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Sample records for cavy kerodon rupestris

  1. Caracterização morfológica dos dentes de mocó Kerodon rupestris: Mammalia: Rodentia

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    Juliana Montovani Thomaz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O Kerodon rupestris, também conhecido como mocó, é um roedor herbívoro encontrado no Brasil. A dentição dos mamíferos apresenta-se variável de acordo com as espécies embora seja formada pelos mesmos componentes: esmalte, dentina, cemento e polpa. Neste estudo foram utilizadas sete cabeças de Kerodon rupestris, adultos, de ambos os sexos. Na cavidade oral do Kerodon rupestris, devido ao tamanho relativamente grande dos incisivos, estes se destacaram dos demais e foram encontrados um par em cada mandíbula. Dois pares de pré-molares e três pares de molares foram encontrados, sendo representados na fórmula 2x (I 1/1, C 0/0, P 1/1, M 3/3. Os molares apresentaram duas cúspides, conformação que conferia a estes dentes um aspecto serrilhado. Microscopicamente os dentes incisivos, pré-molares e molares foram classificados como hipsodontes, ou seja, dentes em constante erupção.

  2. Origem do plexo braquial de mocós (Kerodon rupestris wied, 1820

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    Jailson José Santana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O mocó, Kerodon rupestris, um mamífero roedor da família dos cavídeos muito parecido com preá, é um animal altamente adaptado às condições de calor e de escassez de água e de alimento, principalmente nos períodos das grandes secas que assolam periodicamente a região do semi-árido nordestino. Verifica-se que na literatura há escassez de dados referentes à anatomia funcional dos mocós e, em especial de trabalhos envolvendo a anatomia do sistema nervoso. Objetivando elucidar o comportamento anatômico do plexo braquial de mocó e com o propósito de contribuir para o desenvolvimento da neuroanatomia comparada, procedeu-se esta pesquisa, na qual foram utilizados dez animais adultos de diferentes idades (nove machos e uma fêmea que vieram a óbito no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres (CEMAS da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró-ESAM. Após a fixação em solução aquosa de formol a 10,00%, realizou-se a dissecação bilateral da origem dos plexos braquiais, sendo os resultados registrados em desenhos esquemáticos, e suas disposições agrupadas em tabelas para posterior análise estatística, fundamentada na freqüência percentual. Observando-se que o plexo braquial de mocó é resultante de comunicações estabelecidas, principalmente, entre os ramos ventrais dos três últimos nervos cervicais e dos dois primeiros nervos torácicos, havendo contribuição do quinto nervo cervical em 35,00% dos casos. O plexo braquial originou-se mais freqüentemente a partir de C6, C7, C8, T1 e T2, consiguando-se em 40,00% das dissecações.

  3. Origem e distribuição do nervo femoral do mocó, Kerodon rupestris (Cavidae

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    Gleidson B Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O mocó (Kerodon rupestris Wied,1820, um mamífero roedor da família Cavidae, que se assemelha bastante ao preá, é um animal altamente adaptado às condições de calor e de escassez de água e de alimento, principalmente nos períodos das grandes secas que assolam periodicamente a região do semi-árido nordestino. Verifiica-se que na literatura há escassez de dados referentes à anatomia funcional dos mocós, em especial de trabalhos envolvendo a anatomia do sistema nervoso. Visando conhecer a origem do nervo femoral junto aos forames intervertebrais, sua localização e distribuição pelo membro pélvico, a musculatura envolvida em seu trajeto, a importância desse estudo para clínica de animais silvestres e contribuir para o desenvolvimento da neuroanatomia comparada, procedeu-se esta pesquisa, na qual foram utilizados dez animais adultos de diferentes idades (4 machos e 6 fêmeas que vieram a óbito no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres (Cemas da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (Ufersa. Os animais foram fiixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente tiveram a cavidade abdominal dissecada até a completa visualização do nervo femoral. Foram verifiicadas variações no número de vértebras lombares nos animais, entre seis (30% e sete (70% vértebras, alterando, conseqüentemente, a origem do nervo. No antímero direito, verifiicou-se que em 40% dos animais o nervo femoral originava-se de ramos ventrais de L5L6, em 40% de L5L6L7 e em 20% de L4L5L6. Já no esquerdo 50% dos exemplares o nervo femoral foi formado de raízes ventrais de L5L6, em 30% de L5L6L7 e em 20% de L4L5L6.

  4. [DESIDENT CaviCide a new disinfectant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, J; Klaban, V

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the new disinfection agent DESIDENT CaviCide, such as characteristics, disinfection efficiency, biological degradability and ecotoxicity are described. Also areas and forms of usage this biocidal agent are mentioned.

  5. Direct means of obtaining CAVI0-a corrected cardio-ankle vascular stiffness index (CAVI)-from conventional CAVI measurements or their underlying variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Mestanik, Michal; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Jurko, Alexander; Jurko, Tomas; Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark

    2017-09-21

    Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as measured using the VaSera device (CAVI VS , Fukuda Denshi), has been proposed as a stiffness index that does not depend on blood pressure. We have recently shown theoretically that CAVI VS still exhibits blood pressure dependence, and proposed the corrected index CAVI 0 . The present study aims to establish a method of calculating [Formula: see text] either (i) from VaSera-reported values of cardiac-brachial and brachial-ankle pulse transit times (tb and tba, respectively) and blood pressure, or (ii) directly from CAVI VS . To derive this method, the relationship among CAVI VS and its scale constants a and b, tb, tba, and blood pressure has to be established. From data of 497 subjects, eight candidate CAVI parameters were defined and calculated, containing all combinations of left or right tb/tba/blood pressure. Candidates were evaluated through correlation with measured left and right CAVI VS . Correlations were compared statistically. Once the correct candidates were determined, two constants (a and b) required for converting CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated through linear regression. Left and right CAVI VS are calculated using left and right tba; however, both left and right CAVI VS are calculated using right brachial blood pressures and right tb. Constants a and b for conversion of CAVI VS to CAVI 0 were estimated to be 0.842 [0.836 0.848] and 0.753 [0.721 0.786] (mean [95%CI]), respectively. Equations to estimate CAVI 0 from CAVI VS , and to directly calculate CAVI 0 from the VaSera output are provided in this paper, as well as in a directly usable spreadsheet supplement. Our results permit straightforward calculation of [Formula: see text] during a study, as well as retrospective estimation of [Formula: see text] from CAVI VS in already published studies or where the original transit time values are not available, paving the way for thorough comparison of CAVI 0 to CAVI VS in clinical and research settings. Novelty and

  6. Production systems, diversity and richness of cavy culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess existing cavy (Cavia porcellus) production systems of Cameroon western highlands and rain forest agro-ecological zones, a household ... for a well designed and comprehensive national breeding program for cavies, and increased capacity building of farmers to address mortality rates and health issues.

  7. Determinants of participation in cavy marketing: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo

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    Franklin Simtowe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder supply chain participation remains low despite the potential welfare gains that would result from choosing a market-oriented production. Yet, studies on determinants of market participation for commodities with underdeveloped value chains are scanty. Employing a double-hurdle model, this paper examines factors determining households’ participation in cavy marketing among cavy farmers from Sud-Kivu province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We find that wealthier households participated less in cavy marketing while those producing more cavies were more likely to participate in their marketing. Moreover, smaller households tended to sell more cavies, while households with other livestock sold fewer cavies. The findings underscore the significance of increasing the participation in the cavy supply chains by farmers through the promotion of appropriate husbandry practices that enhance cavy productivity and production and that enable farmers to participate in markets as sellers.

  8. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Li, Yin; Li, He; Deng, Zhi; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi; Du, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compoun...

  9. Genetic diversity and structure of domestic cavy (Cavia porcellus populations from smallholder farms in southern Cameroon

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    Basengere Ayagirwe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although domestic cavies are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa as a source of meat and income, there are only a few studies of their population structure and genetic relatedness. This seminal study was designed with the main objective to assess the genetic diversity and determine the population structure of cavy populations from Cameroon to guide the development of a cavy improvement program. Sixteen microsatellite markers were used to genotype 109 individuals from five cavy populations (Wouri, Moungo and Nkongsamba in the Littoral region, and Mémé and Fako in the Southwest region of Cameroon. Twelve markers worked in the five populations with a total of 17 alleles identified, with a range of 2.9 to 4.0 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity (from 0.022 to 0.277 among populations was lower than expected heterozygosity (from 0.42 to 0.54. Inbreeding rates between individuals of the populations and between individuals in each population were 59.3% and 57.2%, respectively, against a moderate differentiation rate of 4.9%. All the tested loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for locus 3. Genetic distances between populations were small (from 0.008 to 0.277, with a high rate of variability among individuals within each population (54.4%. Three distinct genetic groups were structured. This study has shown that microsatellites are useful for the genetic characterization of cavy populations in Cameroon and that the populations investigated have sufficient genetic diversity that can be used to be deployed as a basis for weight, prolificacy and disease resistance improvement. The genetic of diversity in Southern Cameroon is wide and constitute an opportunity for cavy breeding program.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Semaphore geckos (Squamata: Sphaerodactylidae: Pristurus) with an assessment of the taxonomy of Pristurus rupestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Arnaud; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Červenka, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Sindaco, Roberto; Robinson, Michael D; Morales, Hernan; Mazuch, Tomáš; Price, Thomas; Amat, Fèlix; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Wilms, Thomas; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Cluchier, Alexandre; Viglione, Julien; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-07-09

    A molecular phylogeny of the sphaerodactylid geckos of the genus Pristurus is inferred based on an alignment of 1845 base pairs (bp) of concatenated mitochondrial (12S) and nuclear (acm4, cmos, rag1 and rag2) genes for 80 individuals, representing 18 of the 23-26 species, and the three subspecies of P. rupestris. The results indicate that P. rupestris is polyphyletic and includes two highly divergent clades: the eastern clade, found in coastal Iran and throughout the Hajar Mountain range in northern Oman and eastern UAE; and the western clade, distributed from central coastal Oman, through Yemen, Saudi Arabia and north to southern Jordan. Inferred haplotype networks for the four nuclear genes show that the eastern and western clades of "P. rupestris" are highly differentiated and do not share any alleles. Moreover, although the two clades are differentiated by a morphological multivariate analysis, no one character or set of characters was found to be diagnostic. Based on the molecular analysis of specimens from the type locality of P. rupestris rupestris, the name P. rupestris is applied to the eastern clade. The name that should apply to the western clade cannot be clarified until morphological and genetic data for "P. rupestris" is available from the vicinity of Bosaso, Somalia, and therefore we refer to it as Pristurus sp. 1. The phylogenetic tree of Pristurus supports the hypothesis that P. celerrimus is sister to all the other species in the analyses and that the Socotra Archipelago was independently colonized a minimum of two times.

  11. Biotechnological potential of the seaweed Cladophora rupestris (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) lipidic extract.

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    Stabili, L; Acquaviva, M I; Biandolino, F; Cavallo, R A; De Pascali, S A; Fanizzi, F P; Narracci, M; Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A

    2014-09-25

    Recently, with the advent of modern technologies, various marine organisms including algae are being studied as sources of natural substances effective on classical microorganisms and able to also combat the new trend of acquired resistance in microbes. In the present study the antimicrobial activity of the lipidic extract of the green seaweed Cladophora rupestris collected in a Mediterranean area, in two sampling periods (January and April), was assayed. The chemical characterization of the lipidic fractions was performed by gas-chromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. In the lipidic extract of C. rupestris collected in January an antibacterial activity against Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was recorded; by contrast, bacterial inhibition was measured on several Vibrio species only in April. The fatty acid profile of C. rupestris lipidic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography, resulted mainly composed of palmitic, myristic, oleic, α linolenic, palmitoleic and linoleic acids. Moreover, since α-linolenic acid was the predominant ω3 fatty acid in April, we suggest its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed in this month, taking also into account that pure α-linolenic acid resulted effective towards some vibrios strains. C. rupestris fatty acid profile revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids in both the considered periods with the ω6/ω3 ratio lower than 1, leading to conclude that this macroalga may be employed as a natural source of ω3. Finally, the (1)H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of algal lipid fractions showed the characteristic signals of saturated (SAFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) as well as other metabolites and a marked difference in free fatty acids (FFAs) content for the two examined algal lipid fractions. It is noteworthy that C. rupestris lipidic extracts show, by NMR spectroscopy, the signal pattern of polyhydroxybutyrate, a natural

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among populations of Pristurus rupestris Blanford,1874 (Sauria: Sphaerodactylidae) in southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    YOUSOFI, SUGOL; POUYANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR; HOJATI, VIDA

    2015-01-01

    We examined intraspecific relationships of the subspecies Pristurus rupestris iranicus from the northern Persian Gulf area (Hormozgan, Bushehr, and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces). Phylogenetic relationships among these samples were estimated based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We used three methods of phylogenetic tree reconstruction (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference). The sampled populations were divided into 5 clades but exhibit little genetic diver...

  13. Effects of domestication on biobehavioural profiles: a comparison of domestic guinea pigs and wild cavies from early to late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestication can lead to marked alterations in the biobehavioural profile of a species. Furthermore, during ontogeny, the individual phenotype of an animal can be shaped by the environment in important phases such as adolescence. We investigated differences in biobehavioural profiles between domestic guinea pigs and their ancestor, the wild cavy, over the course of adolescence. At this age, comparisons between the two groups have not been conducted yet. Male guinea pigs and cavies were subjected to a series of tests twice: during the early and late phase of adolescence. We analysed emotional and social behaviours as well as cortisol reactivity and testosterone levels. Results Concerning emotional behaviour, cavies were more explorative and showed more anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test and dark-light test. They also were more risk-taking when having to jump off an elevated platform. Regarding social behaviour, cavies showed less social activity towards unfamiliar females and infants. Furthermore, while guinea pigs and cavies did not differ in basal cortisol levels, cavies showed distinctly higher and prolonged cortisol responses when exposed to an unfamiliar environment. Cavies also had lower basal testosterone titres. No substantial changes in biobehavioural profiles were revealed over the course of adolescence in both groups. Conclusions Domestication led to a substantial shift in the biobehavioural profile of the guinea pig regarding all investigated domains in early and late adolescence. Hence, the differentiation between guinea pigs and cavies emerges early in ontogeny, well before the attainment of sexual maturity. The young individuals already show adaptations that reflect the differences between the natural habitat of cavies and the man-made housing conditions guinea pigs are exposed to. Higher levels of exploration and risk-taking and lower levels of anxiety-like behaviour are necessary for cavies in order to cope with their

  14. Evaluation of uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith propagation with air layering

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    Santiago Durán-Casas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uva camarona (Macleania rupestris Kunth A.C. Smith belongs to the Ericaceae family and grows in páramo and subpáramo areas in Colombia, between 2,200 and 3,500 m a.s.l. This plant presents edible berries that serve as a source of food and small income for local communities. The absence of a propagation protocol for this species limits its use. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asexual propagation of M. rupestris with air layering, using indole-butyric acid (IBA as a rooting hormone at different concentrations: 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg L-1. The results showed that an exogenous application of IBA accelerated the rooting process in the layered zone, with a notable emission of first adventitious roots at 60 days from the start of the experiment. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA had the highest number of roots per layer, being two to three times higher than those presented in the control. No significant differences were seen in root length between treatments. The treatments of 500 and 1,000 mg L-1 IBA showed a high production for the dry weights of the roots and callus, with a higher weight of callus compared to root weight. Air layering negatively affected the longitudinal growth of the branches, since their average growth rate was 1.49 cm per month, while the growth of intact branches was 2.78 cm per month. The results suggest that the best concentration for rooting was 1.200 mg L-1 IBA because it had the largest number and dry weight of roots in air-layered M. rupestris

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. In Vitro Anticariogenic Effects of Drymocallis rupestris Extracts and Their Quality Evaluation by HPLC-DAD-MS3 Analysis

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    Sebastian Granica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time, we investigated in vitro inhibitory effects of Drymocallis rupestris extracts and their subfractions obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous, 50% ethanolic, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic against bacterial viability and caries virulence factors of Streptococcus spp. strains. The diethyl ether subfraction (PRU2 showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against mutans streptococci, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs in the range of 0.75–1.5 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs in the range of 1.5–3 mg/mL. Furthermore, PRU2 inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococci in a dose-dependent manner. It was also found that all five D. rupestris preparations exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on de novo synthesis of water-insoluble and water-soluble α-d-glucans by glucosyltransferases of the mutans group streptococci. The phytochemical profile of investigated samples was determined by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD-MS3 methods. The high polyphenol (total phenol, phenolic acids, tannins, proantocyanidins, and flavonoids contents were found which correlated with anticariogenic activity of the analyzed samples. The results demonstrate that D. rupestris extracts and their subfractions could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. Further studies are necessary to clarify which phytoconstituents of D. rupestris are responsible for anticaries properties.

  17. Computerized Audio-Visual Instructional Sequences (CAVIS): A Versatile System for Listening Comprehension in Foreign Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman-Centeno, Josefina R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development and evaluation of CAVIS, which consists of an Apple microcomputer used with audiovisual dialogs. Includes research on the effects of three conditions: (1) computer with audio and visual, (2) computer with audio alone and (3) audio alone in short-term and long-term recall. (EKN)

  18. Phytochemistry and molecular systematics of Triaenophora rupestris and Oreosolen wattii (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Li, Hong-Qing; Albach, Dirk C; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H

    2008-08-01

    The relationships between the genera Triaenophora, Oreosolen and Rehmannia were investigated. All three genera were previously included in tribe Veroniceae which was part of Scrophulariaceae but which is now included in Plantaginaceae. With regard to the content of iridoid glucosides, Triaenophora rupestris and the much-investigated Rehmannia were almost identical in containing catalpol, ajugol and 6-feruloylajugol. Oreosolen wattii was rather different in having compounds typical for the tribe Scrophularieae (Scrophulariaceae), namely aucubin, harpagide, harpagoside as well as two diesters of rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, one of which, here named oreosolenoside, had not previously been described in the literature. These results are consistent with recent analyses based on DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic tree illustrating the taxonomic relationships is presented.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  20. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L. [and others

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  1. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility

  2. Identification of Repellent and Insecticidal Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia rupestris L. Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%, spathulenol (10.65%, α-terpineol (10.09%, and linalool (7.56%, followed by 4-terpineol (3.92% and patchoulol (3.05%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD50 value of 414.48 µg/cm2. α-Terpinyl acetate (LD50 = 92.59 µg/cm2 exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD50 = 140.30 µg/cm2, 4-terpineol (LD50 = 211.35 µg/cm2, and linalool (LD50 = 393.16 µg/cm2. The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC50 = 6.67 mg/L air also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC50 values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  3. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Guenther, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.

  5. Virkemidler i arbejdsmiljøindsatsen: Afslutningsrapport fra Center for forskning i virkemidler og arbejdsmiljøindsatser (CAVI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Møller, Niels; Refslund, Bjarke

    This report presents CAVI's research processes and results. It focuses especially on the four key sub-projects within the overall project framework: • The joint project in which we have worked to develop theory and general understandings of how the policy instruments and work environment initiati...... to perform the work in a safe manner. The results show that cooperation between peers has a significant impact on companies' approach to the work environment, and particularly the development of mutual trust in the network is crucial for a successful outcome.......This report presents CAVI's research processes and results. It focuses especially on the four key sub-projects within the overall project framework: • The joint project in which we have worked to develop theory and general understandings of how the policy instruments and work environment...... initiatives are put into practice in companies. • Organisation of work environment activities in the companies (the AMO project) where the focus has been on both the formal work environment organisation, including the 2010 reform of the legislation on the establishment of an internal work environment...

