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Sample records for cavity-enhanced optical frequency

  1. Cavity-enhanced optical frequency combspectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev-Clausen, David Morten; Thorpe, M. J.; Kirchner, M. S.;

    2008-01-01

    Broad-bandwidth, high-spectral-resolution optical detection of human breath has identified multiple important biomarkers correlated with specific diseases and metabolic processes. This optical-frequency-comb-based breath analysis system comes with excellent performance in all criteria: high detec...... and unique molecular fingerprints exist for many biomarkers. We present a series of breath measurements including stable isotope ratios of CO2, breath concentrations of CO, and the presence of trace concentrations of NH3 in high concentrations of H2O. Udgivelsesdato: 02.05...

  2. Signal line shapes of Fourier transform cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy with optical frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Alexandra C; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of the signal line shapes of Fourier transform-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS). We discuss the signal dependence on the ratio of the modulation frequency, f${_m}$, to the molecular line width, {\\Gamma}. We compare a full model of the signals and a simplified absorption-like analytical model that has high accuracy for low f${_m}$/{\\Gamma} ratios and is much faster to compute. We verify the theory experimentally by measuring and fitting NICE-OFCS spectra of CO${_2}$ at 1575 nm using a system based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser and a cavity with a finesse of ~11000.

  3. Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rutkowski, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique and we present the corresponding formalism for quantitative broadband spectroscopy. We achieve high sensitivity and broadband performance by acquiring spectra covering more than 2000 cm$^{-1}$ around 12600 cm$^{-1}$ (800 nm), resolving the 3$\

  4. Continuous Vernier filtering of an optical frequency comb for broadband cavity-enhanced molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Morville, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    We have recently introduced the Vernier-based Direct Frequency Comb Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy technique which allows us to record broadband spectra at high sensitivity and GHz resolution (Rutkowski and Morville, 2014) [1]. We discuss here the effect of Vernier filtering on the observed lineshapes in the 3 ν + δ band of water vapor and the entire A-band of oxygen around 800 nm in ambient air. We derive expressions for the absorption profiles resulting from the continuous Vernier filtering method, testing them on spectra covering more than 2000 cm-1 around 12,500 cm-1. With 31,300 independent spectral elements acquired at the second time scale, an absorption baseline noise of 2 ×10-8cm-1 is obtained, providing a figure of merit of 1.1×10-10 cm-1/√{ Hz } per spectral element with a cavity finesse of 3000 and a cavity round-trip length around 3.3 m.

  5. Characteristic analysis of the optical delay in frequency response of resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) photodetectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jian-Chuan; Zuo Yu-Hua; Zhang Yun; Ding Wu-Chang; Cheng Bu-Wen; Yu Jin-Zhong; Wang Qi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With consideration of the modulation frequency of the input lightwave itself, we present a new model to calculate the quantum efficiency of RCE p-i-n photodetectors (PD) by superimposition of multiple reflected lightwaves. For the first time, the optical delay, another important factor limiting the electrical bandwidth of RCE p-i-n PD excluding the transit time of the carriers and RCd response of the photodetector, is analyzed and discussed in detail. The optical delay dominates the bandwidth of RCE p-i-n PD when its active layer is thinner than several 10 nm. These three limiting factors must be considered exactly for design of ultra-high-speed RCE p-i-n PD.

  6. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: A sensitive technique for high-resolution broadband molecular detection

    CERN Document Server

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS) is a recently developed technique that utilizes phase modulation to obtain immunity to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity modes and yields high absorption sensitivity over a broad spectral range. We describe the principles of the technique and discuss possible comb-cavity matching solutions. We present a theoretical description of NICE-OFCS signals detected with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), and validate the model by comparing it to experimental CO2 spectra around 1575 nm. Our system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency equal to a multiple of the cavity free spectral range (FSR). The NICE-OFCS signal is detected by a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We demonstrate a simple method of passive locking of the modulation frequency to the cavity FSR that significantly improves the long term stability of the system, a...

  7. Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in two-dimensional free charge carrier gases detected at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S; Schöche, S; Darakchieva, V; Kühne, P; Carlin, J-F; Grandjean, N; Herzinger, C M; Schubert, M; Hofmann, T

    2015-06-15

    The effect of a tunable, externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity to resonantly enhance the optical Hall effect signatures at terahertz frequencies produced by a traditional Drude-like two-dimensional electron gas is shown and discussed in this Letter. As a result, the detection of optical Hall effect signatures at conveniently obtainable magnetic fields, for example, by neodymium permanent magnets, is demonstrated. An AlInN/GaN-based high-electron mobility transistor structure grown on a sapphire substrate is used for the experiment. The optical Hall effect signatures and their dispersions, which are governed by the frequency and the reflectance minima and maxima of the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity, are presented and discussed. Tuning the externally coupled Fabry-Perot cavity strongly modifies the optical Hall effect signatures, which provides a new degree of freedom for optical Hall effect experiments in addition to frequency, angle of incidence, and magnetic field direction and strength.

  8. Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared - application to trace detection of H2O2

    CERN Document Server

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Fleisher, Adam J; Bjork, Bryce; Ye, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region and report the sensitive real-time trace detection of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a large amount of water. The experimental apparatus is based on a mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a high power Yb:fiber laser, a high finesse broadband cavity, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer with autobalancing detection. The comb spectrum with a bandwidth of 200 nm centered around 3.75 {\\mu}m is simultaneously coupled to the cavity and both degrees of freedom of the comb, i.e., the repetition rate and carrier envelope offset frequency, are locked to the cavity to ensure stable transmission. The autobalancing detection scheme reduces the intensity noise by a factor of 300, and a sensitivity of 5.4 {\\times} 10^-9 cm^-1 Hz^-1/2 with a resolution of 800 MHz is achieved (corresponding to 6.9 {\\times} 10^-11 cm^-1 Hz^-1/2 per spectral element for 6000 resolve...

  9. Cavity-enhanced absorption for optical refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Seletskiy, Denis V; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    A 20-fold increase over the single path optical absorption is demonstrated with a low loss medium placed in a resonant cavity. This has been applied to laser cooling of Yb:ZBLAN glass resulting in 90% absorption of the incident pump light. A coupled-cavity scheme to achieve active optical impedance matching is analyzed.

  10. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leen, J. Brian, E-mail: b.leen@lgrinc.com; O’Keefe, Anthony [Los Gatos Research, 67 E. Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  11. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J Brian; O'Keefe, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10(-10) cm(-1)/√Hz; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  12. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  13. Noise-cancelled, cavity-enhanced saturation laser spectroscopy for laser frequency stabilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Glenn de; McClelland, David E; Gray, Malcolm B [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We employ a relatively simple experimental technique enabling mechanical-noise free, cavityenhanced spectroscopic measurements of an atomic transition and its hyperfine structure. We demonstrate this technique with the 532 nm frequency doubled output from a Nd:YAG laser and an iodine vapour cell. The resulting cavity-enhanced, noise-cancelled, iodine hyperfine error signal is used as a frequency reference with which we stabilise the frequency of the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. Preliminary frequency stabilisation results are then presented.

  14. Cavity-enhanced optical detection of carbon nanotube Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Stapfner, S; Hunger, D; Weig, E M; Reichel, J; Favero, I

    2012-01-01

    Optical cavities with small mode volume are well-suited to detect the vibration of sub-wavelength sized objects. Here we employ a fiber-based, high-finesse optical microcavity to detect the Brownian motion of a freely suspended carbon nanotube at room temperature under vacuum. The optical detection resolves deflections of the oscillating tube down to 50pm/Hz^1/2. A full vibrational spectrum of the carbon nanotube is obtained and confirmed by characterization of the same device in a scanning electron microscope. Our work successfully extends the principles of high-sensitivity optomechanical detection to molecular scale nanomechanical systems.

  15. Measurement of aerosol optical properties by cw cavity enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Guo; Ye, Shan-Shan; Yang, Xiao; Han, Ye-Xing; Tang, Huai-Wu; Yu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-10-01

    The CAPS (Cavity Attenuated Phase shift Spectroscopy) system, which detects the extinction coefficients within a 10 nm bandpass centered at 532 nm, comprises a green LED with center wavelength in 532nm, a resonant optical cavity (36 cm length), a Photo Multiplier Tube detector, and a lock in amplifier. The square wave modulated light from the LED passes through the optical cavity and is detected as a distorted waveform which is characterized by a phase shift with respect to the initial modulation. Extinction coefficients are determined from changes in the phase shift of the distorted waveform of the square wave modulated LED light that is transmitted through the optical cavity. The performance of the CAPS system was evaluated by using measurements of the stability and response of the system. The minima ( 0.1 Mm-1) in the Allan plots show the optimum average time ( 100s) for optimum detection performance of the CAPS system. In the paper, it illustrates that extinction coefficient was correlated with PM2.5 mass (0.91). These figures indicate that this method has the potential to become one of the most sensitive on-line analytical techniques for extinction coefficient detection. This work aims to provide an initial validation of the CAPS extinction monitor in laboratory and field environments. Our initial results presented in this paper show that the CAPS extinction monitor is capable of providing state-of-the-art performance while dramatically reducing the complexity of optical instrumentation for directly measuring the extinction coefficients.

  16. a New Broadband Cavity Enhanced Frequency Comb Spectroscopy Technique Using GHz Vernier Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Jérôme; Rutkowski, Lucile; Dobrev, Georgi; Crozet, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    We present a new approach to Cavity Enhanced - Direct Frequency Comb Spectroscopy where the full emission bandwidth of a Titanium:Sapphire laser is exploited at GHz resolution. The technique is based on a low-resolution Vernier filtering obtained with an appreciable -actively stabilized- mismatch between the cavity Free Spectral Range and the laser repetition rate, using a diffraction grating and a split-photodiode. This particular approach provides an immunity to frequency-amplitude noise conversion, reaching an absorption baseline noise in the 10-9 cm-1 range with a cavity finesse of only 3000. Spectra covering 1800 cm-1 (˜ 55 THz) are acquired in recording times of about 1 second, providing an absorption figure of merit of a few 10-11 cm-1/√{Hz}. Initially tested with ambient air, we report progress in using the Vernier frequency comb method with a discharge source of small radicals. Rutkowski et al, Opt. Lett., 39(23)2014

  17. Realization of 1.5 W 780 nm single-frequency laser by using cavity-enhanced frequency doubling of an EDFA boosted 1560 nm diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yulong; Guo, Shanlong; Han, Yashuai; Wang, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) 780 nm laser with Watt-level output power by using external-cavity-enhanced frequency doubling of an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) boosted 1560 nm diode laser in a periodically-poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate (PPMgO:LN) bulk crystal. A 780 nm laser with maximum output power of 1.5 W is obtained at an incident 1560 nm laser of 2.05 W, corresponding to a doubling efficiency of 73%. The typical fluctuation of 780 nm laser's power is 1.2% (rms) in about 30 min. This 780 nm laser can be potentially applied to laser cooling and manipulation of rubidium atoms, generating 1560 nm squeezed vacuum field as well as 1560 nm continuous-variable entanglement based on optical parametric oscillator if additional locking and noise suppression is applied.

  18. Cavity Enhanced Optical Vernier Spectroscopy, Broad Band, High Resolution, High Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Gohle, Christoph; Schliesser, Albert; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digits accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broad band optical resonator and a resolution that is only limited by the frequency comb line width while keeping the required setup simple.

  19. Detection of HO2 in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet using optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Michele; Reuter, Stephan; Lawry Aguila, Ana; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; van Helden, Jean-Pierre H.

    2016-11-01

    Cold non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets are increasingly applied in material processing and plasma medicine. However, their small dimensions make diagnosing the fluxes of generated species a challenge. Here we report on the detection of the hydroperoxyl radical, HO2, in the effluent of a plasma jet by the use of optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The spectrometer has a minimum detectable absorption coefficient {α }\\min of 2.25× {10}-10 cm-1 with a 100 second acquisition, equivalent to 5.5× {10}12 {{cm}}-3 of HO2 (under ideal conditions). Concentrations in the range of (3.1-7.8) × 1013 cm-3 were inferred in the 4 mm wide effluent of the plasma jet.

  20. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  1. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  2. Performance scaling via passive pulse shaping in cavity-enhanced optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Aleem M; Moses, Jeffrey; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lai, Chien-Jen; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-06-15

    We show that an enhancement cavity seeded at the full repetition rate of the pump laser can automatically reshape small-signal gain across the interacting pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for close-to-optimal operation, significantly increasing both the gain bandwidth and the conversion efficiency, in addition to boosting gain for high-repetition-rate amplification. Applied to a degenerate amplifier, the technique can provide an octave-spanning gain bandwidth.

  3. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Loock, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The book reviews the dramatic recent advances in the use of optical resonators for high sensitivity and high resolution molecular spectroscopy as well as for chemical, mechanical and physical sensing.  It encompasses a variety of cavities including those made of two or more mirrors, optical fiber loops, fiber gratings and spherical cavities. The book focuses on novel techniques and their applications. Each chapter is written by an expert and/or pioneer in the field. These experts also provide the theoretical background in optics and molecular physics where needed. Examples of recent breakthroughs include the use of frequency combs (Nobel prize 2005) for cavity enhanced sensing and spectroscopy, the use of novel cavity materials and geometries, the development of optical heterodyne detection techniques combined to active frequency-locking schemes. These methods allow the use and interrogation of optical resonators with a variety of coherent light sources for trace gas detection and sensing of strain, temperat...

