for Disease Control (CDC) strengths in public health surveillance, epidemiology, and technology transfer to State and local governments in translating the findings of research into prevention programs. The objectives of the CDC program are to provide a national focus for the prevention of primary and secondary disabilities, build capacity at the State and community levels to maintain programs to prevent disabilities, and increa...

  18. Reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in chronic daily cannabis smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, J; Goodwin, RS; Li, C-T; Terry, GE; Zoghbi, SS; Morse, C; Pike, VW; Volkow, ND; Huestis, MA; Innis, RB

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cannabis (marijuana, hashish) smoking can result in dependence. Rodent studies show reversible downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 (cannabinoid receptor type 1) receptors after chronic exposure to cannabis. However, whether downregulation occurs in humans who chronically smoke cannabis is unknown. Here we show, using positron emission tomography imaging, reversible and regionally selective downregulation of brain cannabinoid CB1 receptors in human subjects who chronically smoke ca...

  19. In vitro metabolism of 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl(CB187) with liver microsomes of rats, hamsters and guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, N.; Ohta, C.; Kanamaru, T. [Nakamura Gakuen Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Haraguchi, K. [Daiichi Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kato, Y.; Yamada, S. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    PCB congeners possess extremely high lipophilicity and biological stability, and as a result they are not easily eliminated from the body once ingested. In particular, not only 2,4,5-trichlorosubstituted but also 6 or more chlorine-substituted PCBs such as 2,2',3',4,4',5-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (hexaCB) (CB138), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB153), 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-biphenyl (heptaCB) (CB180) and 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptaCB (CB187) have been detected in blood and adipose tissues of mammals and human mother's milk at higher concentration. In addition, the 4-hydroxy (OH)-metabolite of CB187 has been reported to be present in human blood at the highest concentration of that derived from other PCB congeners. Although CB187, a tri-ortho-PCB, is one of the minor component in the commercial PCB preparations such as Clophen, Aroclor and Kanechlor, the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) which is used for dioxin-like PCB congeners including coplanar-PCBs and mono-ortho-PCBs to assess the potency of the toxicity has not been set up for di- and tri-ortho-PCB congeners. These facts indicate that 4-OH-PCB187 become more persistent and more important toxicologically than the parent CB187. However, there is little report about biotransformation in vivo or in vitro of CB187 in animals. Therefore, we examined CB187 metabolism by liver microsomes of rats, hamsters and guinea pigs.

  20. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant disrupts nicotine reward-associated memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Li, Fang-Qiong; Li, Yan-Qin; Xue, Yan-Xue; He, Ying-Ying; Liu, Jian-Feng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Shi

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to cues previously associated with drug intake leads to relapse by activating previously acquired memories. Based on previous findings, in which cannabinoid CB(1) receptors were found to be critically involved in specific aspects of learning and memory, we investigated the role of CB(1) receptors in nicotine reward memory using a rat conditioned place preference (CPP) model. In Experiment 1, rats were trained for CPP with alternating injections of nicotine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and saline to acquire the nicotine-conditioned memory. To examine the effects of rimonabant on the reconsolidation of nicotine reward memory, rats were administered rimonabant (0, 0.3, and 3.0mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after reexposure to the drug-paired context. In Experiment 2, rats were trained for CPP similarly to Experiment 1. To examine the effects of rimonabant on the reinstatement of nicotine reward memory, rimonabant (0, 0.3, and 3.0mg/kg, i.p.) was administered before the test of nicotine-induced CPP reinstatement. In Experiment 3, to evaluate whether rimonabant itself produces a reward memory, rats were trained for CPP with alternating injections of different doses of rimonabant (0, 0.3, and 3.0mg/kg) and saline. Rimonabant at a dose of 3.0mg/kg significantly disrupted the reconsolidation of nicotine memory and significantly blocked the reinstatement of nicotine-induced CPP. However, rimonabant itself did not produce CPP. These findings provide clear evidence that CB(1) receptors play a role in nicotine reward memory, suggesting that CB(1) receptor antagonists may be a potential target for managing nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CB 1/2 dual agonists with 3-carbamoyl 2-pyridone derivatives as antipruritics: reduction of CNS side effects by introducing polar functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odan, Masahide; Ishizuka, Natsuki; Hiramatsu, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Masanao; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Mitsumori, Susumu; Morioka, Yasuhide; Soga, Masahiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Arimura, Akinori

    2012-04-15

    Our lead compound 1 showed high affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, suggesting the possibility of inducing psychoactive side effects through the CB1 receptor in the brain. To solve this issue, polar functional groups were introduced at the 3-position of the pyridone core of compound 1 to find CB1/2 dual agonists such as 17 and 20 which did not show any CNS side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CbRCI35, a cold responsive peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris regulates reactive oxygen species homeostasis and enhances cold tolerance in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35 belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants.

  3. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  4. Staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Dick, Andrew; Pogorzelska, Monika; Horan, Teresa C; Furuya, E Yoko; Larson, Elaine

    2009-06-01

    The nature of infection prevention and control is changing; however, little is known about current staffing and structure of infection prevention and control programs. Our objectives were to provide a snapshot of the staffing and structure of hospital-based infection prevention and control programs in the United States. A Web-based survey was sent to 441 hospitals that participate in the National Healthcare Safety Network. The response rate was 66% (n = 289); data were examined on 821 professionals. Infection preventionist (IP) staffing was significantly negatively related to bed size, with higher staffing in smaller hospitals (P hospital epidemiologists were reported to have authority to close beds for outbreaks always or most of the time (n = 225, 78%). Only 32% (n = 92) reported using an electronic surveillance system to track infections. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive description of current infection prevention and control staffing, organization, and support in a select group of hospitals across the nation. Further research is needed to identify effective staffing levels for various hospital types as well as examine how the IP role is changing over time.

  5. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumski, J. T.; Swindle, D. W.; Bates, L. D.; DeLozier, M. F.P.; Frye, C. E.; Mitchell, M. E.

    1991-09-30

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy.

  6. Environmental Restoration Progam Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to DOE Order 5400.1 this plan outlines the requirements for a Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc. Statements of the national, Department of Energy, Energy Systems, and Energy Systems ER Program policies on waste minimization are included and reflect the attitudes of these organizations and their commitment to the waste minimization effort. Organizational responsibilities for the waste minimization effort are clearly defined and discussed, and the program objectives and goals are set forth. Waste assessment is addressed as being a key element in developing the waste generation baseline. There are discussions on the scope of ER-specific waste minimization techniques and approaches to employee awareness and training. There is also a discussion on the process for continual evaluation of the Waste Minimization Program. Appendixes present an implementation schedule for the Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program, the program budget, an organization chart, and the ER waste minimization policy

  7. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  8. Interactions of CB1 and mGlu5 receptor antagonists in food intake, anxiety and memory models in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Balázs; Kassai, Ferenc; Gyertyán, István

    2012-12-01

    CB(1) receptor antagonists proved to be effective anti-obesity drugs, however, their depressive and anxiogenic effects became also evident. Finding solution to overcome these psychiatric side effects is still in focus of research. Based on the available clinical and preclinical results we hypothesized that the combination of CB(1) and mGlu(5) receptor antagonisms may result in a pharmacological intervention, where the anxiolytic mGlu(5) receptor inhibition may counteract the anxiogenic psychiatric side effects of CB(1) antagonism, while CB(1) antagonism may ameliorate the memory impairing effect of mGlu(5) receptor antagonism. Further, the two components will synergistically interact in blocking food-intake and reducing obesity. For testing the interaction of mGlu(5) and CB(1) receptor antagonism MTEP [3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pridine; SIB-1757, 6-methyl-2-(phenylazo)-3-pyridinol)] (mGlu(5) antagonist) and rimonabant [(5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide)hydrochloride] (CB(1) antagonist) were used. All experiments were carried out in rats. Effects of the compounds on anxiety were tested in two foot shock induced ultrasonic vocalization paradigms, appetite suppression was assessed in the food intake test, while memory effects were tested in a context conditioned ultrasonic vocalization setup. MTEP abolished the anxiogenic effect of rimonabant, while there was an additive cooperation in suppressing appetite. However, rimonabant did not ameliorate the memory impairing effect of MTEP. By combination of CB(1) and mGluR5 antagonism, anxiety related side effects might be attenuated, appetite suppression maintained, nevertheless, the possible emergence of unwanted memory impairments can overshadow its therapeutic success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  10. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  11. Acute cannabinoids impair working memory through astroglial CB1 receptor modulation of hippocampal LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Kesner, Philip; Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Duan, Tingting; Xu, Lin; Georges, Francois; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Grandes, Pedro; Liu, Qingsong; Bai, Guang; Wang, Wei; Xiong, Lize; Ren, Wei; Marsicano, Giovanni; Zhang, Xia

    2012-03-02

    Impairment of working memory is one of the most important deleterious effects of marijuana intoxication in humans, but its underlying mechanisms are presently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the impairment of spatial working memory (SWM) and in vivo long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, induced by an acute exposure of exogenous cannabinoids, is fully abolished in conditional mutant mice lacking type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R) in brain astroglial cells but is conserved in mice lacking CB(1)R in glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. Blockade of neuronal glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and of synaptic trafficking of glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) also abolishes cannabinoid effects on SWM and LTD induction and expression. We conclude that the impairment of working memory by marijuana and cannabinoids is due to the activation of astroglial CB(1)R and is associated with astroglia-dependent hippocampal LTD in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  13. Facilitators and barriers to students' learning in an obesity prevention graduate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kieu Anh; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; de Guzman, Maria Rosario T; Boeckner, Linda; Koszewski, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with underpinnings at the individual, family, community and societal levels. The Transdisciplinary Childhood Obesity Prevention Graduate Certificate Program (TOP) is an innovative graduate-level certificate program developed to train professionals to understand and address obesity from multiple perspectives using an interprofessional education (IPE) approach. Currently, there is limited knowledge on what promotes or hinders learning in IPE approaches dealing with obesity prevention. The goal of this report is to address this gap by describing facilitators and barriers to learning in a graduate-level training program. Using a qualitative research design, semi-structured interviews were collected from 23 professional students, as part of a larger program evaluation project for TOP. Thematic analysis revealed the challenges and strengths of the program that relate specifically to: its interprofessional approach, its structure, and its activities. Interprofessional exchanges were reported to expand students' learning, but adequate interprofessional representation must be maintained, and the complexity of interprofessional collaborations must also be well-coordinated. Standardising the program structure and courses for consistency across professions, and clear communication are critical to program success. Findings add to the existing literature on what promotes effective learning in a professional obesity prevention program using an IPE approach.

  14. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  15. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  16. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α and Extracelluar Signal-Regulated Kinase Mediates CB-PIC-Induced Apoptosis in Hypoxic SW620 Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yun Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPKα blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPKα in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPKα. Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPKα and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPKα in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPKα and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.

  17. Combined multi-spectrum and orthogonal Laplacianfaces for fast CB-XLCT imaging with single-view data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Geng, Guohua; Chen, Yanrong; Qu, Xuan; Zhao, Fengjun; Hou, Yuqing; Yi, Huangjian; He, Xiaowei

    2017-12-01

    Cone-beam X-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT) is an attractive hybrid imaging modality, which has the potential of monitoring the metabolic processes of nanophosphors-based drugs in vivo. Single-view data reconstruction as a key issue of CB-XLCT imaging promotes the effective study of dynamic XLCT imaging. However, it suffers from serious ill-posedness in the inverse problem. In this paper, a multi-spectrum strategy is adopted to relieve the ill-posedness of reconstruction. The strategy is based on the third-order simplified spherical harmonic approximation model. Then, an orthogonal Laplacianfaces-based method is proposed to reduce the large computational burden without degrading the imaging quality. Both simulated data and in vivo experimental data were used to evaluate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The results are satisfactory in terms of both location and quantitative recovering with computational efficiency, indicating that the proposed method is practical and promising for single-view CB-XLCT imaging.

  18. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  19. Activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) promotes fatty acid oxidation through the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xuqin [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China); Sun, Tao [Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdwang666@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210029 (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •TC, a CB2R specific agonist, stimulates SIRT1 activity by PKA/CREB pathway. •TC promotes PGC-1α transcriptional activity by increasing its deacetylation. •TC increases the expression of genes linked to FAO and promotes the rate of FAO. •The effects of TC in FAO are dependent on CB2R. •Suggesting CB2R as a target to treat diseases with lipid dysregulation. -- Abstract: Abnormal fatty acid oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. At the transcriptional level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) has been reported to strongly increase the ability of hormone nuclear receptors PPARα and ERRα to drive transcription of fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In this study, we report that a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) can lead to fatty acid oxidation through the PGC-1α pathway. We have found that CB2R is expressed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes, and that use of the specific agonist trans-caryophyllene (TC) stimulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity by increasing the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), thus leading to increased levels of PGC-1α deacetylation. This use of TC treatment increases the expression of genes linked to the fatty acid oxidation pathway in a SIRT1/PGC-1α-dependent mechanism and also drastically accelerates the rate of complete fatty acid oxidation in C2C12 myotubes, neither of which occur when CB2R mRNA is knocked down using siRNA. These results reveal that activation of CB2R by a selective agonist promotes lipid oxidation through a signaling/transcriptional pathway. Our findings imply that pharmacological manipulation of CB2R may provide therapeutic possibilities to treat metabolic diseases associated with lipid dysregulation.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 1402 - Recommended Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on âHow To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antennaâ I Appendix I to Part 1402 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CB BASE STATION... Outline for Instruction Booklet on “How To Safely Install Your CB Base Station Antenna” I. Required...

  1. Mapping CB1 cannabinoid receptors with [3H]OMAR in the Flinders rodent model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahimi, A.; Gjedde, A.; Wong, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    not significantly different. Conclusions: Although changes in CB1 receptor expression have been demonstrated in human suicide victims with depression and in animal models of depression, the present maps of [3H]OMAR binding revealed no difference between FSL and FRL rats. We used a single concentration of [3H......Background: The endocannabinoid system regulates cognitive and emotional processes and pathology of this system is implicated in psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. The precise role of the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders remains unclear, but changes...... in expression of CB1 receptors and subsequent altered modulation of monoamines is suggested in depression (Esteban & Garcia-Sevilla, 2011). CB1 receptor agonists, such as WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940 regulate synthesis and release of monoamines and are suggested as a novel therapy in the treatment of depression...