  6. Reproductive biology of the critically endangered endemic Mediterranean plant Coincya rupestris subsp. rupestris (Spain: the effects of competition and summer drought on seedling establishment Biología reproductiva de la planta endémica mediterránea amenazada Coincya rupestris subsp. rupestris (España: efectos de la competencia y sequía estival en el establecimiento de plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL A COPETE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower, fruit, seed production, and flowering phenology (duration, intensity, moment and synchrony were studied in the two main populations (south east Spain of the critically endangered endemic Mediterranean plant Coincya rupestris subsp. rupestris (Cruciferae. Production of flowers and fruits (mean ± SD ranged from 483 (± 688 to 748 (± 636, and from 317 (± 518 to 553 (± 500, respectively, between populations. In addition, the average seed production per plant was 1,607-2,798, thus concluding that fertility was not responsible for the rarity of this taxon. The fruit/flower ratio ranged from 0.60 to 0.75, showing significant inter-population differences. Flowering extended from February-March to the end of spring, with high synchrony (= 85 %. This parameter was negatively correlated with duration of the flowering period. The role of pollinator insects on reproductive success, and the effect of watering treatments and the elimination of competitors on seedling recruitment were analysed in the classical locality. The exclusion of pollinators dramatically affected fructification, reducing reproductive success from moderate values in plants exposed to insects (= 0.5 to null values in those where insects were experimentally excluded. Seedling emergence was autumnal and no influence of the factors analysed (i.e., water availability and inter-specific competition was detected on seedling establishment. A high interannual variability in the size and survival of cohorts originated each autumn was observed. It should be emphasized that the rarity of the taxon is not due to fecundity restrictions.Para el endemismo amenazado mediterráneo Coincya rupestris subsp. rupestris (Cruciferae se analizaron diferentes aspectos de su biología reproductiva como la producción de flores, frutos y semillas, y la fenología de la floración a través de las variables representativas de la misma (duración, intensidad, momento y sincronía, de forma independiente en

  7. Effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavie (Cavia porcellus) and mitigation strategies using guava (Psidium guajava) leaves essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Guemdjo Tekam, Maryvonne; Kenfack, Augustave; Tadondjou Tchingo, Cyrille D'Alex; Nouboudem, Sandrine; Ngoumtsop, Herman; Tsafack, Borice; Teguia, Alexis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Galeotti, Marco; Tchoumboue, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Climate changes, particularly the increase of temperature are among the main causes behind the decline of fertility in humans as well as animals. In this study, the effects of heat stress on some reproductive parameters of male cavies and mitigation strategies using guava leaves essential oil (GLEO) were studied. For this purpose, 40 male cavies aged 2.5-3 months and weighing between 348 and 446g were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each and subjected to the following temperatures: Ambient temperature (20-25°C) for the control group, 35°C for group 1, 45°C for group 2 and 45°C+100µl GLEO/kg body weight, administered by gavage to animals for group 3. Exposure time of heat was 7h per day for 60 days. Results reveal that the relative weights of testes, epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles were hardly affected by the temperature levels considered (P>0.05). The mass and individual sperm motility was significantly lower (Pleaves essential oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano": geomorphological fragility and slope instability in a rupestrian-heritage rich area (Basilicata, south Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francioso, R.; Sdao, F.; Tropeano, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research financed a research project about the study and the control of hydrogeological hazard of some sites belonging to the "Parco Archeologico Storico Naturale delle Chiese Rupestri del Materano"; the Park and the old city of Matera ("Sassi di Matera") was inserted in the UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993. The studied sites ("Belvedere Chiese Rupestri" and "Iazzo dell'Ofra" localities) are located along the top of the walls of the deep canyon (locally called "Gravina di Matera" and deeper than 100 m) which characterizes the area. Several valuable medieval rupestrian hand-hewn rock churches and sanctuaries are present along the canyon walls. The canyon cut weak rocks (Plio-Pleistocene calcarenites, in which churches and sanctuaries are excavated) and the underlying well-stratified limestones (Cretaceous calcilutites). Both rocks are abundantly and strongly fractured and disjointed by several different joint sets, and, on the left wall of the "Gravina di Matera" canyon, they are characterized by a mainly dipping-slope attitude. Consequently, rock blocks of different sizes formed (up to some tens of m^3 in volume), and are characterized by low stability condition. The considerable acclivity of the walls and the defects and intense fracturing state of rocks, especially along the edge, cause rapid falls, topples and rockslides of the blocks. This geomorphological fragility, confirmed by wide-spread signs of potential instability and by several rock blocks fell in the stream, causes the diffuse and significant structural-failures processes that involve most of the very fine rupestrian heritages. Our study, after the geological and geomorphological description of the sites and the editing of thematic maps, concentrates on the determination the present-day slope instability conditions. Moreover, the study demonstrated the notable genetic relationship between jointing, slope instability and failure type of carbonate

  10. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  11. Characteristics of unique HBr-hydrolyzed cellulose nanocrystals from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) and its reinforcement in starch-based film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucaldito, Melvir R; Camacho, Drexel H

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising materials that are readily extracted from plants and other cellulose-containing organisms. In this study, CNCs were isolated from freshwater green algae (Cladophora rupestris) thriving in a volcanic lake, using hydrobromic acid (HBr) hydrolysis. Morphological and structural studies revealed highly crystalline CNCs (94.0% crystallinity index) with preferred orientation to [100] lattice plane as shown by XRD measurements and have an average diameter of 20.0 (±4.4)nm as shown by TEM. Thermal studies showed increased temperature for thermal decomposition of CNCs (381.6°C), which is a result of HBr hydrolysis for CNCs isolation. The isolated CNCs were reinforced into starch based biocomposites via solution casting and evaporation method. Mechanical strength was improved as high as 78% upon addition of 1% cellulose nanocrystals in the films. The produced films are promising materials for their high mechanical strength, biodegradability and availability of raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [ 3 H]GA 4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10 19 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26 0 C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [ 3 H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26 0 C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [ 3 H] metabolites formed at 26 0 C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA 12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [ 3 H]GA 4 treatment at 26 0 C, reduced the uptake of [ 3 H] GA 4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26 0 C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  13. STACHYS RUPESTRIS (LAMIACEAE’İN UÇUCU YAĞ BİLEŞİMİ VE ANTİMİKROBİYAL ETKİLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÖKALP İŞCAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stachys cinsi (Lamiaceae dünya üzerinde tanımlanmış yaklaşık 300 türle geniş bir yayılış gösterirken, bu cins ülkemizde %48 endemizm oranıyla 91 tür ve 116 taksa ile temsil edilmektedir. Anadolu’da “Deli adaçayı” veya “Dağ çayı” isimleriyle bilinen Stachys türleri sahip olduğu antibakteriyel, antienflamatuvar, antipiretik, antioksidan ve sitotoksik etkilerinden dolayı, halk arasında cilt hastalıkları, ülser, kanser, solunum rahatsızlıkları ve böbrek hastalıklarında kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmalarda sekonder metabolitlerinin genellikle iridoit ve flavon glikozitleri ile diterpenler ve uçucu yağlar olduğu ortaya konmuştur.Çalışmamızda Mersin ve civarı için endemik olan Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Benth.’in çiçekli toprak üstü kısımlarından hidrodistilasyon ile elde edilen uçucu yağın kompozisyonu gaz kromatografisi/alev iyonlaşma dedektörü ve gaz kromatografisi/kütle spektrometresi ile ortaya konmuştur,  Ana bileşenler a-pinen (%14.4, tetradekanoik asit (%10.3 ve β-karyofillen (%5.3 olarak saptanmıştır.Uçucu yağın patojen bakteri ve maya türlerine karşı antimikrobiyal özellikleri “Klinik ve Laboratuvar Standartları Enstitüsü”nün yayımladığı CLSI M27-A2 ve M7-A7 protokolleri uyarınca mikrodilüsyon duyarlılık testleri ile ortaya konmuştur. Yağın bakterilere kıyasla test edilen Candida türlerine karşı daha etkili olduğu görülmüş, Candida parapsilosis, C. zeylanoides ve C. krusei’yi 31,25 µg/mL, C. zeylanoides’i ise 15,0 µg/mL konsantrasyonda (MİK inhibe ettiği belirlenmiştir.

  14. CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO AND VERTEBRAL HEART SCALE IN CLINICALLY NORMAL BLACK-RUMPED AGOUTIS (DASYPROCTA PRYMNOLOPHA, WAGLER 1831).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis.

  15. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.S. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to

  16. Distribution and reproduction of the reef fish Petrus rupestris (Pisces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    May 6, 1988 ... functional sexes, and the occurrence of sexual dichromatism, are described. Sexual maturity ... noted that spawning fish are found off the east coast of. South Africa. ...... species arid ecosystem approach to conservation. If sited.

  17. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  18. Do cavies talk?: The effect of anthropomorphic books on children's knowledge about animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Ganea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many books for young children present animals in fantastical and unrealistic ways, as wearing clothes, talking and engaging in human-like activities. This research examined whether anthropomorphism in children’s books affects children’s learning and conceptions of animals, by specifically assessing the impact of depictions (a bird wearing clothes and reading a book and language (bird described as talking and as having human intentions. In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw picture books featuring realistic drawings of a novel animal. Half of the children also heard factual, realistic language, while the other half heard anthropomorphized language. In Study 2, we replicated the first study using anthropomorphic illustrations of real animals. The results show that the language used to describe animals in books has an effect on children’s tendency to attribute human-like traits to animals, and that anthropomorphic storybooks affect younger children’s learning of novel facts about animals. These results indicate that anthropomorphized animals in books may not only lead to less learning but also influence children’s conceptual knowledge of animals.

  19. Phytochemistry and molecular systematics of Triaenophora rupestris and Oreosolen Wattii (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Li, Hong-Quing; Albach, Dirk C.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between the genera Triaenophora, Oreosolen and Rehmannia were investigated. All three genera were previously included in tribe Veroniceae which was part of Scrophulariaceae but which is now included in Plantaginaceae. With regard to the content of iridoid glucosides, Triaenophor...... of rhamnopyranosylcatalpol, one of which, here named oreosolenoside, had not previously been described in the literature. These results are consistent with recent analyses based on DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic tree illustrating the taxonomic relationships is presented....

  20. Heterothalamus rupestris, espécie nova de Asteraceae do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paz Deble

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Na revisão botânica do gênero Heterothalamus Less., foi descoberta uma nova espécie, endêmica da Serra do Sudeste do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil que, a seguir, é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com sua espécie afim.

  1. Effect of season on reproductive behaviors and fertilization success in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Rübensam, Kathrin; Bernhardt, Sandra; Jewgenow, Katarina; Guenther, Anja

    2018-04-05

    Finding the optimal timing for breeding is crucial for small mammals to ensure survival and maximize lifetime reproductive success. Species living in temperate regions therefore often restrict breeding to seasons with favorable food and weather conditions. Although caviomorph rodents such as guinea pigs are described as non-seasonal breeders, a series of recent publications has shown seasonal adaptations in litter size, offspring birth mass and maternal investment. Here, we aim to test if seasonal patterns of litter size variation found in earlier studies, are mediated by seasonal differences in female estrus length, fertilization rate and mating behavior. The female estrus period was longer in fall compared to all other seasons (p < 0.001), frequently lasting 7-9 days while estrus in spring usually lasted less than 2 days. In fall, females mated later during estrus (p < 0.001), resulting in reduced fertilization rates (p < 0.001). Fertilization rate was well above 95% in summer while it dropped to less than 85% in fall and winter. While none of the male mating characteristics such as number and duration of copulations differed across seasons, the number of mating bouts was reduced in fall (p = 0.04). Finally, the developmental stages of flushed embryos were more diverse in spring and summer compared to fall and winter. These results suggest that seasonal differences in fertilization rate and quality of implanted embryos are mediated by female estrus length and timing and intensity of mating behavior. Together, these effects contribute to the observed differences in litter size across seasons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do cavies talk? The effect of anthropomorphic picture books on children's knowledge about animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Patricia A; Canfield, Caitlin F; Simons-Ghafari, Kadria; Chou, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Many books for young children present animals in fantastical and unrealistic ways, such as wearing clothes, talking and engaging in human-like activities. This research examined whether anthropomorphism in children's books affects children's learning and conceptions of animals, by specifically assessing the impact of depictions (a bird wearing clothes and reading a book) and language (bird described as talking and as having human intentions). In Study 1, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children saw picture books featuring realistic drawings of a novel animal. Half of the children also heard factual, realistic language, while the other half heard anthropomorphized language. In Study 2, we replicated the first study using anthropomorphic illustrations of real animals. The results show that the language used to describe animals in books has an effect on children's tendency to attribute human-like traits to animals, and that anthropomorphic storybooks affect younger children's learning of novel facts about animals. These results indicate that anthropomorphized animals in books may not only lead to less learning but also influence children's conceptual knowledge of animals.

  3. Disobedient epiphytes: colonization and extinction rates in a metapopulation of Lepanthes rupestris (Orchidaceae) contradict theoretical predictions based on patch connectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Meléndez-Ackerman, E. J.; Tremblay, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 4 (2014), s. 598-606 ISSN 0024-4074 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : connectivity * metapopulation theory * orchids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.534, year: 2014

  4. VISÃO DE COMUNIDADES RURAIS EM JUAZEIRINHO/PB REFERENTE À EXTINÇÃO DA BIODIVERSIDADE DA CAATINGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lânia Isis Ferreira Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current model of economic development is based on a predatory and exculpatory vision, which discloses a way of being inhuman. Implying in changes of perception, thoughts and values, it has seen, that the form as the nature is explored in accordance with varies the ambient perception of the community or group. This work objectified to analyze the perception of Juazeirinho/PB agricultural communities referring the extinction of biodiversity of caatinga, aiming at to delineate sensitization strategies that make possible the valuation of this biome. The work portrays a carried through participant research with the communities Escurinha and Mendonça. For the collection of data direct comment was used, with visits to the communities, dynamics, half-structuralized interview and accomplishment of meeting. According to community some vegetal and animal species are disappearing. Between the animals they are cited: corduniz (Nothura sp, gato do mato (Felisa tigrina, gato maracajá (Felis wildi, mocó (Kerodon rupestris, preá (Gálea sprixii, Tejo (Família Teiidae, tatu peba (Euphractus sexcinctus, tatu verdadeiro (Dasypus novmcinctus e o guaxinim (Procyon camcrivorus.Between vegetables they had been cited: Aveloz (Euphorbia gimnoclada, Imbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa, Aroeira (Myracroduom unrudeuva, Caatingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidali, Baraúna (Schnopsis brasiliensis, Quixabeira (Bumelia sertorum, Mufumbo (Combretum leprosum. We can verify that it is necessary to promote changes in the ambient perception of the studied communities, thus allowing, to awake for problematic ambient, to point and to search solutions, that take the valuation of local biodiversity.

  5. Improved assessment of arterial stiffness using corrected cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI0) in overweight adolescents with white-coat and essential hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měšťaník, M.; Jurko, A.; Spronck, B.; Avolio, A.P.; Butlin, M.; Jurko, T.; Višnovcová, Z.; Měšťaníková, A.; Langer, Peter; Tonhajzerová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 8 (2017), s. 665-672 ISSN 0036-5513 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : atherosclerosis * hypertension * pulse wave analysis Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical engineering Impact factor: 1.446, year: 2016

  6. Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome Score and Cardioankle Vascular Index in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Ho Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis syndrome (BSS in traditional Asian medicine has been considered to correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis, which can be estimated using the cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Here, the diagnostic utility of CAVI in predicting BSS was examined. The BSS scores and CAVI were measured in 140 stroke patients and evaluated with respect to stroke risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CAVI for the diagnosis of BSS. The BSS scores correlated significantly with CAVI, age, and systolic blood pressure (SBP. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that CAVI was a significant associate factor for BSS (OR 1.55, P=0.032 after adjusting for the age and SBP. The ROC curve showed that CAVI and age provided moderate diagnostic accuracy for BSS (area under the ROC curve (AUC for CAVI, 0.703, P<0.001; AUC for age, 0.692, P=0.001. The AUC of the “CAVI+Age,” which was calculated by combining CAVI with age, showed better accuracy (0.759, P<0.0001 than those of CAVI or age. The present study suggests that the CAVI combined with age can clinically serve as an objective tool to diagnose BSS in stroke patients.

  7. Non Conventional Livestock for Better Livelihood: Prospects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights on prospects of production of cavies focusing on the mixed production systems of Central Tanzania, where identified farmers keep a few cavy families either in own pens in a compound or within living houses of owners. Results indicated that farmers have such major reasons as keeping cavies for food ...

  8. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama-Gzara, Badra; Selmi, Ilhem; Chebil, Samir; Melki, Imene; Mliki, Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Carra, Angela; Carimi, Francesco; Mahfoudhi, Naima

    2017-12-01

    Prospecting of local grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. 'Hencha' were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987). based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1 -1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1 -1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% 'Hencha' somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  9. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badra Bouamama-Gzara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3, Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV and Grapevine virus A (GVA, were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. ‘Hencha’ were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987. based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1−1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% ‘Hencha’ somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  10. Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index and Indices of Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Ando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI is used to test vascular function and is an arterial stiffness marker and potential predictor of cardiovascular events. This study aimed to analyze the relation between objective indices of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN and the CAVI. One hundred sixty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in this study. We used nerve conduction studies (NCSs and the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval to evaluate DPN. We estimated arteriosclerosis by the CAVI. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed between neuropathy indices and the CAVI. In univariate analysis, the CAVI showed significant associations with sural sensory nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis for the CAVI showed that sural nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity were significant explanatory variables second only to age. In multiple linear regression analysis for sural nerve conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the most significant explanatory variable. In multiple linear regression analysis for median nerve F-wave conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the second most significant explanatory variable following HbA1c. These results suggest a close relationship between macroangiopathy and DPN.

  11. Association of Metabolic Syndrome with the Cardioankle Vascular Index in Asymptomatic Korean Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su-Hyun; Lee, Yun-Ah; Rho, Jun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a cluster of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors. The cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) reflects arterial stiffness and may be used as an indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the association of CAVI with metabolic syndrome. Methods. A total of 1,144 adults were included in this study. We measured CAVIs and examined blood samples to identify metabolic syndrome according to WHO Asia Pacific criteria and NCEP-ATPIII criteria. AST, ALT, r-GTP, BUN, creatinine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and uric acid were also measured. Results. CAVI values were significantly higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome than those without metabolic syndrome and increased according to the number of metabolic syndrome components present. Subjects with high fasting blood sugar levels or high blood pressure showed high CAVI values. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, and uric acid were independent predictors of CAVI. Conclusion. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had high CAVIs, which indicated arterial stiffness, and were closely associated with an increase in the number of metabolic risk factors. The individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome have the synergistic effect of elevating arterial stiffness in asymptomatic Korean population. PMID:26273666

  12. Effects of metabolic syndrome on arterial function in different age groups: the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topouchian, Jirar; Labat, Carlos; Gautier, Sylvie; Bäck, Magnus; Achimastos, Apostolos; Blacher, Jacques; Cwynar, Marcin; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pall, Denes; Fantin, Francesco; Farkas, Katalin; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Hakobyan, Zoya; Jankowski, Piotr; Jelakovic, Ana; Kobalava, Zhanna; Konradi, Alexandra; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Kotsani, Marina; Lazareva, Irina; Litvin, Alexander; Milyagin, Viktor; Mintale, Iveta; Persson, Oscar; Ramos, Rafael; Rogoza, Anatoly; Ryliskyte, Ligita; Scuteri, Angelo; Sirenko, Yuriy; Soulis, Georges; Tasic, Nebojsa; Udovychenko, Maryna; Urazalina, Saule; Wohlfahrt, Peter; Zelveian, Parounak; Benetos, Athanase; Asmar, Roland

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the Advanced Approach to Arterial Stiffness study was to compare arterial stiffness measured simultaneously with two different methods in different age groups of middle-aged and older adults with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). The specific effects of the different MetS components on arterial stiffness were also studied. This prospective, multicentre, international study included 2224 patients aged 40 years and older, 1664 with and 560 without MetS. Patients were enrolled in 32 centres from 18 European countries affiliated to the International Society of Vascular Health & Aging. Arterial stiffness was evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) in four prespecified age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-74, 75-90 years. In this report, we present the baseline data of this study. Both CF-PWV and CAVI increased with age, with a higher correlation coefficient for CAVI (comparison of coefficients P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values of CF-PWV and CAVI were weakly intercorrelated (r = 0.06, P Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted values for CF-PWV but not CAVI were higher in presence of MetS (CF-PWV: 9.57 ± 0.06 vs. 8.65 ± 0.10, P age on CAVI and CF-PWV and suggests that age may have a more pronounced effect on CAVI, whereas MetS increases CF-PWV but not CAVI. This important finding may be due to heterogeneous effects of MetS components on CAVI. The clinical significance of these original results will be assessed during the longitudinal phase of the study.

  13. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant potential of four Arctic vascular plants from Svalbard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Singh, S.M.; DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.

    the chemical composition and antioxidative activities of four Arctic flowering plant species (Dryas octopetala, Carex rupestris, Silene uralensis and Deschampsia alpina.) through in vitro measurements of the free radical scavenging activities (FRS), inhibition...

  14. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  15. [Experimental evaluation of the spraying disinfection efficiency on dental models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Yuan-fei; Xu, Kan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the disinfect effect after spraying a new kind of disinfectant on the dental plaster models. The germ-free plaster samples, which were smeared with bacteria compound including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus were sprayed with disinfectants (CaviCide) and glutaraldehyde individually. In one group(5 minutes later) and another group(15 minutes later), the colonies were counted for statistical analysis after sampling, inoculating, and culturing which were used for evaluation of disinfecting efficiency. ANOVA was performed using SPSS12.0 software package. All sample bacteria were eradicated after spraying disinfectants(CaviCide) within 5 minutes and effective bacteria control was retained after 15 minutes. There was significant difference between the disinfecting efficiency of CaviCide and glutaraldehyde. The effect of disinfection with spraying disinfectants (CaviCide) on dental models is quick and effective.