  4. A new calibration system for lightweight, compact and mobile Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Absorption Spectroscopy has been employed for several decades now to study the earth's atmosphere. While the focus has been on remote sensing for a long time, lately there has been a renewed interest in in-situ methods, as point measurements allow an easier interpretation for highly inhomogeneous distributions of gases of interest compared to the integration approach of most remote sensing methods. One comparatively new method offering both advantages of in-situ measurements as well as being contactless is open-path Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS). Broadband open-path CE-DOAS instruments have been used for ten years now, and in the meantime allow the measurement of numerous atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, NO3, IO, CHOCHO, HCHO). While those instruments were bulky and not very mobile at first, recent developments resulted in relatively lightweight (< 30 kg) instruments with a relatively low power consumption allowing mobile open-path measurements at remote field locations. An important operational issue has been the path length calibration in the field, necessary for the determination of the concentration of measured gases. Until now, often calibration gases were used with different scattering properties than air or known concentrations. However this methods has several major shortcomings, being rather inconvenient and cumbersome in the field with the need for compressed gas cylinders, as well as time consuming, preventing a quick check of the state of the instrument in the field after changing measurement locations. Here we present a new wavelength-resolved method for broadband CE-DOAS path length calibration. A small, custom made ring-down system is employed with a pulsed LED as light source. The wavelength is then resolved by tilting a narrow band interference filter. The system not only allows quick, automated path length calibrations without physical interaction on the instrument, but also saves weight, space and the

  5. Analysis of a four-mirror-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Thüring, A.; Lück, H.; Danzmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the shot noise limited sensitivity of a four-mirror cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer. The intention of this interferometer topology is the reduction of thermal lensing and the impact of the interferometers contrast although transmissive optics are used with high circulating powers. The analytical expressions describing the light fields and the frequency response are derived. Although the parameter space has 11 dimensions, a detailed analysis of the resonance feature giv...

  6. Analysis of a four-mirror-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thüring, André; Lück, Harald; Danzmann, Karsten

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a four-mirror-cavity enhanced Michelson interferometer. The intention of this interferometer topology is the reduction of thermal lensing and the impact of the interferometers contrast although transmissive optics are used with high circulating powers. The analytical expressions describing the light fields and the frequency response are derived. Although the parameter space has 11 dimensions, a detailed analysis of the resonance feature gives boundary conditions allowing systematic parameter studies.

  7. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher order modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas K.

    2017-02-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  8. Cavity-enhanced ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy using higher-order modes

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    We describe methods using frequency combs and optical resonators for recording two-dimensional (2D) ultrafast spectroscopy signals with high sensitivity. By coupling multiple frequency combs to higher-order modes of one or more optical cavities, background-free, cavity-enhanced 2D spectroscopy signals are naturally generated via phase cycling. As in cavity-enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (CE-TAS), the signal to noise is enhanced by a factor proportional to the cavity finesse squared, so even using cavities of modest finesse, a very high sensitivity is expected, enabling ultrafast 2D spectroscopy experiments in dilute molecular beams.

  9. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Aker, Pam M.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-10-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) project is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic techniques and apply them to the development of LWIR chemical sensors needed for detecting weapons proliferation. This includes detecting not only the weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) themselves, but also signatures of their production and/or detonation. The LWIR CES project is concerned exclusively with developing point sensors; other portions of PNNL's IR Sensors program address stand off detection. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on our LWIR CES sensor development. During FY02, PNNL investigated three LWIR CES implementations beginning with the easiest to implement, direct cavity-enhanced detection (simple CES), including a technique of intermediate difficulty, cavity-dithered phase-sensitive detection (FM recovery CES) through to the most complex technique, that of resonant sideband cavity-enhanced detection also known as noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy, or NICE-OHMS.

  10. Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardt, Birgitta; Jacquet, Patrick; Jacquey, Marion; Kobayashi, Yohei; Udem, Thomas; Holzwarth, Ronald; Guelachvili, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of molecular fingerprinting is dramatically improved when placing the absorbing sample in a high-finesse optical cavity, thanks to the large increase of the effective path-length. As demonstrated recently, when the equidistant lines from a laser frequency comb are simultaneously injected into the cavity over a large spectral range, multiple trace-gases may be identified within a few milliseconds. Analyzing efficiently the light transmitted through the cavity however still remains challenging. Here, a novel approach, cavity-enhanced frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy, fully overcomes this difficulty and measures ultrasensitive, broad-bandwidth, high-resolution spectra within a few tens of $\\mu$s. It could be implemented from the Terahertz to the ultraviolet regions without any need for detector arrays. We recorded, within 18 $\\mu$s, spectra of the 1.0 $\\mu$m overtone bands of ammonia spanning 20 nm with 4.5 GHz resolution and a noise-equivalent-absorption at one-second-averaging per ...

  11. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Crepaz; Li Yuan Ley; Rainer Dumke

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage...

  12. Development of a cavity enhanced aerosol albedometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a cavity enhanced aerosol single scattering albedometer incorporating incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS approach and an integrating sphere (IS for simultaneous in situ measurements of aerosol scattering and extinction coefficients in the exact same sample volume. The cavity enhanced albedometer employed a blue light-emitting diode (LED based IBBCEAS approach for the measurement of wavelength-resolved aerosol optical extinction over the spectral range of 445–480 nm. An integrating sphere nephelometer coupled to the IBBCEAS setup was used for the measurement of aerosol scattering. The scattering signal was measured with a single channel photomultiplier tube (PMT, providing an integrated value over a narrow bandwidth (FWHM ~ 9 nm in the spectral region of 465–474 nm. A scattering coefficient at a wavelength of 470 nm was deduced as an averaged scattering value and used for data analysis and instrumental performance comparison. Performance evaluation of the albedometer was carried out using laboratory-generated particles and ambient aerosol. The scattering and extinction measurements of monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL spheres generated in laboratory proved excellent correlation between two channels of the albedometer. The retrieved refractive index (RI from the measured scattering and extinction efficiencies agreed well with the values reported in previously published papers. Aerosol light scattering and extinction coefficients, single scattering albedo (SSA and NO2 concentrations in an ambient sample were directly and simultaneously measured using the developed albedometer. The developed instrument was validated via an intercomparison of the measured aerosol scattering coefficient and NO2 trace concentration against a TSI 3563 integrating nephelometer and a chemiluminescence detector, respectively.

  13. Cavity-enhanced Raman Microscopy of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hümmer, Thomas; Hofmann, Matthias S; Hänsch, Theodor W; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information, and combined with imaging provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here we use a tunable high-finesse optical microcavity to demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in combination with high-resolution scanning-cavity imaging. We detect cavity-enhanced Raman spectra of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes, expand the technique to hyperspectral imaging, and co-localize measurements with cavity-enhanced absorption microscopy. Direct comparison with confocal Raman microscopy yields a 550-times enhanced collectable Raman scattering spectral density and a 11-fold enhancement of the integrated count rate. The quantitative character, the inherent spectral filtering, and the absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering renders our technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman tran...

  14. Universal Optical Frequency Comb

    CERN Document Server

    Savchenkov, A A; Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that whispering gallery mode resonators can be utilized to generate optical frequency combs based on four wave mixing process at virtually any frequency that lies in the transparency window of the resonator host material. We show theoretically how the morphology of the resonator can be engineered to produce a family of spectrally equidistant modes with anomalous group velocity dispersion appropriate for the comb generation. We present experimental results for a frequency comb centered at 794 nm to support our theoretical findings.

  15. Arbitrary optical frequency synthesis traced to an optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zihang; Zhang, Weipeng; Yang, Honglei; Li, Yan; Wei, Haoyun

    2016-11-01

    An arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer with a broad tuning range and high frequency accuracy is presented. The system includes an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) as the output laser, an Erbium-doped optical frequency comb being a frequency reference, and a control module. The optical frequency from the synthesizer can be continuously tuned by the large-scale trans-tooth switch and the fine intra-tooth adjustment. Robust feedback control by regulating the current and PZT voltage enables the ECDL to phase-lock to the Erbium-doped optical frequency comb, therefore to keep stable frequency output. In the meanwhile, the absolute frequency of the synthesizer is determined by the repetition rate, the offset frequency and the beat frequency. All the phase lock loops in the system are traced back to a Rubidium clock. A powerful and friendly software is developed to make the operation convenient by integrating the functions of frequency setting, tuning, tracing, locking and measuring into a LabVIEW interface. The output frequency tuning span and the uncertainty of the system are evaluated as >6 THz and <3 kHz, respectively. The arbitrary optical frequency synthesizer will be a versatile tool in diverse applications, such as synthetic wavelength based absolute distance measurement and frequency-stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

  16. Differential cavity mode spectroscopy: A new cavity enhanced technique for the detection of weak transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Glenn de [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Faculty of Science, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)], E-mail: glenn.devine@jpl.nasa.gov; McClelland, David E.; Gray, Malcolm B. [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Faculty of Science, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2008-06-16

    We present a new cavity enhanced, continuous wave spectroscopic technique for the detection of weak atomic and molecular transitions. Differential Cavity Mode Spectroscopy (DCMS) measures the difference in absorption between two adjacent cavity longitudinal modes to yield a highly sensitive, yet relatively simple, cavity enhanced spectroscopic technique. In addition this relative absorption measurement is, to first order, independent of both laser frequency noise and cavity acoustic noise. Here we present both a theoretical description of this new technique and an initial experimental demonstration.

  17. Optical frequency combs generated mechanically

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that a highly equidistant optical frequency comb can be generated by the parametric excitation of an optical bottle microresonator with nanoscale effective radius variation by its natural mechanical vibrations.

  18. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.

  19. Long Wave Infrared Cavity Enhanced Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Scott, David C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Munley, John T.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) long wave infrared (LWIR) cavity enhanced sensor (CES) task is to explore ultra-sensitive spectroscopic chemical sensing techniques and apply them to detecting proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Our primary application is detecting signatures of WMD production, but LWIR CES techniques are also capable of detecting chemical weapons. The LWIR CES task is concerned exclusively with developing novel point sensors; stand-off detection is addressed by other PNNL tasks and projects. PNNL's LWIR CES research is distinguished from that done by others by the use quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) as the light source. QCLs are novel devices, and a significant fraction of our research has been devoted to developing the procedures and hardware required to implement them most effectively for chemical sensing. This report details the progress we have made on LWIR CES sensor development.

  20. Optical Fibre Based Frequency Shifters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    A fibre optic frequency shifter can be used to replace the Bragg cell acousto-optic modulator, currently used to generate low frequency optical...carriers, in fibre optic communications and sensor systems. This new form of frequency shifter, being an all fibre device, in which the propagating optical...large number of workers in recent years, (for example references [2-81 and those contained therein). The main elements of a fibre - optic frequency

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Reber, Melanie A R; Allison, Thomas K

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique using a frequency comb laser and optical cavities for performing ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with improved sensitivity. Resonantly enhancing the probe pulses, we demonstrate a sensitivity of $\\Delta$OD $ = 1 \\times 10^{-9}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$ for averaging times as long as 30 s per delay point ($\\Delta$OD$_{min} = 2 \\times 10^{-10}$). Resonantly enhancing the pump pulses allows us to produce a high excitation fraction at high repetition-rate, so that signals can be recorded from samples with optical densities as low as OD $\\approx 10^{-8}$, or column densities $< 10^{10}$ molecules/cm$^2$. This high sensitivity enables new directions for ultrafast spectroscopy.

  2. Different ways to active optical frequency standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Duo; Xue, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    Active optical frequency standard, or active optical clock, is a new concept of optical frequency standard, where a weak feedback with phase coherence information in optical bad-cavity limitation is formed, and the continuous self-sustained coherent stimulated emission between two atomic transition levels with population inversion is realized. Through ten years of both theoretical and experimental exploration, the narrow linewidth and suppression of cavity pulling effect of active optical frequency standard have been initially proved. In this paper, after a simple review, we will mainly present the most recent experimental progresses of active optical frequency standards in Peking University, including 4-level cesium active optical frequency standards and active Faraday optical frequency standards. The future development of active optical frequency standards is also discussed.

  3. Cavity-enhanced frequency up-conversion in rubidium vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Offer, Rachel F; Riis, Erling; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Arnold, Aidan S

    2016-01-01

    We report the first use of a ring cavity to both enhance the output power and dramatically narrow the linewidth ($<1\\,$MHz) of blue light generated by four wave mixing in a rubidium vapour cell. We find that the high output power available in our cavity-free system leads to power broadening of the generated blue light linewidth. Our ring cavity removes this limitation, allowing high output power and narrow linewidth to be achieved concurrently. As the cavity blue light is widely tunable over the $^{85}$Rb 5S$_{1/2} \\,\\,F=3$ $\\rightarrow$ 6P$_{3/2}$ transition, this narrow linewidth light would be suitable for second-stage laser cooling, which could be valuable for efficient $^{85}$Rb BEC production.

  4. Pump-probe differencing technique for cavity-enhanced, noise-canceling saturation laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Vine, G; Close, J D; Gray, M B; Vine, Glenn de; Clelland, David E. Mc; Close, John D.; Gray, Malcolm B.

    2004-01-01

    We present an experimental technique enabling mechanical-noise free, cavity-enhanced frequency measurements of an atomic transition and its hyperfine structure. We employ the 532nm frequency doubled output from a Nd:YAG laser and an iodine vapour cell. The cell is placed in a traveling-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with counter-propagating pump and probe beams. The FPI is locked using the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique. Mechanical noise is rejected by differencing pump and probe signals. In addition, this differenced error signal gives a sensitive measure of differential non-linearity within the FPI.

  5. Hybrid III-V/SOI resonant cavity enhanced photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol;

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid III–V/SOI resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure comprising a high-contrast grating (HCG) reflector, a hybrid grating (HG) reflector, and an air cavity between them, has been proposed and investigated. In the proposed structure, a light absorbing material is integrated...

  6. Hermetic optical-fiber iodine frequency standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Philip S; Anstie, James D; Benabid, Fetah; Luiten, Andre N

    2015-06-15

    We have built an optical-frequency standard based on interrogating iodine vapor that has been trapped within the hollow core of a hermetically sealed kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser locked to a hyperfine component of the P(142)37-0 I2127 transition using modulation transfer spectroscopy shows a frequency stability of 3×10(-11) at 100 s. We discuss the impediments in integrating this all-fiber standard into a fully optical-fiber-based system, and suggest approaches that could improve performance of the frequency standard substantially.