  2. Effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine reward memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu-lu; Wang, Xue-yi; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Yu; Li, Yan-qin; Li, Fang-qiong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Xue, Yan-xue; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play an important role in specific aspects of learning and memory, yet there has been no systematic study focusing on the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in methamphetamine-related reward memory. The purpose of this study was to examine whether rimonabant, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, would disrupt the consolidation and reconsolidation of methamphetamine-related reward memory, using conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP). Separate groups of male Kunming mice were trained to acquire methamphetamine CPP. Vehicle or rimonabant (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at different time points: immediately after each CPP training session (consolidation), 30 min before the reactivation of CPP (retrieval), or immediately after the reactivation of CPP (reconsolidation). Methamphetamine CPP was retested 24 h and 1 and 2 weeks after rimonabant administration. Rimonabant at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the consolidation of methamphetamine CPP. Only high-dose rimonabant (3 mg/kg) disrupted the retrieval and reconsolidation of methamphetamine CPP. Rimonabant had no effect on methamphetamine CPP in the absence of methamphetamine CPP reactivation. Our findings suggest that cannabinoid CB1 receptors play a major role in methamphetamine reward memory, and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists may be a potential pharmacotherapy to manage relapse associated with drug-reward-related memory.

  3. CB-SMoT+: UNA EXTENSIÓN AL ALGORITMO CB-SMoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO MORENO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Una trayectoria es un registro de la evoluciónde la posición de un objeto móvil. Por ejemplo,un vehículo que se mueve en el espacio durante unintervalo de tiempo. Una trayectoria se representamediante una secuencia de observaciones que indicanla posición y el tiempo en el que fue tomada cadaobservación. CB-SMoT es un algoritmo que identificalas partes de una trayectoria durante las cuales elobjeto mantuvo una velocidad promedio por debajode un límite dado. En este artículo se propone unaextensión para dicho algoritmo que permite identificarlas partes de una trayectoria durante las cualesel objeto mantuvo una velocidad promedio entre observacionespor debajo de un límite dado. Esto posibilitala identificación, por ejemplo, de violacionesa un límite de velocidad que no son advertidas porel algoritmo original. Para el estudio se usó el sistemade gestión de bases de datos PostgreSQL y losalgoritmos se implementaron en su lenguaje de programación,llamado PL/pgSQL. Además, se hicieronexperimentos con 100 trayectorias de vehículos conel propósito de mostrar la utilidad y la viabilidad de lapropuesta.

  4. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  5. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  6. A key agonist-induced conformational change in the cannabinoid receptor CB1 is blocked by the allosteric ligand Org 27569.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Jonathan F; Farrens, David L

    2012-09-28

    Allosteric ligands that modulate how G protein-coupled receptors respond to traditional orthosteric drugs are an exciting and rapidly expanding field of pharmacology. An allosteric ligand for the cannabinoid receptor CB1, Org 27569, exhibits an intriguing effect; it increases agonist binding, yet blocks agonist-induced CB1 signaling. Here we explored the mechanism behind this behavior, using a site-directed fluorescence labeling approach. Our results show that Org 27569 blocks conformational changes in CB1 that accompany G protein binding and/or activation, and thus inhibit formation of a fully active CB1 structure. The underlying mechanism behind this behavior is that simultaneous binding of Org 27569 produces a unique agonist-bound conformation, one that may resemble an intermediate structure formed on the pathway to full receptor activation.

  7. Availability Perception And Constraints Of Final Year Students To The Use Of Computer-Based Information Communication Technologies Cb-Icts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that ICTs are the major focus for the day to day running of every society. ICTs create a room for a quicker faster easier access and exchange of information in the world today. The study investigated the availability attitude and constraints of final year students in the use of computer-based ICTs CB-ICTs in Abia State. Data were collected with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Data collected were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results from analysis revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 23 years 7 CB-ICTs were available to the respondents at varying degrees. The respondents had a positive attitude x amp773 3.11 to the use of CB-ICTs and the major constraint to their use of CB-ICTs was poor resource centre where they can access CB-ICTs. Based on the findings we recommended that resource centres should be built in the institution and if it exists should be well equipped and running. Equally awareness to the fact that there is or there will be a resource centre in the institution should be widely spread so that students can utilize the opportunity of its existence and make maximum use of the facilities there in. On the other hand internet service provider should scale up their services in the area so as to provide a more stable internet connection in the institution as this will enable the students to use more effectively CB-ICTs in the institution and for their academic work.

  8. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/California recycling programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph Jordan; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2007-07-01

    This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management Department between May 2006 and March 2007, to evaluate the current site-wide recycling program for potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the program. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The SNL/NM Pollution Prevention (P2) staff worked with the SNL/CA P2 Staff to arrive at these options.

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  10. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  11. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013-2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. We searched for mental health primary prevention themes in: (1) three major journals of psychiatry and social sciences during the years 2001-2012; (2) university graduate programs in psychology, social work and medicine in leading universities for the academic year of 2011-2012; and (3) doctoral and master's theses approved in psychology and social work departments in five universities between the years 2007-2012. We used a liberal definition of primary prevention to guide the above identification of themes, including those related to theory, methods or research information of direct or indirect application in practice. Of the 934 articles published in the three journals, 7.2%, n = 67, addressed primary prevention. Of the 899 courses in the 19 graduate programs 5.2%, n = 47, elective courses addressed primary prevention. Of the 1960 approved doctoral and master's theses 6.2%, n = 123, addressed primary prevention. Only 11 (4.7%) articles, 5 (0.6%) courses, and 5 (0.3%) doctoral and master's theses addressed primary prevention directly. The psychiatric reform currently implemented in Israel and WHO CMHAP call for novel policies and course of action in all levels of prevention, including primary prevention. Yet, the latter is rarely a component of mental health education and research activities. The baseline we drew could serve to evaluate future progress in the field.

  12. Evaluation of [11C]CB184 for imaging and quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of herpes encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallez Garcia, David; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Doorduin, Janine; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Hatano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of translocator protein (TSPO) overexpression is considered an attractive research tool for monitoring neuroinflammation in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. [ 11 C]PK11195 PET imaging has been widely used for this purpose. However, it has a low sensitivity and a poor signal-to-noise ratio. For these reasons, [ 11 C]CB184 was evaluated as a potentially more sensitive PET tracer. A model of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was induced in male Wistar rats. On day 6 or 7 after virus inoculation, [ 11 C]CB184 PET scans were acquired followed by ex vivo evaluation of biodistribution. In addition, [ 11 C]CB184 and [ 11 C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were acquired to generate input for pharmacokinetic modelling. Differences between the saline-treated control group and the virus-treated HSE group were explored using volumes of interest and voxel-based analysis. The biodistribution study showed significantly higher [ 11 C]CB184 uptake in the amygdala, olfactory bulb, medulla, pons and striatum (p < 0.05) in HSE rats than in control rats, and the voxel-based analysis showed higher bilateral uptake in the pons and medulla (p < 0.05, corrected at the cluster level). A high correlation was found between tracer uptake in the biodistribution study and on the PET scans (p < 0.001, r 2 = 0.71). Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg of unlabelled PK11195 effectively reduced (p < 0.001) [ 11 C]CB184 uptake in the whole brain. Both, [ 11 C]CB184 and [ 11 C]PK11195, showed similar amounts of metabolites in plasma, and the binding potential (BP ND ) was not significantly different between the HSE rats and the control rats. In HSE rats BP ND for [ 11 C]CB184 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the amygdala, hypothalamus, medulla, pons and septum than in control rats, whereas higher uptake of [ 11 C]PK11195 was only detected in the medulla. [ 11 C]CB184 showed nonspecific binding to healthy tissue comparable to that observed for [ 11 C]PK11195, but it

  13. Identifying Patterns in Implementation of Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: A Multisite Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Finley, Erin P; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    To describe the presence or absence of key components of hospital pressure ulcer (PU) prevention programs in 6 acute care hospitals. Multisite comparative case study. Using purposeful selection based on PU rates (high vs low) and hospital size, 6 hospitals within the Veterans Health Administration health care system were invited to participate. Key informant interviews (n = 48) were conducted in each of the 6 participating hospitals among individuals playing key roles in PU prevention: senior nursing leadership (n = 9), nurse manager (n = 7), wound care specialist (n = 6), frontline RNs (n = 26). Qualitative data were collected during face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Interview protocols were tailored to each interviewee's role with a core set of common questions covering 3 major content areas: (1) practice environment (eg, policies and wound care specialists), (2) current prevention practices (eg, conduct of PU risk assessment and skin inspection), and (3) barriers to PU prevention. We conducted structured coding of 5 key components of PU prevention programs and cross-case analysis to identify patterns in operationalization and implementation of program components across hospitals based on facility size and PU rates (low vs high). All hospitals had implemented all PU prevention program components. Component operationalization varied considerably across hospitals. Wound care specialists were integral to the operationalization of the 4 other program components examined; however, staffing levels and work assignments of wound care specialists varied widely. Patterns emerged among hospitals with low and high PU rates with respect to wound care specialist staffing, data monitoring, and staff education. We found hospital-level variations in PU prevention programs. Wound care specialist staffing may represent a potential point of leverage in achieving other PU program components, particularly performance monitoring and staff education.

  14. Health Prevention Programs in Social Marketing: Recent Trends and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Serban

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Social marketing methods are nowadays frequently used in the development of healthprevention programs. The main Objectives of this paper are: to identify the role of skin protectionprograms in society, to evaluate sun protection behavior among consumers and to propose futuredirections of research in skin cancer prevention. Prior Work in skin protection focused on the risksassociated with long periods of sun exposure while offering advice regarding responsible behavior. InEurope, the main center of skin cancer research is European Cancer Observatory and, in Romania,Romanian Society of Dermatology (SRD. These institutions develop specialized programs annualy.The Approach used in this article is the survey. The paper analysis consumers’ perceptions regardingskin protection behavior in Romania by using a structured online questionnaire. A total number of 86respondents participated in the study. Results show that 53% of respondents don’t have a sunprotection behavior. Implications of the study are: health practitioners can use these findings infurther research and nonprofit organizations can increase their prevention programs in certain groups.The Value of this paper consists of direct analysis regarding skin cancer issue in Romania whileemphasizing the importance of health prevention programs for social marketing domain.

  15. Elevated Brain Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Availability in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, Alexander; Normandin, Marc D.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Piomelli, Daniele; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Gujarro-Anton, Ana; Potenza, Marc N.; Bailey, Christopher R.; Lin, Shu-fei; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Ropchan, Jim; Henry, Shannan; Corsi-Travali, Stefani; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and their attending cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) have been implicated in animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, their specific role has not been studied in people with PTSD. Herein, we present an in vivo imaging study using positron emission tomography (PET) and the CB1-selective radioligand [11C]OMAR in individuals with PTSD, and healthy controls with lifetime histories of trauma (trauma controls [TC]) and those without such histories (healthy controls [HC]). Untreated individuals with PTSD (N=25) with non-combat trauma histories, and TC (N=12) and HC (N=23) participated in a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scan and a resting PET scan with the CB1 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]OMAR, which measures volume of distribution (VT) linearly related to CB1 receptor availability. Peripheral levels of anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and cortisol were also assessed. In the PTSD group, relative to the HC and TC groups, we found elevated brain-wide [11C]OMAR VT values (F(2,53)=7.96, p=.001; 19.5% and 14.5% higher, respectively) which were most pronounced in women (F(1,53)=5.52, p=.023). Anandamide concentrations were reduced in the PTSD relative to the TC (53.1% lower) and HC (58.2% lower) groups. Cortisol levels were lower in the PTSD and TC groups relative to the HC group. Three biomarkers examined collectively—OMAR VT, anandamide, and cortisol—correctly classified nearly 85% of PTSD cases. These results suggest that abnormal CB1 receptor-mediated anandamide signaling is implicated in the etiology of PTSD, and provide a promising neurobiological model to develop novel, evidence-based pharmacotherapies for this disorder. PMID:23670490

  16. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  17. A pilot randomized trial of a cognitive reappraisal obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate a selective obesity prevention program promoting use of cognitive reappraisals to reduce reward region response and increase inhibitory region response to high-fat/high-sugar foods and reduce intake of fat and sugar to prevent blunted reward region response to intake of such foods. Young adults at risk for future weight gain by virtue of weight concerns (N=148) were randomized to this new prevention program (Minding Health), an alternative prevention program promoting participant-driven gradual reductions in caloric intake and increases in physical activity (Healthy Weight), or an obesity education video control condition, completing assessments at pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up. A subset of Minding Health and control participants completed an fMRI scan at pre- and post-assessing neural response to images of high-fat/sugar foods and to receipt and anticipated receipt of a high-fat/sugar food. Minding Health participants showed significantly greater reductions in body fat than controls and caloric intake from fat and sugar than Healthy Weight participants. Minding Health participants also showed greater activation of an inhibitory control region and reduced activation of an attention/expectation region in response to palatable food images relative to pretest and controls. However, Healthy Weight participants showed greater reductions in BMI and eating disorder symptoms than Minding Health participants. Although the Minding Health intervention produced some of the hypothesized effects, it did not produce lasting reductions in body fat or BMI and showed limited effects on neural responsivity, implying it will be vital to increase the efficacy of this new prevention program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Decades of Evolving Strategies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Philliber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the changing strategies for both process and outcome evaluations of teen pregnancy prevention programs over the past few decades. Implementation evaluations have emphasized discovery of what program attributes are most effective in reducing teen pregnancy and its antecedents. Outcome evaluations have moved from collecting data to measure knowledge, attitudes, and program satisfaction to measuring behavior change including postponement of sexual involvement, increased used of contraception, or reduction in teen pregnancy. High quality randomized control trials or quasi-experimental designs are being increasingly emphasized, as are sophisticated analysis techniques using multi-variate analyses, controls for cluster sampling, and other strategies designed to build a more solid knowledge base about how to prevent early pregnancy.