  16. Estimating the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis of persons with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus among Japanese urban workers and their families: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekata, Tsukasa; Shirai, Kohji; Tanabe, Naohito; Miyanishi, Kunio; Nakata, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Kenji; Arai, Chikao; Ishizuka, Norio

    2016-02-24

    Diabetes mellitus (hereafter called diabetes) is considered to accelerate arteriosclerosis leading to coronary heart disease and stroke. Thus, it is important to quantitatively estimate the extent of subclinical arteriosclerosis. A new method called cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed to reflect arterial stiffness independently from blood pressure at the time of measurement. Then, we examined if CAVI scores could discriminate the extent of arteriosclerosis between persons with prediabetes (or borderline diabetes) and with diabetes among Japanese urban workers and their families. Subjects were 9881 men and 12033 women of company employees and their families who participated in cardiovascular disease screening in Japan. Persons having diabetes and prediabetes were defined based on the criteria set by American Diabetes Association. CAVI scores were measured by VaSera VS-1000. We applied the established age-sex specific cutoff points of CAVI scores above which were determined to be abnormally high or advanced level of arteriosclerosis. To examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores, CAVI scores of screening participants were converted to a binary variable: 1 for less than cutoff points and 2 for equal or greater than cutoff points or abnormally high CAVI scores. Logistic regression method was used to examine the association of prediabetes and diabetes with CAVI scores after adjusting for major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Prevalence of abnormally high CAVI scores was significantly higher after 40 years of age among persons with diabetes than either among persons with prediabetes or among normal persons in both genders. Significantly elevated odds ratios (ORs) of abnormally high CAVI scores appeared among persons with prediabetes: 1.29 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.48) for men and 1.14 (CI, 1.01-1.28) for women, and among persons with diabetes: 2.41 (CI, 1.97-2.95) for men and 2.52 (CI, 1.94-3.28) for women

  17. Association of Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyles With the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in a General Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Martí-Lluch, Ruth; García-Gil, María Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-06-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) assesses arterial stiffness. We aimed to describe the distribution of CAVI in a Mediterranean population, to determine the proportion of CAVI ≥ 9 by sex and coronary risk level, and to assess the association of CAVI with classic cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle patterns. This cross-sectional study was based on the population of Girona province. The CAVI was measured using the VaSera VS-1500. Of 2613 individuals included in this study, the prevalence of CAVI ≥ 9 was 46.8% in men and 36.0% in women and significantly increased with coronary risk: from 21.1% and 24.8%, respectively to 76.7%, in the low-risk group, and 61.9% in the high-risk group. The CAVI increased with age in both sexes, being higher in men across all age groups. In men, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.90-3.87) and diabetes (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.52-3.78), body mass index (BMI) ≤ 25 to < 30 (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.27-0.72) and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.14-0.58), and physical activity (OR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.92). In women, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.22; 95%CI, 1.59-3.09), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.01-1.94), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.20-0.71). The CAVI increases with age and is higher in men than in women. This index is associated with classic risk factors and coronary risk. It could be a good predictive biomarker, but further follow-up studies are required to assess its added value to cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Relationship among salivary carbonic anhydrase VI activity and flow rate, biofilm pH and caries in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasseto, F; Parisotto, T M; Peres, R C R; Marques, M R; Line, S R P; Nobre Dos Santos, M

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CAVI) in the saliva of preschool children with caries and to investigate the relationship between caries and salivary CAVI activity, salivary flow rate and biofilm pH before and after a 20% sucrose rinse. Thirty preschool children aged 45.3-80.3 months were divided into two groups: a caries-free group and a caries group. Clinical examinations were conducted by one examiner (κ = 0.95) according to WHO criteria (dmfs) and early caries lesions. From each subject, CAVI activity, salivary flow rate and plaque pH were determined before and after a sucrose rinse. The results were submitted to Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests (α = 0.05). The results showed that prerinse CAVI activity and its variation were higher in the saliva from caries children than from caries-free children. No difference was found between the two groups in postrinse salivary CAVI activity. After rinsing, biofilm pH differences were lower in both groups (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0037 for the caries and caries-free groups, respectively). Also, after the sucrose rinse, salivary flow rate significantly increased in caries and caries-free groups (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0037). The variation of salivary CAVI activity was negatively correlated with caries (r = -0.501, p = 0.005). Child's age showed a positive correlation with caries (r = 0.456, p = 0.011). These results suggest that variation of salivary CAVI activity and child's age are associated with dental caries in preschool children. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cardio-ankle vascular index and subclinical heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Giuseppe; Battista, Francesca; Settimi, Laura; Anastasio, Fabio; Pucci, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between arterial stiffness, measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV), and the left ventricle is confounded by the effects of blood pressure. We evaluated the relationship between carotid-femoral PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), a less pressure-dependent measurement of the stiffness constant (β) of the aorta and the iliac, femoral and tibial arteries, and obtained prognostically relevant measurements of left ventricular structure and systolic function. CAVI, carotid-femoral PWV and echocardiographic left ventricular mass and systolic function were determined in 133 subjects with either hypertension or high-normal blood pressure (33% treated; 56 ± 16 years, blood pressure 145/89 ± 21/12 mm Hg). Carotid-femoral PWV exhibited a direct relationship with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.33/0.26, P 0.1). Both CAVI and PWV correlated significantly with left ventricular mass index (r = 0.31, P0.1). In a multivariate regression model, CAVI was independently associated with inappropriate left ventricular mass (β = 0.40, P < 0.001), along with body mass index. CAVI also demonstrated a negative relationship with left ventricular midwall fractional shortening (r = -0.41, P = 0.001) that was independent of age, sex, blood pressure and left ventricular mass in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a high CAVI is associated with inappropriately high left ventricular mass and low midwall systolic function. As a marker of arterial diastolic-to-systolic stiffening, CAVI may have a relationship with left ventricular structure and function that is independent of blood pressure levels.

  20. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  1. Urinary carbonic anhydrase VI as a biomarker for kidney disease in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Yatsu, Juro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ochiai, Hideharu; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Orito, Kensuke; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether carbonic anhydrase (CA)-VI has utility as a biomarker in swine kidney disease. Serum chemistry, histopathology, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses were performed. In the kidney of normal healthy pigs, CA-VI was localized in the epithelial cells of the renal distal straight tubules. CA-VI levels were 16 ± 35 ng/g wet tissue and 50 ± 66 ng/mL in normal pig kidney and urine, respectively, and 136 ± 173 ng/mL in the urine of pigs with kidney disease. CA-VI urinary concentration was not correlated with urinary urea nitrogen (UUN), urinary creatinine (Cre), or urinary albumin levels in pigs with kidney disease. However, UUN and Cre levels were positively correlated in the urine of pigs with kidney disease. These data suggest that urinary CA-VI may represent a biomarker for kidney disease in pigs, particularly for disorders affecting distal straight tubules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is a Strong Predictor of the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Middle-aged and Elderly Japanese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Sun, Xiaomin; Kawakami, Ryoko; Oshima, Satomi; Gando, Yuko; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with arterial stiffening, evaluated using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), independent of visceral fat (VF) in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men. We also examined whether the relationship between CRF and the CAVI is modified by age and/or hypertension. The CAVI was determined in 157 Japanese men (age range, 30-79 years), including 96 hypertensive subjects (61.1%). CRF was assessed by measuring the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The subjects were divided into low- and high-CRF groups, and the VF area was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. The VO2peak correlated with the CAVI following adjustment for age and body mass index in the middle-aged and elderly groups (all the subjects: r=-0.285, p<0.001; middle-aged: r=-0.240, p=0.040; elderly: r=-0.225, p=0.049). VF also correlated with the CAVI (r=0.230, p=0.004). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β=0.406, pmen.

  3. Arterial Stiffness Is Associated with Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy in Diabetes Patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Yeboah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN is among microvascular complications of diabetes that make patients prone to ulceration and amputation. Arterial stiffness is a predictor of cardiovascular diseases and microvascular complications associated with diabetes. We investigated the association between PSN and arterial stiffness, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI. Method. In a case-control design, arterial stiffness was measured in 240 diabetes patients and 110 nondiabetic control. Large-fibre nerve function was assessed by vibration perception threshold (VPT using a neurothesiometer. PSN was defined as the VPT > 97.5th percentile from age- and gender-adjusted models in nondiabetic controls. Results. The overall prevalence of PSN was 16.6% in the entire study participants. Compared to non-PSN participants, PSN patients had higher levels of PWVao (9.5 ± 1.7 versus 8.7 ± 1.2 m/s, p=0.016 and CAVI (8.4 ± 1.3 versus 7.6 ± 1.1, p=0.001. In multiple regression models, VPT was associated with PWVao (β=0.14, p=0.025 and CAVI (β=0.12, p=0.04. PSN patients had increased odds of CAVI (OR = 1.51 (1.02–2.4, p=0.043, but not PWVao (OR = 1.25 (0.91–1.71, p=0.173. Conclusion. PWVao and CAVI were associated with VPT and PSN in diabetes patients in Ghana. Patients having PSN have increased odds of CAVI, independent of other conventional risk factors.

  4. INFLUENCE THE STOCKS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAPES AND ALIGOTE WINE

    OpenAIRE

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of the six-year study of the effect of stocks Riparia × Rupestris 101-14 and Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB on yield, quality of grapes and Aligote wine in the central zone of the Krasnodar region. Effect of stock on scion strongly depends on the annual weather conditions. In a given year, there is a stock better adapted to the weather conditions. Stocks of Riparia × Rupestris 101-14 increase winter hardiness, and the stock Berlandieri × Riparia Kober 5BB - droug...

  5. Multimedia Visualisation of Massive Military Datasets (Visualisation multimedia des jeux de donnees militaires massifs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the Los Angeles Area A-16 Figure A-5 Illustration of the Life Cycle of the Japanese Beetle A-17 Figure B-1 Knowledge Wall B-8 Figure B-2...Structure of World Trade in 1992 C-15 Figure D-1 3D Panorama Cinema at CAVI in Use D-2 Figure D-2 Holobench at CAVI D-2 Figure D-3 Virtual Studio...Illustration of the Life Cycle of the Japanese Beetle. A.6 STEPS IN ESTABLISHING A THEORY OF EFFECTIVE VISUALISATION An established theory generally

  6. Glycemic markers and relation with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Effect of prediabetes and normal glucose on arterial stiffness remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial glucose (PG and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in Caucasian adults. The secondary aim was to analyse this relationship by glycaemic status.Cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: 2,233 subjects, 35-74 years. Measures: FPG (mg/dL and HbA1c (% of all subjects were measured using standard automated enzymatic methods. PG (mg/dL was self-measured at home two hours after meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner for one day using an Accu-chek ® glucometer. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device (Fukuda Denshi, and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation.CAVI and baPWV values were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in glucose normal and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV. The β regression coefficient for: HbA1c was 0.112 (CI 95% 0.068 to 0.155 with CAVI, 0.266 (CI 95% 0.172 to 0.359 with baPWV; for PG was 0.006 (CI 95% 0.004 to 0.009 and for FPG was 0.005 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.008 with baPWV; and for PG was 0.002 (CI 95% 0.001 to 0.003 and 0.003 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.004 with CAVI (p<0.01 in all cases. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.FPG, PG and HbA1c show a positive association with CAVI and baPWV, in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, the association is only maintained in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01428934. Registered 2 September 2011. Retrospectively registered. Last updated September 8, 2016.

  7. Relation of epicardial adipose tissue with arterial compliance and stiffness in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Levent; Cirakoglu, Omer Faruk; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarik; Erkan, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ayca Ata; Acar, Zeydin; Kul, Selim; Hatem, Engin; Çelik, Şükrü

    2014-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Patients with hypertension (n = 155) were enrolled consecutively. Patients with decreased arterial compliance (AC) and increased cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) had higher EAT values compared with those with normal AC and CAVI (6.23 ± 1.67 vs 4.91 ± 1.40, P arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. The link between EAT and arterial stiffness deserves further investigation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. A note on the smaller mammals of the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. J. Nel

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available Collecting in April 1971 yielded 74 specimens of 16 species. Of these, seven species (Elephantulus rupestris, Lepus saxatilis, Pronolagus crassicaudatus, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Desmodillus auricularis and Gerbillurus paeba are new records for the park. Distribution in habitat-types for each species known to occur are described.

  9. Progress Report 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The research directions in the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul are presented. The progress reports cavied out in the follow areas are presented: perturbed angular correlation; Moessbauer spectroscopy; ion implantation; magnetism and electronic transport; microelectronics; condensed matter theory; quantum field theory; plasma physics; nuclear physics; astronomy and astrophysics; and instrumentation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Optimization of cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    When ultrasonic wave propagates in a liquid medium, it can produce cavitation and acoustic streaming. This cavi- tation generates powerful shear forces, while the acoustic streaming increases the convection of solution (Guo et ... optimal media design of the factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Microorganism and culture ...

  11. Arterial stiffness evaluation by cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertension and diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Xiaobao; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xujing; Wang, Guang; Shi, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we investigated the possible risk factors involving CAVI in hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects. One thousand sixty-three subjects (M/F 533/530) from Shougang Corporation Examination Center were divided into four groups: healthy group (n = 639); hypertension group (n = 312); DM group (n = 58); and hypertension with DM group (n = 54). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. Our results showed that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM than in healthy and hypertension group, respectively (8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.23 ± 1.10; 8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.94 ± 1.33; both P hypertension subjects with DM compared with healthy and hypertension groups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. First measurement of the nonlinear coefficient for Gd1-xLux Ca4O(BO3)3 and Gd1-xScxCa4O(BO3)3 crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Germershausen, Sven

    2007-01-01

    The effective nonlinear coefficient and temperature acceptance bandwidth of three Lu and Sc co-doped GdCa4O(B03)3 type nonlinear crystals were measured. NCPM for SHG in to the blue-UV spectral region can be obtained by controlling the co-dopant concentration. Measurements were based on intra-cavi...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 208 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2013), Management of Medical Wastes: Public Awareness and Associated Health Risks, Abstract ... for Better Livelihood: Prospects of Domestic Cavy in Mixed Production Systems of Tanzania, Abstract ... as Indicators of Environmental Stress: The Case of Mindu Catchment Area, Abstract.

  14. Cephalometric Assessment of the Fourth Ventricles Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain. To provide baseline data for measurements of normal fourth ventricle using ... (2001) normally the left ventricle was larger than the right one and both were larger in males among .... Kennedy, D.N., Caviness, Jr, V.S. and Tsuang,.

  15. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  16. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC

  17. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  18. Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and vascular structure and function in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, LOD-DIABETES study: a case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; Gomez-Sanchez, Marta; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose Angel; García-Ortiz, Luís

    2015-01-16

    The cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. This index can estimate the risk of atherosclerosis. We aimed to find the relationship between CAVI and target organ damage (TOD), vascular structure and function, and cardiovascular risk factors in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. We included 110 subjects from the LOD-Diabetes study, whose mean age was 61 ± 11 years, and 37.3% were women. Measurements of CAVI, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), and ankle brachial index (ABI) were taken using the VaSera device. Cardiovascular risk factors, renal function by creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and albumin creatinine index were also obtained, as well as cardiac TOD with ECG and vascular TOD and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), carotid femoral PWV (cf-PWV), and the central and peripheral augmentation index (CAIx and PAIx). The Framingham-D'Agostino scale was used to measure cardiovascular risk. Mean CAVI was 8.7 ± 1.3. More than half (54%) of the participants showed one or more TOD (10% cardiac, 13% renal; 48% vascular), and 13% had ba-PWV ≥ 17.5 m/s. Patients with any TOD had the highest CAVI values: 1.15 (CI 95% 0.70 to 1.61, p < 0.001) and 1.14 (CI 95% 0.68 to 1.60, p < 0.001) when vascular TOD was presented, and 1.30 (CI 95% 0.51 to 2.10, p = 0.002) for the cardiac TOD. The CAVI values had a positive correlation with HbA1c and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and a negative correlation with waist circumference and body mass index. The positive correlations of CAVI with IMT (β = 0.29; p < 0.01), cf-PWV (β = 0.83; p < 0.01), ba-PWV (β = 2.12; p < 0.01), CAIx (β = 3.42; p < 0.01), and PAIx (β = 5.05; p = 0.04) remained after adjustment for cardiovascular risk, body mass index, and antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs. The

  19. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  20. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from seven wild-growing Senecio species in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS M. MANDIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Senecio (family Asteraceae is one of the largest in the world. It comprises about 1100 species which are the rich source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most important sources of human and animal exposure to plant toxins and carcinogens. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of seven Senecio species (S. erucifolius, S. othonnae, S. wagneri, S. subalpinus, S. carpathicus, S. paludosus and S. rupestris were studied. Fourteen alkaloids were isolated and their structures determined from spectroscopic data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and MS. Five of them were identified in S. erucifolius, four in S. othonnae, two in S. wagneri, four in S. subalpinus, two in S. carpathicus, three in S. paludosus and three in S. rupestris. Seven pyrrolizidine alkaloids were found for the first time in particular species. The results have chemotaxonomic importance. The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial activity of some alkaloids were also studied.

  2. The results of intergeneric pollination of Fragaria x ananassa Duch. and Fragaria virginiana Duch. by Potentilla species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Female varieties of Fragaria X ananassa (Sonja, Freja, Mieze Schilndler, Dir. Wallbaum, Reine des Precoces, Pozdnaya Slodkaya and others and, tentatively, one female clone, F. virginiana "Scheldon", were pollinated with nineteen Potentilla species in the course of four years (1977-1980. A total of 99194 seeds was obtained, and from them, 739 seedlings (0.75%. After the first year of growth, a mean 24% of seedlings survived (178 Vegetatively mature plants were obtained from the above named octoploid maternal forms (Reine des Precoces excepted with six Potentilla species (the diploid P. rupestris, P. purpureoides, P. geoides, P. glandulosa and P. fruticosa as well as the hexaploid P. fragiformis. F. X ananassa var. Sonja X P. rupestris was classified as the best combination in producing surviving plants.

  3. Cianobacterias del embalse San Roque (Córdoba, Argentina Cyanobacteria of the San Roque reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Claudia Daga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de las cianobacterias presentes en el embalse San Roque y forma parte de un estudio integral de la flora algal del mencionado embalse. Se citan 24 taxa correspondientes a los Ordenes Chroococcales (11, Nostocales (8 y Oscillatoriales (5. Synechocystis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rupestris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii y Borzia trilocularis son nuevas citas para la zona de estudio.This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the Cyanobacteria present in the San Roque reservoir and forms a part of an integral study of its algal flora. Twenty-four taxa are described and ilustrated: 11 Chroococcales, 8 Nostocales, and 5 Oscillatoriales. Synechocystis aquatilis, Gloeocapsa rupestris, Gomphosphaeria aponina, Chamaesiphon incrustans f. incrustans, Scytonema crispum, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia pisum, Calothrix fusca, Trichodesmium lacustre, Geitlerinema splendidum, Lyngbya aestuarii and Borzia trilocularis.

  4. Interpopulation differences in the salt tolerance of two Cladophora species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. N.; Collins, J. C.; Russell, G.

    1990-02-01

    The effects of changes in external salinity upon Baltic and U.K. populations of Cladophora rupestris (L) Kütz and C. glomerata (L) Kütz have been studied. Rates of net photosynthesis after salinity treatment (0-102‰) were used as a measure of salinity tolerance. There were very pronounced differences in the salt tolerance of the two C. glomerata populations, whereas Baltic and U.K. C. rupestris differed significantly only in responses to extreme hyposaline treatment. The effect of salinity on the thallus content of K + and Na + was measured. There were significant differences in the ratios of these ions in populations of both species. The populations also differed significantly in the dimensions of their cells and cellular volume.

  5. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  6. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  7. Two new species of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea from Sardinia (Italy with a check list of Sardinian Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pellizzari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of scale insects collected in Sardinia (Italy are described and illustrated: Spinococcus giuliae sp. n. (Pseudococcidae off the roots of Umbilicus rupestris (Crassulaceae and Micrococcus sardous sp. n. (Micrococcidae off the root of an undetermined grass (Poaceae growing near the sea. A n identification key to Micrococcus species and a revised list of the scales presently known in the island are also provided.

  8. Scutellaria hsiehii (Lamiaceae, a New Species from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsin Hsieh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Ophiopogon (O. rupestris, O. tristylatus and one species of Peliosanthes (P. cambodiana of Asparagaceae (Convallariaceae s. str. discovered recently in southern Cambodia and in Vietnam are described and illustrated. All described species are probably local endemics with a restricted distribution. Data reported for each described species comprise a standard citation of type specimens, description, list of available paratypes, proposed species epithet etymology, data on ecology, phenology and distribution, as well as short taxonomic remarks.