  7. New resonant cavity-enhanced absorber structures for mid-infrared detector application

    CERN Document Server

    Zohar, Moshe; Faraone, Lorenzo; Hava, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    A new dielectric Fabry-Perot cavity was designed for a resonant enhancing optical absorption by a thin absorber layer embedded into the cavity. In this cavity, the front mirror is a subwavelength grating with $\\sim 100$% retroreflection. For a HgCdTe absorber in a matching cavity of the new type, the design is shown to meet the combined challenges of increasing the absorbing efficiency of the entire device up to $\\sim 100$% and reducing its size and overall complexity, compared to a conventional resonant cavity enhanced HgCdTe absorber, while maintaining a fairly good tolerance against the grating's fabrication errors.

  8. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    the tumor. * Combination of the above two points into a composite false-color breast image containing structural information (from the second...Antonangeli, A. Savoia, T. Parasassi, and N. Rosato, " Plastique : a synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

  9. Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    frequencies . This phenomenon appears in many systems spanning biology, chemistry, neuroscience, and physics [29,30]. Examples include power grid networks... Frequency Combs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008). [91] F. Leo, et al., “Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0365 Silicon-Chip-Based Optical Frequency Combs Alexander Gaeta CORNELL UNIVERSITY Final Report 10/26/2015 DISTRIBUTION A

  10. Optical frequency standards for time and length applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Feng-Lei

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in research on optical frequency metrology. Optical frequency standards using optical lattice and single-ion trap technologies have reached levels of stability and accuracy that surpass the performance of the best Cs fountain atomic clocks by orders of magnitude. Optical frequency standards are also used for various applications including length metrology. Optical frequency measurement and links using optical frequency combs and optical fibres play important roles in the development of optical frequency standards. This article introduces optical frequency standards recommended by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) along with updates provided by recent research results. Frequency ratio measurements and remote frequency comparisons are addressed in relation to the work whose goal is to redefine the second. Optical frequency standard and optical frequency comb applications are also described.

  11. Slow light based optical frequency shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Nilsson, Adam N; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a controllable way of shifting the frequency of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect, and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion doped crystal. We claim that the solid angle of acceptance of a frequency shift structure can be close to $2\\pi$, which means that the frequency shifter could work not only for optical pulses propagating in a specific spatial mode but also for randomly scattered light. As the frequency shift is controlled solely by an external electric field, it works also for weak coherent light fields, and can e.g. be used as a frequency shifter for quantum memory devices in quantum communication.

  12. A microresonator frequency comb optical clock

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, Scott B; DelHaye, Pascal; Quinlan, Franklyn; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J; Diddams, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Optical-frequency combs enable measurement precision at the 20th digit, and accuracy entirely commensurate with their reference oscillator. A new direction in experiments is the creation of ultracompact frequency combs by way of nonlinear parametric optics in microresonators. We refer to these as microcombs, and here we report a silicon-chip-based microcomb optical clock that phase-coherently converts an optical-frequency reference to a microwave signal. A low-noise comb spectrum with 25 THz span is generated with a 2 mm diameter silica disk and broadening in nonlinear fiber. This spectrum is stabilized to rubidium frequency references separated by 3.5 THz by controlling two teeth 108 modes apart. The optical clocks output is the electronically countable 33 GHz microcomb line spacing, which features an absolute stability better than the rubidium transitions by the expected factor of 108. Our work demonstrates the comprehensive set of tools needed for interfacing microcombs to state-of-the-art optical clocks.

  13. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sergeant, Nicholas P.

    2013-04-24

    Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) electrodes have the potential to significantly increase the absorption efficiency and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband cavity resonance. Silver-based semitransparent DMD electrodes with sheet resistances below 10 ohm/sq. are fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in a high-throughput roll-to-roll sputtering tool. We carefully study the effect of the semitransparent DMD electrode (here composed of ZnxSnyOz/Ag/InxSn yOz) on the optical device performance of a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cell and illustrate that a resonant cavity enhanced light trapping effect dominates the optical behavior of the device. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  14. [Near infrared Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy study of NO2O].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-wei; Dong, Yan-ting; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2014-08-01

    Using a tunable near infrared external cavity diode laser and a 650 mm long high finesse optical cavity consisting of two highly reflective (R=99.97% at 6561.39 cm(-1)) plan-concave mirrors of curvature radius approximately 1000 mm, a cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) system was made. The absorption spectra centered at 6561.39 cm(-1) of pure N2O gas and gas mixtures of N2O and N2 were recorded. According to the absorption of N2O at 6561.39 cm(-1) in the cavity, the measured effective absorption path was about 1460 km. The spectra line intensity and line-width of N2O centered at 6561.39 cm(-1) were carefully studied. The relationship between the line-width of absorption spectra and the gas pressure was derived. The pressure broadening parameter of N2 gas for NO2O line centered at 6 561. 39 cm(-1) was deduced and given a value of approximately (0.114 +/- 0.004) cm(-1) x atm(-1). The possibility to detect trace N2O gas in mixture using this CEAS system was investigated. By recording the ab- sorption spectra of N2O gas mixtures at different concentration, the relationship between the line intensity and gas concentration was derived. The minimum detectable absorption was found to be 2.34 x 10(-7) cm(-1) using this cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy system. And te measurement precision in terms of relative standard deviation (RSD) for N2O is approximately 1.73%, indicating the possibility of using the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy system for micro gas N2O analysis in the future.

  15. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D [Optical-Biomedical Engineering Laboratory (OBEL), School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: dsampson@ee.uwa.edu.au

    2009-05-21

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  16. Microresonator-based optical frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberg, T J; Holzwarth, R; Diddams, S A

    2011-04-29

    The series of precisely spaced, sharp spectral lines that form an optical frequency comb is enabling unprecedented measurement capabilities and new applications in a wide range of topics that include precision spectroscopy, atomic clocks, ultracold gases, and molecular fingerprinting. A new optical frequency comb generation principle has emerged that uses parametric frequency conversion in high resonance quality factor (Q) microresonators. This approach provides access to high repetition rates in the range of 10 to 1000 gigahertz through compact, chip-scale integration, permitting an increased number of comb applications, such as in astronomy, microwave photonics, or telecommunications. We review this emerging area and discuss opportunities that it presents for novel technologies as well as for fundamental science.

  17. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Washenfelder

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2. Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the precision (±1σ on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare measurements made with the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer with those from cavity ringdown instruments detecting CHOCHO and NO2 at 404 and 532 nm, respectively, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  18. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Nicholas P; Niesen, Bjoern; Liu, Albert S; Boman, Lee; Stoessel, Chris; Heremans, Paul; Peumans, Peter; Rand, Barry P; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-05-01

    Dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) electrodes have the potential to significantly increase the absorption efficiency and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband cavity resonance. Silver-based semitransparent DMD electrodes with sheet resistances below 10 ohm/sq. are fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates in a high-throughput roll-to-roll sputtering tool. We carefully study the effect of the semitransparent DMD electrode (here composed of Zn(x)Sn(y)O(z)/Ag/In(x)Sn(y)O(z)) on the optical device performance of a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) bilayer cell and illustrate that a resonant cavity enhanced light trapping effect dominates the optical behavior of the device.

  19. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  20. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced analytical atomic spectrometry - NICE-AAS - A technique for detection of elements down to zeptogram amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axner, Ove; Ehlers, Patrick; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Silander, Isak; Ma, Weiguang

    2014-10-01

    Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) is a powerful technique for detection of molecular compounds in gas phase that is based on a combination of two important concepts: frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) for reduction of noise, and cavity enhancement, for prolongation of the interaction length between the light and the sample. Due to its unique properties, it has demonstrated unparalleled detection sensitivity when it comes to detection of molecular constituents in the gas phase. However, despite these, it has so far not been used for detection of atoms, i.e. for elemental analysis. The present work presents an assessment of the expected performance of Doppler-broadened (Db) NICE-OHMS for analytical atomic spectrometry, then referred to as noise-immune cavity-enhanced analytical atomic spectrometry (NICE-AAS). After a description of the basic principles of Db-NICE-OHMS, the modulation and detection conditions for optimum performance are identified. Based on a previous demonstrated detection sensitivity of Db-NICE-OHMS of 5 × 10- 12 cm- 1 Hz- 1/2 (corresponding to a single-pass absorbance of 7 × 10- 11 over 10 s), the expected limits of detection (LODs) of Hg and Na by NICE-AAS are estimated. Hg is assumed to be detected in gas phase directly while Na is considered to be atomized in a graphite furnace (GF) prior to detection. It is shown that in the absence of spectral interferences, contaminated sample compartments, and optical saturation, it should be feasible to detect Hg down to 10 zg/cm3 (10 fg/m3 or 10- 5 ng/m3), which corresponds to 25 atoms/cm3, and Na down to 0.5 zg (zg = zeptogram = 10- 21 g), representing 50 zg/mL (parts-per-sextillion, pps, 1:1021) in liquid solution (assuming a sample of 10 μL) or solely 15 atoms injected into the GF, respectively. These LODs are several orders of magnitude lower (better) than any previous laser-based absorption technique previously demonstrated under atmospheric

  1. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics.

  2. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons.

  3. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transient reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.

  4. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  5. Gas trace detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a review of its process in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Luo, Zhifu; Tan, Zhongqi; Long, Xingwu

    2016-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a technology in which the intracavity absorption is deduced from the intensity of light transmitted by the high finesse optical cavity. Then the samples' parameters, such as their species, concentration and absorption cross section, would be detection. It was first proposed and demonstrated by Engeln R. [1] and O'Keefe[2] in 1998. This technology has extraordinary detection sensitivity, high resolution and good practicability, so it is used in many fields , such as clinical medicine, gas detection and basic physics research. In this paper, we focus on the use of gas trace detection, including the advance of CEAS over the past twenty years, the newest research progresses, and the prediction of this technology's development direction in the future.

  6. Cavity-enhanced Faraday rotation measurement with auto-balanced photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2015-10-01

    Optical cavity enhancement for a tiny Faraday rotation is demonstrated with auto-balanced photodetection. This configuration is analyzed using the Jones matrix formalism. The resonant rotation signal is amplified, and thus, the angular sensitivity is improved. In the experiment, the air Faraday rotation is measured with an auto-balanced photoreceiver in single-pass and cavity geometries. The result shows that the measured Faraday rotation in the single-pass geometry is enhanced by a factor of 85 in the cavity geometry, and the sensitivity is improved to 7.54×10(-10)  rad Hz(-1/2), which agrees well with the Jones matrix analysis. With this verification, we propose an AC magnetic sensor whose magnetic sensitivity is expected to achieve 10  pT Hz(-1/2).

  7. Design of cavity-enhanced absorption cell for reducing transit-time broadening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masashi; Iwakuni, Kana; Okubo, Sho; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-15

    To reduce the linewidth of Lamb dips, we introduce a cavity-enhanced absorption cell (CEAC) coupled with a Gaussian beam with a 1.9-mm 1/e(2) radius at the beam waist for the reduction of transit-time broadening. We state that transit-time broadening depends only on the beam radius at the beam waist. This fact is useful for the design of the CEAC, and a pair of concave and convex mirrors is thereby employed. We have carried out sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy of the ν(3) band of CH(4) and the ν(1) band of CH(3)D using a difference-frequency-generation source and the CEAC, and the recorded Lamb dips narrow to 80 kHz (HWHM).

  8. Tunable optical frequency division using a phase-locked optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D; Wong, N C

    1992-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel optical parametric oscillator approach to tunable optical frequency division. The beat frequency of the signal and idler subharmonic outputs of a tunable cw KTP optical parametric oscillator was phase locked to a microwave reference frequency source, which thus permitted precise determination of the output frequencies at approximately half the input pump frequency.

  9. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Spectroscopy: Ultrafast Meets Ultrasensitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Thomas K.; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Chen, Yuning

    2016-06-01

    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy methods, such as transient absorption spectroscopy and 2D-spectroscopy, are widely used across many disciplines. However, these techniques are typically restricted to optically thick samples, such as solids and liquid solutions. Using a frequency comb laser and optical cavities, we present a new technique for performing ultrafast optical spectroscopy with high sensitivity, enabling work in dilute gas-phase molecular beams. Resonantly enhancing the probe pulses, we demonstrate transient absorption measurements with a detection limit of ΔOD = 2 × 10-10 (1 × 10-9/√{Hz}). Resonantly enhancing the pump pulses allows us to produce a high excitation fraction at high repetition-rate, so that signals can be recorded from samples with optical densities as low as OD ≈ 10-8, or column densities oise performance of CE-TAS. (a), Transient absorption measurements taken with reduced gas flow and perpendicular polarizations. The red dots represent the average of 60 consecutive scans taken over a 1 hour period. Black curves are every 10th scan from the data set. Inset: Zoom-in around 0.8 ps delay. Error bars represent the uncertainty in the mean. (b), The green squares show the average of the Allan deviations obtained independently for each delay point. Error bars here are the standard deviation (not the uncertainty in the mean) of this ensemble, to represent the spread in the data. The blue diamond is the average of the error bars of (a), along with their standard deviation. The grey line has a slope of -1/2 on the log-log plot, the expected slope for white noise performance

  10. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  11. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Washenfelder

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2. Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the minimum detectable absorption is 4×10−10 cm−1, and the precision (±1σ on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer to 404 and 532 nm cavity ringdown instruments for CHOCHO and NO2 detection, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  12. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zogg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA.

  13. Steering optical comb frequency by rotating polarization state

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, X F; Zhang, L; Han, W; Guo, W; Jiang, H; Zhang, S

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs, with precise control of repetition rate and carrier-envelope-offset frequency, have revolutionized many fields, such as fine optical spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, ultra-fast science research, ultra-stable microwave generation and precise ranging measurement. However, existing high bandwidth frequency control methods have small dynamic range, requiring complex hybrid control techniques. To overcome this limitation, we develop a new approach, where a home-made intra-cavity electro-optic modulator tunes polarization state of laser signal rather than only optical length of the cavity, to steer frequencies of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked laser. By taking advantage of birefringence of the whole cavity, this approach results in not only broadband but also relative large-dynamic frequency control. Experimental results show that frequency control dynamic range increase at least one order in comparison with the traditional intra-cavity electro-optic modulator techn...