  19. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  20. Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mwaba, Kelvin; Prescott, Tonya L; Roman, Nicolette V; Rooi, Bronwyn; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable, and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1107 8th-11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Respondents were enrolled in one of three public high schools in Langa, a lower income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty-nine percent of respondents have used text messaging (SMS) and 86% have gone online. If an HIV prevention program was offered online, 66% of youth would be somewhat or extremely likely to access it; slightly fewer (55%) felt the same about SMS-based programming. In comparison, 85% said they would be somewhat or extremely likely to access a school-based HIV prevention program. Interest in Internet- (60%) and SMS-based (54%) HIV prevention programming was similar for youth who had a self-appraised risk of HIV compared to youth who appraised their risk to be lower, as it was for youth who were tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention. Technology use is common - even among high school students who live in lower income communities. At the same time, these data reveal that it is not uncommon for youth to be tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention, and many of the typical topics key to HIV prevention have low interest levels among youth. HIV prevention researchers need to be mindful of the extent of existing programming that youth are exposed to. Technology-based programming may be especially amenable to meeting these requirements because of its novelty especially in developing countries, and because interactive functionality can be easily integrated into the program design. Given the preference for school- and Internet-based programming, it seems that a hybrid approach is likely feasible and acceptable.

  1. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  2. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  3. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  4. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  5. Empowerment evaluation with programs designed to prevent first-time male perpetration of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.

  6. Blockade of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray Unmasks the Antinociceptive Effect of Local Injections of Anandamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C. Mascarenhas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Divergent results in pain management account for the growing number of studies aiming at elucidating the pharmacology of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide (AEA within several pain-related brain structures. For instance, the stimulation of both Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors led to paradoxical effects on nociception. Here, we attempted to propose a clear and reproducible methodology to achieve the antinociceptive effect of exogenous AEA within the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG of mice exposed to the tail-flick test. Accordingly, male Swiss mice received intra-dPAG injection of AEA (CB1/TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist, WIN (CB1 agonist, AM251 (CB1 antagonist, and 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin (6-IODO (TRPV1 selective antagonist and their nociceptive response was assessed with the tail-flick test. In order to assess AEA effects on nociception specifically at vanilloid or cannabinoid (CB substrates into the dPAG, mice underwent an intrinsically inactive dose of AM251 or 6-IODO followed by local AEA injections and were subjected to the same test. While intra-dPAG AEA did not change acute pain, local injections of capsaicin or WIN induced a marked TRPV1- and CB1-dependent antinociceptive effect, respectively. Regarding the role of AEA specifically at CB/vanilloid substrates, while the blockade of TRPV1 did not change the lack of effects of intra-dPAG AEA on nociception, local pre-treatment of AM251, a CB1 antagonist, led to a clear AEA-induced antinociception. It seems that the exogenous AEA-induced antinociception is unmasked when it selectively binds to vanilloid substrates, which might be useful to address acute pain in basic and perhaps clinical trials.

  7. Violence prevention education program for psychiatric outpatient departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants

  8. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  10. A Meta-analysis of the Effectiveness of Interactive Middle School Cannabis Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lize, Steven E; Iachini, Aidyn L; Tang, Weizhou; Tucker, Joshua; Seay, Kristen D; Clone, Stephanie; DeHart, Dana; Browne, Teri

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of interactive middle school-based drug prevention programs on adolescent cannabis use in North America, as well as program characteristics that could moderate these effects. Interactive programs, compared to more didactic, lecture style programs, involve participants in skill-building activities and focus on interaction among participants. A systematic literature search was conducted for English-language studies from January 1998 to March 2014. Studies included evaluations using random assignment or a quasi-experimental design of interactive school-based substance use prevention programs delivered to adolescents (aged 12-14) in North American middle schools (grades 6-8). Data were extracted using a coding protocol. The outcomes of interest were post-treatment cannabis use, intent to use, and refusal skills compared across intervention and control groups. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated from continuous measures, and dichotomous measures were converted to the d index. A total of 30 studies yielding 23 independent samples were included. The random effects pooled effect size for cannabis use (k = 21) was small ([Formula: see text]= -0.07, p prevention programs. The pooled effect sizes for intention to use (k = 3) and refusal skills (k = 3) were not significant. Moderator analyses indicated significant differences in program effectiveness between instructor types, with teachers found to be most effective ([Formula: see text]= -0.08, p = 0.02). The findings provide further support for the use of interactive school-based programs to prevent cannabis use among middle school students in North America.

  11. Access to Employee Wellness Programs and Use of Preventive Care Services Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-12-01

    There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pemployee wellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flay Brian R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.

  13. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  14. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Programs for Western PA - Pediatrics/Platelet Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Diabetes Education Program results for self-management decision making f. Preventing, detecting , and treating acute complications. g. Preventing...SYSTEM AT WHMC 2.4.1 Expand Image Reading Center at WHMC Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in Americans...between the ages of 20 to 74 (45-50). It has been estimated that blindness from diabetic retinopathy is preventable in at least 65% of cases, if

  15. Characteristics and effects of suicide prevention programs: comparison between workplace and other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Misato; Shima, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The present study reviews the literature on suicide prevention programs conducted in the workplace and other settings, namely school, the community, medical facilities, jail, and the army, by conducting an electronic literature search of all articles published between 1967 and November 2007. From a total of 256 articles identified, various contents of suicide prevention programs were determined, and in 34 studies, the effect of programs was evaluated. A review of the literature reveals that the common contents of suicide prevention programs in the workplace and other settings are education and training of individuals, development of a support network, cooperation from internal and external resources, as well as education and training of managers and staff. Although the characteristic contents of suicide prevention programs at the workplace aimed at improving personnel management and health care, screening and care for high-risk individuals, as well as improvement of building structures, were not described. Although a reduction in undesirable attitudes and an increase in mental health knowledge and coping skills in the workplace are in agreement with findings in other settings, suicide rate, suicide-associated behavior, and depression, which were assessed in other settings, were not evaluated in the three studies targeting the workplace.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterisation and localisation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor protein in the rat vestibular nucleus complex and the effects of unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John C; Zheng, Yiwen; Liu, Ping; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2004-09-24

    CB1 receptor expression has been reported to be low in the brainstem compared with the forebrain, and low in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) compared with other regions in the brainstem. However, a frequent effect of cannabis is dizziness and loss of balance. This may be due to the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the central vestibular pathways. We used immunohistochemistry to study the distribution of CB1 receptor protein in the VNC, and Western blotting to measure CB1 receptor expression in the VNC following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD); the hippocampal CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were also analysed for comparison. This study confirms a previous electrophysiological demonstration that CB1 receptors exist in significant densities in the VNC and are likely to contribute to the neurochemical control of the vestibular reflexes. Nonetheless, CB1 receptor expression did not change significantly in the VNC during vestibular compensation. In addition, despite some small but significant changes in CB1 receptor expression in the CA2/3 and the DG following UVD, in no case were these differences statistically significant in comparison to both control groups.

  17. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  18. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-10-08

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions

  19. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. 47 CFR 95.413 - (CB Rule 13) What communications are prohibited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., traveler assistance, brief tests (radio checks), or voice paging; (5) To advertise or solicit the sale of any goods or services; (6) To transmit music, whistling, sound effects or any material to amuse or... (155.3 miles) away; (10) To advertise a political candidate or political campaign; (you may use your CB...

  1. Evaluation of [{sup 11}C]CB184 for imaging and quantification of TSPO overexpression in a rat model of herpes encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallez Garcia, David; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Doorduin, Janine [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Research Team for Neuroimaging, Tokyo (Japan); Hatano, Kentaro [National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Neuroimaging, Center for Development of Advanced Medicine for Dementia, Obu, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-03-13

    Evaluation of translocator protein (TSPO) overexpression is considered an attractive research tool for monitoring neuroinflammation in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. [{sup 11}C]PK11195 PET imaging has been widely used for this purpose. However, it has a low sensitivity and a poor signal-to-noise ratio. For these reasons, [{sup 11}C]CB184 was evaluated as a potentially more sensitive PET tracer. A model of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was induced in male Wistar rats. On day 6 or 7 after virus inoculation, [{sup 11}C]CB184 PET scans were acquired followed by ex vivo evaluation of biodistribution. In addition, [{sup 11}C]CB184 and [{sup 11}C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were acquired to generate input for pharmacokinetic modelling. Differences between the saline-treated control group and the virus-treated HSE group were explored using volumes of interest and voxel-based analysis. The biodistribution study showed significantly higher [{sup 11}C]CB184 uptake in the amygdala, olfactory bulb, medulla, pons and striatum (p < 0.05) in HSE rats than in control rats, and the voxel-based analysis showed higher bilateral uptake in the pons and medulla (p < 0.05, corrected at the cluster level). A high correlation was found between tracer uptake in the biodistribution study and on the PET scans (p < 0.001, r {sup 2} = 0.71). Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg of unlabelled PK11195 effectively reduced (p < 0.001) [{sup 11}C]CB184 uptake in the whole brain. Both, [{sup 11}C]CB184 and [{sup 11}C]PK11195, showed similar amounts of metabolites in plasma, and the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was not significantly different between the HSE rats and the control rats. In HSE rats BP{sub ND} for [{sup 11}C]CB184 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the amygdala, hypothalamus, medulla, pons and septum than in control rats, whereas higher uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 was only detected in the medulla. [{sup 11}C]CB184 showed nonspecific binding to healthy

  2. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  3. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women—multiethnic, Canadian young adults—to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. Results: The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food—topics on which young adults are already seeking information—rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Conclusion: Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  4. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alyson

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women-multiethnic, Canadian young adults-to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food-topics on which young adults are already seeking information-rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  5. Prevention program for Clostridium difficile infection: a single-centre Serbian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkic, Snezana; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Turkulov, Vesna; Radovanovic, Marija; Abenavoli, Ludovico

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) diarrhea is a common, iatrogenic, nosocomial disease with a worldwide diffusion. Recent studies reported that the incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) is rising, due to aging of the population and to greater prevalence of hypervirulent strains. We investigated whether the application of a prevention program lead to a decline in the incidence of intrahospital CDI. The study was designed as observational, to compare the efficacy of Schülke preventive program with the standard protocols, in a period of 4 months. For every patient with community-onset healthcare facility-associated (HCFA) CDI, we randomly selected four controls (1:4) with the same ICD code but without HCFA CDI. For statistical analysis the nonparametric, one-way ANOVA, univariate regression analysis, univariate analysis of variance, and Welch and Brown-Forsythe Test were used. Clinical features of HCFA CDI were typical. HCFA CDI group was significantly older than control group (P=0.008 and F=6.686; Partial Eta Square=0.013). Patients with HCFA CDI stayed significantly longer in hospital (P=0.000 and F=69.379; Partial Eta Square=0.117). Acquiring CDI prolonged the hospitalization of 14.52 days. HCFA CDI significantly increases the total cost of hospitalization as well as each element of the price respectively. With the application of the prevention program the annual incidence of CDI dropped from 49.01 in 2013 to 18.22/10000 bed days in 2014. Applying Schülke preventive program, implemented in 2014, has led to significant savings for the hospital compared to previous methods.

  6. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  7. A selective cannabinoid CB2 agonist attenuates damage and improves memory retention following stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, Richard D; Myers, Alyssa M; Ganea, Doina; Tuma, Ronald F; Walker, Ellen A; Ward, Sara Jane

    2015-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that treatment with a cannabinoid CB2 agonist was protective in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study aimed to determine whether these protective effects of CB2 agonism would extend to a mouse photoinjury model of permanent ischemia and determine associated alterations in cognition and infarct size. Mice received three injections of the CB2 selective agonist O-1966 or vehicle 1h prior to and 2 and 5days following induction of stroke. Infarct size was assessed at 1, 3, or 7days post-injury and learning and memory effects of injury and O-1966 treatment were assessed on days 6 and 7 using a novel object recognition task and an operant acquisition and retention procedure. O-1966 treated mice had significantly smaller infarct volumes compared with vehicle treated mice. Photoinjury was also associated with a significant memory impairment on day 7 post-injury, and this deficit was reversed with O-1966 treatment. Surprisingly, sham-operated mice receiving O-1966 treatment showed a significant learning deficit in both the recognition and operant tasks compared with vehicle treated sham mice. We conclude that CB2 activation is protective against cognitive deficits and tissue damage following permanent ischemia, but may dysregulate glial or neuronal function of learning and memory circuits in the absence of injury and/or inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential of socio-psychological models for the development of prevention programs (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of designing prevention programs in health and disease. We note that smoking cessation on the planet would reduce mortality from various types of cancer by 25%, and would also save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people who die each year from heart attacks. Losing weight by only 10% through proper nutrition and exercise would reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease, as well as certain types of cancer. Based on the literature review, we reveal the different types of prevention, show the importance of preventive measures aimed at the patient's immediate environment. Among the main difficulties associated with the development of effective prevention programs we discuss the following: 1 ignoring the psychological mechanisms of behavior change; 2 irrelevance of media broadcast methods in prevention campaigns; 3 the time between the problem behavior and its negative effects on health. We discuss the potential of social influence models for the development of prevention programs in the field of health and disease.

  9. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  10. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  11. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  12. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  13. A three-dimensional-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction in volumetric CT-helical scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang; Nilsen, Roy A; Dutta, Sandeep; Samsonov, Dmitry; Hagiwara, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Based on the structure of the original helical FDK algorithm, a three-dimensional (3D)-weighted cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithm is proposed for image reconstruction in volumetric CT under helical source trajectory. In addition to its dependence on view and fan angles, the 3D weighting utilizes the cone angle dependency of a ray to improve reconstruction accuracy. The 3D weighting is ray-dependent and the underlying mechanism is to give a favourable weight to the ray with the smaller cone angle out of a pair of conjugate rays but an unfavourable weight to the ray with the larger cone angle out of the conjugate ray pair. The proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm is implemented in the cone-parallel geometry that can improve noise uniformity and image generation speed significantly. Under the cone-parallel geometry, the filtering is naturally carried out along the tangential direction of the helical source trajectory. By exploring the 3D weighting's dependence on cone angle, the proposed helical 3D-weighted CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm can provide significantly improved reconstruction accuracy at moderate cone angle and high helical pitches. The 3D-weighted CB-FBP algorithm is experimentally evaluated by computer-simulated phantoms and phantoms scanned by a diagnostic volumetric CT system with a detector dimension of 64 x 0.625 mm over various helical pitches. The computer simulation study shows that the 3D weighting enables the proposed algorithm to reach reconstruction accuracy comparable to that of exact CB reconstruction algorithms, such as the Katsevich algorithm, under a moderate cone angle (4 deg.) and various helical pitches. Meanwhile, the experimental evaluation using the phantoms scanned by a volumetric CT system shows that the spatial resolution along the z-direction and noise characteristics of the proposed 3D-weighted helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm are maintained very well in comparison to the FDK

  14. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Early Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism: Centre-Based with Parent Program and Home-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…

  15. Temporal changes of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the basal ganglia as a possible structure-specific plasticity process in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela P Chaves-Kirsten

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in several neurobiological processes, including neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. The CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, the circuitry that is mostly affected in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Some studies show variation of CB1 expression in basal ganglia in different animal models of PD, however the results are quite controversial, due to the differences in the procedures employed to induce the parkinsonism and the periods analyzed after the lesion. The present study evaluated the CB1 expression in four basal ganglia structures, namely striatum, external globus pallidus (EGP, internal globus pallidus (IGP and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr of rats 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 days after unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections, that causes retrograde dopaminergic degeneration. We also investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, parvalbumin, calbindin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD expression to verify the status of dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. We observed a structure-specific modulation of CB1 expression at different periods after lesions. In general, there were no changes in the striatum, decreased CB1 in IGP and SNpr and increased CB1 in EGP, but this increase was not sustained over time. No changes in GAD and parvalbumin expression were observed in basal ganglia, whereas TH levels were decreased and the calbindin increased in striatum in short periods after lesion. We believe that the structure-specific variation of CB1 in basal ganglia in the 6-hydroxydopamine PD model could be related to a compensatory process involving the GABAergic transmission, which is impaired due to the lack of dopamine. Our data, therefore, suggest that the changes of CB1 and calbindin expression may represent a plasticity process in this PD model.