  9. Response of mycorrhizal grapevine to Armillaria mellea inoculation: disease development and polyamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, A. (Amaia); Aguirreolea, J. (Jone); Santa-Maria, E. (Eva); Camprubi, A. (Amalia); Calvet, C. (Cinta)

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted with the vine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch. x Vitis rupestris L.) in order to assess whether the colonisation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) can delay the disease development in plants inoculated with the root-rot fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr) Kummer, and to elucidate if the levels of polyamines (PAs) are modified in response to G. intraradices, A. mellea or by the dual infection. Four treatments were consi...

  10. Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Vascular Function and Structure Markers and Gender Difference in a Real-World Population of China-From Beijing Vascular Disease Patients Evaluation Study (BEST) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Yingyan; Li, Lihong; Wang, Hongyu

    2018-03-01

    The study was done to establish the relationship between serum uric acid (UA) and vascular function and structure parameters including carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid radial pulse wave velocity (CR-PWV), cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI), ankle brachial index (ABI), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and the gender difference in a real-world population from China. A total of 979 subjects were enrolled (aged 60.86±11.03 years, male 416 and female 563). Value of UA was divided by 100 (UA/100) for analysis. Body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), UA, and UA/100 were significantly higher in males compared with females (all p<0.05); pulse pressure (PP), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in males than females (all p<0.05). All vascular parameters including CF-PWV, CR-PWV, CAVI, ABI, and CIMT were higher in males than females (all p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that UA/100 was independently positively linearly correlated with CAVI (B=0.143, p=0.001) and negatively correlated with ABI in the male population (B=-0.012, p=0.020). In people with higher UA, the risk of higher CF-PWV was 1.593 (p<0.05). 1. All vascular parameters were higher in males than females. There was no gender difference in the relationship between UA and vascular markers except in ABI. 2. UA was independently linearly correlated with CAVI. 3. In people with higher UA level, the risk of higher CF-PWV increased. Therefore, higher UA may influence the vascular function mainly instead of vascular structure.

  11. Differences in cardio-ankle vascular index in a general Mediterranean population depending on the presence or absence of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Lluch, Ruth; Garcia-Gil, Maria Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to describe the differences in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in individuals with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors or a previous history of vascular diseases (WCVRF) compared to healthy individuals (free of risk factors and previous history of vascular diseases; FCVRF) in a general Mediterranean population. The secondary aim is to describe the proportion of CAVI≥9 depending on the cardiovascular risk category in both CVRF groups by sex. The study is a descriptive analysis of 2613 participants randomly selected in the Girona province (Catalonia, Spain). CAVI mean differences between sexes and age categories in both CVRF groups followed the same pattern, the FCVRF group (men 25.2%; women 14.4%) in turn had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 than the WCVRF group (men 57.9%; women 51.8%). The percentage of men and women with CAVI≥9 with low risk was 13.9% and 11.3% in the FCVRF group, and 31.8% and 42.0% in the WCVRF group; with moderate risk, it was 55.8% and 10.0% in the FCVRF group and 60.3% and 49.0% in the WCVRF group. In both sexes, FCVRF groups had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 as well as lower mean CAVI scores, across all 10 year-age categories from 40 to 69 years, than WCVRF groups. Moreover, CAVI≥9 was frequent in individuals with low and moderate coronary risk in the WCVRF group but also in the FCVRF group. These results suggest that CAVI assessment to detect asymptomatic arteriosclerosis could be a useful tool to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brugger, Nicolas; Schäfer, Daniela; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running has been linked with higher arterial stiffness. Blood pressure is a major contributor to pulse wave velocity (PWV). We examined indices of arterial stiffness with a blood pressure-independent method in marathon runners and ultra-endurance athletes. Male normotensive amateur runners were allocated to three groups according to former participation in competitions: group I (recreational athletes), group II (marathon runners) and group III (ultra-endurance athletes). Indices of arterial stiffness were measured with a non-invasive device (VaSera VS-1500N, Fukuda Denshi, Japan) to determine the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, primary endpoint) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV). Lifetime training hours were calculated. Cumulative competitions were expressed as marathon equivalents. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for CAVI and baPWV. Measurements of arterial stiffness were performed in 51 subjects (mean age 44.6 ± 1.2 years): group I (n = 16), group II (n = 19) and group III (n = 16). No between-group differences existed in age, anthropometric characteristics and resting BP. CAVI and baPWV were comparable between all groups (P = 0.604 and P = 0.947, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age was the only independent predictor for CAVI (R(2) = 0.239, β = 0.455, P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly associated with baPWV (R(2) = 0.225, β = 0.403, P = 0.004). In middle-aged normotensive athletes marathon running and ultra-endurance sports had no negative impact on arterial stiffness.

  13. VASCULAR REMODELING AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN DIFFERENT ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPIES

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    E. D. Golovanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of the long-term antihypertensive monotherapy with indapamide (Arifon Retard, 1,5 mg/d, metoprolol tartrate (Egilok Retard, 50 mg/d and combined therapy with indapamide and perindopril (Noliprel Forte, 1 tab/d: perindopril 4 mg and indapamide 1,25 mg on pulse wave velocity (PWV, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and the sympathetic system activity.Material and methods. 88 patients, aged 30-59 y.o. (32 normotensive patients, 56 with arterial hypertension [HT] of 1-2 grades were examined. Biological age (BA was determined by the linear regression and the vascular wall age (VWA was estimated with the use of volume sphygmography (“VaSera-1000”, “Fucuda Denshi”, Japan. 39 patients with HT were randomized into 3 parallel groups with studied therapies lasted for 6 months. PWV, CAVI of the vessels of elastic, muscular and mixed types, blood pressure, measured in upper and lower extremities and heart rate variability (HRV were determined before and at the end of the therapies.Results. BA and VWA were elevated in all of patients with HT as compared with normotensive patients. The reduction in PWV and CAVI of the vessels of elastic and mixed types, HRV increase were found in patients with Arifon Retard monotherapy. Monotherapy with metoprolol significantly improved HVR without any influence on the vascular remodeling. Noliprel Forte significantly decreased in blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities, PWV and CAVI of the vessels of all types, decreased in VWA and increased in parasympathetic drive.Conclusion. Long-term therapy with Arifon Retard and Noliprel Forte resulted in decrease in vascular remodeling and increase in HRV simultaneously with significant antihypertensive effect in patients with HT. Metoprolol low doses therapy resulted in normalization of autonomic drive independently on antihypertensive action.

  14. The reduction of structural acoustic coupling in car bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of sound in cars is discussed in the light of previous experimental and theoretical work, and the major contributions to interior noise are identified. The acoustic field inside a vibrating structure is analysed theoretically in terms of the acoustic cavity modes and the structural modes, and it is shown that'reduction of structural-acoustic coupling could reduce the response for a wide variety of force inputs. Finite element analyses of prismatic acoustic cavi...

  15. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  16. State stiffness parameters of the vascular wall in hypertensive patients complex therapy cytoprotector and sartans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Mikhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized study of the state of stiffness parameters arteries wall (CAVI — cardio-ankle vascular index, AI (augmentation index PEP (duration of the voltage of the left ventricle using «VaSera-1000» («Fukuda Denshi», Japan in primary hypertension patients (80 not treated with systemic antihypertensive therapy. The effect of long-term (3 months was be marketed. Losartan combined with Mexicor 300mg/day or mildronate 1000 mg/day for the specified parameters. It sets the initial reduction the properties of the arterial wall in patients with hypertension, in contrast to healthy individuals. Mexicor or mildronat accompanied by improvement east-cal properties of the arterial wall, reducing CAVI and AI in 3 months on 9.4% and 8.9%, 14.9% and 15.4%, respectively. In the control group-term change CAVI and AI no. Mexicor led to a more pronounced increase in PEP, than mildronate, respectively, on 23.7% and 18.9%. Losartan monotherapy results in a less pronounced decrease in the stiffness of the vessel wall.

  17. Investigating the association of cardiovascular effects with personal exposure to particle components and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chang-fu, E-mail: changfu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Kuo, I-Chun [Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shih-Chieh [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Ta-Chen [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Background: Few studies included information on components and sources when exploring the cardiovascular health effects from personal exposure to particulate matters (PM). We previously reported that exposure to PM between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5-1}) was associated with increased cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an arterial stiffness index), while exposure to PM smaller than 0.25 {mu}m (PM{sub 0.25}) decreased the heart rate variability (HRV) indices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PM elements and cardiovascular health effects and identify responsible sources. Methods: In a panel study of seventeen mail carriers, the subjects were followed for 5-6 days while delivering mail outdoors. Personal filter samples of PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} were analyzed for their elemental concentrations. The source-specific exposures were further estimated by using absolute principal factor analysis. We analyzed the component- and source-specific health effects on HRV indices and CAVI using mixed models. Results: Several elements in PM{sub 2.5-1} (e.g., cadmium and strontium) were associated with the CAVI. Subsequent analyses showed that an interquartile range increase in exposure to PM from regional sources was significantly associated with a 3.28% increase in CAVI (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47%-5.13%). This significant effect remained (3.35%, CI: 1.62%-5.11%) after controlling for the ozone exposures. For exposures to PM{sub 0.25}, manganese, calcium, nickel, and chromium were associated with the CAVI and/or the HRV indices. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM{sub 2.5-1} and PM{sub 0.25} components may be associated with different cardiovascular effects. Health risks from exposure to PM from sources other than vehicle exhaust should not be underappreciated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased arterial stiffness was related to the components in particles between 1.0 and 2.5 {mu}m. Black

  18. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  19. Avaliação do enraizamento, desenvolvimento de raízes e parte aérea de porta-enxertos de videira em condições de campo Evaluation of rooting, development of roots and shoot biomass from rootstock of grapevine, in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o enraizamento, a brotação e o desenvolvimento de raízes de diferentes porta-enxertos de videira em condições de campo. Estacas lenhosas dos porta-enxertos '420 A', 'Golia', '5C', '8B', 'RR101-14', 'SO4', '99R', 'Kober 5BB', 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6', 'Ripária do Traviú' e 'Rupestris du Lot' foram colocadas em canteiro de terra, sem tratamento prévio. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e vinte estacas por parcela, com as estacas dispostas em espaçamento de 12 x 5cm. As estacas foram colocadas para enraizar no início de julho e removidas no final de setembro para as avaliações. A porcentagem de estacas enraizadas variou de 79% para 'Ripária do Traviú' a 99% para o 'RR101-14'. Quanto à brotação, o 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentou 47%, 'IAC 571-6', 'IAC 572', '420 A', 'Rupestris du Lot', 'Kober', 'IAC 766', '8B', '5C', apresentaram de 76 a 89% e 'Golia', 'SO4', '99R' e 'RR 101-14' mais de 90%. 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 571-6' apresentaram o menor número de raízes por estaca, no entanto, foram as que apresentaram raízes mais desenvolvidas, seguidas pelo '5C' e 'Rupestris du Lot'. 'Kober 5BB' e 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentaram as raízes menos desenvolvidas. As demais variedades apresentaram valores intermediários. Concluiu-se que, entre todos os porta-enxertos, o 'Ripária do Traviú' apresentou os menores índices de enraizamento e brotação das estacas, nas condições de campo.The goals of this investigation was to evaluate the rooting, budding and development of roots from different rootstock of grapevine, in field conditions. Ligneous cutting of rootstock '420 A', 'Golia', '5C', '8B', 'RR101-14', 'SO4', '99R', 'Kober 5BB', 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6', 'Ripária do Traviú' and 'Rupestris du Lot' were planted in soil, without previous preparation. The experimental design was done in randomized blocks, with five repetitions and twenty cutting per plot

  20. Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ghana

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    Kwame Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited. Peripheral and central blood pressure (BP indices were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao, augmentation index (AIx, cardioankle vascular index (CAVI, and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV. Results. With similar peripheral and central BP indices, T2DM patients had higher PWVao (8.3 ± 1 versus 7.8 ± 1.3, p=0.044 and CAVI (7.9 ± 1.2 versus 6.9 ± 0.7, p=0.021 than nondiabetic control. AIx and haPWV were similar between T2DM and nondiabetic controls. Multiple regression models showed that, in the entire study participants, the major determinants of PWVao were diabetes status, age, gender, systolic BP, and previous smoking status (β = 0.22, 0.36, 0.48, 0.21, and 0.25, resp.; all p<0.05; the determinants of CAVI were diabetes status, age, BMI, heart rate, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and previous smoking status (β = 0.21, 0.38, 0.2, 0.18, 0.24. 0.2, −0.19, and 0.2, resp.; all p<0.05. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that nonhypertensive, nonobese T2DM patients have increased arterial stiffness without appreciable increase in peripheral and central pressure indices.

  1. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  2. The inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure is a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Fukuda, Yukiko; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Okada, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Yoshioka, Keiji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess whether the IAD could be a marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a cross-sectional retrospective study of 206 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 49-76 years, we examined the correlation of the IAD with the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle-brachial index (ABI) or cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI). The IAD was positively correlated with the maximum IMT (r=0.266, P<0.0001), mean IMT (r=0.209, P=0.00726) or CAVI (r=0.240, P=0.0005). The IAD was higher in patients with CVD than in those without (P=0.0020). A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the IAD was an independent determinant of maximum IMT (β=0.169, P=0.0167), mean IMT (β=0.178, P=0.0153), ABI (β=-0.222, P=0.0033) or CAVI (β=0.213, P=0.0011) after adjusting for known risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the IAD as a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis was similar to the AUC of the Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk score. In conclusion, the IAD could be a novel risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon"

    OpenAIRE

    Miele,Alberto; Rizzon,Luiz Antenor; Giovannini,Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  4. Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Alberto; Rizzon, Luiz Antenor; Giovannini, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento exper...

  5. THE ROLE OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION

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    M. V. Kurkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the combination and contribution of risk factors (age, hypertension (HT, obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD, length of illness leading to the formation of chronic heart failure (CHF with preserved ejection fraction (EF.Material and methods. The study included 100 hypertensive patients (aged 40 to 80 years with concomitant obesity or diabetes or CKD. Patients were divided into 4 groups depending on the presence of one major and/or several concomitant diseases. Echocardiography, assessment of large arterial vessels stiffness indices (SI m/s, CAVI m/s, and determination of small muscle arteries tonus (RI% were performed in all patients.Results. Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV and left atrial (LA was observed in all patients with comorbid status, as well as reduction in diastolic function. The LV myocardial mass index in the first group was 117.2±31.4 g/m2, in the second one – 125.9±27.4 g/m2, in the third group – 121.5±15.6 g/m2 and in the fourth one – 126.1±11.5 g/m2. A significant increase in the LA volume index was founded in the first group  – 33.4±3.9 ml/m2, in the second one – 39.6±9.1 ml/m2, in the third group – 38.1±5.2 ml/m2 and in the fourth one – 39.8±6.6 ml/m2 (р<0.05. The parameters reflecting the rigidity of large arterial vessels (SI m/s, CAVI m/s also exceeded the threshold values in each group; significant differences SI were between the first and fourth, second  and fourth groups  (р<0.05, CAVI between the first and third groups  (р<0.05. A significant correlation was found between CAVI and age (r=0.63, which indicated an increase in arterial stiffness with age.Conclusions. In the formation of CHF with preserved EF, additional factors enhance the changes associated with LV remodeling and LA overload. These changes occur with a progressive decrease in LV diastolic function and increase in myocardial stiffness. HT and obesity are the main contributors to the

  6. Advanced Joining of Aerospace Metallic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    REPAIRED F100 TURBINE VANES tUNDER SIMULATED) SERVICE. CONDI rIONS by A.,I.A.Mom. N.M.Madhava. G.A.KooI and M.IDean 21 REPAIR TECHNIQU ES FOR GAS lII... vapeurs d~gag~es par la decomposition des corps exog~nes. POe) Les cavi t~s (cavit)(fgr4, sont le propre du soudage des fortes paisseurs. Ellas...the most practical information with respect to mechanical properties for gas turbine applications. Generally, sound laser welds (i.e. free from

  7. Leaf anatomy of the genus Ehrharta (Poaceae in southern Africa: the Setacea group

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    R. P. Ellis

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf blade anatomy of the taxa of the Setacea group of species of the genus Ehrharta is described and illustrated. This group includes E. rupestris Nees ex Trin. subsp.  rupestris, subsp.  tricostata (Stapf Gibbs Russell and subsp.  dodii (Stapf Gibbs Russell, as well as E. setacea Nees subsp.  setacea, subsp.  scabra (Stapf Gibbs Russell, subsp.  uniflora (Burch, ex Stapf Gibbs Russell and subsp.  disticha Gibbs Russell. All these taxa share a very characteristic leaf anatomy with inrolled or infolded leaves without keels and have adaxial ribs with interlocking prickles. The chlorenchyma is dense and compact with inwardly projecting invaginations visible in all taxa except  E. setacea subsp.  setacea. In E .  setacea subsp. scabra typical arm cells are present. Abaxial costal and intercostal zones are not differentiated and stomata are absent. The long cells are hexagonal or inflated with sinuous walls. Silica bodies are single or paired and rounded in shape. Small hook-like prickles with short barbs are common. Microhairs with a short, truncated distal cell occur. This leaf anatomical structure differs considerably from that of the other species groups recognized in African  Ehrharta and the Setacea group appears to be more distinct from the other groups than they are from each other.

  8. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna.

  9. Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Novas espécies de Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae do Planalto Central e Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Quatro novas espécies são descritas e ilustradas para o gênero Diplusodon, que se somam ao alto número de espécies registradas para este gênero no Cerrado brasileiro, mais especificamente para as montanhas que formam a Serra Geral do Paraná, ou Serra Geral de Goiás, reafirmando a região como centro de diversidade genética do gênero. As seguintes espécies são descritas: Diplusodon capitalensis, do Distrito Federal e Goiás, D. chapadensis e D. grahamae, de Goiás, e D. rupestris, de Minas Gerais.(New species of Diplusodon Pohl (Lythraceae from Central Brazil and Minas Gerais State. Four new species are described and illustrated for the genus Diplusodon. These are added to the already high number of species registered for the Brazilian Cerrado, more precisely in the chain of mountains that form the Serra Geral do Parana or Serra Geral de Goiás, confirming this region as the primary center of genetic diversity of the genus. The following species are described: Diplusodon capitalensis, from the Distrito Federal and Goiás, D. chapadensis and D. grahamae from Goiás, and D. rupestris, from Minas Gerais.

  10. Construction and biological activities of the first infectious cDNA clones of the genus Foveavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Baozhong, E-mail: bmeng@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Venkataraman, Srividhya; Li, Caihong; Wang, Weizhou [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Dayan-Glick, Cathy; Mawassi, Munir [The Plant Pathology Department-The Virology Unit, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2013-01-20

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV, genus Foveavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) is one of the most prevalent viruses in grapevines and is associated with three distinct diseases: rupestris stem pitting, vein necrosis and Syrah decline. Little is known about the biology and pathological properties of GRSPaV. In this work, we engineered a full-length infectious cDNA clone for GRSPaV and a GFP-tagged variant, both under the transcriptional control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoter. We demonstrated that these cDNA clones were infectious in grapevines and Nicotiana benthamiana through fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immuno electron microscopy. Interestingly, GRSPaV does not cause systemic infection in four of the most commonly used herbaceous plants, even in the presence of the movement proteins of two other viruses which are known to complement numerous movement-defective viruses. These infectious clones are the first of members of Foveavirus which would allow further investigations into mechanisms governing different aspects of replication for GRSPaV and perhaps related viruses.

  11. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.

  13. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  14. Arquitetura e dimensão do sistema radicular de sete porta-enxertos de videira no Norte do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordin Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a estrutura do sistema radicular de sete porta-enxertos de videira das cultivares IAC 572, Kobber 5BB, Rupestris du Lot, IAC 313, IAC 766, Ripária do Traviú e 420 A, com cinco anos de idade. As raízes foram expostas por escavação e avaliadas pelo programa SIARCS 3.0. Foi utilizado um diagrama de arquitetura radicular, atribuindo-se notas à conformação do sistema radicular. O 'IAC 572' apresentou a maior extensão de raízes e o '420 A', a menor. Os porta-enxertos não apresentaram diferença quanto à arquitetura do sistema radicular. Os mais vigorosos apresentaram maior proporção de raízes enoveladas.

  15. Flowering in Vitis: Conversion of tendrils into inflorescences and bunches of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, C; Mullins, M G

    1979-01-01

    Inflorescences and fruits with viable seeds were produced in place of tendrils in plants of Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Muscat of Alexandria" and in a staminate hybrid grapevine (Vitis vinifera x V. rupestris Scheele) following repeated applications of 10-20 μl of 50-200 μM 6-(benzylamino)-9-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-9H-purine (PBA) to apices. Young leaves, shoot tips and axillary buds were removed before the PBA treatments were commenced. The number and weight of berries produced by inflorescences derived from tendrils was closely correlated with the number and area of leaves retained. When application of PBA was continued after floral initiation there was formation of fused flowers and cleistogamous pollination.

  16. The influence of cooling water outlet of the Ringhals power plant on the coastal fish colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, E.