  14. Using active resonator impedance matching for shot-noise limited, cavity enhanced amplitude modulated laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jong H; Littler, Ian C M; Rabeling, David S; McClelland, David E; Gray, Malcolm B

    2008-05-26

    We introduce a closed-loop feedback technique to actively control the coupling condition of an optical cavity, by employing amplitude modulation of the interrogating laser. We show that active impedance matching of the cavity facilitates optimal shot-noise sensing performance in a cavity enhanced system, while its control error signal can be used for intra-cavity absorption or loss signal extraction. We present the first demonstration of this technique with a fiber ring cavity, and achieved shot-noise limited loss sensitivity. We also briefly discuss further use of impedance matching control as a tool for other applications.

  15. Optical Transmitter Terminal for Selective RF High Frequency Bans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposal work is to investigate the highly innovative conceptual design of an optical communication selective frequency transmitter terminal...

  16. Applications of broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy for measurements of trace gases and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Flores, J. M.; Langford, A. O.; Min, K. E.; Rudich, Y.; Stutz, J.; Wagner, N.; Young, C.; Zarzana, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy (BBCES) uses a broadband light source, optical cavity, and multichannel detector to measure light extinction with high sensitivity. This method differs from cavity ringdown spectroscopy, because it uses an inexpensive, incoherent light source and allows optical extinction to be determined simultaneously across a broad wavelength region.Spectral fitting methods can be used to retrieve multiple absorbers across the observed wavelength region. We have successfully used this method to measure glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based and aircraft-based sampling platforms. The detection limit (2-sigma) in 5 s for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 is 32, 250 and 80 parts per trillion (pptv).Alternatively, gas-phase absorbers can be chemically removed to allow the accurate determination of aerosol extinction. In the laboratory, we have used the aerosol extinction measurements to determine scattering and absorption as a function of wavelength. We have deployed a ground-based field instrument to measure aerosol extinction, with a detection limit of approximately 0.2 Mm-1 in 1 min.BBCES methods are most widely used in the near-ultraviolet and visible spectral region. Recently, we have demonstrated measurements at 315-350 nm for formaldehyde (CH2O) and NO2. Extending the technique further into the ultraviolet spectral region will allow important additional measurements of trace gas species and aerosol extinction.

  17. Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del'Haye, P; Arcizet, O; Schliesser, A; Holzwarth, R; Kippenberg, T J

    2008-08-01

    We demonstrate control and stabilization of an optical frequency comb generated by four-wave mixing in a monolithic microresonator with a mode spacing in the microwave regime (86 GHz). The comb parameters (mode spacing and offset frequency) are controlled via the power and the frequency of the pump laser, which constitutes one of the comb modes. Furthermore, generation of a microwave beat note at the comb's mode spacing frequency is demonstrated, enabling direct stabilization to a microwave frequency standard.

  18. Cavity enhanced telecom heralded single photons for spin-wave solid state quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieländer, Daniel; Lenhard, Andreas; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    We report on a source of heralded narrowband (≈ 3 MHz) single photons compatible with solid-state spin-wave quantum memories based on praseodymium doped crystals. Widely non-degenerate narrow-band photon pairs are generated using cavity enhanced down conversion. One photon from the pair is at telecom wavelengths and serves as heralding signal, while the heralded single photon is at 606 nm, resonant with an optical transition of Pr3+:Y2SiO5. The source offers a heralding efficiency of 28% and a generation rate exceeding 2000 pairs mW-1 in a single-mode. The single photon nature of the heralded field is confirmed by a direct antibunching measurement, with a measured antibunching parameter down to 0.010(4). Moreover, we investigate in detail photon cross- and autocorrelation functions proving non-classical correlations between the two photons. The results presented in this paper offer prospects for the demonstration of single photon spin-wave storage in an on-demand solid state quantum memory, heralded by a telecom photon.

  19. Application of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy to the Detection of Nitric Oxide, Carbonyl Sulphide, and Ethane—Breath Biomarkers of Serious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojtas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the laser absorption spectroscopy techniques as an effective tool for sensitive analysis of trace gas species in human breath. Characterization of nitric oxide, carbonyl sulphide and ethane, and the selection of their absorption lines are described. Experiments with some biomarkers showed that detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level is possible using this technique. Thanks to cavity enhanced spectroscopy application, detection limits at the ppb-level and short measurements time (<3 s were achieved. Absorption lines of reference samples of the selected volatile biomarkers were probed using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser and a tunable laser system consisting of an optical parametric oscillator and difference frequency generator. Setup using the first source provided a detection limit of 30 ppb for nitric oxide and 250 ppb for carbonyl sulphide. During experiments employing a second laser, detection limits of 0.9 ppb and 0.3 ppb were obtained for carbonyl sulphide and ethane, respectively. The conducted experiments show that this type of diagnosis would significantly increase chances for effective therapy of some diseases. Additionally, it offers non-invasive and real time measurements, high sensitivity and selectivity as well as minimizing discomfort for patients. For that reason, such sensors can be used in screening for early detection of serious diseases.

  20. Measurements of Iodine Monoxide Levels During the CAST Campaign Using Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N. R. P.; Popoola, O. A.; McLeod, M.; Ouyang, B.; Jones, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) has been regarded as an important radical involved in the ozone destruction in the remote marine boundary layer. Here we presented the first in situ aircraft measurements of IO using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with 1s -sensitivity of ~1.5 ppt Hz-1/2 on the surface level during the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign between January - February 2014. IO was retrieved from analysis of absorption spectrum recorded between 415 nm - 452.5 nm. Instrument baseline corresponding to the "zero" signal of IO was obtained by injection of ~20 ppb of nitric oxide (NO) into the sample air at chosen frequency and period. No clear absorption feature was observable from the spectra by eye with up to 100 seconds averaging, pointing to very low mixing ratios (<~0.5 ppt) of IO over the sampled area. A small positive bias (~0.3 ppt) of IO (against the baseline signal during NO titration) was obtained in the statistical histogram of retrieved IO from average of each straight and level run, but little altitude dependence was noted. In summary, our observation appears to support the existence of IO in the remote marine boundary above the Pacific Ocean at sub ppt levels, but the limited sensitivity precludes us from quantifying spatial gradients more accurately.

  1. Semi-automatic, octave-spanning optical frequency counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-An; Shu, Ren-Huei; Peng, Jin-Long

    2008-07-07

    This work presents and demonstrates a semi-automatic optical frequency counter with octave-spanning counting capability using two fiber laser combs operated at different repetition rates. Monochromators are utilized to provide an approximate frequency of the laser under measurement to determine the mode number difference between the two laser combs. The exact mode number of the beating comb line is obtained from the mode number difference and the measured beat frequencies. The entire measurement process, except the frequency stabilization of the laser combs and the optimization of the beat signal-to-noise ratio, is controlled by a computer running a semi-automatic optical frequency counter.

  2. Development of a broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for the detection of atmospheric HONO and NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xia, Ruxiao; Chen, Weidong; He, Xingdao

    2016-10-01

    An incoherent broadband cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer (IBBCEAS) was developed to detect atmospheric HONO and NO2. Using a UV light emitting diode (LED) operating at 366 nm in combination with a high finesse optical cavity, HONO and NO2 were able to be simultaneously measured with high sensitivity. Detection limits (for SNR=1) of 0.3 ppbv for HONO and 1 ppbv for NO2 were achieved with an optimum acquisition time of 120 s. Stability of the developed cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer has been characterized by means of an Allan variance analysis. Daytime and nighttime concentrations of atmospheric HONO and NO2 were measured and compared with data from LOPAP for HONO and blue light converter-based NOx analyzer for NO2. The present work performed in a real atmospheric environment demonstrates the feasibility of using IBBCEAS technique for interference (chemical and spectral) free measurement of HONO. Experimental detail will be presented, the problems encountered during the real atmospheric measurement will be discussed.

  3. Frequency modulation via the Doppler effect in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberson, P; Huttner, B; Gisin, N

    1999-04-01

    We present the principle of optical frequency modulation via the Doppler effect obtained by rapidly stretching an optical fiber and thus modifying the optical path of the light propagating in the fiber. This procedure creates a pure frequency shift, with no degradation of the spectrum. Moreover, the effect is wavelength independent and can therefore be applied to any type of light source. We show an experimental realization in which a frequency excursion of ~100 MHz was obtained with a bobbin vibrating at 180 Hz.

  4. Optical frequency tripling with improved suppression and sideband selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Manoj P; Medeiros, Maria C R; Laurêncio, Paula; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A novel optical dispersion tolerant millimetre-wave radio-over-fibre system using optical frequency tripling technique with enhanced and selectable sideband suppression is demonstrated. The implementation utilises cascaded optical modulators to achieve either an optical single sideband (OSSB) or double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) signal with high sideband suppression. Our analysis and simulation results indicate that the achievable suppression ratio of this configuration is only limited by other system factors such as optical noise and drifting of the operational conditions. The OSSB transmission system performance is assessed experimentally by the transport of 4 WiMax channels modulating a 10 GHz optical upconverted RF carrier as well as for optical frequency doubling and tripling. The 10 GHz and tripled carrier at 30 GHz are dispersion tolerant resulting both in an average relative constellation error (RCE) of -28.7 dB after 40 km of fibre.

  5. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    R. Q. Shaddad; Mohammad, A. B.; S. A. Al-Gailani; Al-Hetar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the n...

  6. Multiplexed sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Long, David A; Plusquellic, David F; Hodges, Joseph T

    2016-01-01

    An optical frequency comb generated with an electro-optic phase modulator and a chirped radiofrequency waveform is used to perform saturation and pump-probe spectroscopy on the $D_1$ and $D_2$ transitions of atomic potassium. With a comb tooth spacing of 200 kHz and an optical bandwidth of 2 GHz the hyperfine transitions can be simultaneously observed. Interferograms are recorded in as little as 5 $\\mu$s (a timescale corresponding to the inverse of the comb tooth spacing). Importantly, the sub-Doppler features can be measured as long as the laser carrier frequency lies within the Doppler profile, thus removing the need for slow scanning or a priori knowledge of the frequencies of the sub-Doppler features. Sub-Doppler optical frequency comb spectroscopy has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition times and allow for rapid and accurate assignment of complex molecular and atomic spectra which are presently intractable.

  7. Magnetic Force Between Magnetic Nano Probes at Optical Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy based on the interaction of static magnetic materials was demonstrated in the past with resolutions in the order of nanometers. Measurement techniques based on forces between electric dipoles oscillating at optical frequencies have been also demonstrated leading to the standard operation of the scanning force microscope (SFM). However the investigations of a SFM based on the magnetic force generated by magnetic dipole moments oscillating at optical frequencies has not been tackled yet. With this goal in mind we establish a theoretical model towards observable magnetic force interaction between two magnetically polarizable nanoparticles at optical frequency and show such a force to be in the order of piconewtons which could be in principle detected by conventional microscopy techniques. Two possible principles for conceiving magnetically polarizable nano probes able to generate strong magnetic dipoles at optical frequency are investigated based on silicon nanoparticles and on clusters...

  8. Cavity-Enhanced Measurements of Defect Spins in Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusine, Greg; Politi, Alberto; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-07-01

    The identification of new solid-state defect-qubit candidates in widely used semiconductors has the potential to enable the use of nanofabricated devices for enhanced qubit measurement and control operations. In particular, the recent discovery of optically active spin states in silicon carbide thin films offers a scalable route for incorporating defect qubits into on-chip photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate the use of 3C silicon carbide photonic crystal cavities for enhanced excitation of color-center defect spin ensembles in order to increase measured photoluminescence signal count rates, optically detected magnetic-resonance signal intensities, and optical spin initialization rates. We observe an up to a factor of 30 increase in the photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic-resonance signals from Ky5 color centers excited by cavity-resonant excitation and increase the rate of ground-state spin initialization by approximately a factor of 2. Furthermore, we show that the 705-fold reduction in excitation mode volume and enhanced excitation and collection efficiencies provided by the structures can be used to overcome inhomogenous broadening in order to facilitate the study of defect-qubit subensemble properties. These results highlight some of the benefits that nanofabricated devices offer for engineering the local photonic environment of color-center defect qubits to enable applications in quantum information and sensing.

  9. Isotopic gas analysis through Purcell cavity enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, B.; Cooper, J.; Konthasinghe, K.; Peiris, M.; Djeu, N.; Hopkins, A. J.; Muller, A.

    2016-02-01

    Purcell enhanced Raman scattering (PERS) by means of a doubly resonant Fabry-Perot microcavity (mode volume ≈ 100 μm3 and finesse ≈ 30 000) has been investigated as a technique for isotopic ratio gas analysis. At the pump frequency, the resonant cavity supports a buildup of circulating power while simultaneously enabling Purcell spontaneous emission rate enhancement at the resonant Stokes frequency. The three most common isotopologues of CO2 gas were quantified, and a signal was obtained from 13C16O2 down to a partial pressure of 2 Torr. Due to its small size and low pump power needed (˜10 mW) PERS lends itself to miniaturization. Furthermore, since the cavity is resonant with the emission frequency, future improvements could allow it to serve as its own spectral analyzer and no separate spectroscopic device would be needed.

  10. The Optically Pumped Cs Frequency Standard at the NRLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    References 1. J.L. Picqu6, "Hyperfine optical pumping of a cesium atomic beam, and applications," Metrologia, vo1.13, pp.115-119, 1977. 2. M. Arditi and... Arditi , "A caesium beam atomic clock with laser optical pumping, as a potential frequency standard," Metrologia, vo1.18, pp.59-66, 1982. 4. G

  11. All-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter for generating an OFDM output signal. The transmitter comprises a first time-domain optical Fourier transform (OFT) assembly, the first OFT assembly is of a K-D-K configuration and comprises...