  16. AAV-mediated overexpression of the CB1 receptor in the mPFC of adult rats alters cognitive flexibility, social behavior and emotional reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eKlugmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (ECB system is strongly involved in the regulation of cognitive processing and emotional behavior and evidence indicates that ECB signaling might affect these behavioral abilities by modulations of prefrontal cortical functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the CB1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC on cognitive flexibility and emotional behavior. Therefore, the CB1 receptor was overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene transfer specifically in the mPFC of adult Wistar rats. Animals were then tested in different anxiety-related paradigms for emotional reactivity (e.g. elevated plus maze (EPM, light/dark emergence test (EMT, social interaction and the attentional set shift task (ASST - an adaptation of the human Wisconsin card sorting test - for cognitive abilities and behavioral flexibility. A subtle increase in exploratory behavior was found in CB1 receptor overexpressing animals (CB1-R compared to empty vector injected controls (Empty in the EMT and EPM, although general locomotor activity did not differ between the groups. During social interaction testing, social contact behavior towards the unknown conspecific was found to be decreased, whereas social withdrawal was increased in CB1-R animals and they showed an inadequate increase in exploratory behavior compared to control animals. In the ASST, impaired reversal learning abilities were detected in CB1-R animals compared to controls, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. In conclusion, upregulation of the CB1 receptor specifically in the rat mPFC induces alterations in emotional reactivity, leads to inadequate social behavior and impairs cognitive flexibility. These findings might be relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders, since higher cortical CB1 receptor expression levels as well as similar behavioral impairments as observed in the present study have been described in schizophrenic patients.

  17. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  18. Cost of Treatment Procedures in the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.; And Others

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program (NPDDP) delivered five different regimens of school based preventive dental care to groups of children in 10 American cities between 1977 and 1981. All clinical techniques employed had previously been demonstrated to be both safe and effective in clinical trials. The purpose of the NPDDP was…

  19. Implementing a Coach-Delivered Dating Violence Prevention Program with High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-05-10

    Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by

  20. Randomised controlled trial of a secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients ('ProActive Heart': study protocol. Secondary prevention program for myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C Barr

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is a significant cause of health and economic burden. Secondary prevention programs play a pivotal role in the treatment and management of those affected by CHD although participation rates are poor due to patient, provider, health system and societal-level barriers. As such, there is a need to develop innovative secondary prevention programs to address the treatment gap. Telephone-delivered care is convenient, flexible and has been shown to improve behavioural and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a six-month telephone-delivered secondary prevention program for MI patients (ProActive Heart. Methods 550 adult MI patients have been recruited over a 14 month period (December 2007 to January 2009 through two Brisbane metropolitan hospitals, and randomised to an intervention or control group (n = 225 per group. The intervention commences within two weeks of hospital discharge delivered by study-trained health professionals ('health coaches' during up to 10 × 30 minute scripted telephone health coaching sessions. Participants also receive a ProActive Heart handbook and an educational resource to use during the health coaching sessions. The intervention focuses on appropriate modification of CHD risk factors, compliance with pharmacological management, and management of psychosocial issues. Data collection occurs at baseline or prior to commencement of the intervention (Time 1, six months follow-up or the completion of the intervention (Time 2, and at 12 months follow-up for longer term outcomes (Time 3. Primary outcome measures include quality of life (Short Form-36 and physical activity (Active Australia Survey. A cost-effective analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the

  1. Preventive Effects of Resveratrol on Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Protein Modifications in Rat Cerebral Cortex Challenged by Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranca Carta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R and to investigate RVT’s ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle, while the second half received the vehicle alone. In the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevented the BCCAO/R-induced increase of lipoperoxides, augmented concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide and docosahexaenoic acid, increased relative levels of the cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and 2 (CB2, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor (PPAR-α proteins. Increased expression of CB1/CB2 receptors mirrored that of synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 protein. No BCCAO/R-induced changes occurred in the temporal-occipital cortex. Collectively, our results demonstrate that, in the frontal cortex, RVT pre-treatment prevents the BCCAO/R-induced oxidative stress and modulates the endocannabinoid and PPAR-α systems. The increased expression of synaptic structural proteins further suggests the possible efficacy of RVT as a dietary supplement to preserve the nervous tissue metabolism and control the physiological response to the hypoperfusion/reperfusion challenge.

  2. Growing healthy kids: a community garden-based obesity prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Dina C; Samuels, Margaret; Harman, Ann E

    2013-03-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades, particularly among children aged 2-5 years. In this group, Latino children are among those with the highest prevalence of obesity. This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate a community intervention, known as the Growing Healthy Kids Program (GHK), to prevent childhood obesity among low-income families in a Southern state. The intervention included a weekly gardening session, a 7-week cooking and nutrition workshop, and social events for parents and children. Matched pre- and post-program height and weight data were collected for 95 children aged 2-15 years. Children's BMI was determined. Also, families reported on the availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables at the beginning and the end of the family's participation in the GHK program. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. About 60% of participants who enrolled in the program were Latino families (n=60 families/120 children). By the end of their participation in the program, 17% (n=6, pcommunity gardens. Although there are limitations because this is a pilot study, this strategy seems to be promising for addressing childhood obesity, particularly among low-income Latino immigrant families. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Perry, Yael; Calear, Alison L; Newby, Jill M; Christensen, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g=0.23) and anxiety (g=0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g=0.11) and anxiety (g=0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  5. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  6. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  7. An interactive multimedia program to prevent HIV transmission in men with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).

  8. MENTOR-VIP: Piloting a global mentoring program for injury and violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Meddings, David; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occur as the result of a confluence of factors: environmental, social, biological, economic, and behavioral. To effectively address the burden of injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, a focus is needed on developing the human resource capacity for injury prevention. MENTOR-VIP is a global mentoring program that the authors developed with this need in mind. MENTOR-VIP approaches developing human resources in injury prevention by providing mentoring opportunities for junior professionals involved in its practice, research, and/or programs. MENTOR-VIP entails a 12-month working relationship between junior injury prevention practitioners (mentees) and more experienced individuals in the field (mentors). Its general objective is to improve global human resource capacity to effectively prevent and control injury and violence through the enhanced development of relevant skills. The program is currently in its pilot phase and is nearing the end of its second formal mentoring cycle, which began on September 1, 2008. This article discusses mentoring professionals as a key strategy to developing the human resource component of capacity, and one which complements existing approaches to capacity development. The authors also provide an overview of the rationale, modalities, objectives, and evaluation of MENTOR-VIP. This article highlights the importance of capacity building in the injury prevention field and situates MENTOR-VIP within the larger context of capacity building for global public health.

  9. Comprehensive resurvey program to prevent radiological incidents at a national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, W.V.; Hunckler, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive resurvey program in a general purpose research building at Argonne National Laboratory is being implemented. The program was designed to prevent radiological incidents by increasing the awareness of Health Physics personnel of radiological hazards, initiating corrective actions, and providing information for improving routine survey schedules, and for establishing manpower requirements. The following aspects of the program are described: scheduling, surveys, records, follow-up, and statistics

  10. A Cost Analysis Plan for the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foch, Craig B.

    The National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Project (NPDDP) delivers school-based preventive dental care to approximately 14,000 children in ten United States cities. The program, begun in 1976, is to be conducted over a six and one-half year period. The costing definitions and allocation rules to be used in the project are the principal…

  11. Detection of Heteromers Formed by Cannabinoid CB1, Dopamine D2, and Adenosine A2A G-Protein-Coupled Receptors by Combining Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation and Bioluminescence Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Carriba, Paulina; Gandí, Jorge; Ciruela, Francisco; Casadó, Vicent; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Functional interactions in signaling occur between dopamine D2 (D2R) and cannabinoid CB1 (CB1R) receptors, between CB1R and adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptors, and between D2R and A2AR. Furthermore, direct molecular interactions have been reported for the pairs CB1R-D2R, A2AR-D2R, and CB1R-A2AR. Here a combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence energy transfer techniques was used to identify the occurrence of D2R-CB1R-A2AR hetero-oligomers in living cells. PMID:18956124

  12. Detection of Heteromers Formed by Cannabinoid CB1, Dopamine D2, and Adenosine A2A G-Protein-Coupled Receptors by Combining Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation and Bioluminescence Energy Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Navarro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional interactions in signaling occur between dopamine D2 (D2R and cannabinoid CB1 (CB1R receptors, between CB1R and adenosine A2A (A2AR receptors, and between D2R and A2AR. Furthermore, direct molecular interactions have been reported for the pairs CB1R-D2R, A2AR-D2R, and CB1R-A2AR. Here a combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence energy transfer techniques was used to identify the occurrence of D2R-CB1R-A2AR hetero-oligomers in living cells.

  13. Cultural Adaptation of a Preventive Program for Ultra-Orthodox Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit

    2016-01-01

    Cultural factors significantly influence the effectiveness of pediatric screening that enables the prevention of developmental disturbances. The formulation of intervention programs must match the needs of the child, his or her family, and educators. Recognizing the importance of creating an intervention program accessible to the culture of the…

  14. Evaluating an In-School Drug Prevention Program for At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, David J.; Steep, Barbara; Silverman, Gloria; Stevens-Lavigne, Andrea; Ellis, Kathy; Smythe, Cindy; Rye, Barbara J.; Braun, Kathy; Wood, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    A drug prevention program involving 167 at-risk students in grades 8-10 at 9 Ontario schools resulted in reduced use of and less supportive attitudes toward alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Program success is attributed to high attendance and retention, community health professionals' participation, comprehensive approach, strong…

  15. Efficiency estimation of using phased program of caries prevention in children domiciled in Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klitynska Oksana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries is a pathological process that occurs in the hard tissues of the teeth after eruption and reduced quality of life due to significant complications, especially in children. An extremely high incidence of dental caries among children living permanently in Transcarpathian region requires a comprehensive prevention program. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of complex caries prevention program among children permanently living in the area of biogeochemical fluorine deficiency. Aim of the study: To evaluate efficiency level of using phased program of caries prevention among children of different age groups domiciled in Transcarpathian region. Material and Methods: On examination of 346 children aged 3-8 years, among which 163 (46.9% boys and 183 (53.1% girls, a phased program of complex prophylaxis was created, covering the basic dental diseases in children living permanently in deficiency conditions. The program included: hygienic education of preschool children and their parents; exogenous medicament prevention; early identification and treatment of caries using conventional methods according to treatment protocols; endogenous non-medical prevention, nutrition correction have proved its effectiveness. Results: The indicator of caries prevention efficiency of the proposed scheme for children 5-7 (3-5 years is 69.5%; for children 8-10 age group (6-8 years - 66.9%. Conclusion: The main strategy of pediatric dental services in Ukraine should be created for the children population (aged up 18 years through national and regional programs for the primary prevention of main dental diseases with providing adequate financing in sufficient volume to preserve the nation's dental health for the next 20 years.

  16. Evaluations of Sexual Assault Prevention Programs in Military Settings: A Synthesis of the Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Prisock, Kara; Borsari, Brian; Kazemi, Donna M

    2018-03-01

    The prevention of sexual assault (SA) in the U.S. military is a significant priority. This study applied the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to a literature search that identified research evaluating SA prevention programs conducted within military settings. Only six studies published between 2005 and 2016 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Studies demonstrated high heterogeneity in the: (1) conceptual framework of the prevention approach; (2) target population and timing of administration; (3) study recruitment methods; (4) methodological design; (5) method of delivery, program dosage and theory of change; and (6) outcome administration and efficacy. Scientific rigor according to the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine was also variable. Several gaps in the research base were identified. Specifically, research evaluating SA prevention programs have only been conducted among U.S. Army and U.S. Navy samples. Most studies did not examine whether program participation was associated with reductions in rates of sexual violence. Studies also lacked utilization of a long-term follow-up period. Additionally, studies did not reflect the types of SA prevention programs currently being implemented in military settings. Taken together, further research is needed to enhance the evidence base for SA prevention in the military, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches currently being conducted with service members.