    1988-03-01

    Fish abundance has been monitored with fyke nets in 1976-1987 at the cooling-water outlet from the Ringhals nuclear power plant at the Swedish west coast and in a reference area. Judging from the dependence of the catches on temperature, Myoxocephalus scorpius, Zoarces viviparus, Gadus morhua and Platichtys flesus can be classified as cold-water species and Symphodus melops, Ctenolabrus rupestris, Carci nus maenas and Anguilla anguilla as warm-water species. As a rule the warm-water species were more and the cold-water fishes less abundant in the outlet area than in the reference area. The catch of the economically important Anguilla was about three times greater in the heated area. A lower abundance than expected of Ctenolabrus and Myoxocephalus at the outlet may be caused by a loss of eggs and larvae in the cooling-water system. (author)

  17. Inventory and update on argasid ticks and associated pathogens in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lafri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks include vectors of relapsing fevers caused by Borrelia spp. in humans, and they can transmit arboviruses and other bacterial pathogens. Knowledge about soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae in Algeria is incomplete, and distribution data need to be updated. Here we report a series of entomologic investigations that we conducted in five different areas in Algeria between 2012 and 2015. Ticks were identified by entomologic keys and molecular tools (16S rRNA gene. Six distinct species belonging to two genera were identified, including Ornithodoros capensis s.s., Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros erraticus, Ornithodoros sonrai and Argas persicus. The present study highlights the distribution of soft ticks, the establishment of an update inventory with nine species and associated pathogens detected in argasid ticks in Algeria. Keywords: Argasid, Borrelia, Ornithodoros, Rickettsia

  18. Inventory and update on argasid ticks and associated pathogens in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, I; Benredjem, W; Neffah-Baaziz, F; Lalout, R; Abdelouahed, K; Gassen, B; Bakhouch, S; Chergui, M; Karakellah, M; Adjmi-Hamoudi, H; Bitam, I

    2018-05-01

    Argasid ticks include vectors of relapsing fevers caused by Borrelia spp. in humans, and they can transmit arboviruses and other bacterial pathogens. Knowledge about soft ticks ( Ixodida: Argasidae ) in Algeria is incomplete, and distribution data need to be updated. Here we report a series of entomologic investigations that we conducted in five different areas in Algeria between 2012 and 2015. Ticks were identified by entomologic keys and molecular tools (16S rRNA gene). Six distinct species belonging to two genera were identified, including Ornithodoros capensis s.s., Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros erraticus, Ornithodoros sonrai and Argas persicus. The present study highlights the distribution of soft ticks, the establishment of an update inventory with nine species and associated pathogens detected in argasid ticks in Algeria.

  19. Trocas gasosas de mudas de videira, obtidas por dois porta-enxertos, submetidos à deficiência hídrica.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, C.R. de; SOARES, A.M.; REGINA, M. de A.

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da deficiência hídrica e de dois porta-enxertos nas trocas gasosas de mudas de videira cultivadas em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se como copa a 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca), e como porta-enxertos, o 101-14 (V. riparia) e o 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri). Doze dias após a suspensão da rega, o potencial hídrico foliar da combinação 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 apresentou os menores valores (-2,80 MPa) em rel...

  20. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Psathyrostachys (Poaceae) based on one nuclear gene, three plastid genes, and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Baden, Claus

    2004-01-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the small, Central Asian genus Psathyrostachys Nevski is presented. The analysis is based on morphological characters and nucleotide sequence data from one nuclear gene, DMC1, and three plastid genes, rbcL, rpoA, and rpoC2. Separate analyses of the three data partitions...... (morphology, nuclear sequences, and plastid sequences) result in mostly congruent trees. The plastid and nuclear sequences produce completely congruent trees, and only the trees based on plastid sequences and morphological characters are incongruent. Combined analysis of all data results in a fairly well......-resolved strict consensus tree: Ps. rupestris is the sister to the remaining species, which are divided into two clades: one including Ps. fragilis and Ps. caduca, the other including Ps. juncea, Ps. huashanica, Ps. lanuginosa, Ps. stoloniformis, and Ps. kronenburgii. Pubescent culms and more than 20 mm long...

  1. Concentrations of Elements in Hellbender Blood and Fish Fillets from the Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of contaminant monitoring surveys conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) blood and fish. Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus, Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), redhorse (Moxostoma anisorum, Moxostoma erythrurum), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus, Micropterus Lacepede, Ambloplites rupestris), walleye (Sander vitreus), and sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) were collected from 17 sites as part of the Department's General Contaminant Monitoring Program. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and other sunfish (Lepomis megalotis, Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from 18 sites as part of the Department's Resource Assessment and Monitoring Program. Blood from hellbenders was collected from seven sites as part of the Department's Hellbender Monitoring Program.

  2. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  3. Relationship between color (instrumental and visual) and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnecker, Patrícia; Gomes, M Salete O; Arêas, José A G; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M

    2002-07-03

    The correlation between chlorophyll content and quantitative color parameters was investigated in order to find an indirect method for predicting green pigment in ripening soybean seeds. Five Brazilian soybean varieties harvested at different maturity stages (R(6) to R(8) according to the scale of Fehr & Caviness) and dried under two conditions (in oven at 40 degrees C with circulating air and at ambient temperature around 25 degrees C) were analyzed in two consecutive years. The slow-dried seeds at 25 degrees C lost chlorophyll faster, whereas drying at 40 degrees C did not result in yellowing of seeds. High and significant linear correlations between a value and total chlorophyll were obtained over the whole maturation period and on both conditions of drying. From an industrial point of view it appears that a value, obtained by the CIE-L*a*b* method, seems to be a good tool to be applied for quality control and classifying soybean seeds for different purposes.

  4. EFFECT OF LISINOPRIL ON 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Sarkisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of 24-week treatment with lisinopril on blood pressure (BP and arterial stiffness in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Material and methods. Twenty patients with essential HT grade  1-2 and RA (mean age 60.2±7.9 years were treated with lisinoprilin 24 weeks in open controlled study. Office blood pressure (BP was 147.2±9.4/87.5±8.6 mm Hg; 24-h mean  BP – 141.8±9.3/82.2±9.6 mm Hg; HT duration was 14.5±9.4 years, and RA duration – 12.3±2.6 years. A high incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was identified: 95% of patients had dyslipidaemia, 45% – obesity, 35% – impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerosis of carotid arteries with stenosis less than 25% was diagnosed in 65% of patients. Most patients had a positive rheumatoid factor and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, as well as moderate RA activity and III-IV radiologic stage of RA. All patients received methotrexate as the basic anti-inflammatory drug, 12 (60% patients – selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, 6 (30% patients took corticosteroids equivalent to prednisolone 7.5±5.5 mg per day. Mean  dose  of lisinopril was 12.2±9.8 mg/day. Office BP measurements, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM, and  arterial stiffness evaluation were  performed initially and  at the end of the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index on the right (R-CAVI and on the left (L-CAVI.Results. After 24-week therapy with lisinopril office systolic and diastolic BP significantly decreased by 16.0±7.2/11.6±9.1 mm Hg (p<0.0001 and 11.6±9.1 mm Hg (p<0.0001, respectively. The target BP was achieved in 16 (83% patients. According to the ABPM 24-week therapy with lisino pril led to a significant (p<0.002 decrease in BP for all referable periods: by 12.4±9.1/7.6±3.9 mm Hg within 24 hours;  by 13.4±10.1/8.0±6.1 mm Hg for daytime; by 10.1±9.3/7.3±6.3 mm Hg for night-time. After

  5. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  6. Abundance and size distribution of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis on co-occurring algal hosts on the Swedish west coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp. at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host.

  7. Characterisation of the oxygen fluxes in the division, elongation and mature zones of Vitis roots: influence of oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano; Boselli, Maurizio

    2002-03-01

    Oxygen fluxes into and from root cells of Vitis rupestris (flooding sensitive), V. riparia (flooding tolerant) and V. vinifera (medium tolerance to flooding) were measured under different levels of O2 availability using a recently developed polarographic O2-selective, vibrating-microelectrode system. The system enables fluxes to be measured with a spatial resolution of 2-3 microm and a temporal resolution of 10 s. No difference in root porosity was found among the genotypes when grown for 30 days in an aerated solution. Under normoxic conditions, O2 influx was characterised by two distinct peaks, one in the division zone and the other in the elongation zone of the roots. This pattern was found in all three species studied, although the fluxes showed a different magnitude. The peak in the elongation zone coincided with maximum relative elemental growth rates. When the energetics of the cell was disturbed by cyanide, both growth and oxygen O2 influxes ceased at the same time. Under hypoxic conditions, V. riparia plants showed a precise strategy directed toward the maintenance of enough O2 for the respiratory needs of mitosis in the apical meristem of the roots. Thus, whereas in the division zone of V. rupestris and V. vinifera, at bulk O2 concentrations of 0.094 mol x m(-3), the O2 influx was reduced by 70.5 and 38.5%, respectively, for V. riparia no variation in the O2 influx was detected down to bulk O2 concentrations of 0.078 mol x m(-3). Moreover, in accordance with the different tolerances of the plants, the Vitis genotypes were found to differ in their radial O2 loss from the adventitious roots when in an O2-free environment. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of response to anoxia in Vitis species with different tolerances to flooding.

  8. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Getachew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  9. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  10. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Measure of Arterial Stiffness Gradient Not Affected by Mean Arterial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Catherine; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is used for the prediction of cardiovascular risk. This mini-review describes the nonlinear relationship between cf-PWV and operational blood pressure, presents the proposed methods to adjust for this relationship, and discusses a potential place for aortic-brachial PWV ratio (a measure of arterial stiffness gradient) as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. PWV is inherently dependent on the operational blood pressure. In cross-sectional studies, PWV adjustment for mean arterial pressure (MAP) is preferred, but still remains a nonoptimal approach, as the relationship between PWV and blood pressure is nonlinear and varies considerably among individuals due to heterogeneity in genetic background, vascular tone, and vascular remodeling. Extrapolations from the blood pressure-independent stiffness parameter β (β 0 ) have led to the creation of stiffness index β, which can be used for local stiffness. A similar approach has been used for cardio-ankle PWV to generate a blood pressure-independent cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). It was recently demonstrated that stiffness index β and CAVI remain slightly blood pressure-dependent, and a more appropriate formula has been proposed to make the proper adjustments. On the other hand, the negative impact of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes is thought to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient, which can also be influenced by a reduction in peripheral medium-sized muscular arteries in conditions that predispose to accelerate vascular aging. Arterial stiffness gradient, assessed by aortic-brachial PWV ratio, is emerging to be at least as good as cf-PWV for risk prediction, but has the advantage of not being affected by operating MAP. The negative impacts of aortic stiffness on clinical outcomes are proposed to be mediated through attenuation or reversal of arterial stiffness gradient

  11. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  12. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Calderon, Pedro Buc [Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73, B-1200 Woluwé-Saint-Lambert (Belgium); Thomé, Jean Pierre [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Animale et Ecotoxicologie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 15, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Rees, Jean François, E-mail: jf.rees@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Université Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  13. Trocas gasosas de mudas de videira, obtidas por dois porta-enxertos, submetidas à deficiência hídrica Gas exchange of vine cuttings obtained from two graftings submitted to water deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da deficiência hídrica e de dois porta-enxertos nas trocas gasosas de mudas de videira cultivadas em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se como copa a 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca, e como porta-enxertos, o 101-14 (V. riparia e o 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri. Doze dias após a suspensão da rega, o potencial hídrico foliar da combinação 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 apresentou os menores valores (-2,80 MPa em relação à 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2,10 MPa nas plantas não-irrigadas, enquanto o teor relativo de água variou apenas entre os tratamentos hídricos. Com a evolução do estresse hídrico, houve uma sensível redução nas trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', que apresentaram valores próximos de zero, devido ao fechamento dos estômatos, sem diferenças entre os porta-enxertos. Somente após 12 dias sem rega, os porta-enxertos influenciaram a eficiência no uso da água e eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, onde a 'Niágara Rosada' enxertada sobre o 101-14 apresentou valores inferiores ao 1103 Paulsen. Entretanto, durante o período de suspensão da rega, os porta-enxertos não influenciaram as trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', e apresentaram comportamento semelhante em condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica.The present work aimed to evaluate the water deficiency effect and two graftings on the gas exchange of vine cuttings under greenhouse conditions. 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca was used as scion, and 101-14 (V. riparia x V. rupestris and 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri were used as rootstocks. Twelve days after watering suspension, the leaf water potential of the combination 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 showed lower (-2.80 MPa in relation to 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2.10 MPa in the non-irrigated plants, while relative water content altered only among watering levels. With the

  14. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Rees, Jean François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology of precision-cut liver slices was applied to the European seabass. • Liver slices remained viable and functional in short-term co-exposure studies. • CYP1A induction was blocked in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • HSP70 induction was lower in slices exposed to an AhR agonist at high pressure. • Oxidative stress responses to tBHP were less pronounced at high pressure. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1 MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15 h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1 MPa) and deep-sea (5–15 MPa; i.e., 500–1500 m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310–10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15 h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1 h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained

  15. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Rees, Jean François

    2016-04-01

    Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1MPa) and deep-sea (5-15MPa; i.e., 500-1500m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310-10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained viable in all experiments (adenosine triphosphate content). High HP precluded the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA expression in D. labrax, as well as that of glutathione peroxidase, and significantly reduced that of heat shock protein 70. High HP (1h) also tended per se to increase the level of oxidative stress in liver cells of the surface fish. Trends to an increased resistance to tBHP were also noted. Whether the latter observation truly

  16. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas Symbiotic vs. asymbiotic seed germination in epiphytic orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Tupac Otero Ospina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.We compared seedling growth of the epiphytic orchid, Tolumnia variegata in agar media with and without inoculated mycorrhizal fungi. Symbiotic germination produced more-developed embryos than asymbiotic germination. Differences were highly significant, although some isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were parasitic on seeds. Control seeds in a cellulose medium without Rhizoctonia-like fungi did not germinate. Seeds of Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris and Psychilis monensis showed no significant differences between asymbiotic and symbiotic germination using mycorrhizal fungi isolated from T. variegata roots, suggesting high mycorrhizal specificity. Our data suggest that the relationship between epiphytic orchids and the mycorrhizal fungi is more specific than previously thought. The use of

  17. THE CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS OF CINACALCET IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS WITH SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjin Chung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes characterized by calcification of either intima or media result in arterial stiffness and cardiac hypertrophy, especially in hemodialyais patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of cinacalcet on arterial compliance and cardiac hypertrophy. We studied 14 patients with ESRD who had high levels of intact PTH (iPTH, >300 pg/mL and of corrected serum calcium (cCa, >9.0 mg/dL with cinacalcet over 20-week period prospectively. After 20 weeks treatment, we performed flow-mediated dialation (FMD, cadio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and echocardiographic analyses. Twenty weeks cinaclacet treatment significantly decreased blood levels of iPTH (628.2±250.8 vs. 251.7±237.4 pg/ml, p<0.01, calcium (9.7±0.7 vs.8.7±0.6 mg/dl, P<0.01, phosphorus (6.8±1.3 vs. 5.0±1.4 mg/dl, P<0.01, calcium x phosphorus product (64.8±15.4 vs. 43.5±14.9, P<0.01 and 25(OH vitamin D (9.9±3.4 vs. 8.2±2.7 ng/mL, P<0.05. There were no significant changes in LV mass, the ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In contrast, cinacalcet significantly improved FMD (8.6±2.9 vs. 14.3±2.8%, P<0.01 and enhanced CAVI (8.8±2.3 vs. 7.6±2.4, P<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and arterial compliance.

  18. Silencing Agrobacterium oncogenes in transgenic grapevine results in strain-specific crown gall resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, A; Zok, A; Kuczmog, A; Oláh, R; Putnoky, P; Ream, W; Szegedi, E

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine rootstock transformed with an Agrobacterium oncogene-silencing transgene was resistant to certain Agrobacterium strains but sensitive to others. Thus, genetic diversity of Agrobacterium oncogenes may limit engineering crown gall resistance. Crown gall disease of grapevine induced by Agrobacterium vitis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes serious economic losses in viticulture. To establish crown gall-resistant lines, somatic proembryos of Vitis berlandieri × V. rupestris cv. 'Richter 110' rootstock were transformed with an oncogene-silencing transgene based on iaaM and ipt oncogene sequences from octopine-type, tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid pTiA6. Twenty-one transgenic lines were selected, and their transgenic nature was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These lines were inoculated with two A. tumefaciens and three A. vitis strains. Eight lines showed resistance to octopine-type A. tumefaciens A348. Resistance correlated with the expression of the silencing genes. However, oncogene silencing was mostly sequence specific because these lines did not abolish tumorigenesis by A. vitis strains or nopaline-type A. tumefaciens C58.

  19. Computer Vision for High-Throughput Quantitative Phenotyping: A Case Study of Grapevine Downy Mildew Sporulation and Leaf Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divilov, Konstantin; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Barba, Paola; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative phenotyping of downy mildew sporulation is frequently used in plant breeding and genetic studies, as well as in studies focused on pathogen biology such as chemical efficacy trials. In these scenarios, phenotyping a large number of genotypes or treatments can be advantageous but is often limited by time and cost. We present a novel computational pipeline dedicated to estimating the percent area of downy mildew sporulation from images of inoculated grapevine leaf discs in a manner that is time and cost efficient. The pipeline was tested on images from leaf disc assay experiments involving two F 1 grapevine families, one that had glabrous leaves (Vitis rupestris B38 × 'Horizon' [RH]) and another that had leaf trichomes (Horizon × V. cinerea B9 [HC]). Correlations between computer vision and manual visual ratings reached 0.89 in the RH family and 0.43 in the HC family. Additionally, we were able to use the computer vision system prior to sporulation to measure the percent leaf trichome area. We estimate that an experienced rater scoring sporulation would spend at least 90% less time using the computer vision system compared with the manual visual method. This will allow more treatments to be phenotyped in order to better understand the genetic architecture of downy mildew resistance and of leaf trichome density. We anticipate that this computer vision system will find applications in other pathosystems or traits where responses can be imaged with sufficient contrast from the background.

  20. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

  1. Subdigital setae of narrow-toed geckos, including a Eublepharid (Aeluroscalabotes felinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peattie, Anne M

    2008-07-01

    Subdigital adhesive setae have previously been documented in all legged gecko families except the Eublepharidae. I present evidence that members of Aeluroscalabotes felinus, the only arboreal eublepharids, possess subdigital setae up to 9 mum in length. This discovery suggests that the conditions leading to adhesive setae were probably present in the ancestors of all geckos, rather than arising multiple times within Gekkota. The digits and setae of Aeluroscalabotes resemble those of other climbing, bent-toed geckos. I describe the setal morphology of the following bent-toed species: Cyrtodactylus peguensis, Gonatodes albogularis, and Pristurus rupestris. The presence of subdigital setae is highly correlated with an arboreal lifestyle across geckos and other lizards such as anoles and skinks. Although relatively simple in form, these setae likely confer additional traction that significantly benefits climbing species. Further developmental and biomechanical studies comparing these species with more agile climbers like the Tokay will improve our understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to adhesive setae, and consequently inform engineers attempting to fabricate effective artificial gecko setae. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of DNA barcode candidates for the discrimination of Artemisia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geyu; Ning, Huixia; Ayidaerhan, Nurbolati; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-11-01

    Because of the very similar morphologies and wide diversity of Artemisia L. varieties, they are difficult to identify, and there have been many arguments about the systematic classification Artemisia L., especially concerning the division of species. DNA barcode technology is used to rapidly identify species based on standard short DNA sequences. To evaluate seven candidate DNA barcodes (ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, rpoB, and rpoC1) regarding their ability to identify closely related species of the Artemisia genus in Xinjiang. The corresponding PCR amplification efficiency, detectable genetic divergence, identification efficiency and phylogenetic tree were assessed. We found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region exhibited the highest interspecific divergence, which was significantly higher than the observed intraspecific variation and showed the highest identification efficiency, followed by ITS2, psbA-trnH and, finally, rpoB. matK, rbcL, and rpoC1 performed poorly in this evaluation. ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH were able to perfectly identify the tested species Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, A. rupestris, A. tonurnefortiana, A. austriaca, A. dracunculus, A. vulgaris, and A. macrocephala. Therefore, we propose the ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH regions as promising DNA barcodes for the closely related species of Artemisia L. in Xinjiang.