  12. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  13. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-E. Min

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO, methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO, nitrous acid (HONO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and water (H2O. The instrument spans 361–389 and 438–468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  14. High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; Boer; Iftimia, N. V.; Bouma, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of −110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 µm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, rep...

  15. Design and Fabrication of 1.06 μm Resonant-Cavity Enhanced Reflective Modulator with GaInAs/GaAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Hong; HAN Qin; NI Hai-Qiao; HUANG She-Song; DU Yun; PENG Hong-Ling; XIONG Yong-Hua; NIU Zhi-Chuan; WU Rong-Han

    2006-01-01

    A resonant-cavity enhanced reflective optical modulator is designed and fabricated, with three groups of three highly strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells in the cavity, for low voltage and high contrast ratio operation.The quantum wells are positioned in antinodes of the optical standing wave. The modulator is grown in a single growth step in an molecular beam epitaxy system, using GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflectors as both the top and bottom mirrors. Results show that the reflection device has a modulation extinction of 3 dB at -4.5 V bias.

  16. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian;

    2008-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a d...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....

  17. Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology Principle, Operation and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a remarkable convergence among the fields of ultrafast optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. This convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The resulting spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as "femtosecond comb technology." They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. This book provides an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the connection between time and frequency descriptions of their output and the physical origins of the electric field dynamics, together with an overview of applications of femtosecond comb technology. Individual chapters go into more detail on mode-locked laser development, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric ...

  18. Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fleisher, Adam J; Reed, Zachary D; Hodges, Joseph T; Plusquellic, David F

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers, or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore long integration times are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The combs of > 250 teeth and 203 MHz spacing were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes, passive devices that provided low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO$_2$, CO, HDO, and H$_2$O at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robus...

  19. Noise-free quantum optical frequency shifting driven by mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Linran; Poot, Menno; Cheng, Risheng; Guo, Xiang; Han, Xu; Tang, Hong X

    2016-01-01

    The ability to manipulate single photons is of critical importance for fundamental quantum optics studies and practical implementations of quantum communications. While extraordinary progresses have been made in controlling spatial, temporal, spin and orbit angular momentum degrees of freedom, frequency-domain control of single photons so far relies on nonlinear optical effects, which have faced obstacles such as noise photons, narrow bandwidth and demanding optical filtering. Here we demonstrate the first integrated near-unity efficiency frequency manipulation of single photons, by stretching and compressing a waveguide at 8.3 billion cycles per second. Frequency shift up to 150 GHz at telecom wavelength is realized without measurable added noise and the preservation of quantum coherence is verified through quantum interference between twin photons of different colors. This single photon frequency control approach will be invaluable for increasing the channel capacity of quantum communications and compensati...

  20. Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Crystalline Microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C Y; Del'Haye, P; Schliesser, A; Hofer, J; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Picqué, N; Kippenberg, T J

    2011-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectral range (\\lambda ~ 2 \\mu m to 20 \\mu m) is known as the "molecular fingerprint" region as many molecules have their highly characteristic, fundamental ro-vibrational bands in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy therefore constitutes a powerful and ubiquitous tool for optical analysis of chemical components that is used in biochemistry, astronomy, pharmaceutical monitoring and material science. Optical frequency combs, i.e. broad spectral bandwidth coherent light sources consisting of equally spaced sharp lines, have revolutionized optical frequency metrology one decade ago. They now demonstrate dramatically improved acquisition rates, resolution and sensitivity for molecular spectroscopy mostly in the visible and near-infrared ranges. Mid-infrared frequency combs have therefore become highly desirable and recent progress in generating such combs by nonlinear frequency conversion has opened access to this spectral region. Here we report on a pr...

  1. Fast frequency hopping codes applied to SAC optical CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2015-06-01

    This study designed a fast frequency hopping (FFH) code family suitable for application in spectral-amplitude-coding (SAC) optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. The FFH code family can effectively suppress the effects of multiuser interference and had its origin in the frequency hopping code family. Additional codes were developed as secure codewords for enhancing the security of the network. In considering the system cost and flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a set of optical securers using two arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers (DeMUXs) were also constructed. Based on a Gaussian approximation, expressions for evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) of SAC optical CDMA networks are presented. The results indicated that the proposed SAC optical CDMA network exhibited favorable performance.

  2. Precise Stabilization of the Optical Frequency of WGMRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators (CWGMRs) made of crystals with axial symmetry have ordinary and extraordinary families of optical modes. These modes have substantially different thermo-refractive constants. This results in a very sharp dependence of differential detuning of optical frequency on effective temperature. This frequency difference compared with clock gives an error signal for precise compensation of the random fluctuations of optical frequency. Certain crystals, like MgF2, have turnover points where the thermo-refractive effect is completely nullified. An advantage for applications using WGMRs for frequency stabilization is in the possibility of manufacturing resonators out of practically any optically transparent crystal. It is known that there are crystals with negative and zero thermal expansion at some specific temperatures. Doping changes properties of the crystals and it is possible to create an optically transparent crystal with zero thermal expansion at room temperature. With this innovation s stabilization technique, the resultant WGMR will have absolute frequency stability The expansion of the resonator s body can be completely compensated for by nonlinear elements. This results in compensation of linear thermal expansion (see figure). In three-mode, the MgF2 resonator, if tuned at the turnover thermal point, can compensate for all types of random thermal-related frequency drift. Simplified dual-mode method is also available. This creates miniature optical resonators with good short- and long-term stability for passive secondary frequency ethalon and an active resonator for active secondary frequency standard (a narrowband laser with long-term stability).

  3. Optical Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FMCW) Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    This book introduces the optical frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) interferometry - a new field of optics that is derived from radar. The study of optical FMCW interference not only updates our knowledge about the nature of light, but also creates an advanced technology for precision measurements. The principles, applications and signal processing of optical FMCW interference are systematically discussed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in both academia and industry. It is especially suited to professionals who are working in the field of measurement instruments.

  4. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.

  5. A method of developing frequency encoded multi-bit optical data comparator using semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Sisir Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Optical data comparator is the part and parcel of arithmetic and logical unit of any optical data processor and it is working as a building block in a larger optical circuit, as an optical switch in all optical header processing and optical packet switching based all optical telecommunications system. In this article the author proposes a method of developing an all optical single bit comparator unit and subsequently extending the proposal to develop a n-bit comparator exploiting the nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Here the dataset to be compared are taken in frequency encoded/decoded form throughout the communication. The major advantages of frequency encoding over all other conventional techniques are that as the frequency of any signal is fundamental one so it can preserve its identity throughout the communication of optical signal and minimizes the probability of bit error problem. For frequency routing purpose optical add/drop multiplexer (ADM) is used which not only route the pump beams properly but also to amplify the pump beams efficiently. Switching speed of 'MZI-SOA switch' as well as SOA based switches are very fast with good on-off contrast ratio and as a result it is possible to obtain very fast action of optical data comparator.

  6. Efficient microwave-induced optical frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kosachiov, D V

    1999-01-01

    Frequency conversion process is studied in a medium of atoms with a $\\Lambda$ configuration of levels, where transition between two lower states is driven by a microwave field. In this system, conversion efficiency can be very high by virtue of the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Depending on intensity of the microwave field, two regimes of EIT are realized: ''dark-state'' EIT for the weak field, and Autler-Townes-type EIT for the strong one. We study both cases via analytical and numerical solution and find optimum conditions for the conversion.

  7. Tunable Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Photodetector with Double High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Yvind, Kresten; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists...

  8. High Performance Small Optically Pumped Caesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Wei; YANG Dong-Hai

    2007-01-01

    An experiment of a high performance small optically pumped caesium (Cs) beam frequency standard is reported. An extended cavity diode laser works as the probing laser, of which the frequency is stabilized by the Zeeman modulation method. The running parameters of the frequency standard are dynamically optimized via digital servo electronics. The experimental setup improves the frequency stability up to 1.8 × 10-12 atτ= 1 s and about 1.0 × 10~13 at τ= 105 s (Allan deviation).

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Photonics for Optical Signal Processing - Optical Frequency Conversion and Optical DSB-to-SSB Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    processing - optical frequency conversion and optical DSB -to-SSB conversion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-0006 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 134113...nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers for certain optical signal processing functionalities, including optical DSB -to-SSB conversion, photonic...conversion and optical DSB -to-SSB conversion Performance Period May 30, 2014 ~ May 29, 2015 Principal Investigator Name: Sheng-Kwang Hwang Position

  10. Enabling Arbitrary Wavelength Optical Frequency Combs on Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Soltani, Mohammad; Maleki, Lute

    2015-01-01

    A necessary condition for generation of bright soliton Kerr frequency combs in microresonators is to achieve anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) for the resonator modes. This condition is hard to implement in visible as well as ultraviolet since the majority of optical materials are characterized with large normal GVD in these wavelength regions. We overcome this challenge by borrowing ideas from strongly dispersive coupled systems in solid state physics and optics. We show that photonic compound ring resonators can possess large anomalous GVD at any desirable wavelength, even if each individual resonator is characterized with normal GVD. Based on this concept we design a mode locked frequency comb with thin-film silicon nitride compound ring resonators in the vicinity of Rubidium D1 line (794.6nm) and propose to use this optical comb as a flywheel for chip-scale optical clocks.

  11. Femtosecond fibre laser stabilisation to an optical frequency standard using a KTP electro-optic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyushkov, B N [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pivtsov, V S; Koliada, N A [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kaplun, A B; Meshalkin, A B [S.S. Kutateladze Institute of Heat Physics, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    A miniature intracavity KTP-based electro-optic phase modulator has been developed which can be used for effective stabilisation of an optical frequency comb of a femtosecond erbiumdoped fibre laser to an optical frequency standard. The use of such an electro-optic modulator (EOM) has made it possible to extend the working frequency band of a phase-locked loop system for laser stabilisation to several hundred kilohertz. We demonstrate that the KTP-based EOM is sufficiently sensitive even at a small optical length, which allows it to be readily integrated into cavities of femtosecond fibre lasers with high mode frequency spacings (over 100 MHz). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  12. One-way quantum computing in the optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Nicolas C; Flammia, Steven T; Pfister, Olivier

    2008-09-26

    One-way quantum computing allows any quantum algorithm to be implemented easily using just measurements. The difficult part is creating the universal resource, a cluster state, on which the measurements are made. We propose a scalable method that uses a single, multimode optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The method is very efficient and generates a continuous-variable cluster state, universal for quantum computation, with quantum information encoded in the quadratures of the optical frequency comb of the OPO.

  13. Optical frequency comb interference profilometry using compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duc; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2013-08-12

    We describe a new optical system using an ultra-stable mode-locked frequency comb femtosecond laser and compressive sensing to measure an object's surface profile. The ultra-stable frequency comb laser was used to precisely measure an object with a large depth, over a wide dynamic range. The compressive sensing technique was able to obtain the spatial information of the object with two single-pixel fast photo-receivers, with no mechanical scanning and fewer measurements than the number of sampling points. An optical experiment was performed to verify the advantages of the proposed method.

  14. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewani, Aliya A.; O'Keefe, Steven G.; Thiel, David V.; Galehdar, Amir

    2015-02-01

    A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm), flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2). It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing) to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  15. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewani, Aliya A., E-mail: a.ashraf@griffith.edu.au; O’Keefe, Steven G.; Thiel, David V.; Galehdar, Amir [School Of Electrical Engineering, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm), flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2). It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing) to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  16. Plasmonic antenna array at optical frequency made by nanoapertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.J.; Huang, X.; Peng, R. W.; Wang, Z.; Gao, F.; Sun, W. H.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, Mu

    2008-10-31

    We show here that the plasmonic array based on nanoapertures in ultrathin silver film radiates at optical frequency and behaves as an optical antenna array (OAA). The far-field radiation originates from the coherent superposition of plasmonic emissions on each bank of the aperture. The radiation of OAA presents a strong directivity, which depends on the in-plane rotation of aperture array, and on the polarization and incidence angle of the excitation light as well. We suggest that these features have potential applications in photovoltaics, light-emitting devices, and optical sensors.

  17. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  18. Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-06-01

    The optical frequency comb technology is one of the most important breakthrough in photonics in recent years. This concept has revolutionized the science of ultra-stable lightwave and microwave signal generation. These combs were originally generated using ultrafast mode-locked lasers, but in the past decade, a simple and elegant alternativewas proposed,which consisted in pumping an ultra-high-Q optical resonator with Kerr nonlinearity using a continuous-wave laser. When optimal conditions are met, the intracavity pump photons are redistributed via four-wave mixing to the neighboring cavity modes, thereby creating the so-called Kerr optical frequency comb. Beyond being energy-efficient, conceptually simple, and structurally robust, Kerr comb generators are very compact devices (millimetric down to micrometric size) which can be integrated on a chip. They are, therefore, considered as very promising candidates to replace femtosecond mode-locked lasers for the generation of broadband and coherent optical frequency combs in the spectral domain, or equivalently, narrow optical pulses in the temporal domain. These combs are, moreover, expected to provide breakthroughs in many technological areas, such as integrated photonics, metrology, optical telecommunications, and aerospace engineering. The purpose of this review article is to present a comprehensive survey of the topic of Kerr optical frequency combs.We provide an overview of the main theoretical and experimental results that have been obtained so far. We also highlight the potential of Kerr combs for current or prospective applications, and discuss as well some of the open challenges that are to be met at the fundamental and applied level.