  17. Health promotion and disease prevention: a look at demand management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    1996-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes employers' efforts to contain health expenditures through demand management programs. These programs are designed to reduce utilization by focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Demand management includes work site health promotion, wellness programs, and access management. Work site health promotion is a comprehensive approach to improving health and includes awareness, health education, behavioral change, and organizational health initiatives. Wellness programs usually include stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, back care, health screenings, nutrition education, work place safety, prenatal and well baby care, CPR and first aid classes, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). These programs are often viewed positively by workers and can have long-term benefits for employers above and beyond health care cost containment. Demand management can benefit employers by increasing productivity, employee retention, and employee morale and by reducing turnover, absenteeism, future medical claims, and ultimately expenditures on health care. Even though a growing number of employers are offering wellness programs, only 37 percent of full-time workers employed in medium and large private establishments were eligible for wellness programs by 1993. However, a recent survey found that 88 percent of major employers have introduced some form of health promotion, disease prevention, or early intervention initiative to encourage healthy lifestyles among their salaried employees. Distinctions must be drawn between short- and long-term strategies. Demand management can be thought of as a short-term strategy when the focus of the program is on creating more appropriate and efficient health care utilization. Disease prevention is characterized by longer-term health improvement objectives. Whether the purpose is to reduce utilization in the short term or in the long term, the ultimate goal remains the same: to reduce health

  18. CB2 cannabinoid receptors modulate HIF-1α and TIM-3 expression in a hypoxia-ischemia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossatz, Elk; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB 2 R) in global brain lesions induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) insult is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of CB 2 R in the behavioural and biochemical underpinnings related to brain damage induced by HI in adult mice, and the mechanisms involved. CB 2 R knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT) underwent permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery and hypoxia. Behavioural measurements in the rotarod, beam walking, object recognition, open field, and Irwin tests were carried out 24h, 72h and 7 days. In KO mice, more extensive brain injury was observed. Behavioural deficits in the Irwin test were observed in both genotypes; while WT mice showed progressive recovery by day 7, KO mice did not. Only KO mice showed alterations in motor learning, coordination and balance, and did not recover over time. A higher expression of microglia and astrocytes was observed in several brain areas of lesioned WT and KO mice. The possible alteration of the inflammatory-related factors HIF-1α and TIM-3 was evaluated in these animals. In both genotypes, HIF-1α and TIM-3 expression was observed in lesioned areas associated with activated microglia. However, the expression levels of these proteins were exacerbated in KO mice in several lesioned and non-lesioned brain structures. Our results indicate that CB 2 R may have a crucial neuroprotective role following HI insult through the modulation of the inflammatory-related HIF-1α/TIM-3 signalling pathway in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabis Users Show Enhanced Expression of CB1-5HT2A Receptor Heteromers in Olfactory Neuroepithelium Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Liliana; Moreno, Estefanía; López-Armenta, Fernando; Guinart, Daniel; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Izquierdo-Serra, Mercè; Xicota, Laura; Fernandez, Cristina; Menoyo, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Benítez-King, Gloria; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; Pérez, Víctor; de la Torre, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2018-01-02

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB 1 R) and serotonergic 2A receptors (5HT 2A R) form heteromers in the brain of mice where they mediate the cognitive deficits produced by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. However, it is still unknown whether the expression of this heterodimer is modulated by chronic cannabis use in humans. In this study, we investigated the expression levels and functionality of CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromers in human olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells of cannabis users and control subjects, and determined their molecular characteristics through adenylate cyclase and the ERK 1/2 pathway signaling studies. We also assessed whether heteromer expression levels correlated with cannabis consumption and cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests. ON cells from controls and cannabis users expressed neuronal markers such as βIII-tubulin and nestin, displayed similar expression levels of genes related to cellular self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and generation of neural crest cells, and showed comparable Na + currents in patch clamp recordings. Interestingly, CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromer expression was significantly increased in cannabis users and positively correlated with the amount of cannabis consumed, and negatively with age of onset of cannabis use. In addition, a negative correlation was found between heteromer expression levels and attention and working memory performance in cannabis users and control subjects. Our findings suggest that cannabis consumption regulates the formation of CB 1 R-5HT 2A R heteromers, and may have a key role in cognitive processing. These heterodimers could be potential new targets to develop treatment alternatives for cognitive impairments.

  20. Perspectives of CB1 Antagonist in Treatment of Obesity: Experience of RIO-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce weight and enhance improvements in cardiometabolic risk parameters in Western populations. This study assessed these effects of rimonabant in Asian population. A total of 643 patients (BMI 25 kg/m2 or greater without diabetes from China, Republic of Korea, and Taiwan were prescribed a hypocaloric diet (600 kcal/day deficit and randomized to rimonabant 20 mg (n=318 or placebo (n=325 for 9months. The primary efficacy variable was weight change from baseline after 9 months of treatment. Results showed that rimonabant group lost more weight than placebo, (LSM ± SEM of −4.7 ± 0.3 kg vs. −1.7 ± 0.3 kg, P<.0001. The 5% and 10% responders were 2 or 3 folds more in the rimonabant group (53.0% vs. 20.0% and 21.5% vs. 5.7%, resp. (P<.0001. Rimonabant also significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, decreased triglycerides and waist circumference,by 7.1%, 10.6%, and 2.8 cm, respectively (P<.0001. This study confirmed the comparable efficacy and safety profile of rimonabant in Asian population to Caucasians. Owing to the recent suspension of all the CB1 antagonists off the pharmaceutical market for weight reduction in Europe and USA, a perspective in drug discovery for intervening peripheral CB1 receptor in the management of obesity is discussed.

  1. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. Methods/Design The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise, limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake. Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life

  2. Empowerment of Waria Ludruk Artists in AIDS/HIV Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah Maimunah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Waria or transgender is one of the key population which has a significant role in the success of HIV/AIDS prevention program in East Java. It is estimated that the biggest waria community is in East Java, particularly in Surabaya. The main objective of this research is improving capacity building of ludruk artist waria through HIV/AIDS prevention program. The study has two objectives; firstly to find the effective strategies in improving waria’s feminine skills such as knitting, hair dressing. Secondly to find the effective programs both on-stage and off-stage to improve the quality of ludruk performance such as revitalizing their marketing management, using social media to promote their schedule to the young generation. Some inportant points can be conluded from this study. Firstly, integrated coordinating system between ludruk artist waria and waria communities such as Perwakos and Iwama should be improved. HIV/AIDS prevention programs become uneffective without coordination. In this point, ludruk artist waria need to know that HIV/AIDS prevention programs such as VCT, HIV testing is free of charge. Secondly, in terms of management internal system, ludruk needs to revitalize the content of the story in their performance to be more compatible with the younger audience. To do so, the cooperation is needed among all the stakeholeders to make ludruk survive in the capitalist industrial show business in Indonesia.Salah satu populasi kunci yang memberi kontribusi tingginya prevalensi HIV dan AIDS di JATIM adalah komunitas waria karena di propinsi ini estimasi jumlah waria terbesar di Indonesia. Penelitian ini akan membahas bagaimana waria seniman ludruk dilibatkan dalam pencegahan HIV/AIDS. Program yang telah dilakukan adalah revitalisasi baik on-stage (diatas panggung dan off-stage (di luar panggung. On-stage memfokuskan pada upaya revitalisasi pertunjukan ludruk dengan sistem dan manajemen pertunjukan yang lebih modern, menarik penonton generasi

  3. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  4. [After the Great East Japan Earthquake : suicide prevention and a gatekeeper program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kotaro; Sakai, Akio; Nakamura, Hikaru; Akahira, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    When considering approaches to mental health in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, as well as the resulting tsunami and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, it is not sufficient to focus interventions solely on individuals experiencing mental health issues. The situation demands a comprehensive approach that includes programs that target improvements to mental health literacy among residents in areas affected by the disaster, the rebuilding of relationships between residents themselves, collaboration with recovery and support activities, and mental health support for people participating in recovery and support efforts. From a medium- to long-term perspective, suicide prevention is an important issue. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts are being promoted in areas of Iwate Prefecture affected by the disaster. In suicide prevention programs, it is crucial to foster the development of human resources in the local community. In order to expand community supports, it is necessary to provide education on ways of supporting those affected by a disaster to local medical personnel, people staffing inquiry and consultation offices, and people in fields related to mental health. Suicide prevention and disaster relief efforts are both approaches that target people in difficulty, and they share commonalities in principles, systems, and approaches to human resource development. "Mental health first aid" is a program developed in Australia that defines methods of early intervention by non-professionals who encounter someone experiencing a mental health problem. The mental health first aid-based gatekeeper training program of the Japanese government's Cabinet Office, which the author's research team helped to develop, allows participants to obtain the knowledge and skills required of gatekeepers. In 2012, a module for disaster-affected areas was developed and added to the program, with additional content that provides program participants with the

  5. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  6. Effect of Modified Alkaline Supplementation on Syngenic Melanoma Growth in CB57/BL Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Tommaso; Lugini, Luana; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Canese, Rossella; Gugliotta, Alessio; Fidanza, Stefano; Fais, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver®) (BP) on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis. BP administration significantly reduced melanoma growth in mice; the optimal dose in terms of tolerability and efficacy was 8 g/l (p< 0.05). The in vivo results were supported by in vitro experiments, wherein BP-treated human and murine melanoma cell cultures exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth. This investigation provides the first proof of concept that systemic buffering can improve tumor control by itself and that this approach may represent a new strategy in prevention and/or treatment of cancers.

  7. Effect of Modified Alkaline Supplementation on Syngenic Melanoma Growth in CB57/BL Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Azzarito

    Full Text Available Tumor extracellular acidity is a hallmark of malignant cancers. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a commercially available water alkalizer (Basenpulver® (BP on tumor growth in a syngenic melanoma mouse model. The alkalizer was administered daily by oral gavage starting one week after tumor implantation in CB57/BL mice. Tumors were calipered and their acidity measured by in vivo MRI guided 31P MRS. Furthermore, urine pH was monitored for potential metabolic alkalosis. BP administration significantly reduced melanoma growth in mice; the optimal dose in terms of tolerability and efficacy was 8 g/l (p< 0.05. The in vivo results were supported by in vitro experiments, wherein BP-treated human and murine melanoma cell cultures exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell growth. This investigation provides the first proof of concept that systemic buffering can improve tumor control by itself and that this approach may represent a new strategy in prevention and/or treatment of cancers.

  8. Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on primary neuronal cells of the forebrain: the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors and apoptotic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Funada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids has become an issue of public concern. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on mouse brain neuronal cells. Cytotoxicity induced by synthetic cannabinoid (CP-55,940, CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8, HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-210, AM-2201, and MAM-2201) was examined using forebrain neuronal cultures. These synthetic cannabinoids induced cytotoxicity in the forebrain cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity was suppressed by preincubation with the selective CB 1 receptor antagonist AM251, but not with the selective CB 2 receptor antagonist AM630. Furthermore, annexin-V-positive cells were found among the treated forebrain cells. Synthetic cannabinoid treatment induced the activation of caspase-3, and preincubation with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity. These synthetic cannabinoids induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in the forebrain cultures. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids towards primary neuronal cells is mediated by the CB 1 receptor, but not by the CB 2 receptor, and further suggest that caspase cascades may play an important role in the apoptosis induced by these synthetic cannabinoids. In conclusion, excessive synthetic cannabinoid abuse may present a serious acute health concern due to neuronal damage or deficits in the brain. - Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids (classical cannabinoids, non-classical cannabinoids, and aminoalkylindole derivatives) induce cytotoxicity in mouse forebrain cultures. • Synthetic cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity towards forebrain cultures is mediated by the CB 1 receptor, but not by the CB 2 receptor, and involves caspase-dependent apoptosis. • A high concentration of synthetic cannabinoids may be toxic to neuronal cells that express CB 1 receptors

  9. Human orexin/hypocretin receptors form constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other and with human CB1 cannabinoid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäntti, Maria H.; Mandrika, Ilona; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • OX 1 and OX 2 orexin and CB 1 cannabinoid receptor dimerization was investigated. • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method was used. • All receptors readily formed constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes. - Abstract: Human OX 1 orexin receptors have been shown to homodimerize and they have also been suggested to heterodimerize with CB 1 cannabinoid receptors. The latter has been suggested to be important for orexin receptor responses and trafficking. In this study, we wanted to assess the ability of the other combinations of receptors to also form similar complexes. Vectors for expression of human OX 1 , OX 2 and CB 1 receptors, C-terminally fused with either Renilla luciferase or GFP 2 green fluorescent protein variant, were generated. The constructs were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and constitutive dimerization between the receptors was assessed by bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET). Orexin receptor subtypes readily formed homo- and hetero(di)mers, as suggested by significant BRET signals. CB 1 receptors formed homodimers, and they also heterodimerized with both orexin receptors. Interestingly, BRET efficiency was higher for homodimers than for almost all heterodimers. This is likely to be due to the geometry of the interaction; the putatively symmetric dimers may place the C-termini in a more suitable orientation in homomers. Fusion of luciferase to an orexin receptor and GFP 2 to CB 1 produced more effective BRET than the opposite fusions, also suggesting differences in geometry. Similar was seen for the OX 1 –OX 2 interaction. In conclusion, orexin receptors have a significant propensity to make homo- and heterodi-/oligomeric complexes. However, it is unclear whether this affects their signaling. As orexin receptors efficiently signal via endocannabinoid production to CB 1 receptors, dimerization could be an effective way of forming signal complexes with optimal cannabinoid concentrations

  10. Impact of a multifaceted community-based falls prevention program on balance-related psychologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène

    2008-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multifaceted falls prevention program including exercise and educational components on perceived balance and balance confidence among community-dwelling seniors. Quasi-experimental design. Community-based organizations. Two hundred community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and over recruited by community-based organizations. A 12-week multifaceted falls prevention program including 3 components (a 1-hour group exercise class held twice a week, a 30-minute home exercise module to be performed at least once a week, a 30-minute educational class held once a week). Perceived balance and balance confidence. Multivariate analysis showed that the program was successful in increasing perceived balance in experimental participants. However, balance confidence was not improved by program participation. A multifaceted community-based falls prevention program that was successful in improving balance performance among community-dwelling seniors also had a positive impact on perceived balance. However, the program did not improve participants' balance confidence. These results suggest that balance confidence has determinants other than balance and that new components and/or modifications of existing components of the program are required to achieve maximal benefits for seniors in terms of physical and psychologic outcomes.

  11. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  12. Adapting Evidence-Based Prevention Approaches for Latino Adolescents: The Familia Adelante Program - Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Cervantes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.

  13. Modulation of Network Oscillatory Activity and GABAergic Synaptic Transmission by CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors in the Rat Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids modulate inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission in many brain regions. Within the temporal lobe, cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed, and are located presynaptically at inhibitory terminals. Here, we have explored the role of type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs at the level of inhibitory synaptic currents and field-recorded network oscillations. We report that arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 10 M, an agonist at CB1R, inhibits GABAergic synaptic transmission onto both superficial and deep medial entorhinal (mEC neurones, but this has little effect on network oscillations in beta/gamma frequency bands. By contrast, the CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist LY320135 (500 nM, increased GABAergic synaptic activity and beta/gamma oscillatory activity in superficial mEC, was suppressed, whilst that in deep mEC was enhanced. These data indicate that cannabinoid-mediated effects on inhibitory synaptic activity may be constitutively active in vitro, and that modulation of CB1R activation using inverse agonists unmasks complex effects of CBR function on network activity.