  3. Host Range of a Population of Pratylenchus vulnus in Commercial Fruit, Nut, Citrus, and Grape Rootstocks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo, S; Soler, A; Canals, J

    1992-12-01

    In a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus vulnus, in Spain. Twenty-five rootstocks had a Pf/Pi > 1.5. These included almond (Desmayo Rojo, 1143), apple (EM-9, EM-106), avocado (Hass), cherry (Santa Lucia 64, Camil, M x M 14, Masto de Montafiana), grape (41-B, Fercal, Ritcher 110), hazelnut (Pauetet), loquat (Nadal), peach (Montclar, GF-305), pear (OHF-333), pistachio (P. atlantica, P. vera, P. terebinthus), plum (San Julian 655-2, Montizo, Pixy, Myrobalan 605), and walnut (Serf). The peach rootstock Nemaguard and the grape 161-49 had Pf/Pi between 1.0 and 1.5 (slightly higher than inoculation level). All the tested citrus (Alemow, rough lemon, Carrizo citrange, sour orange, Troyer citrange, Citrumelo), plus three grape (SO4, Vitis rupestris, 1103-P), and the olive rootstock Arbequina had a Pf/Pi < 1.0.

  4. Antioxidant and metabolite profiling of North American and neotropical blueberries using LC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-04-10

    There are many neotropical blueberries, and recent studies have shown that some have even stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known edible North American blueberries. Antioxidant marker compounds were predicted by applying multivariate statistics to data from LC-TOF-MS analysis and antioxidant assays of 3 North American blueberry species (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, and a defined mixture of Vaccinium virgatum with V. corymbosum) and 12 neotropical blueberry species (Anthopterus wardii, Cavendishia grandifolia, Cavendishia isernii, Ceratostema silvicola, Disterigma rimbachii, Macleania coccoloboides, Macleania cordifolia, Macleania rupestris, Satyria boliviana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, Sphyrospermum cordifolium, and Sphyrospermum ellipticum). Fourteen antioxidant markers were detected, and 12 of these, including 7 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, 1 hydroxycinnamic acid, and 1 iridoid glycoside, were identified. This application of multivariate analysis to bioactivity and mass data can be used for identification of pharmacologically active natural products and may help to determine which neotropical blueberry species will be prioritized for agricultural development. Also, the compositional differences between North American and neotropical blueberries were determined by chemometric analysis, and 44 marker compounds including 16 anthocyanins, 15 flavonoids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 5 triterpene glycosides, and 1 iridoid glycoside were identified.

  5. Otolith chemistry reveals seamount fidelity in a deepwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Thomas; Augley, Julian; Devalla, Sandhya; Robinson, Craig D.; Wright, Peter J.; Neat, Francis C.

    2017-03-01

    There are thousands of seamounts (underwater mountains) throughout the world's deep oceans, many of which support diverse faunal communities and valuable fish stocks. Although seamounts are often geographically and bathymetrically isolated from one another, it is not clear how biologically isolated they are from one another. We analysed the chemical signature of the otoliths of a deepwater fish, the roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris) to test the null hypothesis that there is random exchange between individuals from a seamount and other adjacent areas. The fish were sampled on the Scottish west coast, from the Rosemary Bank seamount and two adjacent locations of similar depth, in the same year at roughly the same time of year. We used flow-injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure trace element concentrations from micro-milled portions of the otolith corresponding to adult and juvenile life history stages. The elemental signatures of the fish from the seamount were distinguishable from the fish from the two other areas during both the juvenile and adult life-history phase. We infer that once juveniles settle on the seamount they remain there for the rest of their lives. Evidence for population structure should be factored into exploitation strategies to prevent local depletion and is an important consideration with respect to Rosemary bank being included in a network of Marine Protected Areas around Scotland.

  6. Does Angling Technique Selectively Target Fishes Based on Their Behavioural Type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D M Wilson

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been growing recognition that fish harvesting practices can have important impacts on the phenotypic distributions and diversity of natural populations through a phenomenon known as fisheries-induced evolution. Here we experimentally show that two common recreational angling techniques (active crank baits versus passive soft plastics differentially target wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris based on variation in their behavioural tendencies. Fish were first angled in the wild using both techniques and then brought back to the laboratory and tested for individual-level differences in common estimates of personality (refuge emergence, flight-initiation-distance, latency-to-recapture and with a net, and general activity in an in-lake experimental arena. We found that different angling techniques appear to selectively target these species based on their boldness (as characterized by refuge emergence, a standard measure of boldness in fishes but not other assays of personality. We also observed that body size was independently a significant predictor of personality in both species, though this varied between traits and species. Our results suggest a context-dependency for vulnerability to capture relative to behaviour in these fish species. Ascertaining the selective pressures angling practices exert on natural populations is an important area of fisheries research with significant implications for ecology, evolution, and resource management.

  7. Assessing the diversity, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in reptiles from Oman, Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Harris, D James; Carranza, Salvador; Goméz-Díaz, Elena

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the processes that shape parasite diversification, their distribution and abundance provides valuable information on the dynamics and evolution of disease. In this study, we assessed the diversity, distribution, host-specificity and infection patterns of apicomplexan parasites in amphibians and reptiles from Oman, Arabia. Using a quantitative PCR approach we detected three apicomplexan parasites (haemogregarines, lankesterellids and sarcocystids). A total of 13 haemogregarine haplotypes were identified, which fell into four main clades in a phylogenetic framework. Phylogenetic analysis of six new lankesterellid haplotypes revealed that these parasites were distinct from, but phylogenetically related to, known Lankesterella species and might represent new taxa. The percentage of infected hosts (prevalence) and the number of haemogregarines in the blood (parasitaemia) varied significantly between gecko species. We also found significant differences in parasitaemia between haemogregarine parasite lineages (defined by phylogenetic clustering of haplotypes), suggesting differences in host-parasite compatibility between these lineages. For Pristurus rupestris, we found significant differences in haemogregarine prevalence between geographical areas. Our results suggest that host ecology and host relatedness may influence haemogregarine distributions and, more generally, highlight the importance of screening wild hosts from remote regions to provide new insights into parasite diversity.

  8. Embryological studies on Fragaria x ananassa Duch. after pollination by three species of Potentilla

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    Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryological studies were carried out after pollinating four female varieties of Fragaria ananassa Duch. (Freja, Sonja, Mieze Schindler, Reine des Precoce with three species of Poteiatilla (P. geoides, P. rupestris, P. fruticosa. The aim was to elucidate the manner in which matroclinous progeny arises after pollination of the strawberry with Potentilla pollen. In addition to meiotic, apo- and diplosporous embryo sacs were formed in the Freja variety. On the average, in the four studied varieties,, 49% of the ovules contained more than one embryo sac. At the most, five embryo sacs developed, but only two of them attained full maturity. Pollen from Potentilla germinated on the stigma of the strawberry and the pollen tubes grew through the style to the ovule. Symptoms of fertilization were not found in the strawberry ovules after pollination with Potentilla, however, after pollination with the Redgauntlet F. x ananassa variety, extra nucleoli or chromatin grains were found in the ovule. False polyembryony was found in the Mieze Schindler (16 cases, Sonja (2 cases and Freja (1 case varieties. The germination of two plants from one seed was observed, which shows the possibility of full development of twin embryos. The low germination ability of the seeds was caused by abnormalities in the development of the embryos.

  9. Comparative evaluation of oxidative enzyme activities during adventitious rooting in the cuttings of grapevine rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Cafer; Erdal, Serkan; Kaya, Ozkan; Atici, Okkeş

    2011-03-15

    This study investigated changes in peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities through adventitious rooting in hardwood cuttings of grapevine rootstocks. Three grapevine rootstocks with different propensity to produce adventitious roots were selected: recalcitrant (Ramsey), non-recalcitrant (Rupestris du Lot) and intermediate (99R) cultivars. The averages of root number at 65 days were 96 in Lot, 76 in 99R and 30 in Ramsey. Both enzyme activities characteristically increased before adventitious rooting, regardless of rooting ability of the rootstocks, and then decreased. POX activity increased in Ramsey cuttings at 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days after planting, and then decreased gradually until 51 days. The highest POX activity was determined in Ramsey rootstock with the highest rooting ability and the lowest activity was determined in the rootstocks with the lowest rooting ability. PPO activity gradually increased in Ramsey rootstock cuttings from 10 days to 22 days, in Lot and 99R cuttings at 14 days, and then decreased until 51 days. A significant correlation was identified between high POX activity and adventitious rooting capability in rootstocks, but the same result was not determined with PPO activity. A recalcitrant rooting variety cannot increase POX activity sufficiently before rooting. Therefore applications that could increase POX activity in stem cuttings during rooting may facilitate increased rooting in such rootstocks. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokn, T.L. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Moy, F.E. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Murray, S.N. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    1993-12-31

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 30.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  12. Long-term effects of the water-accomodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on rocky shore populations maintained in experimental mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokn, T.L.; Moy, F.E.; Murray, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term effects of continuous doses (average hydrocarbon concentration =129.4 μg L -1 and 30.1 μg L -1 ) of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of diesel oil on 15 rocky littoral populations were determined at three tidal levels in experimental mesocosms over two years. At each tidal level, most species exhibited similar abundance changes in both oil-contaminated and control (average background hydrocarbon concentration = 5.6 μg L -1 ) mesocosms. Significant changes in species abundances attributable to oil (WAF) were demonstrated for only two of ten seaweeds and three of five invertebrates. Compared with the other mesocosms, significantly greater reductions in upper-level cover were recorded in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage for the seaweeds Phymatolithon lenormandii and Fucus evanescents together with lower recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. The mussel Mytilus edulis was storngly affected by the oil treatments and essentially disappeared from both oil-contaminated mesocosms. Numbers of the starfish Asterias rubens also fell to zero at the lowest tidal level in the basin receiving the highest oil dosage. There were no demonstrable differences in the abundance patterns of the gastropod Littorina littorea, the crab Carcinus maenus, and a total of eight brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, F. vesiculosus, Laminaria digitata), red (Chondrus crispus), and green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca) seaweeds in the oil-contaminated compared with the control mesocosms. (orig.)

  13. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  14. Detection of a novel Rickettsia sp. in soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir

    2015-01-01

    Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  17. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  18. Comparison of cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryo; Yamakage, Hajime; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wada, Hiromichi; Otani, Sumire; Yonezawa, Kazuya; Ogo, Atsushi; Okajima, Taiichiro; Adachi, Masahiro; Araki, Rika; Yoshida, Kazuro; Saito, Miho; Nagaoka, Tadasu; Toyonaga, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Ota, Itsuro; Oishi, Mariko; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which indicator of chronic kidney disease most closely correlates with 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among serum creatinine, serum cystatin C (S-CysC), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated creatinine-based GFRs (eGFRcre), and estimated CysC-based GFRs (eGFRcys) in patients with obesity and diabetes. Serum creatinine, S-CysC, UACR, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were examined in 468 outpatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, free of severe renal dysfunction or previous history of cardiovascular disease, as a cross-sectional survey using baseline data from the multi-centered Japan Diabetes and Obesity Study. S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with the 10-year Framingham CHD risk than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.318; S-CysC, ρ = 0.497; UACR, ρ = 0.174; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.291; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.521; P obesity and diabetes.

  19. ISSUES CONCERNING OCCURRENCE OF FLOODS ON THE VEDEA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMA FLORENTINA-MARIANA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of flood occurrence on the Vedea River. This study addresses several aspects of floods on the Vedea River, located in the Central Romanian Plain, located between Olt and Argeş rivers. Data recorded in the most important hydrological stations (Buzeşti, Văleni, Alexandria along the Vedea River were used, for a period of 40 years (1970-2009. Flood generating conditions, their typology and parameters were analyzed. Cavis software developed by specialists from INHGA Bucharest was employed, in order to draft the flood hydrographs and calculate the floods parameters. Also, we calculated the multi-annual and seasonal frequencies of flood occurrence. There are two main conclusions emerging from specific analysis. First, the most floods occur in late winter and early spring while the least are specific to autumn season. Second conclusion is that the highest flash floods recorded along the Vedea River are associated to heavy rainfall periods and they occurred in late spring and early summer.

  20. Fine structure of the tapetum lucidum of the paca Cuniculus paca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R

    1993-01-01

    The tapetum lucidum of the paca or spotted cavy (Cuniculus paca) has been studied by light and electron microscopy. The reflective layer in this species is a tapetum cellulosum situated in the choroid of the superior fundus. Posteriorly, the tapetum is composed of several layers of ovoid to flattened cells while peripherally the tapetum gradually thins down and disappears. Within the tapetal cells most cell organelles are located near the nucleus. The dominant feature of these cells is, however, a large accumulation of electron-dense rodlets which show a variety of sizes, shapes and orientations. These rodlets are the reflective material of the tapetum, and energy dispersive studies indicate that they are rich in sulphur. The diameter and spacing of these irregular rodlets is too varied to be consistent with the principles of constructive interference, and the tapetum in the paca is probably capable of only diffuse reflectance. The retinal epithelium over the tapetum is nonpigmented while in non-tapetal locations it is normally pigmented.

  1. Different Associations of Trunk and Lower-Body Fat Mass Distribution with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Healthy Middle-Aged Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the gender-specific pattern of fat mass (FM distribution is related to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors. 207 healthy middle-aged Japanese were included in the study. We measured FM in the total body, trunk, and lower-body with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The percentage of trunk FM (TFM and lower-body FM (LFM is noted as %TFM and %LFM, respectively. Other measurements included glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, and systemic oxidative stress marker. Arterial properties were indicated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery. The results showed that %TFM is higher whereas %LFM is lower in men than in women and men have a more atherogenic cardiometabolic profile. In both genders, %TFM (%LFM is related to an unfavorable (favorable cardiometabolic profile. In particular, the relation between %LFM and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index is stronger in women than in men. These findings suggested that in relatively healthy adults, android and gynoid pattern of FM distribution contributes to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.

  2. Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Brooks, G.A.; Neese, R.A.; Stanley, W.C.; Morris, D.L.; Gertz, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1- 14 C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/μmol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

  3. Suprasegmental lexical stress cues in visual speech can guide spoken-word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M

    2014-01-01

    Visual cues to the individual segments of speech and to sentence prosody guide speech recognition. The present study tested whether visual suprasegmental cues to the stress patterns of words can also constrain recognition. Dutch listeners use acoustic suprasegmental cues to lexical stress (changes in duration, amplitude, and pitch) in spoken-word recognition. We asked here whether they can also use visual suprasegmental cues. In two categorization experiments, Dutch participants saw a speaker say fragments of word pairs that were segmentally identical but differed in their stress realization (e.g., 'ca-vi from cavia "guinea pig" vs. 'ka-vi from kaviaar "caviar"). Participants were able to distinguish between these pairs from seeing a speaker alone. Only the presence of primary stress in the fragment, not its absence, was informative. Participants were able to distinguish visually primary from secondary stress on first syllables, but only when the fragment-bearing target word carried phrase-level emphasis. Furthermore, participants distinguished fragments with primary stress on their second syllable from those with secondary stress on their first syllable (e.g., pro-'jec from projector "projector" vs. 'pro-jec from projectiel "projectile"), independently of phrase-level emphasis. Seeing a speaker thus contributes to spoken-word recognition by providing suprasegmental information about the presence of primary lexical stress.

  4. First paleoparasitological study of micromammal coprolites from the holocene of the Somuncurá Plateau Protected Natural Area (Patagonia Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Bellusci, Agustín; Andrade, Analía

    2018-02-27

    The Somuncurá Plateau is a Protected Natural Area located in the middle of the northern extra-Andean arid Patagonia. Inhabited by at least 20 small mammal species, is the place with the uppermost species richness in Patagonia. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains from micromammal coprolites collected in association with a bone sequence recovered at the east of the Somuncurá Plateau (site "Alero Las Lechuzas"). Coprolites came from the four temporal units previously defined: unit I (4790 ± 100 yrs. 14 C B.P.), unit II, unit III (7840 ± 120 yrs. 14 C B.P.) and unit IV. Each coprolite was processed, rehydrated, homogenized, processed by spontaneous sedimentation and examined using a light microscope. Coprolites and eggs were described, measured and photographed. Samples were positive for two nematode species: Helminthoxys caudatus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937 (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae) and Trichuris spp. (Trichinellida: Trichuridae). This is the first paleoparasitological study developed for the Somuncurá Plateau Protected Area. Moreover, this is the first time that the genus Helminthoxys is reported from ancient times worldwide. Coprolites were attributed to the mountain cavy Microcavia australis (Rodentia, Caviidae).The presence of H. caudatus for the Middle Holocene of northern Patagonia contributes to the study of the history of the histricomorphs and pinworms relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrinsic bacterial burden associated with intensive care unit hospital beds: effects of disinfection on population recovery and mitigation of potential infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaway, Hubert H; Fairey, Sarah; Steed, Lisa L; Salgado, Cassandra D; Michels, Harold T; Schmidt, Michael G

    2012-12-01

    Commonly touched items are likely reservoirs from which patients, health care workers, and visitors may encounter and transfer microbes. A quantitative assessment was conducted of the risk represented by the intrinsic bacterial burden associated with bed rails in a medical intensive care unit (MICU), and how disinfection might mitigate this risk. Bacteria present on the rails from 36 patient beds in the MICU were sampled immediately before cleaning and at 0.5, 2.5, 4.5, and 6.5 hours after cleaning. Beds were sanitized with either a bottled disinfectant (BD; CaviCide) or an automated bulk-diluted disinfectant (ABDD; Virex II 256). The majority of bacteria recovered from the bed rails in the MICU were staphylococci, but not methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were recovered from 3 beds. Bottled disinfectant reduced the average bacterial burden on the rails by 99%. However, the burden rebounded to 30% of that found before disinfection by 6.5 hours after disinfection. ABDD reduced the burden by an average of 45%, but levels rebounded within 2.5 hours. The effectiveness of both disinfectants was reflected in median reductions to burden of 98% for BD and 95% for ABDD. Cleaning with hospital-approved disinfectants reduced the intrinsic bacterial burden on bed rail surfaces by up to 99%, although the population, principally staphylococci, rebounded quickly to predisinfection levels. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining factors that influence the effectiveness of cleaning antineoplastic drugs from drug preparation surfaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Chua, Prescillia Ps; Danyluk, Quinn; Astrakianakis, George

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs has been documented to result in various adverse health effects. Despite the implementation of control measures to minimize exposure, detectable levels of drug residual are still found on hospital work surfaces. Cleaning these surfaces is considered as one means to minimize the exposure potential. However, there are no consistent guiding principles related to cleaning of contaminated surfaces resulting in hospitals to adopt varying practices. As such, this pilot study sought to evaluate current cleaning protocols and identify those factors that were most effective in reducing contamination on drug preparation surfaces. Three cleaning variables were examined: (1) type of cleaning agent (CaviCide®, Phenokil II™, bleach and chlorhexidine), (2) application method of cleaning agent (directly onto surface or indirectly onto a wipe) and (3) use of isopropyl alcohol after cleaning agent application. Known concentrations of antineoplastic drugs (either methotrexate or cyclophosphamide) were placed on a stainless steel swatch and then, systematically, each of the three cleaning variables was tested. Surface wipes were collected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the percent residual of drug remaining (with 100% being complete elimination of the drug). No one single cleaning agent proved to be effective in completely eliminating all drug contamination. The method of application had minimal effect on the amount of drug residual. In general, application of isopropyl alcohol after the use of cleaning agent further reduced the level of drug contamination although measureable levels of drug were still found in some cases.

  7. [The effect of disinfectant soaking on dental gypsum model size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cao-yun; Xu, Yun-wen; Xu, Kan

    2012-12-01

    To study the influence of disinfectant soaking on the dimensional stability of three kinds of dental gypsum model. Three commonly used gypsums ( type III,IV,Vtype) in clinic were used to make 24 specimens for 50 mm×15 mm×10 mm in size. One hour after release, the specimens were placed for 24 h. A digital caliper was used to measure the size of the gypsum model. Distilled water immersion was as used control, glutaraldehyde disinfectant and Metrix CaviCide disinfectant soaking were used for the experimental group. After soaking for 0.5h, the gypsum models were removed and placed for 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 24 h. The size of the models was measured again using the same method. The data was analyzed with SPSS10.0 software package. The initial gypsum model length was (50.07±0.017) mm, (50.048±0.015) mm and (50.027±0.015) mm. After soaking for different times, the size of the model changed little, and the dimensions changed less than 0.01%. The results show that disinfectant soaking has no significant effect on dental model dimensions.

  8. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocular disease in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus): a survey of 1000 animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Sullivan, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that guinea pigs have a high prevalence of ocular lesions. Here we undertook a survey of 1000 guinea pigs from populations of animals kept as laboratory animals, breeding show cavies, animals kept as pets and those from rescue and rehoming centers. Each animal was examined to assess for ocular abnormalities. A full ophthalmic examination was performed on each animal with direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and with slit lamp biomicroscopy. Measurement of tear production using the Schirmer tear test 1 and intraocular pressure using the Tonopen applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia was undertaken in selected animals. Forty-five percent of animals examined had some ocular abnormality. The majority were lens lesions including 17% with cataract and 21% with subclinical lens abnormalities such as nuclear sclerosis. Other abnormalities included conjunctivitis in 4.7% and keratitis in 3.6%. Lipid deposition in conjunctiva was observed in 2.3% of guinea pigs and ciliary body heterotopic bone formation in 0.8% of animals. This study shows a high proportion of eyes with some degree of abnormality in animals otherwise considered healthy. Information on diseases of the guinea pig eye is important given the use of the species as a laboratory rodent and also the number kept as pets and show animals.