  19. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Shaddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF. The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM. The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  20. Optical frequency upconversion technique for transmission of wireless MIMO-type signals over optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  1. Optimizing optical Bragg scattering for single-photon frequency conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lefrancois, Simon; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    We develop a systematic theory for optimising single-photon frequency conversion using optical Bragg scattering. The efficiency and phase-matching conditions for the desired Bragg scattering conversion as well as spurious scattering and modulation instability are identified. We find that third-order dispersion can suppress unwanted processes, while dispersion above the fourth order limits the maximum conversion efficiency. We apply the optimisation conditions to frequency conversion in highly nonlinear fiber, silicon nitride waveguides and silicon nanowires. Efficient conversion is confirmed using full numerical simulations. These design rules will assist the development of efficient quantum frequency conversion between multicolour single photon sources for integration in complex quantum networks.

  2. Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.

  3. Method of shifting and fixing optical frequency of an optical resonator, and optical resonator made by same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A. (Inventor); Strekalov, Dmitry V. (Inventor); Maleki, Lute (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Iltchenko, Vladimir S. (Inventor); Martin, Jan M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of shifting and fixing an optical frequency of an optical resonator to a desired optical frequency, and an optical resonator made by such a method are provided. The method includes providing an optical resonator having a surface and a refractive index, and obtaining a coating composition having a predetermined concentration of a substance and having a refractive index that is substantially similar to the refractive index of the optical resonator. The coating composition inherently possesses a thickness when it is applied as a coating. The method further includes determining a coating ratio for the surface of the optical resonator and applying the coating composition onto a portion of the surface of the optical resonator based upon the determined coating ratio.

  4. Frequency comb generation in quadratic nonlinear media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Iolanda; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are nowadays routinely used tools in a wide range of scientific and technological applications. Different techniques have been developed for generating optical frequency combs, like mode-locking in lasers and third-order interactions in microresonators, or to extend their spectral capabilities, using frequency conversion processes in nonlinear materials. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and theoretically explain the onset of optical frequency combs in a simple cavity-enhanced second-harmonic-generation system, exploiting second-order nonlinear interactions. We develop an elemental model which provides a deep physical insight into the observed dynamics. Moreover, despite the different underlying physical mechanism, the proposed model is remarkably similar to the description of third-order effects in microresonators, revealing a potential variety of new effects to be explored. Finally, exploiting a nonlinearity intrinsically stronger than the third-order one, our work lays the groundw...

  5. Optimal light harvesting structures at optical and infrared frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Villate-Guío, F; García-Vidal, F J; Martín-Moreno, L; de León-Pérez, F

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional light harvesting structures with a realistic geometry nano-patterned on an opaque metallic film are optimized to render high transmission efficiencies at optical and infrared frequencies. Simple design rules are developed for the particular case of a slit-groove array with a given number of grooves that are symmetrically distributed with respect to a central slit. These rules take advantage of the hybridization of Fabry-Perot modes in the slit and surface modes of the corrugated metal surface. Same design rules apply for optical and infrared frequencies. The parameter space of the groove array is also examined with a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm that used as a seed the geometries optimized following physical intuition. Both uniform and nonuniform groove arrays are considered. The largest transmission enhancement, with respect to a uniform array, is obtained for a chirped groove profile. Such enhancement is a function of the wavelength. It decreases from 39% in the optical part of ...

  6. Incoherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry for Distributed Thermal Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports the main results from an investigation of a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensor based on spontaneous Raman scattering. The technique used for spatial resolving is the incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry, where a pump laser is sine modulated with a stepwise...... increasing frequency, after which the inverse Fourier transform is applied to the signal from the backscattered light. This technique is compared with the more conventional optical time domain reflectometry, where a short pulse is sent through the fibre, and the location of the scattering section...... is determined by the time difference from the emission to the detection of light. A temperature sensor with a range of 2-4km comprising a step-index multi-mode fibre and a high-power 980nm pump laser existed prior to the start of the PhD study. In this study, a sensor range of approximately 10km, and a spatial...

  7. Revealing Carrier-Envelope Phase through Frequency Mixing and Interference in Frequency Resolved Optical Gating

    CERN Document Server

    Snedden, Edward W; Jamison, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that full temporal characterisation of few-cycle electromagnetic pulses, including retrieval of the carrier envelope phase (CEP), can be directly obtained from Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) techniques in which the interference between non-linear frequency mixing processes is resolved. We derive a framework for this scheme, defined Real Domain-FROG (ReD-FROG), as applied to the cases of interference between sum and difference frequency components and between fundamental and sum/difference frequency components. A successful numerical demonstration of ReD-FROG as applied to the case of a self-referenced measurement is provided. A proof-of-principle experiment is performed in which the CEP of a single-cycle THz pulse is accurately obtained and demonstrates the possibility for THz detection beyond the bandwidth limitations of electro-optic sampling.

  8. Dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser for optical generation of tunable low-noise radio frequency/microwave frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jihong; Staines, Sean; Jiang, Shibin

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach, i.e., a cw dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser pumped by two independent single-frequency Er-doped fiber lasers, for the generation of tunable low-noise rf/microwave optical signals. Its inherent features of both linewidth narrowing effect in a Brillouin fiber cavity and common mode noise cancellation between two laser modes sharing a common cavity allow us to achieve high frequency stability without using a supercavity. Beat frequency of the dual-frequency Brillouin fiber laser can be tuned from tens of megahertz up to 100 GHz by thermally tuning the wavelengths of the two pump lasers with tuning sensitivity of approximately 1.4 GHz/ degrees C. Allan variance measurements show the beat signals have the hertz-level frequency stability.

  9. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al+ Optical Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, C -W; Koelemeij, J C J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2009-01-01

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6e-18, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg+ ion serves to sympathetically laser-cool the Al+ ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the 1S0->3P0 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0e-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8e-15/ sqrt(tau), and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8e-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  10. Frequency Comparison of Two High-Accuracy Al+ Optical Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed an optical clock with a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6×10-18, based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion. A simultaneously trapped Mg+ ion serves to sympathetically laser cool the Al+ ion and detect its quantum state. The frequency of the S01↔P03 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0×10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8×10-15τ-1/2, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8×10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock.

  11. Micro--structured crystalline resonators for optical frequency comb generation

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have recently been demonstrated in micro--resonators through nonlinear Kerr processes. Investigations in the past few years provided better understanding of micro--combs and showed that spectral span and mode locking are governed by cavity spectrum and dispersion. While various cavities provide unique advantages, dispersion engineering has been reported only for planar waveguides. In this Letter, we report a resonator design that combines dispersion control, mode crossing free spectrum, and ultra--high quality factor. We experimentally show that as the dispersion of a MgF2 resonator is flattened, the comb span increases reaching 700 nm with as low as 60 mW pump power at 1560 nm wavelength, corresponding to nearly 2000 lines separated by 46 GHz. The new resonator design may enable efficient low repetition rate coherent octave spanning frequency combs without the need for external broadening, ideal for applications in optical frequency synthesis, metrology, spectroscopy, and communicatio...

  12. Cavity-enhanced laser cooling of solid-state materials in a standing-wave cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhua Jia; Biao Zhong; Jianping Yin

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to cool the Yba+-doped ZBLANP glass in a standing-wave cavity. There are two advantages of this cavity-enhanced technique: the pumping power is greatly enhanced and the absorption of the cooling material is greatly increased. We introduce the basic principle of the cavity-enhanced laser cooling and discuss the cooling effect of a solid-state material in a cavity. From the theoretical study, it is found that the laser cooling effect is strongly dependent on the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors, the length of the solid material, the surface scattering of the material, and so on. Some optimal parameters for efficient laser cooling are obtained.

  13. Detection of optic nerve lesions in optic neuritis using frequency-selective fat-saturation sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.H. (NMR Research Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)); MacManus, D.G. (NMR Research Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)); Bartlett, P.A. (St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Kapoor, R. (NMR Research Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)); Morrissey, S.P. (NMR Research Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)); Moseley, I.F. (NMR Research Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-01

    MRI was performed on seven patients with acute optic neuritis, using two sequences which suppress the signal from orbital fat: frequency-selective fat-saturation and inversion recovery with a short inversion time. Lesions were seen on both sequences in all the symptomatic optic nerves studied. (orig.)

  14. Shock-Tube Measurement of Acetone Dissociation Using Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-07-16

    A direct measurement for the rate constant of the acetone dissociation reaction (CH3COCH3 = CH3CO + CH3) was conducted behind reflected shock wave, utilizing a sub-ppm sensitivity CO diagnostic achieved by cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS). The current experiment eliminated the influence from secondary reactions and temperature change by investigating the clean pyrolysis of shock-tube kinetics studies.

  15. Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Zhang, Lingang; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, Toshiki

    2016-08-01

    An optical vortex with orbital angular momentum (OAM) enriches the light and matter interaction process, and helps reveal unexpected information in relativistic nonlinear optics. A scheme is proposed for the first time to explore the origin of photons in the generated harmonics, and produce relativistic intense harmonics with expected frequency and an optical vortex. When two counter-propagating Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses impinge on a solid thin foil and interact with each other, the contribution of each input pulse in producing harmonics can be distinguished with the help of angular momentum conservation of photons, which is almost impossible for harmonic generation without an optical vortex. The generation of tunable, intense vortex harmonics with different photon topological charge is predicted based on the theoretical analysis and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Inheriting the properties of OAM and harmonics, the obtained intense vortex beam can be applied in a wide range of fields, including atom or molecule control and manipulation.

  16. Comparing a mercury optical lattice clock with microwave and optical frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Tyumenev, R; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Nicolodi, D; Coq, Y Le; Abgrall, M; Guéna, J; De Sarlo, L; Bize, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report the evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on neutral mercury down to a relative uncertainty of $1.7\\times 10^{-16}$. Comparing this characterized frequency standard to a Cs atomic fountain we determine the absolute frequency of the $^1S_0 \\rightarrow \\phantom{}^3P_0$ transition of $^{199}$Hg as $\

  17. Development of Miniaturized Difference Frequency Generation, Fiber Optic, and Quantum Cascade Laser Systems in Conjunction With Integrated Electronics for Global Studies of Atmospheric Tracers Using UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witinski, M. F.; Lapson, L. B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    In order to harness the power of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for in situ atmospheric monitoring of tracers such as CO2, N2O, CH4, and H2O, we have developed small, lightweight, single mode laser systems with co- developed integrated electronics. The laser sources are of various types including newly developed cavity- enhanced difference frequency generation (CE DFG), distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB QCLs), and new types of commercially available DFB diode lasers. All are continuous wave (cw) and thermo-electrically cooled, ensuring a high instrument duty cycle in a compact, low maintenance package. The light sources are collimated with miniature aspherical lenses and coupled into a home-built astigmatic Herriott cell for detection of the various targets using direct absorption. In parallel with the optical components, we have developed integrated electrical systems for laser control, data processing, and acquisition. A prototype instrument suite is described that illustrates the importance of parallel development of optical and electrical components in achieving an apparatus that is compact, fully automated, and highly capable scientifically. Although the emphasis here is on atmospheric tracers, this technology could be applied to spectroscopic measurements of other atmospheric species such as isotopes, free radicals, and reactive intermediates.

  18. Optical frequency divider with division uncertainty at the 10^(-21) level

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2016-01-01

    Optical clocks with unprecedented accuracy of 10^(-18) will lead to innovations in many research areas. All the applications of optical clocks rely on the ability of precisely converting the frequency from one optical clock to another, or particularly to the frequencies in the fiber telecom band for long-distance transmission. Here, we report a low-noise, high precision optical frequency divider. It can realize accurate optical frequency conversion as well as enable precise measurement of optical frequency ratios. By comparing against the frequency ratio between the fundamental and the second harmonic of a 1064 nm laser rather than a second similar system, the optical frequency divider is demonstrated to have a frequency division instability of 6e-19 at 1 s and a fractional frequency division uncertainty of 1.4e-21, nearly three orders of magnitude better than the most accurate optical clocks. It allows optical clocks to be accessible to many precision measurement applications.

  19. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  20. Systematic Shifts for Ytterbium-ion Optical Frequency Standards

    CERN Document Server

    Batra, N; Gupta, A Sen; Singh, Sukhjit; Arora, Amisha; Arora, Bindiya

    2014-01-01

    The projected systematic uncertainties of single trapped Ytterbium-ion optical frequency standards are estimated for the quadrupole and octupole transitions which are at wavelengths 435.5 nm and 467 nm, respectively. Finite temperature of the ion and its interaction with the external fields introduce drift in the measured frequency compared to its absolute value. Frequency shifts due to electric quadrupole moment, induced polarization and excess micromotion of the ion depend on electric fields, which are estimated in this article. Geometry of the trap electrodes also result in unwanted electric fields which have been considered in our calculation. Magnetic field induced shift and Stark shifts due to electro-magnetic radiation at a surrounding temperature are also estimated. At CSIR-NPL, we are developing a frequency standard based on the octupole transition for which the systematic uncertainties are an order of magnitude smaller than that using the quadrupole transition, as described here.

  1. Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock

    CERN Document Server

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Targat, Rodolphe Le; Nicolodi, Daniele; Coq, Yann Le; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.

  2. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: I. Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1993-11-20

    A technique for the external frequency translation of light waves is reported. The technique permits the stepwise sweeping of an optical frequency over a wide range with high linearity with respect to time. The frequency translator is composed of an optical pulse modulator and an optical ring circuit containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter and an optical amplifier. The pulse launched into the ring circuit undergoes a constant frequency shift for each circulation around the circuit and the frequency can be translated to a considerable degree from that of the original input pulse. We report a stepwise frequency translation over approximately 68 GHz for a 1.5-µm light wave with a strictly constant frequency-sweep rate and an approximately constant intensity.

  3. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  4. Optical Kerr Frequency Comb Generation in Overmoded Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Matsko, A B; Liang, W; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2012-01-01

    We show that scattering-based interaction among nearly degenerate optical modes is the key factor in low threshold generation of Kerr frequency combs in nonlinear optical resonators possessing small group velocity dispersion (GVD). The mode interaction is capable of producing drastic change in the local GVD, resulting in either a significant reduction or increase of the oscillation threshold. It is also responsible for the majority of observed combs in resonators characterized with large normal GVD. We present results of our numerical simulations as well as supporting experimental data.