  14. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. A Graduate Professional Program in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Renee

    1987-01-01

    The City University of New York Graduate School's professional program in translation combines high-level, specialized language learning in French, German, and Spanish with related graduate work in such disciplines as international affairs, finance, banking, jurisprudence, literature, and computer science. (CB)

  16. Primary mental health prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakash, Ora; Razon, Liat; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan (CMHAP) 2013?2020 proposes the implementation of primary prevention strategies to reduce the mental health burden of disease. The extent to which Israeli academic programs and published research adhere to the principles spelled out by the CMHAP is unknown. Objective To investigate the presence of mental health primary prevention themes in published research and academic programs in Israel. Methods We searched for...

  17. Evidence against a critical role of CB1 receptors in adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other consequences of daily repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Carrasco, Javier; Gagliano, Humberto; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Manzanares, Jorge; Armario, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) play a role in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although they appear to have dual, stimulatory and inhibitory, effects. Recent data in rats suggest that eCBs, acting through CB1 receptors (CB1R), may be involved in adaptation of the HPA axis to daily repeated stress. In the present study we analyze this issue in male mice and rats. Using a knock-out mice for the CB1 receptor (CB1-/-) we showed that mutant mice presented similar adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to the first IMO as wild-type mice. Daily repeated exposure to 1h of immobilization reduced the ACTH response to the stressor, regardless of the genotype, demonstrating that adaptation occurred to the same extent in absence of CB1R. Prototypical changes observed after repeated stress such as enhanced corticotropin releasing factor (CRH) gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, impaired body weight gain and reduced thymus weight were similarly observed in both genotypes. The lack of effect of CB1R in the expression of HPA adaptation to another similar stressor (restraint) was confirmed in wild-type CD1 mice by the lack of effect of the CB1R antagonist AM251 just before the last exposure to stress. Finally, the latter drug did not blunt the HPA, glucose and behavioral adaptation to daily repeated forced swim in rats. Thus, the present results indicate that CB1R is not critical for overall effects of daily repeated stress or proper adaptation of the HPA axis in mice and rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral haloperidol or olanzapine intake produces distinct and region-specific increase in cannabinoid receptor levels that is prevented by high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Shroff, Aditya; Leonard, Kenneth E; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2017-10-03

    Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1.5mg/kg), or olanzapine drinking solution (10mg/kg) for four weeks. Motor and cognitive functions were tested at the end of treatment week 3 and upon drug discontinuation. Two days after drug discontinuation, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography. In chow-fed animals, haloperidol and olanzapine increased CB1R levels in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus, in a similar, but not identical pattern. In addition, olanzapine had unique effects in CB1R upregulation in higher order cognitive areas, in the secondary somatosensory cortex, in the visual and auditory cortices and the geniculate nuclei, as well as in the hypothalamus. High fat food consumption prevented antipsychotic-induced increase in CB1R levels in all regions examined, with one exception, the globus pallidus, in which they were higher in haloperidol-treated rats. The results point towards the hypothesis that increased CB1R levels could be a confounding effect of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia that is circumveneted by high fat feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2016-07-01

    Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Agonist-induced CXCR4 and CB2 Heterodimerization Inhibits Gα13/RhoA-mediated Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Kisha A; White, El-Shaddai Z; Coke, Christopher J; Carter, Jada R; Bryant, Latoya K; Hinton, Cimona V

    2018-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimerization has emerged as a means by which alternative signaling entities can be created; yet, how receptor heterodimers affect receptor pharmacology remains unknown. Previous observations suggested a biochemical antagonism between GPCRs, CXCR4 and CB2 (CNR2), where agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound CB2 formed a physiologically nonfunctional heterodimer on the membrane of cancer cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential in vitro However, the reduced signaling entities responsible for the observed functional outputs remain elusive. This study now delineates the signaling mechanism whereby heterodimeric association between CXCR4 and CB2, induced by simultaneous agonist treatment, results in decreased CXCR4-mediated cell migration, invasion, and adhesion through inhibition of the Gα13/RhoA signaling axis. Activation of CXCR4 by its cognate ligand, CXCL12, stimulates Gα13 (GNA13), and subsequently, the small GTPase RhoA, which is required for directional cell migration and the metastatic potential of cancer cells. These studies in prostate cancer cells demonstrate decreased protein expression levels of Gα13 and RhoA upon simultaneous CXCR4/CB2 agonist stimulation. Furthermore, the agonist-induced heterodimer abrogated RhoA-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement resulting in the attenuation of cell migration and invasion of an endothelial cell barrier. Finally, a reduction was observed in the expression of integrin α5 (ITGA5) upon heterodimerization, supported by decreased cell adhesion to extracellular matrices in vitro Taken together, the data identify a novel pharmacologic mechanism for the modulation of tumor cell migration and invasion in the context of metastatic disease. Implications: This study investigates a signaling mechanism by which GPCR heterodimerization inhibits cancer cell migration. Mol Cancer Res; 16(4); 728-39. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Dielectric relaxation studies in 5CB nematic liquid crystal at 9 GHz ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance width, shift in resonance frequency, relaxation time and activation energy of 5CB nematic liquid crystal are measured using microwave cavity technique under the influence of an external magnetic field at 9 GHz and at different temperatures. The dielectric response in liquid crystal at different temperatures and ...

  2. Preventing violence against children in schools: Contributions from the Be Safe program in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry

    2018-02-01

    Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The inception and evolution of a unique masters program in cancer biology, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Carolyn; Blancato, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (LCCC), Georgetown University Medical Center established a Masters Degree Program in Cancer Biology, Prevention and Control at UDC that is jointly administered and taught by UDC and LCCC faculty. The goal of the Masters Degree Program is to educate students as master-level cancer professionals capable of conducting research and service in cancer biology, prevention, and control or to further advance the education of students to pursue doctoral studies. The Program's unique nature is reflected in its philosophy "the best cancer prevention and control researchers are those with a sound understanding of cancer biology". This program is a full-time, 2-year, 36-credit degree in which students take half of their coursework at UDC and half of their coursework at LCCC. During the second year, students are required to conduct research either at LCCC or UDC. Unlike most cancer biology programs, this unique Program emphasizes both cancer biology and cancer outreach training.

  4. CB1 receptor-mediated signaling underlies the hippocampal synaptic, learning, and memory deficits following treatment with JWH-081, a new component of spice/K2 preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-02-01

    Recently, synthetic cannabinoids have been sprayed onto plant material, which is subsequently packaged and sold as "Spice" or "K2" to mimic the effects of marijuana. A recent report identified several synthetic additives in samples of "Spice/K2", including JWH-081, a synthetic ligand for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). The deleterious effects of JWH-081 on brain function are not known, particularly on CB1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we evaluated the effects of JWH-081 on pCaMKIV, pCREB, and pERK1/2 signaling events followed by long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks using CB1 receptor wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Acute administration of JWH-081 impaired CaMKIV phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, whereas inhibition of CREB phosphorylation in CB1 receptor WT mice was observed only at higher dose of JWH-081 (1.25 mg/kg). JWH-081 at higher dose impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice and failed to alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, SR treated or CB1 receptor KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio compared with vehicle or WT littermates. In hippocampal slices, JWH-081 impaired LTP in CB1 receptor WT but not in KO littermates. Furthermore, JWH-081 at higher dose impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory on the Y-maze in CB1 receptor WT mice but not in KO mice. Collectively our findings suggest that deleterious effects of JWH-081 on hippocampal function involves CB1 receptor mediated impairments in CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, LTP, learning and memory in mice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  6. A Facebook-Based Obesity Prevention Program for Korean American Adolescents: Usability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bu Kyung; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Rogers, Valerie E; Choi, Mona; Friedmann, Erika; Wilson, Marisa; Koru, Gunes

    Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. Social networking sites are currently popular among adolescents. Therefore, the obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents was developed on the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a culturally tailored Facebook-based obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents (Healthy Teens). An explorative descriptive design of usability testing was used. Usability testing employing one-on-one observation, the think-aloud method, audio taping, screen activity capture, and surveys was performed. Twenty participants were recruited from two Korean language schools (mean age, 15.40 ± 1.50 years). Recruitment and user testing was performed between February and April 2014. Content analysis, using the inductive coding approach, was performed by three coders to analyze transcriptions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data including demographic characteristics, perceived usability, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Testing revealed several usability issues in content, appearance, and navigation. Participants' comments regarding content were positive. Although the Facebook platform provided limited flexibility with respect to building the site, participants described the program's appearance as appropriate. Most participants did not experience difficulty in navigating the program. Our preliminary findings indicated that participants perceived the Healthy Teens program as usable and useful. This program could be used as a robust platform for the delivery of health education to adolescents. Further research is required to assess the effects of Facebook-based programs on adolescent obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  8. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  9. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  10. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  11. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  12. Perceived Benefits and Barriers of a Community-Based Diabetes Prevention and Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha; Misra, Ranjita

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the perceptions of benefits of and barriers to participating in a community-based diabetes program to improve program effectiveness. The Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program was a twenty-two session, 1-year program, modeled after the evidence-based National Diabetes Prevention Program and AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors framework. Community-based participatory research approach was used to culturally tailor the curriculum. Participants included overweight or obese adults with dysglycemia. A benefits and barriers survey was developed to gather information on participants' perception of the program, as well as information on demographics and health literacy levels. Eighty-nine adults participated in the DPM program (73% females; 62% diabetic; 77% had adequate health literacy); 79% of participants completed the benefits and barriers survey. Principal component analysis indicated two components representing benefits (Cronbach's α = 0.83) and barriers (α = 0.65). The majority perceived high benefits and low barriers to program participation; benefits included helpful interaction with health coach or program leader (73%), improved lifestyle modification (65%) due to the program, and satisfaction with the program (75%). Open-ended questions confirmed themes related to benefits of program participation, suggestion for programmatic improvements as well as barriers to participation. Participant feedback could be used to guide interventions and tailor future program implementation.

  13. Comparing Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Programs Between VA and Non-VA Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Greene, M. Todd; Saint, Sanjay; Meddings, Jennifer; Trautner, Barbara W.; Wald, Heidi L.; Crnich, Christopher; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; McNamara, Sara E.; King, Beth J.; Hogikyan, Robert; Edson, Barbara; Krein, Sarah L.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The impact of healthcare system integration on infection prevention programs is unknown. Using catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention as an example, we hypothesize that U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes have a more robust infection prevention infrastructure due to integration and centralization compared with non-VA nursing homes. SETTING VA and non-VA nursing homes participating in the “AHRQ Safety Program for Long-term Care” collaborative. METHODS Nursing homes provided baseline information about their infection prevention programs to assess strengths and gaps related to CAUTI prevention. RESULTS A total of 353 (71%; 47 VA, 306 non-VA) of 494 nursing homes from 41 states responded. VA nursing homes reported more hours/week devoted to infection prevention-related activities (31 vs. 12 hours, P<.001), and were more likely to have committees that reviewed healthcare-associated infections. Compared with non-VA facilities, a higher percentage of VA nursing homes reported tracking CAUTI rates (94% vs. 66%, P<.001), sharing CAUTI data with leadership (94% vs. 70%, P=.014) and nursing personnel (85% vs. 56%, P=.003). However, fewer VA nursing homes reported having policies for appropriate catheter use (64% vs. 81%, P=.004) and catheter insertion (83% vs. 94%, P=.004). CONCLUSIONS Among nursing homes participating in an AHRQ-funded collaborative, VA and non-VA nursing homes differed in their approach to CAUTI prevention. Best practices from both settings should be applied universally to create an optimal infection prevention program within emerging integrated healthcare systems. PMID:27917728

  14. Changes in interleukin-1 signal modulators induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: regulation by CB2 receptors and implications for neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Esther

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA produces a neuroinflammatory reaction in rat brain characterized by an increase in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and microglial activation. The CB2 receptor agonist JWH-015 reduces both these changes and partially protects against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. We have examined MDMA-induced changes in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra levels and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI expression and the effects of JWH-015. The cellular location of IL-1β and IL-1RI was also examined. MDMA-treated animals were given the soluble form of IL-1RI (sIL-1RI and neurotoxic effects examined. Methods Dark Agouti rats received MDMA (12.5 mg/kg, i.p. and levels of IL-1ra and expression of IL-1RI measured 1 h, 3 h or 6 h later. JWH-015 (2.4 mg/kg, i.p. was injected 48 h, 24 h and 0.5 h before MDMA and IL-1ra and IL-1RI measured. For localization studies, animals were sacrificed 1 h or 3 h following MDMA and stained for IL-1β or IL-1RI in combination with neuronal and microglial markers. sIL-1RI (3 μg/animal; i.c.v. was administered 5 min before MDMA and 3 h later. 5-HT transporter density was determined 7 days after MDMA injection. Results MDMA produced an increase in IL-ra levels and a decrease in IL-1RI expression in hypothalamus which was prevented by CB2 receptor activation. IL-1RI expression was localized on neuronal cell bodies while IL-1β expression was observed in microglial cells following MDMA. sIL-1RI potentiated MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. MDMA also increased IgG immunostaining indicating that blood brain-barrier permeability was compromised. Conclusions In summary, MDMA produces changes in IL-1 signal modulators which are modified by CB2 receptor activation. These results indicate that IL-1β may play a partial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Candidate PET radioligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors: [18F]AM5144 and related pyrazole compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zizhong; Gifford, Andrew; Liu Qian; Thotapally, Rajesh; Ding Yushin; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Gatley, S. John