  10. Ramescência do arco aórtico no gambá-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Schimming

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the aortic arch main and collateral branches is important because these arteries supply vital organs found in the head, neck, thoracic cavity and forelimbs of domestic and wild animals. This study aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge in opossums and collaborate with veterinary medical and surgical clinics. Thus, the anatomy of aortic arch was described in eighteen opossums. The results indicated that the aortic arch gives off the brachiocephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery in all animals studied. The branching pattern of the aortic arch is similar to that reported in the guinea pig, chinchilla, paca, raccoon, nutria, red squirrel, and ocelot. The brachiocephalic trunk showed as collateral branches, the right subclavian artery and the bicarotid trunk, that originated in the right and left common carotid arteries (77.7%. Bicarotid trunk was absent in four animals (22.2%. The right and left subclavian arteries originated in the vertebral artery, costocervical trunk, internal thoracic artery, and superficial cervical artery. Collateral branches of the subclavian artery showed similarities to that observed in other wild animals such as paca, ocelot and rock cavy.

  11. Rice Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Vietnamese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Bui Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Linh, Vu Anh; Anh, Nguyen Do Van; Nga, Tran Thuy; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Yui, Kei; Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-germinated brown rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucosides (PSG) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women. A total of 60 post-menopausal Vietnamese women (45-65 y old) with high LDL cholesterol levels (over 140 mg/dL) were randomly divided into PSG (n=30) and placebo (n=30) groups. The subjects in the PSG group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing 50 mg PSG, and the subjects in the placebo group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing corn oil for 6 mo. Before baseline and after month 2, month 4, and month 6 of the intervention, we conducted anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical examinations, a nutrition survey, and physical activity, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) measurements. Serum LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced from 163.6±25.3 (mg/dL) to 135.9±26.8 (mg/dL) compared to the placebo group (pVietnamese women with high LDL cholesterol.

  12. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  13. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  14. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente de Floresta Estacional Decidual de encosta, Monte Alegre, GO, Brasil Floristic and structure of a seasonal deciduous forest fragment, Monte Alegre, GO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Terra Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a composição de espécies arbóreas e a estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual, na região Nordeste de Goiás, Brasil. Foram levantadas 25 unidades amostrais quadradas de 20x20m, totalizando uma amostra de um hectare, sendo incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com diâmetros iguais ou superiores a 5cm. Foram amostrados 663 indivíduos pertencentes a 52 espécies arbóreas, destacando-se pela densidade as espécies Combretum duarteanum Camb., Casearia rupestris Eichl., Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allem., Machaerium acutifolium Vog. e Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. Foram encontradas 21 famílias botânicas, com maior representatividade da família Leguminosae (17 espécies e das famílias Bignoniaceae (4 espécies, Anacardiaceae (3 espécies e Bombacaceae (3 espécies. A vegetação estudada apresentou dossel descontínuo e distribuição diamétrica desequilibrada, com valores do quociente de Liocourt "q" variando de q1= 0,66 a q6 = 0,14. Estes remanescentes florestais desempenham papel importante na manutenção da diversidade biológica e possuem espécies arbóreas madeiráveis de importância econômica, que se tornaram raras em outros locais da região Nordeste de Goiás.The objective of this study was to describe the floristic composition and the structure of the tree layer of a fragment of a seasonal deciduous forest in northeastern Goiás state, Brazil. A sample of 25 (20x20 plots was assessed totaling one hectare. All individuals for 5cm dbh were included in the survey. A total of 663 trees in 52 arboreal species was found; the most abundant species were Combretum duarteanum Camb., Casearia rupestris Eichl., Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allem., Machaerium acutifolium Vog. and Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl. There were 21 families with a higher proportion of Leguminosae (17 species Bignoniaceae (4 species, Anacardiaceae (3 species and

  15. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility

  16. Ajuste do modelo fototérmico de estimativa do desenvolvimento e do índice de área foliar de soja Adjustment of the photothermic model to estimate soybean development and leaf area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila T. Toledo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se neste estudo, realizar o ajuste do modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento de populações de soja e da variação do índice de área foliar para a variedade IAS 5. Como fonte de variação na velocidade de desenvolvimento, diferentes épocas de plantio foram utilizadas em experimentos nos anos agrícolas de 2004/2005 (três datas e 2005/2006 (quatro datas no IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural localizado em Augusto Pestana, RS (28º 27' 17" S e 53º 54' 50" W, nos quais foram identificadas as datas em que ocorreram as principais fases do desenvolvimento da cultura da soja, seguindo a Escala Fenológica de Fehr & Caviness e estimados o índice de área foliar em quatro momentos: no final do período de instalação da população vegetal (V6; no início do florescimento (R1; início do enchimento de grãos (R5; e no início da maturação (R7. As variáveis meteorológicas temperaturas mínima e máxima diárias foram coletadas. Após o ajuste dos coeficientes genéticos, o modelo foi formatado no programa Stella 5.0. O modelo de estimativa do desenvolvimento da soja teve desempenho satisfatório, apresentando estimativas precisas para os dados que o determinaram. O modelo de estimativa do índice de área foliar apresentou estimativas satisfatórias.The present study was carried out to adjust the soy population development model and the leaf area index model for the IAS 5 cultivar. Different sowing dates were used in two experiments as source of development variation during 2004/2005 (three dates and 2005/2006 (four dates in the IRDeR (Instituto Regional de Desenvolvimento Rural located in Augusto Pestana, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (28º 27' 17" S and 53º 54' 50" W. The main crop development phases were identified according to the Feher & Caviness phenological scale, and the leaf area index was determined in four occasions: at the final period of plant population installation (V6; at the beginning of flowering

  17. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.

    2002-01-01

    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  18. Occurrence of /sup 22/Na in some species of Canadian biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J E

    1965-09-01

    Cosmic-ray spallation of argon and fallout from testing of high-yield nuclear weapons have increased the amount of /sup 22/Na present in the environment. Consequently, it has been possible to measure /sup 22/Na in Alaskan natives, caribou, elk, and some foods. Samples of flora and fauna were routinely collected in the vicinity of Pinawa, Manitoba, as a part of the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment's radiation survey program. Gamma spectrometric analysis methods revealed the presence of /sup 22/Na in samples taken during 1964, in addition to other long-lived fission products such as /sup 144/Ce, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. Sodium-22 was measured in samples of muscle tissue taken from the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus sp.) and hare (Lepus americanus), but was not detected in the flesh of the short-tailed weasel (Mustela erminea). Sodium-22 was detected neither in the sweet (white) clover which grew profusely in the area where the mammals were trapped nor in composite samples of Winnipeg River water in any of the species of fish taken from the river during this period: rock bass (Amblopletes rupestris), sucker (Castostomus sp.), pike (Esox lucius), pickerel (Stizostedion vitreum), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). However, /sup 22/Na has been reported in bass caught in the Columbia River, Washington. Potassium-40 and /sup 137/Cs means in the samples examined indicate an apparent increase in the amounts of /sup 137/Cs. The amount of /sup 22/Na measured in rabbits is much less than the maximum permissible body burden for the nuclide (10 ..mu..C).

  19. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  20. Tolerância de porta-enxertos de videira ao alumínio do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fráguas

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Onze porta-enxertos e duas cultivares americanas de videira (Vitis spp foram avaliadas mediante níveis de saturação por Al no solo (Cambissolo Húmico álico, objetivando alcançar a tolerância diferenciada ao Al. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com seis tratamentos completamente casualizados e quatro repetições, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, RS, no período de 1987 a 1990. As características avaliadas foram: altura das plantas, comprimento das raízes, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes e teores de P, K, Ca e Mg em folhas e raízes. Diante dos acréscimos ou aumentos verificados em cada característica (variação % e por cultivar, foi possível estabelecer a tolerância diferenciada das cultivares. O teor de K na parte aérea não foi afetado pelos níveis de saturação por Al, enquanto os teores de Ca e Mg foram os mais afetados. O teor de P teve um comportamento estável entre os níveis de saturação por Al. As cultivares Isabel e Cunningham apresentaram diferença na tolerância ao Al do solo; a Cunningham teve melhor comportamento. Os porta-enxertos R99, Rupestris du Lot e Kober 5BB, juntamente com Isabel, foram os mais sensíveis ao Al, e P1103, 101-14 e 196-17Cl foram os mais tolerantes.

  1. Temperature responses of some North Atlantic Cladophora species (Chlorophyceae) in relation to their geographic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M.; Breeman, A. M.; van Oosterwijk, R.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    The temperature responses for growth and survival have been experimentally tested for 6 species of the green algal genus Cladophora (Chlorophyceae; Cladophorales) (all isolated from Roscoff, Brittany, France, one also from Connecticut, USA), selected from 4 distribution groups, in order to determine which phase in the annual temperature regime might prevent the spread of a species beyond its present latitudinal range on the N. Atlantic coasts. For five species geographic limits could be specifically defined as due to a growth limit in the growing season or to a lethal limit in the adverse season. These species were: (1) C. coelothrix (Amphiatlantic tropical to warm temperate), with a northern boundary on the European coasts formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm. On the American coasts sea temperatures should allow its occurrence further north. (2) C. vagabunda (Amphiatlantic tropical to temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 15°C August isotherm on both sides of the Atlantic. (3) C. dalmatica, as for C. vagabunda. (4) C. hutchinsiae (Mediterranean-Atlantic warm temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm, and possibly also a winter lethal limit near the 6°C February isotherm; and a southern boundary formed by a southern lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm. It is absent from the warm temperate American coast because its lethal limits, 5° and 30°C, are regularly reached there. (5) Preliminary data for C. rupestris (Amphiatlantic temperate), suggest the southeastern boundary on the African coast to be a summer lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm; the southwestern boundary on the American coast lies on the 20°C August isotherm. For one species, C. albida, the experimental growth and survival range was wider than expected from its geographic distribution, and reasons to account for this are suggested.

  2. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  3. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen WAITE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine nurseries soak cuttings in water during propagation to compensate for dehydration and promote root initiation. However, trunk disease pathogens have been isolated from soaking water, indicating cross contamination. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Sunmuscat and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris rootstock cv. 140 Ruggeri were immersed in sterilized, deionised water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The soaking water was cultured (25°C for 3 days on non-specific and specific media for fungi and bacteria. The base of each cutting was debarked and trimmed and three 3 mm thick, contiguous, transverse slices of wood cultured at 25°C for 3 days. The soaking water for both cultivars became contaminated with microorganisms within the first hour. Numbers of fungi iso-lated from the wood slices soaked for one hour were significantly greater than those from non-soaked cuttings. The number of bacterial colonies growing from the wood slices increased after soaking for 2‒4 h in Sunmuscat. In a second experiment Shiraz cuttings were soaked for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The soaking water became contaminated within the first hour but only the bacterial count increased significantly over time. Microorganisms also established on the container surfaces within the first hour although there were no significant increases over 24 h. These results confirm that soaking cuttings is a potential cause of cross contamination and demonstrate contamination of cuttings occurs after relatively short periods of soaking. Avoiding exposing cuttings to water will reduce the transmission of trunk diseases in propagation.

  4. Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Giulia; Ermacora, Paolo; Bianchi, Gian Luca; De Amicis, Francesca; Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Loi, Nazia; Musetti, Rita

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.

  5. Diet composition and fish consumption of double-crested cormorants from three St. Lawrence River Colonies in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene M.; Bendig, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were first observed nesting in the upper St. Lawrence River at Strachan Island in 1992. Cormorants now nest at a number of islands in the Thousand Islands section of the river. Griswold, McNair, and Strachan islands are among the largest colonies in the upper river. Until 2011, nest counts had remained relatively stable, ranging from 200 to 603 nests per colony. However, since 2011 the number of nests at McNair Island have exceeded 700 each year. Although the size of cormorant colonies in the upper St. Lawrence River is smaller than those in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, the close proximity of islands in the upper river that have colonies may cause a cumulative fish consumption effect similar to a larger colony. Because of increasing numbers of Double-crested Cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River and the possible effects on fish populations, studies were initiated in 1999 to quantify cormorant diet and fish consumption at the three largest colonies. From 1999 to 2012, these studies have shown that cormorants consumed about 128.6 million fish including 37.5 million yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 17.4 million rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and 1.0 million smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolemieu) (Johnson et al. 2012). During this same time period fish assessment studies near some of these islands have shown a major decrease in yellow perch populations (Klindt 2007). This occurrence is known as the halo effect and happens when piscivorous birds deplete local fish populations in areas immediately surrounding the colony (Ashmole 1963). This paper describes the diet and fish consumption of cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River in 2013.

  6. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Tupac Otero Ospina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.

  7. Germinación simbiótica y asimbiótica en semillas de orquídeas epifitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayman Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los controles en medio de celulosa sin hongos micorrízicos no germinaron. Las semillas de Epidendrum ramosum, Lepanthes rupestris y Psychilis monensis no mostraron diferencias significativas en germinación entre métodos simbiótica y asimbiótica utilizando hongos aislados de raíces de T. variegata, incluso algunos aislados del grupo Rhizoctonia parasitaron las semillas. Los resultados sugieren que las semillas de orquídeas epifitas y sus hongos micorrízicos son más específicos de lo que anteriormente se había creído y por tanto es necesario utilizar los hongos específicos para cada especie de orquídea. Además, se sugiere que los cultivadores de orquídeas podrían obtener mejores resultados en la propagación de orquídeas epifitas si utilizan metodologías de germinación simbiótica apropiados.

  8. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  9. Mutual information registration of multi-spectral and multi-resolution images of DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 imaging satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Grzegorz; Shafer, Jeff; Baugh, William M.; Bader, Brett; Karspeck, Milan; Pacifici, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    WorldView-3 (WV-3) is a DigitalGlobe commercial, high resolution, push-broom imaging satellite with three instruments: visible and near-infrared VNIR consisting of panchromatic (0.3m nadir GSD) plus multi-spectral (1.2m), short-wave infrared SWIR (3.7m), and multi-spectral CAVIS (30m). Nine VNIR bands, which are on one instrument, are nearly perfectly registered to each other, whereas eight SWIR bands, belonging to the second instrument, are misaligned with respect to VNIR and to each other. Geometric calibration and ortho-rectification results in a VNIR/SWIR alignment which is accurate to approximately 0.75 SWIR pixel at 3.7m GSD, whereas inter-SWIR, band to band registration is 0.3 SWIR pixel. Numerous high resolution, spectral applications, such as object classification and material identification, require more accurate registration, which can be achieved by utilizing image processing algorithms, for example Mutual Information (MI). Although MI-based co-registration algorithms are highly accurate, implementation details for automated processing can be challenging. One particular challenge is how to compute bin widths of intensity histograms, which are fundamental building blocks of MI. We solve this problem by making the bin widths proportional to instrument shot noise. Next, we show how to take advantage of multiple VNIR bands, and improve registration sensitivity to image alignment. To meet this goal, we employ Canonical Correlation Analysis, which maximizes VNIR/SWIR correlation through an optimal linear combination of VNIR bands. Finally we explore how to register images corresponding to different spatial resolutions. We show that MI computed at a low-resolution grid is more sensitive to alignment parameters than MI computed at a high-resolution grid. The proposed modifications allow us to improve VNIR/SWIR registration to better than ¼ of a SWIR pixel, as long as terrain elevation is properly accounted for, and clouds and water are masked out.

  10. Effect of 103Pd on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Zhu Jun; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at the effect of γ-emitting radionuclide 103 Pd on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular SMCs (smooth muscle cells) in vitro. The cavy aortic SMCs were cultured with culture medium M-199. The experiments were carried out in two groups, one for proliferation test and the other for apoptosis test. In each group, 103 Pd solutions with various radioactivities were respectively added to the culture solution to irradiate SMCs for 72 h, while non-radioactive palladium solution was added to the control. 3 H-thymidine incorporation test and liquid scintillator were used to detect the effect of 103 Pd on the proliferation of SMCs. Flow cytometer was used to detect the apoptotic SMCs. The inhibition rate of SMCs proliferation by 1.85 MBq 103 Pd solution was 2.3%, which was not significant, while the inhibition rate increased from 41.6% to 91.3% as the 103 Pd activity increased from 7.40 MBq to 37 MBq. The apoptosis rate of SMCs was extremely low (less than 4.0%) by 103 Pd with activity from 1.85 MBq to 37 MBq. The results suggest that the proliferation of SMCs can be repressed effectively in a dose-dependent fashion by 103 Pd in vitro. The mechanism of its inhibiting over neointima proliferation is likely to inhibit SMCs proliferation rather than to induce its apoptosis by 103 Pd. 103 Pd can be used as a γ-emitting intravascular brachytherapy radionuclide to inhibit SMCs proliferation

  11. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay; Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta; Seri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb_3Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb_3Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb_3Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb_3Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb_3Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb_3Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  12. Leukocyte subtype counts and its association with vascular structure and function in adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients.This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4, 45.6% women.Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT. The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx.Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01 in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007 in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022 in women.The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934.

  13. Effect of fiber inserts on gingival margin microleakage of Class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam; Karimi, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fiber inserts combined with composite resins on enamel and dentin margin microleakage. The fiber inserts were used with high- (x-tra fil) and low-viscosity (x-tra base) bulk-fill composite resins and as well as conventional composite resins (Grandio and Grandio Flow). In 96 sound, recently extracted molars, 2 standardized Class II cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 teeth each, based on composite resin type and presence or absence of fiber inserts: groups 1 and 2, x-tra fil with and without fiber inserts, respectively; groups 3 and 4, x-tra base with and without fiber inserts; groups 5 and 6, Grandio with and without fiber inserts; and groups 7 and 8, Grandio Flow liner (gingival floor)/Grandio (remainder of cavity) with and without fiber inserts. In all the groups, a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive was used. The specimens were processed in a dye penetration technique to determine microleakage percentages. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, Tukey, and t tests. There was significantly less leakage at the enamel margins than the dentin margins. Fiber reinforcement significantly decreased enamel microleakage in all the groups, with no significant differences among the groups. Concerning dentin microleakage, there were no significant differences among the 4 groups without fiber inserts, while a significant difference was detected in groups 2 (x-tra fil plus fiber) and 8 (Grandio Flow plus fiber/Grandio). Fibers significantly improved dentin sealing in groups 2 and 8. These findings suggest that a fiber insert reinforcing bulk-fill and conventional composite resins might improve enamel sealing in shallow Class II cavi-ties. The effect of fiber reinforcement on the dentin margins of deep cavities depended on the viscosity of the composite resins; fiber reinforcement was effective for flowable bulk-fill and conventional composite resin restorations.

  14. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Caraway, Carum carvi on the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goudarzvande Chegini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tomato leafminer (TLM, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is an important pest on tomato, potato and other Solanaceous with a great economic importance. Tomato borer can be regarded as a serious threat to tomato production in Iran. TLM larvae cause losses of up to 100% by attacking tomato leaves, flowers, stems, and especially fruits. TLM larvae act as leaf miners, and in high numbers, they can totally destroy the plant foliage; TLM infestation can destroy crop production early on by infesting both developing and ripe fruits. Management of the pest can be problematic, particularly when the infestation pressure is high. One of the main tools in its management is the use of conventional synthetic insecticides, however, this overreliance on the use of synthetic insecticides quickly leads to problems of insecticide resistance. The use of natural compounds such as plant essential oils is considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides due to their lower toxicity on the non-target and low persistence in the environment. In recent years essential oils of medicinal plants have received much attention as pest control chemical agents. The discovery of active compounds that are less persistent will be beneficial for both the environment and agricultural product consumers. Materials and Methods: The egg, 2nd larval instars, and adult of TLM were used to determine the fumigant toxicity of the C. cavi. The essential oil of aerial parts of C. cavi, was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Conditions of extraction were: 50g of air-dried sample, 1:12 plant material/water volume ratio and 4h distillation. The obtained oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored in the refrigerator at + 4°C until used. The fumigant toxicity of essential oil on larvae 2nd (inside leaf and egg were tested in macro plastic container volume 1800 ml, The vials were contained leaves containing larvae

  16. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    L ≤ -15.0 bars) and subjected to analysis of variance. Significant separation emerged for vines categorized as non-stressed versus stressed at véraison, which correlated to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit. This report does not advocate the use of stress levels herein reported. The vineyard was planted to a vigorous, deep rooted rootstock (V. rupestris cv. St. George), and from years of management is known to be able to withstand stress levels of the magnitude we observed. Nonetheless, the results may suggest there is not a linear relationship between physiological water stress and grape sensory characteristics, but rather the presence of an inflection point controlling grape composition as well as physiological development.

  17. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l. in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP and grass and sedge tundra (TUND communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae, alder (Duschekia fruticosa and willow (Salix species, is dated to 13.5–12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen.