  5. Optical sum-frequency generation in whispering gallery mode resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, we achieve a 1000-fold enhancement in the conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory in the spherical geometry employed. The experimental and theoretical results point to a new platform to manipulate the color and quantum states of light waves toward applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.

  6. Frequency-dependent optical steering from subwavelength plasmonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalian-Assl, A; Gómez, D E; Roberts, A; Davis, T J

    2012-10-15

    We show theoretically and with numerical simulations that the direction of the in-plane scattering from a subwavelength optical antenna system can be controlled by the frequency of the incident light. This optical steering effect does not rely on propagation phase shifts or diffraction but arises from phase shifts in the localized surface plasmon modes of the antenna. An analytical model is developed to optimize the parameters for the configuration, showing good agreement with a rigorous numerical simulation. The simulation predicts a 25° angular shift in the direction of the light scattered from two gold nanorods for a wavelength change of 12 nm.

  7. Nonlinear optics at low powers: Alternative mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, Andrei S.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction and form the foundation of applied photonics, from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication to ultrahigh-bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local-field intensity with high-quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multiphoton absorption. We present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at low local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity antiresonance and apply it to low-power optical frequency comb generation in a silicon chip.

  8. Relativistic Corrections for Time and Frequency Transfer in Optical Fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geršl, J; Wolf, P

    2016-01-01

    We derive relativistic corrections for one-way and two-way time and frequency transfer over optical fibres neglecting no terms that exceed 1 ps in time and $10^{-18}$ in fractional frequency, and estimate their magnitude in typical fibre links. We also provide estimates of the uncertainties in the evaluation of the relativistic corrections due to imperfect knowledge of parameters like the coordinates of the fibre and stations, Earth rotation, or thermal effects of the fibre index and length. The links between Teddington(UK) and Paris(F) as well as Braunschweig(D) and Paris(F), that are currently under construction, are studied as specific examples.

  9. A distributed fiber optic sensor system for dike monitoring using Brillouin optical frequency domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöther, Nils; Wosniok, Aleksander; Krebber, Katerina; Thiele, Elke

    2008-03-01

    We report on the development of a complete system for spatially resolved detection of critical soil displacement in river embankments. The system uses Brillouin frequency domain analysis (BOFDA) for distributed measurement of strain in silica optical fibers. Our development consists of the measurement unit, an adequate coating for the optical fibers and a technique to integrate the coated optical fibers into geotextiles as they are commonly used in dike construction. We present several laboratory and field tests that prove the capability of the system to detect areas of soil displacement as small as 2 meters. These are the first tests of truly distributed strain measurements on optical fibers embedded into geosynthetics.

  10. Cavity-Enhanced Gas Analyzer for In-Situ Sampling of Biogenic Gases and Their Isotopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the novel application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy to quantify biogenic gases (CH4,...

  11. Broadband ultrasonic sensor array via optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Haniel; Steinberg, Idan; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a new approach for multiplexing fiber-based ultrasound sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR). In the present demonstration of the method, each sensor was a short section of Polyimide-coated single-mode fiber. One end of the sensing fiber was pigtailed to a mirror and the other end was connected, via a fiber optic delay line, to a 1X4 fiber coupler. The multiplexing was enabled by using a different delay to each sensor. Ultrasonic excitation was performed by a 1MHz transducer which transmitted 4μs tone-bursts above the sensor array. The ultrasound waves generated optical phase variations in the fibers which were detected using the OFDR method. The ultrasound field at the sensors was successfully reconstructed without any noticeable cross-talk.

  12. Strong optical feedback in birefringent dual frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Wei; Zhang Shu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    Strong optical feedback in a birefringent dual frequency He-Ne laser with a high reflectivity feedback mirror has been investigated for the first time. The output characteristics of two orthogonally polarized modes are demonstrated in two different optical feedback cases: one is for both modes being fed back and the other is for only one of the modes being fed back. Strong mode competition can be observed between the two modes with strong optical feedback. And when one mode's intensity is near its maximum, the other mode is nearly extinguished. When both modes are fed back into the laser cavity, the mode competition is stronger than when only one mode is fed back. The difference in initial intensity between the two orthogonally polarized modes plays an important role in the mode competition, which has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.

  13. Simultaneous transfer of optical frequency and time over 306 km long-haul optical fibre link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucl, Vaclav; Cizek, Martin; Pravdova, Lenka; Rerucha, Simon; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Bretislav; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Vojtech, Josef; Lazar, Josef; Cip, Ondrej

    2016-12-01

    Optical fibre links for distributing optical frequencies and time stamps were researched and experimentally tested in the past fifteen years. They have been used mainly for stability comparison of experimental optical clocks. But recent development puts demands on a technology transfer from laboratory experiments to the real industry. The remote calibration of interrogators of Fibre Bragg Grating strain sensory networks is one of important examples. The first step of the adoption the time and frequency broadcasting should be the drop-out free long-term operation of this technology between research laboratories connected via long-haul fibre links. We present a 306 km long-haul optical fibre link between the cities of Prague and Brno in the Czech Republic where a coherent transfer of stable optical frequency and a stable time signal has been firstly demonstrated. The link between ISI CAS Brno and CESNET Prague uses an internet communication fibre where a window of 1540-1546 nm is dedicated for the coherent transfer and 1PPS signal. The link is equipped with 6 bidirectional EDFA amplifiers. The optical frequency standard based on the highly-coherent laser Koheras Adjustik working at 1540.5 nm and stabilized with a saturation absorption spectroscopy technique was used for the coherent wave transfer. The suppression of the Doppler shift induced by the optical fibre was based on an accoustooptical modulator with a servo-loop including a fast PID controller processing the beat-note frequency given by mixing of the Adjustik laser (Brno) and the reflected frequency of this laser from the far end of 306 km long-haul fibre link (Prague). We verified the Doppler shift suppression for the coherent wave with a measuring method analysing the transport delay of the 1PPS signal.

  14. Comparing a mercury optical lattice clock with microwave and optical frequency standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumenev, R.; Favier, M.; Bilicki, S.; Bookjans, E.; Le Targat, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Nicolodi, D.; Le Coq, Y.; Abgrall, M.; Guéna, J.; De Sarlo, L.; Bize, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on neutral mercury with a relative uncertainty of 1.7× {10}-16. Comparing this characterized frequency standard to a 133Cs atomic fountain we determine the absolute frequency of the {}1{{{S}}}0\\to {}3{{{P}}}0 transition of 199Hg as {ν }{Hg}=1128 575 290 808 154.62 {Hz}+/- 0.19 {Hz}({statistical})+/- 0.38 {Hz} (systematic), limited solely by the realization of the SI second. Furthermore, by comparing the mercury optical lattice clock to a 87Rb atomic fountain, we determine for the first time to our knowledge the ratio between the 199Hg clock transition and the 87Rb ground state hyperfine transition. Finally we present a direct optical to optical measurement of the 199Hg/87Sr frequency ratio. The obtained value of {ν }{Hg}/{ν }{Sr} = 2.629 314 209 898 909 15 with a fractional uncertainty of 1.8× {10}-16 is in excellent agreement with a similar measurement obtained by Yamanaka et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 230801). This makes this frequency ratio one of the few physical quantities agreed upon by different laboratories to this level of uncertainty. Frequency ratio measurements of the kind reported in this paper have a strong impact for frequency metrology and fundamental physics as they can be used to monitor putative variations of fundamental constants.

  15. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift.

  16. High-Performance Optical Frequency References for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Milke, Alexander; Sanjuan, Josep; Gohlke, Martin; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Gürlebeck, Norman; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2016-06-01

    A variety of future space missions rely on the availability of high-performance optical clocks with applications in fundamental physics, geoscience, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. Examples are the gravitational wave detector eLISA (evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the Earth gravity mission NGGM (Next Generation Gravity Mission) and missions, dedicated to tests of Special Relativity, e.g. by performing a Kennedy- Thorndike experiment testing the boost dependence of the speed of light. In this context we developed optical frequency references based on Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine; compactness and mechanical and thermal stability are main design criteria. With a setup on engineering model (EM) level we demonstrated a frequency stability of about 2·10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 6·10-15 at integration times between 100s and 1000s, determined from a beat-note measurement with a cavity stabilized laser where a linear drift was removed from the data. A cavity-based frequency reference with focus on improved long-term frequency stability is currently under development. A specific sixfold thermal shield design based on analytical methods and numerical calculations is presented.

  17. Optically transparent frequency selective surfaces on flexible thin plastic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya A. Dewani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel 2D simple low cost frequency selective surface was screen printed on thin (0.21 mm, flexible transparent plastic substrate (relative permittivity 3.2. It was designed, fabricated and tested in the frequency range 10-20 GHz. The plane wave transmission and reflection coefficients agreed with numerical modelling. The effective permittivity and thickness of the backing sheet has a significant effect on the frequency characteristics. The stop band frequency reduced from 15GHz (no backing to 12.5GHz with polycarbonate. The plastic substrate thickness beyond 1.8mm has minimal effect on the resonant frequency. While the inner element spacing controls the stop-band frequency, the substrate thickness controls the bandwidth. The screen printing technique provided a simple, low cost FSS fabrication method to produce flexible, conformal, optically transparent and bio-degradable FSS structures which can find their use in electromagnetic shielding and filtering applications in radomes, reflector antennas, beam splitters and polarizers.

  18. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  19. A Cs-Based Optical Frequency Measurement Using Cross-Linked Optical and Microwave Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Tamm, Chr; Lipphardt, B; Gerginov, V; Nemitz, N; Kazda, M; Weyers, S; Peik, E

    2013-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the frequency of the 2S1/2(F = 0) - 2D3/2(F' = 2) transition of 171Yb+ at the wavelength 436 nm (frequency 688 THz), using a single Yb+ ion confined in a Paul trap and two caesium fountains as references. In one of the fountains, the frequency of the microwave oscillator that interrogates the caesium atoms is stabilized by the laser that excites the Yb+ reference transition with a linewidth in the hertz range. The stability is transferred to the microwave oscillator with the use of a fiber laser based optical frequency comb generator that also provides the frequency conversion for the absolute frequency measurement. The frequency comb generator is configured as a transfer oscillator so that fluctuations of the pulse repetition rate and of the carrier offset frequency do not degrade the stability of the frequency conversion. The phase noise level of the generated ultrastable microwave signal is comparable to that of a cryogenic sapphire oscillator. For fountain operation with optic...

  20. Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Difference Frequency Generation for Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Flavio C; Johnson, Todd; Ycas, Gabriel; Klose, Andrew; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Diddams, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared femtosecond optical frequency combs were produced by difference frequency generation of the spectral components of a near-infrared comb in a 3-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal. We observe strong pump depletion and 9.3 dB parametric gain in the 1.5 \\mu m signal, which yields powers above 500 mW (3 \\mu W/mode) in the idler with spectra covering 2.8 \\mu m to 3.5 \\mu m. Potential for broadband, high-resolution molecular spectroscopy is demonstrated by absorption spectra and interferograms obtained by heterodyning two combs.

  1. A diode laser spectrometer at 634 nm and absolute frequency measurements using optical frequency comb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin; Yuan Jie; Qi Xiang-Hui; Chen Wen-Lan; Zhou Da-Wei; Zhou Tong; Zhou Xiao-Ji; Chen Xu-Zong

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two identical external-cavity-diode-laser(ECDL)based spectrometers are constructed at 634 nm referencing on the hyperfine B-X transition a(80)8-4 of 127I2.The lasers are stabilized on the Doppler-free absorption signals using the third-harmonic detection technique.The instability of the stabilized laser is measured to be 2.8×10-12(after 1000 s)by counting the beat note between the two lasers.The absolute optical frequency of the transition is,for the first time,determined to be 472851936189.5 kHz by using an optical frequency comb referenced on the microwave caesium atomic clock.The uncertainty of the measurement is less than 4.9 kHz.

  2. Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, S; Franceschini, M A; Gaida, G; Gratton, E; Jess, H; Mantulin, W W; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M; Kaschke, M

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the problem of edge effects in laser-beam transillumination scanning of the human breast. Edge effects arise from tissue thickness variability along the scanned area, and from lateral photon losses through the sides of the breast. Edge effects can be effectively corrected in frequency-domain measurements by employing a two-step procedure: (1) use of the phase information to calculate an effective tissue thickness for each pixel location; (2) application of the knowledge of tissue thickness to calculate an edge-corrected optical image from the ac signal image. The measurements were conducted with a light mammography apparatus (LIMA) designed for feasibility tests in the clinical environment. Operating in the frequency-domain (110 MHz), this instrument performs a transillumination optical scan at two wavelengths (685 and 825 nm). We applied the proposed two-step procedure to data from breast phantoms and from human breasts. The processed images provide higher contrast and detectability in optical mammography with respect to raw data breast images.

  3. Frequency comparison of optical lattice clocks beyond the Dick limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamoto, Masao; Takano, Tetsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-05-01

    The supreme accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the universality of atomic transition frequencies. The stability of a clock, meanwhile, measures how quickly the clock's statistical uncertainties are reduced. The ultimate measure of stability is provided by the quantum projection noise, which improves as 1/√N by measuring N uncorrelated atoms. Quantum projection noise limited stabilities have been demonstrated in caesium clocks and in single-ion optical clocks, where the quantum noise overwhelms the Dick effect attributed to local oscillator noise. Here, we demonstrate a synchronous frequency comparison of two optical lattice clocks using 87Sr and 88Sr atoms, respectively, for which the Allan standard deviation reached 1 × 10-17 in an averaging time of 1,600 s by cancelling out the Dick effect to approach the quantum projection noise limit. The scheme demonstrates the advantage of using a large number (N ~ 1,000) of atoms in optical clocks and paves the way to investigating the inherent uncertainties of clocks and relativistic geodesy on a timescale of tens of minutes.