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The mammalian brain contains abundant G protein-coupled cannabinoid CB 1 receptors that respond to Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis. The availability of a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand would facilitate studies of the addictive and medicinal properties of compounds that bind to this receptor. Among the known classes of ligands for CB 1 receptors, the pyrazoles are attractive targets for radiopharmaceutical development because they are antagonists and are generally less lipophilic than the other classes. Methods: A convenient high-yield synthesis of N-(4-[ 18 F]fluorophenyl)-5-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM5144) was devised by coupling the appropriate pyrazole-3-carboxyl chloride compound with 4-[ 18 F]fluoroaniline. The labeled precursor was synthesized from 1-[ 18 F]fluoro-4-nitrobenzene in 60% radiochemical yield for 10 min using an improved procedure involving sodium borohydride reduction with cobalt chloride catalysis. The product was purified by HPLC to give a specific activity >400 mCi/μmol and a radiochemical purity >95%, and a PET study was conducted in a baboon. Results: Although the regional uptake of AM5144 in baboon brain was consistent with binding to cannabinoid CB 1 receptors, absolute uptake at 1 receptor ligands is not surprising because of their high lipophilicity as compared with most brain PET radiotracers. However, for nine pyrazole compounds for which rodent data are available, brain uptake and calculated logP values are not correlated. Thus, high logP values should not preclude evaluation of radiotracers for targets such as the CB 1 receptor that may require very lipophilic ligands

  16. A qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 National Academic Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kristin M; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Dela Cruz, Jason; Massetti, Greta M; Mahendra, Reshma

    2015-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) funded eight National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2005 to 2010 and two Urban Partnership Academic Centers of Excellence (UPACEs) in Youth Violence Prevention from 2006 to 2011. The ACEs and UPACEs constitute DVP's 2005-2011 ACE Program. ACE Program goals include partnering with communities to promote youth violence (YV) prevention and fostering connections between research and community practice. This article describes a qualitative evaluation of the 2005-2011 ACE Program using an innovative approach for collecting and analyzing data from multiple large research centers via a web-based Information System (ACE-IS). The ACE-IS was established as an efficient mechanism to collect and document ACE research and programmatic activities. Performance indicators for the ACE Program were established in an ACE Program logic model. Data on performance indicators were collected through the ACE-IS biannually. Data assessed Centers' ability to develop, implement, and evaluate YV prevention activities. Performance indicator data demonstrate substantial progress on Centers' research in YV risk and protective factors, community partnerships, and other accomplishments. Findings provide important lessons learned, illustrate progress made by the Centers, and point to new directions for YV prevention research and programmatic efforts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Involvement of Gaba and Cannabinoid Receptors in Central Food Intake Regulation in Neonatal Layer Chicks: Role of CB1 and Gabaa Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zendehdel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Feeding behavior is regulated via a complex network which interacts via diverse signals from central and peripheral tissues. Endocannabinoids modulate release of GABA in a variety of regions of the central nervous system. Endocannabinoids and GABAergic system have an important role in the central regulation of appetite. Thus, the present study examines the possible interaction of central canabinoidergic and GABAergic systems on food intake in 3-h food-deprived (FD3 neonatal layer-type chicks. The results of this study showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, selective CB1 receptors agonist, 2µg significantly increased food intake and this effect of 2-AG was attenuated by Picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist, 0.5µg (P0.05. Also, hyperphagic effect of CB65 (CB2 receptors agonist, 1.25µg was not affected by Picrotoxin or CGP54626 (p>0.05. Moreover, the food intake of chicks was significantly increased by ICV injection of GABAA agonist (Gaboxadol, 0.2 µg and SR141716A (CB1 receptors antagonist, 6.25µg significantly decreased Gaboxadol-induced hyperphagia (P0.05. These data showed there might be an interaction between central cannabinoidergic and GABAergic systems via CB1 and GABAA receptors in control of food intake in neonatal layer chicks.

  18. A Pilot Study for Linking Adolescent Patients to an Interactive Tobacco Prevention Program

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    Karen S. Calabro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.

  19. Cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on primary neuronal cells of the forebrain: the involvement of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors and apoptotic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiyama, Ken-ichi; Funada, Masahiko, E-mail: mfunada@ncnp.go.jp

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids has become an issue of public concern. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids on mouse brain neuronal cells. Cytotoxicity induced by synthetic cannabinoid (CP-55,940, CP-47,497, CP-47,497-C8, HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-210, AM-2201, and MAM-2201) was examined using forebrain neuronal cultures. These synthetic cannabinoids induced cytotoxicity in the forebrain cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity was suppressed by preincubation with the selective CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251, but not with the selective CB{sub 2} receptor antagonist AM630. Furthermore, annexin-V-positive cells were found among the treated forebrain cells. Synthetic cannabinoid treatment induced the activation of caspase-3, and preincubation with a caspase-3 inhibitor significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity. These synthetic cannabinoids induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in the forebrain cultures. Our results indicate that the cytotoxicity of synthetic cannabinoids towards primary neuronal cells is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and further suggest that caspase cascades may play an important role in the apoptosis induced by these synthetic cannabinoids. In conclusion, excessive synthetic cannabinoid abuse may present a serious acute health concern due to neuronal damage or deficits in the brain. - Highlights: • Synthetic cannabinoids (classical cannabinoids, non-classical cannabinoids, and aminoalkylindole derivatives) induce cytotoxicity in mouse forebrain cultures. • Synthetic cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity towards forebrain cultures is mediated by the CB{sub 1} receptor, but not by the CB{sub 2} receptor, and involves caspase-dependent apoptosis. • A high concentration of synthetic cannabinoids may be toxic to neuronal cells that express CB{sub 1} receptors.

  20. Effects of perfusion pressure and insulin on (3H) cytochalasin B (CB) binding to control and diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleta, M.; Chan, T.

    1987-01-01

    Using ( 3 H) CB, they attempted to quantitate the changes in the amount of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular membranes (HSP) prepared from rat hearts perfused with insulin, under low and high pressure. Membranes isolated from non-perfused hearts showed a PM/HSP ratio of (0.593). Hearts perfused with low pressure showed a lower ratio of (0.474). Perfusion with insulin increased the ratio to (1.8), almost a 3-4 fold increase from low perfusion pressure. These data correlate with insulin effects in glucose transport and CB binding in the fat cells. High pressure perfusion increased the PM/HSP ratio by 1-2 fold. ( 3 H) 2-DG transport indicates a comparable increase in glucose uptake with high pressure, but with insulin only a 1.5 fold increase was observed. Initial data obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) injected diabetic rats indicate low CB binding in the PM fraction. Only insulin, but not high perfusion pressure increased PM/HSP ratio in the STZ-diabetic hearts. Their data imply that while both caused apparent translocation of glucose transporters, influences on cardiac glucose metabolism by work load are different. Furthermore, STZ induced diabetes affected only the high perfusion pressure-induced and not the insulin-stimulated change in CB binding

  1. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  2. Diabetes prevention education program for community health care workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 4-month training program on the knowledge of CHCWs. CHCWs from 69 communities in Chiang Mai province in Thailand were assigned to the intervention group (IG, n=35) or control group (CG, n=34). All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline and at 4-months. The intervention group received a training program of 16 sessions of 2.5 h each within a 4-month period. A mix of classroom and E-learning approaches was used. All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline, 4-month, and follow-up at 8-month. Assessment was based on a pretested examination addressing understanding of nutritional terms and recommendations, knowledge of food sources related to diabetes prevention and diet-disease associations. Overall, the knowledge at baseline of both groups was not significantly different and all CHCWs scored lower than the 70% (mean (SD), 56.5% (6.26) for IG and 54.9% (6.98) for CG). After 4-month, CHCWs in the IG demonstrated improvement in total scores from baseline to 75.5% (6.01), P< .001 and relative to the CG 57.4% (5.59), P< .001. The follow up phase at 8-month, IG were higher in total scores than CG (71.3% (7.36) and 62.4% (6.81), P< .001). The diabetes prevention education program was effective in improving CHCWs' health knowledge relevant to diabetes prevention. The innovative learning model has potential to expand chronic disease prevention training of CHCWs to other parts of Thailand.

  3. Text messaging based obesity prevention program for parents of pre-adolescent African American girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are ...

  4. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Viñals

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  5. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñals, Xavier; Moreno, Estefanía; Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  6. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  7. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  8. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B; Hanlon, Thomas E; O'Grady, Kevin E; Watts, Amy M; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth.

  9. Het endocannabinoïdsysteem, overgewicht en de CB1-endocannabinoïdreceptorblokker rimonabant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekholdt, S. M.; Jukema, J. W.; Peters, R. J. G.

    2007-01-01

    --Obesity is an important healthcare issue. --Recent research has led to insights into the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of body weight. --Rimonabant is a CB1-endocannabinoid-receptor antagonist. --Four trials were published recently on the efficacy and safety of rimonabant in

  10. Universal Prevention Program Outcomes: Safe Schools Healthy Students in a Rural, Multicultural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; McFarland, Joyce; Siebold, Wendi; Aguilar, Rafael; Sarmiento, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Consortium for Safe Schools Healthy Students consists of three school districts in rural North Central Idaho and the Nez Perce Tribe's Students for Success Program. Universal prevention programs implemented in the elementary schools include Second Step and the middle schools implemented the Life Skills program. Each of the three…

  11. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

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    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  12. Can community care workers deliver a falls prevention exercise program? A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Gill Lewin,2 Hilary O’Connell,3 Mark Petrich,4,5 Eileen Boyle,1 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3Independent Living Centre Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 4Western Australian Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Background: Almost half of older people receiving community care fall each year and this rate has not improved in the last decade. Falls prevention programs targeted at this group are uncommon, and expensively delivered by university trained allied health professionals. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of community care workers delivering a falls prevention exercise program to older clients, at low or medium risk of falling, as part of an existing service provision. Patients and methods: Community care workers from 10 community care organizations participated in the training for, and delivery to their clients of, an 8-week evidence-based falls prevention exercise program. Community care workers included assessment staff (responsible for identifying the need for community care services through completing an assessment and support workers (responsible for providing support in the home. Clients were surveyed anonymously at the completion of the intervention and workers participated in a semi-structured interview. Results: Twenty-five community care workers participated in the study. The falls prevention program was delivered to 29 clients, with an average age of 82.7 (SD: 8.72 years and consisting of 65.5% female. The intervention was delivered safely with no adverse events recorded, and the eligibility and assessment tools

  13. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  14. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champak; Dlamini, Siyabonga; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Eggers, Matthijs S; De Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Researchers aimed to determine the effects of a teenage pregnancy (TP) prevention program for 816 high school students attending 16 KwaZulu-Natal, South African schools through a randomized control trial. Data were collected at baseline and at the 8-month follow-up in 2009. Results were calculated using multivariate analyses of program effects employing Mplus 6, and indicated significantly healthier attitudes, including intentions to abstain from sex whilst at school, plans to communicate with partners about teenage pregnancy, and increased reports of condom use. Researchers thus provide some support for the effectiveness of a TP prevention program that should be further strengthened in a comprehensive approach that includes schools and families.

  15. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  16. Partnership for fragility bone fracture care provision and prevention program (P4Bones: study protocol for a secondary fracture prevention pragmatic controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboury Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures associated with bone fragility in older adults signal the potential for secondary fracture. Fragility fractures often precipitate further decline in health and loss of mobility, with high associated costs for patients, families, society and the healthcare system. Promptly initiating a coordinated, comprehensive pharmacological bone health and falls prevention program post-fracture may improve osteoporosis treatment compliance; and reduce rates of falls and secondary fractures, and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Methods/design This pragmatic, controlled trial at 11 hospital sites in eight regions in Quebec, Canada, will recruit community-dwelling patients over age 50 who have sustained a fragility fracture to an intervention coordinated program or to standard care, according to the site. Site study coordinators will identify and recruit 1,596 participants for each study arm. Coordinators at intervention sites will facilitate continuity of care for bone health, and arrange fall prevention programs including physical exercise. The intervention teams include medical bone specialists, primary care physicians, pharmacists, nurses, rehabilitation clinicians, and community program organizers. The primary outcome of this study is the incidence of secondary fragility fractures within an 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes include initiation and compliance with bone health medication; time to first fall and number of clinically significant falls; fall-related hospitalization and mortality; physical activity; quality of life; fragility fracture-related costs; admission to a long term care facility; participants’ perceptions of care integration, expectations and satisfaction with the program; and participants’ compliance with the fall prevention program. Finally, professionals at intervention sites will participate in focus groups to identify barriers and facilitating factors for the integrated

  17. The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for "Proven" School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Chrismer, Sara Schwartz; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote evidence-based practice, government officials, researchers, and program developers have developed lists of model programs in the prevention field. This article reviews the evidence used by seven best-practice lists to select five model prevention programs. The authors' examination of this research raises questions about the…

  18. The Value Proposition of Prevention: The Impacts of Pure North S’Energy Foundation’s Preventive Care Program on Acute Care Utilization in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Pure North S’Energy Foundation’s preventive health services shows that the acute health care cost savings of being pro-active, rather than reactive, and averting chronic disease, are significant, immediate and worth pursuing further. Chronic disease, such as cardiovascular maladies, diabetes, cancer and other long-term illnesses, represents the leading cause of disability and death in Canada. An estimated 25 per cent of expenditures in the public health system go towards treating these frequently avoidable diseases. This health-care cost curve, which sees more money expended on fighting the increase of chronic disease, can be bent, so to speak, through prevention services that offer long-term benefits to people’s health. Preventing disease is not just good for individuals, but for the health system in general, as prevention frees up acute care beds for more timely access by those who need them. The concern for health care decision makers struggling to find dollars to meet current health care needs is that investment in prevention is risky compared spending on medical treatment. It is often expressed that the health cost savings of prevention are too far off in the future and there is a lack of convincing evidence that preventive services and interventions will achieve the health gains expected. Pure North offers participants in its eight-year-old program access to a variety of healthcare practitioners, including doctors, naturopaths, nurses, nurse practitioners and dentists. Participants receive lifestyle counselling and dietary supplements aimed at combating vitamin D insufficiency, obesity, insulin resistance and other problems that can lead to chronic disease. Our study found that participants who stay with the program for two years demonstrate significant reductions in their number of visits to emergency rooms and hospitals. Indeed, after just one year in the program, the number of hospital visits was down 27 per cent

  19. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G; Stone, Patricia W; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs.