  18. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    develop under conditions of winter snow accumulation were more,even at the both.scale, i.e., contained more diverse and distantly related plant species compared with random samples. (Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae) aquatic communities in cold (Montio-Cardaminetea), sedge meadows (Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii), and communities, in which shrubs and predominated (juniper and rhododendron elfin woods, class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea), have been studied only at the larger scale and showed significant evenness of species composition, i.e., were phylogenetically more diverse compared with random samples.

  19. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  20. Corps Water Management System (CWMS) Decision Support Modeling and Integration Use in the June 2007 Texas Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charley, W. J.; Luna, M.

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Corps Water Management System (CWMS) is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data dissemination. CWMS uses an Oracle database and Sun Solaris workstations for data processes, storage and the execution of models, with a client application (the Control and Visualization Interface, or CAVI) that can run on a Windows PC. CWMS was used by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) to make hydrologic forecasts of flows on the Lower Colorado River and operate reservoirs during the June 2007 event in Texas. The LCRA receives real-time observed gridded spatial rainfall data from OneRain, Inc. that which is a result of adjusting NexRad rainfall data with precipitation gages. This data is used, along with future precipitation estimates, for hydrologic forecasting by the rainfall-runoff modeling program HEC-HMS. Forecasted flows from HEC-HMS and combined with observed flows and reservoir information to simulate LCRA's reservoir operations and help engineers make release decisions based on the results. The river hydraulics program, HEC-RAS, computes river stages and water surface profiles for the computed flow. An inundation boundary and depth map of water in the flood plain can be calculated from the HEC-RAS results using ArcInfo. By varying future precipitation and releases, engineers can evaluate different "What if?" scenarios. What was described as an "extraordinary cluster of thunderstorms" that stalled over Burnet and Llano counties in Texas on June 27, 2007, dropped 17 to 19 inches of rainfall over a 6-hour period. The storm was classified over a 500-year event and the resulting flow over some of the smaller tributaries as a 100-year or better. CWMS was used by LCRA for flood forecasting and

  1. Geologic history of the polar regions of Mars based on Mars Global survey data. I. Noachian and Hesperian Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Kolb, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    During the Noachian Period, the south polar region of Mars underwent intense cratering, construction of three groups of volcanoes, widespread contractional deformation, resurfacing of low areas, and local dissection of valley networks; no evidence for polar deposits, ice sheets, or glaciation is recognized. South polar Hesperian geology is broadly characterized by waning impacts, volcanism, and tectonism. Emplacement of the polar Dorsa Argentea Formation (DAF) occurred during the Hesperian Period. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data and Mars Orbiter Camera images elucidate stratigraphic, morphologic, and topographic relations, permitting the dividing of the DAF into eight members, which surround and underlie about half of the Amazonian south polar layered deposits. The lobate fronts and lack of typical volcanic-flow morphology of the six plains units indicate that they may be made up of debris flows. We think that these flows, tens of meters to 200 m thick, may have originated by the discharge of huge volumes of slurry fluidized by ground water or liquid CO2, perhaps triggered by local impacts, igneous activity, or basal melting beneath polar deposits. The cavi and rugged members include irregular depressions that penetrate the subsurface; some of the pits have raised rims. The depressions may have formed by collapse due to expulsion of subsurface material in which local explosive activity built up the raised rims. Further, smaller eruptions of volatile-rich material may have resulted in narrow, sinuous channel deposits within aggrading fine-grained unconsolidated material perhaps produced by gaseous discharge of subsurface volatiles; preferential erosion of the latter material could have produced the Dorsa Argentea-type ginuous ridges associated mainly with the DAF. Alternatively, the ridges may be eskers, but the lack of associated glacial and fluvial morphologies casts doubt on this interpretation. The knobby, degraded materials forming Scandia Colles

  2. A travessia da terra vermelha: uma saga dos refugiados judeus no Brasil

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    Lucius de Melo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os olhos da soprano viravam pássaros. Fugiam da máscara num sonoro e acelerado bater de asas porque, assim como a boca, também gostavam de cantar. A mágica que os subtraía do rosto fazia da vida uma ilusionista e da cabeça de Nora Naumann, uma cartola. Transformava os olhos em alados e afinados cantores para também tentar libertá-los da gaiola intransponível da memória. Mas, eles nada mais eram que o passado em forma de passarinho. Desprendiam-se com facilidade do corpo para voar sem pressa e prazerosamente sobre os campos verdes formados pelas copas das árvores da infinita floresta brasileira. Voavam sobre as perobas, cedros, caviúnas, marfim, canjeranas, óleo-pardo, canelas, amoreiras, araucárias e as gigantescas e imponentes figueiras brancas cujas raízes aéreas se derramavam tronco abaixo. Rodopiando como um casal em passos de valsa, desviavam do tucano solitário e do bando de papagaios tagarelas da ponta da asa vermelha. Também chegavam às praias tropicais e, misturadas às gaivotas e fragatas, voavam, voavam, ora dando rasantes sobre o mar ora furando as nuvens; depois atravessavam o oceano, cruzavam as montanhas nevadas da Europa, até pousarem cansados sobre o piano de cauda da Escola de Música de Dresden ou no palco de Teatro de Dusseldorf, na Alemanha. Só então descansavam, e, em seguida, voltavam acelerados ao interior do Brasil, cortando o céu como estrelas cadentes, cruzando a escuridão da noite, até chegarem bem perto das tímidas chamas que dançavam sobre as pontas das enferrujadas e oleosas lamparinas. Trêmulas luzes que iluminavam um pedaço de peroba-rosa enfeitado com letras talhadas à mão que identificavam o nome da singela casa de espetáculos: Ópera dos Grilos.

  3. Calcium hypochlorite as a disinfecting additive for dental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jonathan O; Abdelaziz, Khalid M; Combe, Edward C; Anderson, Dwight L

    2003-09-01

    Dental casts come into direct contact with impression materials and other items that are contaminated by saliva and blood from a patient's mouth, leaving the casts susceptible to cross-contamination. Topical methods of disinfecting casts are difficult to control, while immersion methods are potentially destructive. Thus, an additional method to control cross-contamination between patients and laboratory personnel is needed. This study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a dental stone with disinfecting properties and adequate compressive and tensile strengths. Calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)(2)] in aqueous solution in concentrations from 0 to 1.5% was tested as a disinfecting additive to type V dental stone. The compressive and tensile strength properties of the modified stone were measured (MPa) using a universal testing machine at a consistency similar to unmodified stone. Strength data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer procedure (alpha CaviCide, and 3 impressions rinsed in water served as controls. In general, the effect of adding the disinfectant to the stone was a decrease in strength. Exceptions were the dry compressive strength, for which there was a significant increase in strength (P=.048) at 0.5%, and the wet compressive and wet tensile strength, which showed no significant difference between the 1.5% and the control. When Ca(OCl)(2) was added at the concentration 0.5% (2765 ppm available chlorine), the gypsum had acceptable mechanical properties; dry compressive strength was 78.86 +/- 4.12 MPa, and dry tensile strength was 10.64 +/- 1.27 MPa, compared to control values of 67.85 +/- 6.28 and 13.41 +/- 1.24 MPa, respectively. At concentrations of 0.3% and higher (36 1650 ppm of available chlorine), calcium hypochlorite was able to completely inactivate phi29. It is possible to prepare a type V dental stone that contains a disinfectant, has adequate mechanical properties, and will reduce numbers of residual microorganisms. For example

  4. Accuracy of a reformulated fast-set vinyl polysiloxane impression material using dual-arch trays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Alex H; Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Wataha, John C

    2009-05-01

    A common technique used for making crown impressions involves use of a vinyl polysiloxane impression material in combination with a dual-arch tray. A leading dental manufacturer has reformulated its vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression line, but the accuracy of the new material has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of reformulated VPS impression materials using the single-step dual-arch impression technique. Dual-arch impressions were made on a typodont containing a master stainless steel standard crown preparation die, from which gypsum working dies were formed, recovered, and measured. The impression materials evaluated were Imprint 3 Penta Putty with Quick Step Regular Body (IP-0); Imprint 3 Penta Quick Step Heavy Body with Quick Step Light Body (IP-1); Aquasil Ultra Rigid Fast Set with LV Fast Set (AQ-1); and Aquasil Ultra Heavy Fast Set with XLV Fast Set (AQ-2) (n=10). All impressions were disinfected with CaviCide spray for 10 minutes prior to pouring with type IV gypsum. Buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), and occlusogingival (OG) dimensions were measured and compared to the master die using an optical measuring microscope. Linear dimensional change was also assessed for IP-0 and AQ-1 at 1 and 24 hours based on ANSI/ADA Specification No. 19. Single-factor ANOVA with Dunnett's T3 multiple comparisons was used to compare BL, MD, and OG changes, with hypothesis testing at alpha=.05. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare linear dimensional changes. There were statistical differences among the 4 impression systems for 3 of 4 dimensions of the master die. IP-0 working dies were significantly larger in MD and OG-L dimensions but significantly smaller in the BL dimension. IP-1 working dies were significantly smaller in the BL dimension compared to the master die. With the exception of IP-0, differences detected were small and clinically insignificant. No significant differences were observed for linear dimensional change

  5. Accuracy of a new ring-opening metathesis elastomeric dental impression material with spray and immersion disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronström, Mats H; Johnson, Glen H; Hompesch, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    A new elastomeric impression material has been formulated with a ring-opening metathesis chemistry. In addition to other properties of clinical significance, the impression accuracy must be confirmed. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new elastomeric impression material with vinyl polysiloxane and polyether following both spray and immersion disinfection. Impressions of a modified dentoform with a stainless steel crown preparation in the lower right quadrant were made, and type IV gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Anteroposterior (AP), cross-arch (CA), buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), occlusogingivobuccal (OGB), and occlusogingivolingual (OGL) dimensions were measured using a microscope. Working cast and die dimensions were compared to those of the master model. The impression materials were a newly formulated, ring-opening metathesis-polymerization impression material (ROMP Cartridge Tray and ROMP Volume Wash), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS, Aquasil Ultra Monophase/LV), and a polyether (PE, Impregum Penta Soft/Permadyne Garant L). Fifteen impressions with each material were made, of which 5 were disinfected by spray for 10 minutes (CaviCide), 5 were disinfected by immersion for 90 minutes (ProCide D), and 5 were not disinfected. There were significant cross-product interactions with a 2-way ANOVA, so a 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test were used to compare the dimensional changes of the 3 impression materials, by disinfection status and for each location (alpha=.05). For ROMP, there were no significant differences from the master, for any dimension, when comparing the control and 2 disinfectant conditions. No significant differences were detected among the 3 impression materials for CA, BL, and MD. The working die dimensions of OGB and OGL for VPS with immersion disinfection were significantly shorter than with PE and ROMP (P<.05). Overall, the AP dimension was more accurate than CA, and the BL of working dies

  6. Cryovolcanic Resurfacing on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; Schenk, P.; White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Grundy, W. M.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, A.; Cook, J. C.; Nimmo, F.; Howard, A. D.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Beyer, R. A.; Umurhan, O. M.; Lauer, T.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pluto displays several different young geologic terrains with few-to-no identifiable impact craters. Distinct terrains to the southwest of the informally named Sputnik Planitia may have been resurfaced by cryovolcanic processes, of a type and scale so far unique to Pluto [1,2]. The most prominent structures are two very large mounds with deep central depressions. The informally named Wright Mons stands 4 km high and the main mound spans 150 km and Piccard Mons is 7 km high and 225 km wide. Hummocky terrain with a characteristic wavelength of 8-12 km covers the flanks of Wright Mons and much of the surrounding terrain. Smaller boulders, blocks, slabs, or ridges on the order of a few km are superimposed on the hummocks. The large-scale slopes across the broad flanks of the Wright Mons are 3-5°. The central depression walls are typically 10°, but reach 20° in some locations. A number of other cavi or irregular depressions of various sizes (a few to 30 km) are scattered throughout the terrain and do not appear to be impact craters. There are few signs of potential individual flows but the large-scale hummocky texture is suggestive of viscous flow. We will explore a number of potential mechanisms for creation of Wright and Piccard Mons and the nearby terrains. These unique terrains present modeling challenges for building relatively young, large cryovolcanic constructs on outer solar system bodies. Tidal heating is thought to end early in Pluto-system history [3] and radiogenic heating levels are relatively low [4], although a subsurface ocean may still persist into the present day [5]. We will discuss the possible volcanic materials on Pluto and their mobility under different heating scenarios, as well as other possible emplacement processes. [1] Moore et al., (2016) Science 351, 1284-1293. [2] Singer et al. (2016) LPSC absract 47, 2276. [3] Cheng et al. (2014) Icarus 233, 242-258. [4] McKinnon et al. (1997) In: Stern, S.A., Tholen, D.J. (Eds.), Pluto and Charon

  7. Atributos vitales de especies leñosas en bordes de bosque altoandino de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia

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    Alba Lucía Montenegro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia, estudiamos mediante transectos la vegetación leñosa en dos parches de bosque altoandino para tres tipos de borde: chusque, paramizado y antiguo (este último denominado así por presentar un estado sucesional más avanzado. Seleccionamos como especies típicas de borde las que tenían mayor abundancia en esta zona, presentes en ambos parches del borde y capaces de colonizar la matriz adyacente. Se obtuvo un conjunto de nueve especies a las cuales se les evaluaron 20 atributos vitales, generando seis grupos mediante un análisis de agrupamiento (cluster: 1 Weinmannia balbisiana-W. tomentosa, 2 Gaiadendron punctatum-Hedyosmum bonplandianum, 3 Miconia ligustrina-M. squamulosa, 4 Macleania rupestris, 5 Pentacalia pulchella y 6 Tibouchina grossa. La amplia variación y plasticidad de las especies estudiadas en cuanto a los atributos analizados, conduce a pensar que los conjuntos obtenidos no obedecen a grupos funcionales claramente diferenciados, sino más bien a estrategias diferentes y que estas especies podrían hacer parte de un solo grupo funcional de gran plasticidad. T. grossa es la especie de borde más exitosa en la reserva, dados sus altos valores de abundancia, tolerancia fisiológica, reproducción vegetativa, producción de hojarasca y producción de semillas pequeñas, numerosas, formadoras de un banco de semillas persistente que evidencian su alta fecundidad.Vital traits of woody species in High Andean forest edges of the Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia. The Cogua Forest Reserve was studied throughout eight months to detect the existence of functional species-groups associated with edge wood forest. A second goal was to determine which species were the most successful in edge areas and their particular vital traits. The regeneration and growth of the forest patches to the adjacent matrix depends on the establishment of these species and their tolerance to both habitats. Three types of High

  8. Chocolate das bagas e clorose foliar: anomalia da videira causada por deficiência de boro Internal browning ("chocolate" and leaf chlorosis of the 'pink Niagara' grafe, a boron deficiency anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Kuniyuki

    1985-01-01

    small ones. Some small fruits are slightly elongated and show dark areas on the skin; many have dark brown pulp, easily visible when they are still green. Severely affected plants become stunted. Chemical analysis showed a lower boron content in the affected plants (18 ppm in the leaf blades and 7 ppm in the fruit than in normal ones (24 ppm in the leaf blades and 10 ppm in the fruit. Leaf samples from three nearby vineyards without the anomaly presented a boron content of 35 ppm. Leaf blades from abnormal and normal 'Traviú' rootstocks (V. riparia Michaux. x V. rupestris Scheele x V. cordifolia Michaux., '106-8' had 16 ppm and 43 ppm B, respectively. An efficient control of the anomaly was got with borax, applied after prunning to affected plants at the rates of 5, 10 and 20 g per plant, or with boric acid at the concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6%a sprayed at flowering and when the fruits were small. There was a residual effect of the treatment on the anomaly for at least one more season.

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  10. Deep-water fisheries at the Atlantic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J. D. M.

    2001-05-01

    The deep sea is often thought of as a cold, dark and uniform environment with a low-fish biomass, much of which is highly adapted for life in a food-poor environment. While this might be true of the pelagic fish living in the water column, it is certainly not true of the demersal fish which live on or close to the bottom on the continental slopes around the British Isles (the Atlantic Frontier). These fish are currently being commercially exploited. There is growing evidence to support the view that success of the demersal fish assemblages depends on the pelagic or benthopelagic food sources that impinge both vertically and horizontally onto the slope. There are several quite separate and distinct deep-water fisheries on the Atlantic Frontier. It is a physical barrier, the Wyville-Thomson Ridge, which results in the most significant division of the fisheries. The Ridge, which has a minimum depth of about 500 m, separates the warmer deep Atlantic waters from the much colder Norwegian Sea water and as a result, the deep-water fisheries to the west of the Hebrides and around the offshore banks are quite different from those of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (West of Shetland). The fisheries to the West of the Hebrides can be further divided by the fishing method used into bottom trawl, semipelagic trawl and longline. The bottom-trawl fisheries extend from the shelf-slope break down to about 1700 m and the target species varies with depth. The smallest vessels in the fleet fish on the upper slope, where an important target species is the anglerfish or monkfish ( Lophius spp.). On the mid-slope the main target species are blue ling ( Molva dypterygia) and roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris), with bycatches of black scabbardfish ( Aphanopus carbo) and deep-water sharks. On the lower slope orange roughy ( Hoplostethus atlanticus) is an important target species. The major semipelagic trawl fishery is a seasonal fishery on spawning aggregations of blue whiting

  11. Influence du compartiment trophique dans les réponses des populations de poissons aux variations artificielles de débit

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    ORTH D. J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Les réponses des populations de poissons aux altérations de débit sont assez peu souvent correctement prédites à partir des simulations physiques d'habitat. Actuellement, les évaluations de débit réservé sont basées sur des analyses de l'habitat physique, qui sont supposées avoir une influence sur ces populations. Cela conduit au dilemme en matière de détermination de ces débits : combien d'espèces et de stades faut-il analyser et comment pondérer leur importance respective ? Dans certains cours d'eau, les simulations d'habitat physique issues de PHABSIM (Physical Habitat Simulation pour les poissons les plus courants montrent une surface pondérée utile insensible ou maximum à faible débit. Or, les débits moyens à forts débits sont indubitablement importants pour différentes raisons, telles que le recrutement des espèces inféodées à la plaine alluviale, le nettoyage du fond du lit, les entrées de matière organique et la production des invertébrés benthiques. La densité, la diversité et la production des insectes aquatiques dans différents types de cours d'eau montrent des variations spatiales et interannuelles considérables, souvent directement reliables aux débits. De même, la croissance et le succès de prise de nourriture des poissons varient en fonction de l'abondance des proies. Un modèle de chaîne trophique a été développé pour étudier l'influence de la nourriture de base (insectes aquatiques, proies constituées par les poissons de petite taille et écrevisses sur la production des poissons prédateurs clé (Black bass à petite bouche, Micropterus dolomieu, Rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, et Poisson chat à tête plate, Pylodictis olivaris dans un grand cours d'eau à régime thermique chaud. L'analyse du modèle indique que la production des poissons est très dépendante de la disponibilité des proies, en particulier les insectes aquatiques et les écrevisses. A partir des analyses du mod

  12. Effects of livestock on the feeding ecology of endemic culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi in central Argentina Efectos del ganado sobre la ecología trófica del zorro culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi (Carnivora: Canidae endémico del centro de Argentina

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    MÓNICA V. PIA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock can affect the feeding ecology of carnivores either directly, by becoming potential prey, or indirectly, by modifying selection of other prey. Selection of other prey is modified through the negative effects of livestock on food and cover, which reduces density and increases vulnerability of wild prey. Pseudalopex culpaeus smithersi is an endemic subspecies of culpeo fox of central Argentina that is persecuted due to predation on livestock. We studied the direct and indirect effects of livestock on P. c. smithersi's feeding ecology by evaluating its diet, prey availability, and prey selection in two areas with different livestock abundance-a national park and an adjacent sheep and cattle ranch in the Achala grassland plateau. We studied diets from feces and used conversion coefficients to estimate prey numbers and biomass consumed. Culpeos preyed primarily on native rodents (cavies and cricetines according to both prey numbers and biomass. The differences in culpeo diet, prey availability, and prey selection between sites were strongly associated with effects of livestock. Culpeos consumed more livestock carrion and birds at the ranch, and tucos (Ctenomys sp. only at the park. Livestock density was high at the ranch and low at the park, cricetine and tuco densities were significantly higher at the park, and European hare (Lepus europaeus densities were similar between sites. According to prey numbers consumed culpeos did not appear to be selective, but according to biomass they consumed cricetines more and hares less than expected at both sites and sheep more than expected at the park. Livestock may reduce densities and increase vulnerabilities of cricetines and fossorial tucos in Achala by soil trampling that destroys burrows, competition for forage, and reduction of grass coverEl ganado puede afectar la ecología trófica de los carnívoros en forma directa, siendo una presa potencial, e indirecta, modificando la selección de otras