  20. Electronic surveillance systems in infection prevention: Organizational support, program characteristics, and user satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grota, Patti G.; Stone, Patricia W.; Jordan, Sarah; Pogorzelska, Monika; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) is gradually increasing in infection prevention and control programs. Little is known about the characteristics of hospitals that have a ESS, user satisfaction with ESSs, and organizational support for implementation of ESSs. Methods A total of 350 acute care hospitals in California were invited to participate in a Web-based survey; 207 hospitals (59%) agreed to participate. The survey included a description of infection prevention and control department staff, where and how they spent their time, a measure of organizational support for infection prevention and control, and reported experience with ESSs. Results Only 23% (44/192) of responding infection prevention and control departments had an ESS. No statistically significant difference was seen in how and where infection preventionists (IPs) who used an ESS and those who did not spend their time. The 2 significant predictors of whether an ESS was present were score on the Organizational Support Scale (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.18) and hospital bed size (OR, 1.004; 95% CI, 1.00-1.007). Organizational support also was positively correlated with IP satisfaction with the ESS, as measured on the Computer Usability Scale (P = .02). Conclusion Despite evidence that such systems may improve efficiency of data collection and potentially improve patient outcomes, ESSs remain relatively uncommon in infection prevention and control programs. Based on our findings, organizational support appears to be a major predictor of the presence, use, and satisfaction with ESSs in infection prevention and control programs. PMID:20176411

  1. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  2. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods : Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%, occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions : A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  3. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  4. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh; E. V. Sokolovskiy

    2017-01-01

    A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  5. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  6. Home visitation programs: an untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I

    2017-02-01

    Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  8. The 16 CB11(CH3)(n)(CD3)(12-n)(center dot) Radicals with 5-Fold Substitution Symmetry: Spin Density Distribution in CB11Me12 center dot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaleta, Jiří; Tarábek, Ján; Akdag, A.; Pohl, Radek; Michl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 20 (2012), s. 10819-10824 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC203/09/J058 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550906 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : anion * oxidation * polymerization * isobutylene * carboranes * CB11Me12 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2012

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  11. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  12. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H. Y. S.; Chan, K. K. L.; Cheung, A. N. Y.; Garland, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to health care is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  13. An analysis of the thermodynamic efficiency for exhaust gas recirculation-condensed water recirculation-waste heat recovery condensing boilers (EGR-CWR-WHR CB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Eon; Yu, Byeonghun; Lee, Seungro

    2015-01-01

    This study presents fundamental research on the development of a new boiler that is expected to have a higher efficiency and lower emissions than existing boilers. The thermodynamic efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation-condensed water recirculation-waste heat recovery condensing boilers (EGR-CWR-WHR CB) was calculated using thermodynamic analysis and was compared with other boilers. The results show the possibility of obtaining a high efficiency when the temperature of the exhaust gas is controlled within 50–60 °C because water in the exhaust gas is condensed within this temperature range. In addition, the enthalpy emitted by the exhaust gas for the new boiler is smaller because the amount of condensed water is increased by the high dew-point temperature and the low exhaust gas temperature. Thus, the new boiler can obtain a higher efficiency than can older boilers. The efficiency of the EGR-CWR-WHR CB proposed in this study is 93.91%, which is 7.04% higher than that of existing CB that is currently used frequently. - Highlights: • The study presents the development of a new boiler expected to have a high efficiency. • Thermodynamic efficiency of EGR-CWR-WHR condensing boiler was calculated. • Efficiency of EGR-CWR-WHR CB is 93.91%, which is 7.04% higher than existing CB

  14. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  15. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  16. Secondary prevention after minor stroke and TIA - usual care and development of a support program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leistner

    Full Text Available Effective methods of secondary prevention after stroke or TIA are available but adherence to recommended evidence-based treatments is often poor. The study aimed to determine the quality of secondary prevention in usual care and to develop a stepwise modeled support program.Two consecutive cohorts of patients with acute minor stroke or TIA undergoing usual outpatient care versus a secondary prevention program were compared. Risk factor control and medication adherence were assessed in 6-month follow-ups (6M-FU. Usual care consisted of detailed information concerning vascular risk factor targets given at discharge and regular outpatient care by primary care physicians. The stepwise modeled support program additionally employed up to four outpatient appointments. A combination of educational and behavioral strategies was employed.168 patients in the observational cohort who stated their openness to participate in a prevention program (mean age 64.7 y, admission blood pressure (BP: 155/84 mmHg and 173 patients participating in the support program (mean age 67.6 y, BP: 161/84 mmHg were assessed at 6 months. Proportions of patients with BP according to guidelines were 50% in usual-care and 77% in the support program (p<0.01. LDL<100 mg/dl was measured in 62 versus 71% (p = 0.12. Proportions of patients who stopped smoking were 50 versus 79% (p<0.01. 72 versus 89% of patients with atrial fibrillation were on oral anticoagulation (p = 0.09.Risk factor control remains unsatisfactory in usual care. Targets of secondary prevention were met more often within the supported cohort. Effects on (cerebro-vascular recurrence rates are going to be assessed in a multicenter randomized trial.

  17. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  18. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  19. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  20. Candidate PET radioligands for cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors: [{sup 18}F]AM5144 and related pyrazole compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizhong, Li [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gifford, Andrew [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Qian, Liu [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thotapally, Rajesh [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Yushin, Ding [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Makriyannis, Alexandros [Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gatley, S John [Center for Translational Neuroimaging, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The mammalian brain contains abundant G protein-coupled cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors that respond to {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis. The availability of a positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand would facilitate studies of the addictive and medicinal properties of compounds that bind to this receptor. Among the known classes of ligands for CB{sub 1} receptors, the pyrazoles are attractive targets for radiopharmaceutical development because they are antagonists and are generally less lipophilic than the other classes. Methods: A convenient high-yield synthesis of N-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorophenyl)-5-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)- 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM5144) was devised by coupling the appropriate pyrazole-3-carboxyl chloride compound with 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoroaniline. The labeled precursor was synthesized from 1-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-4-nitrobenzene in 60% radiochemical yield for 10 min using an improved procedure involving sodium borohydride reduction with cobalt chloride catalysis. The product was purified by HPLC to give a specific activity >400 mCi/{mu}mol and a radiochemical purity >95%, and a PET study was conducted in a baboon. Results: Although the regional uptake of AM5144 in baboon brain was consistent with binding to cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors, absolute uptake at <0.003% injected radioactivity per cubic centimeter was lower than the previously reported uptake of the radioiodinated pyrazole AM281. Conclusions: The relatively poor brain uptake of AM5144 and other pyrazole CB{sub 1} receptor ligands is not surprising because of their high lipophilicity as compared with most brain PET radiotracers. However, for nine pyrazole compounds for which rodent data are available, brain uptake and calculated logP values are not correlated. Thus, high logP values should not preclude evaluation of radiotracers for targets such as the CB{sub 1} receptor that may require very lipophilic ligands.

  1. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  2. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  3. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  4. Programs of the preventive interventions against sexually transmitted infections in the high-risk subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Krasnoselskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review article highlights the practical issues of design, implementation and effectiveness estimation of STI prevention programs aimed to correct the behavior leading to infection. the importance of epidemiological modeling method for the organization of preventive interventions is discussed. the prospects of the multidisciplinary behavioral approach to STI prevention are demonstrated.

  5. Highly Branched Polyisobutylene by Radical Polymerization under Li[CB11(CH3)(12)] Catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkis, V.; Shoemaker, R. K.; Michl, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 23 (2012), s. 9250-9257 ISSN 0024-9297 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Dodecamethylcarba-closo-dodecaborate(-)Anion * polymerization * LiCB11(CH3)(12) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  6. Building upon Bystander Intervention: A Multi-Component Prevention Programming Approach for University Sorority Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence on college campuses is a pervasive problem with the potential for extensive physical and psychological health consequences. Institutions have begun implementing prevention programs; however, more research is needed to understand whether these programs are effective. Bystander intervention programs have increased in popularity…

  7. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  8. Regulation of hippocampal cannabinoid CB1 receptor actions by adenosine A1 receptors and chronic caffeine administration: implications for the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vasco C; Assaife-Lopes, Natália; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Pratt, Judith A; Brett, Ros R; Sebastião, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    The cannabinoid CB(1) receptor-mediated modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons is important for the integrity of hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Although adenosine A(1) receptors have a central role in fine-tuning excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, A(1) receptors localized in GABAergic cells do not directly influence GABA release. CB(1) and A(1) receptors are the main targets for the effects of two of the most heavily consumed psychoactive substances worldwide: Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a CB(1) receptor agonist) and caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist). We first tested the hypothesis that an A(1)-CB(1) interaction influences GABA and glutamate release in the hippocampus. We found that A(1) receptor activation attenuated the CB(1)-mediated inhibition of GABA and glutamate release and this interaction was manifested at the level of G-protein activation. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we then investigated the functional implications of the adenosine-cannabinoid interplay that may arise following chronic caffeine consumption. Chronic administration of caffeine in mice (intraperitoneally, 3 mg/kg/day, for 15 days, >12 h before trials) led to an A(1)-mediated enhancement of the CB(1)-dependent acute disruptive effects of THC on a short-term spatial memory task, despite inducing a reduction in cortical and hippocampal CB(1) receptor number and an attenuation of CB(1) coupling with G protein. A(1) receptor levels were increased following chronic caffeine administration. This study shows that A(1) receptors exert a negative modulatory effect on CB(1)-mediated inhibition of GABA and glutamate release, and provides the first evidence of chronic caffeine-induced alterations on the cannabinoid system in the cortex and hippocampus, with functional implications in spatial memory.

  9. Knowledge, behavioral practices, and experiences of outdoor fallers: Implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Raveis, Victoria

    2017-09-01

    Although the epidemiology and prevention of falls has been well studied, the focus has been on indoor rather than outdoor falls. Older adults' knowledge of outdoor risk factors and their outdoor fall prevention practices have not been examined. To fill this gap, and to inform the development of a prevention program, we sought to explore the experiences and fall prevention knowledge and practices of older adults who had sustained an outdoor fall. A cross-sectional study using random digit telephone dialing was used to survey community dwelling seniors (N=120) across the five boroughs of New York City. We used the Outdoor Falls Questionnaire (OFQ), a valid and reliable tool as the survey instrument. Perceived outdoor fall risks, strategies used for prevention, and outdoor fall experiences were examined. SPSS version 21 was used for descriptive analysis of participant characteristics and to determine frequencies of perceived outdoor fall risks and strategies used for prevention. Phenomenological analysis was used with the qualitative data. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed separately and a mixed methods matrix was used to interpret and integrate the findings. Analysis revealed diverse unmet education and training needs including the importance of using single vision glasses, understanding the fall risks associated with recreational areas and parking lots, safe outdoor walking strategies, safe carrying of items on level and uneven surfaces, as well as when walking up and down stairs, and safety in opening/closing doors. Study findings are informative for outdoor fall prevention programs as well as practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preventing child maltreatment: Examination of an established statewide home-visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Gaither, Julie R; Hughes, Marcia; Foley-Schain, Karen; Leventhal, John M

    2018-05-01

    Although home visiting has been used in many populations in prevention efforts, the impact of scaled-up home-visiting programs on abuse and neglect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of voluntary participation in an established statewide home-visiting program for socially high-risk families on child maltreatment as identified by Child Protective Services (CPS). Propensity score matching was used to compare socially high-risk families with a child born between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 who participated in Connecticut's home-visiting program for first-time mothers and a comparison cohort of families who were eligible for the home-visiting program but did not participate. The main outcomes were child maltreatment investigations, substantiations, and out-of-home placements by CPS between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. In the unmatched sample, families who participated in home-visiting had significantly higher median risk scores (P home visiting. First substantiations also occurred later in the child's life among home-visited families. There was a trend toward decreased out-of-home placement (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.02, P = .06). These results from a scaled-up statewide program highlight the potential of home visiting as an important approach to preventing child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stepwise Development a Text Messaging-Based Bullying Prevention Program for Middle School Students (BullyDown).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-06-13

    Bullying is a significant public health issue among middle school-aged youth. Current prevention programs have only a moderate impact. Cell phone text messaging technology (mHealth) can potentially overcome existing challenges, particularly those that are structural (e.g., limited time that teachers can devote to non-educational topics). To date, the description of the development of empirically-based mHealth-delivered bullying prevention programs are lacking in the literature. To describe the development of BullyDown, a text messaging-based bullying prevention program for middle school students, guided by the Social-Emotional Learning model. We implemented five activities over a 12-month period: (1) national focus groups (n=37 youth) to gather acceptability of program components; (2) development of content; (3) a national Content Advisory Team (n=9 youth) to confirm content tone; and (4) an internal team test of software functionality followed by a beta test (n=22 youth) to confirm the enrollment protocol and the feasibility and acceptability of the program. Recruitment experiences suggested that Facebook advertising was less efficient than using a recruitment firm to recruit youth nationally, and recruiting within schools for the pilot test was feasible. Feedback from the Content Advisory Team suggests a preference for 2-4 brief text messages per day. Beta test findings suggest that BullyDown is both feasible and acceptable: 100% of youth completed the follow-up survey, 86% of whom liked the program. Text messaging appears to be a feasible and acceptable delivery method for bullying prevention programming delivered to middle school students.

  13. Assessing change in perceived community leadership readiness in the Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Iordan; Daniel, Mark; Jones, Michelle; Cargo, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Issue addressed The context of community-based childhood obesity prevention programs can influence the effects of these intervention programs. Leadership readiness for community mobilisation for childhood obesity prevention is one such contextual factor. This study assessed perceived community leadership readiness (PCLR) at two time points in a state-wide, multisite community-based childhood obesity prevention program. Methods PCLR was assessed across 168 suburbs of 20 intervention communities participating in South Australia's Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) program. Using a validated online PCLR tool, four key respondents from each community rated each suburb within their respective community on a nine-point scale for baseline and 2015. Average PCLR and change scores were calculated using the general linear model with suburbs nested in communities. Relationships between demographic variables and change in PCLR were evaluated using multiple regression. Ease of survey use was also assessed. Results Average PCLR increased between baseline (3.51, s.d.=0.82) and 2015 (5.23, s.d.=0.89). PCLR rose in 18 of 20 intervention communities. PCLR was inversely associated with suburb population size (r 2 =0.03, P=0.03, β=-0.25) and positively associated with intervention duration (r 2 change=0.08, P=0.00, β=0.29). Only 8% of survey respondents considered the online assessment tool difficult to use. Conclusions PCLR increased over the course of the OPAL intervention. PCLR varied between and within communities. Online assessment of PCLR has utility for multisite program evaluations. So what? Use of a novel, resource-efficient online tool to measure the key contextual factors of PCLR has enabled a better understanding of the success and generalisability of the OPAL program.

  14. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, J K; Flynn, B S; Geller, B M; Chen, M; Shelton,