  4. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, T J; Böll, O; Willmann, L; Jansen, G S M; Dijck, E A; Groeneveld, B G H M; Smets, R; Bosveld, F C; Ubachs, W; Jungmann, K; Eikema, K S E; Koelemeij, J C J

    2015-02-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil temperatures, measured at various depths by the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI) are compared with observed frequency variations through this model. A comparison of a nine-day record of optical frequency measurements through the 2×298  km fiber link with soil temperature data shows qualitative agreement. A soil temperature model is used to predict the link stability over longer periods (days-months-years). We show that optical frequency dissemination is sufficiently stable to distribute and compare, e.g., rubidium frequency standards over standard DWDM optical fiber networks using unidirectional fibers.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of a Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dot Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated and analyzed a resonant-cavity-enhancedd InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot n-i-n photodiode using Crosslight Apsys package. The resonant cavity has a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR at one side. Comparing with the conventional photodetectors, the resonant-cavity-enhanced photodiode (RCE-PD showed higher detection efficiency, faster response speed, and better wavelength selectivity and spatial orientation selectivity. Our simulation results also showed that when an AlAs layer is inserted into the device structure as a blocking layer, ultralow dark current can be achieved, with dark current densities 0.0034 A/cm at 0 V and 0.026 A/cm at a reverse bias of 2 V. We discussed the mechanism producing the photocurrent at various reverse bias. A high quantum efficiency of 87.9% was achieved at resonant wavelength of 1030 nm with a FWHM of about 3 nm. We also simulated InAs QD RCE-PD to compare with InGaAs QD. At last, the photocapacitance characteristic of the model has been discussed under different frequencies.

  6. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L C; Deschênes, J-D; Sonderhouse, L; Swann, W C; Khader, I H; Baumann, E; Newbury, N R; Coddington, I

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  7. Nonlinear optics at low powers: new mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction, and form the foundation of applied photonics -- from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication, to ultra-high bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers, or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local field intensity with high quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multi-photon absorption. Here, we present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at substantially lower local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity anti-resonance, and apply it to low-power optical comb generation in a silicon chip.

  8. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    CERN Document Server

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave, allowing simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift.

  9. Optical frequency comb based multi-band microwave frequency conversion for satellite applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwu; Xu, Kun; Yin, Jie; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Li, Jianqiang; Lu, Hua; Liu, Tao; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-01-13

    Based on optical frequency combs (OFC), we propose an efficient and flexible multi-band frequency conversion scheme for satellite repeater applications. The underlying principle is to mix dual coherent OFCs with one of which carrying the input signal. By optically channelizing the mixed OFCs, the converted signal in different bands can be obtained in different channels. Alternatively, the scheme can be configured to generate multi-band local oscillators (LO) for widely distribution. Moreover, the scheme realizes simultaneous inter- and intra-band frequency conversion just in a single structure and needs only three frequency-fixed microwave sources. We carry out a proof of concept experiment in which multiple LOs with 2 GHz, 10 GHz, 18 GHz, and 26 GHz are generated. A C-band signal of 6.1 GHz input to the proposed scheme is successfully converted to 4.1 GHz (C band), 3.9 GHz (C band) and 11.9 GHz (X band), etc. Compared with the back-to-back (B2B) case measured at 0 dBm input power, the proposed scheme shows a 9.3% error vector magnitude (EVM) degradation at each output channel. Furthermore, all channels satisfy the EVM limit in a very wide input power range.

  10. DWDM Fiber-Wireless Access System with Centralized Optical Frequency Comb-based RF Carrier Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta; Sánchez, José;

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported....

  11. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with FELIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippels, G. M. H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Mols, R. F. X. A. M.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1996-02-01

    By ramping the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond timescale, a frequency chirp on a picosecond timescale has been induced. The results of such an experiment are discussed as well as the results of an external pulse chirping experiment. Furthermore, the output of FELIX under normal operating conditions is investigated. For the first time a detailed series of measurements of the evolution of the optical micropulse into a train of subpulses is made when FELIX operates in the limit-cycle mode.

  12. Near-Zero-Refractive-Index Structure at Optical Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. Ashour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a new class of left-handed materials, which uses 3D nanospheres distributed in loops in the dielectric host material. These 3D nanospheres loops give rise to negative effective permeability and permeability at Terahertz (optical frequencies. The modal dispersion relation for Terahertz TE surface waves has been derived for a slab waveguide constructed from a dielectric material slab sandwiched between two thick layers of Terahertz left-handed material (LHM. The modal dispersion relation and the power flow were numerically solved for a given set of parameters: dielectric slab thickness, the operating frequency, mode order, and the power flow and extinction in the structure. The real part of the effective refractive index exhibits near-zero values, with small extinction coefficient values. Besides that, the power flow in the dielectric core increased with slab thickness increase and the power attenuation decreased with thickness increase.

  13. Time-Resolved Broadband Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy behind Shock Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugi, Akira; Shiina, Hiroumi; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2016-04-07

    A fast and sensitive broadband absorption technique for measurements of high-temperature chemical kinetics and spectroscopy has been developed by applying broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) in a shock tube. The developed method has effective absorption path lengths of 60-200 cm, or cavity enhancement factors of 12-40, over a wavelength range of 280-420 nm, and is capable of simultaneously recording absorption time profiles over an ∼32 nm spectral bandpass in a single experiment with temporal and spectral resolutions of 5 μs and 2 nm, respectively. The accuracy of the kinetic and spectroscopic measurements was examined by investigating high-temperature reactions and absorption spectra of formaldehyde behind reflected shock waves using 1,3,5-trioxane as a precursor. The rate constants obtained for the thermal decomposition reactions of 1,3,5-trioxane (to three formaldehyde molecules) and formaldehyde (to HCO + H) agreed well with the literature data. High-temperature absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 280 and 410 nm have been determined at the post-reflected-shock temperatures of 955, 1265, and 1708 K. The results demonstrate the applicability of the BBCEAS technique to time- and wavelength-resolved sensitive absorption measurements at high temperatures.

  14. Fibre optics wavemeters calibration using a self-referenced optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Santos, J.; Velasco, A. V.; Corredera, P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-referenced optical frequency combs enable the measurement of optical frequencies with a very high accuracy, achieving uncertainties close to the atomic clock used as reference (CSIC and its application to the calibration of two wavemeters in the 1.5 μm optical communication window. Calibration uncertainties down to 12 MHz and 59 MHz were obtained, respectively, for each of the devices. Furthermore, the long-term behaviour of the higher resolution wavemeter was studied during a 750 h period of sustained operation, exhibiting a dispersion in the measurements of 7.72 MHz. Temperature dependence of the device was analysed, enabling to further reduce dispersion down to a 2.15 MHz range, with no significant temporal deviations.

  15. OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.R.

    1977-07-01

    Three investigations of difference frequency generation (DFG) of far-infrared radiation by optical mixing are described: a theory of DFG by monochromatic, focused Gaussian pump laser beams, a theory of DFG by a picosecond pump laser pulse, and an experiment using ruby-pumped dye lasers. First, the theory of far-infrared generation by optical mixing of monochromatic, focused Gaussian beams in a uniaxial crystal is developed, taking into account the effects of diffraction, absorption, double refraction, and multiple reflections and total reflection at the boundary surfaces. (Reflection and transmission coefficients of a uniaxial crystal slab are derived by a new matrix technique.) Results of numerical calculations are presented. Focusing the pump beams appreciably enhances the far-infrared output despite the strong far-infrared diffraction. In a 1-cm long crystal, the optimum focal spot size is approximately equal to or smaller than the far-infrared wavelength for output frequencies less than 100 cm{sup -1}. Double refraction of the pump beams is relatively unimportant. Both far-infrared absorption and boundary reflections have major effects on the far-infrared output and its angular distribution. The former is often the factor which limits the output power. We show that a simple model treating the nonlinear polarization as a constant lie-radius Gaussian distribution of radiating dipoles adequately describes the effect of pump-beam focusing. We also compare the results of our calculations with those for second-harmonic generation. Second, a theoretical calculation of far-infrared power spectra generated by picosecond pulses in a nonlinear crystal is developed. The results are illustrated with two practical examples: LiNbO{sub 3} slabs oriented for rectification of the optical e-ray and for beating of the optical o-ray with the optical e-ray. The former is phase matched at 0 cm{sup -1}; the latter, at both the forward-(FCPM) and backward-collinear phase

  16. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E; Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Poiana, Dragos A; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-11-26

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  17. Evolutions of perturbations with special frequencies in lossless optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqiong Zhong(钟先琼); Jianguo Chen(陈建国); Guoying Feng(冯国英); Dayi Li(李大义); Song Gao(高松)

    2004-01-01

    Expressing the perturbation optical field in terms of module and phase, using the linearized nonlinear Schrodinger equation governing the evolution of perturbations, we have deduced the analytical expressions of the modules, phases, and gain coefficients of the perturbations with zero or cut-off frequency, and studied the evolutions of the two perturbations travelling along lossless optical fibers in the negative dispersion regime. The results indicate that the phase of the perturbation with zero (or cut-off) frequency increases (or decreases) with the propagation distance monotonously and tends to its asymptotic value nπ + π/2 (or nπ) eventually. The evolution rates of the phases are closely related to the initial phase values. Although the asymptotic values of the field gain coefficients of the above mentioned two perturbations are equal to zero, and the increasing fashion of the modules is different from the familiar exponential type, it still suggests that the perturbations have a divergent nature when the propagation distance goes to infinity,indicating that the two kinds of perturbations can both lead to instability.

  18. BPSK optical mm-wave signal generation by septupling frequency via a single optical phase modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Ma, Jianxin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel and simple scheme to generate the BPSK optical millimeter wave (MMW) signal with frequency septupling by using an optical phase modulator (PM) and a wavelength selective switch (WSS). In this scheme, the PM is driven by a radio frequency (RF) BPSK signal at the optimized modulation index of 4.89 to assure the 4th and 3rd-order sidebands have equal amplitudes. An wavelength selective switch (WSS) is used to abstract the -4th and +3rd-order sidebands from the spectrum generated by RF BPSK signal modulating the lightwave to form the BPSK optical MMW signal with frequency septupling the driving RF signal. In these two tones, only the +3rd-order sideband bears the BPSK signal while the -4th-order sideband is unmodulated since the phase information is canceled by the even times multiplication of the phase of BPSK signal. The MMW signal can avoid the pulse walk-off effect and the amplitude fading effect caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion. By adjusting the modulation index to assure the two tones have equal amplitude, the generated optical MMW signal has the maximal opto-electrical conversion efficiency and good transmission performance.

  19. Chemical Sensing Using Infrared Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopy: Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (SWIR CRDS) Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Harper, Warren W.; Aker, Pam M.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2003-10-01

    The principal goal of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project is to explore and develop the science and technology behind point and stand off infrared (IR) spectroscopic chemical sensors that are needed for detecting weapons proliferation activity and countering terrorism. Missions addressed include detecting chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons and their production; counter terrorism measures that involve screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons and/or their residues; and mapping of contaminated areas. The science and technology developed in this program is dual use in that it additionally supports progress in a diverse set of agendas that include chemical weapons defense programs, air operations activities, emissions monitoring, law enforcement, and medical diagnostics. Sensors for these missions require extremely low limits of detection because many of the targeted signature species are either present in low concentrations or have extremely low vapor pressures. The sensors also need to be highly selective as the environments that they will be operated in will contain a variety of interferent species and false positive detection is not an option. PNNL has been working on developing a class of sensors that draw vapor into optical cavities and use laser-based spectroscopy to identify and quantify the vapor chemical content. The cavity enhanced spectroscopies (CES) afford extreme sensitivity, excellent selectivity, noise immunity, and rapid, real-time, in-situ chemical characterization. PNNL's CES program is currently focused on developing two types of sensors. The first one, which is based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS), uses short wave infrared (SWIR) lasers to interrogate species. The second sensor, which is based on noise immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE OHMS), uses long wave infrared (LWIR

  20. Cavity-enhanced room-temperature high sensitivity optical Faraday magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Lei, Yaohua; Fan, Shuangli; Zhang, Qiaolin; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We propose a cavity QED system with two-photon Doppler-free configuration for weak magnetic field detection with high sensitivity at room temperature based on cavity electromagnetically induced transparency. Owing to the destructive interference induced by the control and driving fields, two transparency channels are opened. The Faraday rotation within two transparency channels can be used to detect weak magnetic field with high sensitivity at room temperature. The sensitivity with single photon and multiphoton probe inputs is analyzed. With single photon measurement, our numerical calculations demonstrate that the sensitivity with 3.8nT/√{Hz} and 6.4nT/√{Hz} could be achieved. When we measure the magnetic field with multiphoton input, the sensitivity can be improved to 7.7fT/√{Hz} and 25.6fT/√{Hz} under the realistic experimental conditions.

  1. High-frequency signal generation using 1550 nm VCSEL subject to two-frequency optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Antonio; Quirce, Ana; Valle, Angel; Esquivias, Ignacio; Pesquera, Luis; García Tijero, Jose Manuel

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally investigate high-frequency microwave signal generation using a 1550 nm single-mode VCSEL subject to two-frequency optical injection. We first consider a situation in which the injected signals come from two similar VCSELs. The polarization of the injected light is parallel to that of the injected VCSEL. We obtain that the VCSEL can be locked to one of the injected signals, but the observed microwave signal is originated by beating at the photodetector. In a second situation we consider injected signals that come from two external cavity tunable lasers with a significant increase of the injected power with respect to the VCSEL-by-VCSEL injection case. The polarization of the injected light is orthogonal to that of the free-running slave VCSEL. We show that in this case it is possible to generate a microwave signal inside the VCSEL cavity.

  2. Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.

  3. Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.

  4. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Clivati, C; Livi, L; Poggiali, F; de Cumis, M Siciliani; Mancini, M; Pagano, G; Frittelli, M; Mura, A; Costanzo, G A; Levi, F; Calonico, D; Fallani, L; Catani, J; Inguscio, M

    2015-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the $^1$S$_0$---$^3$P$_0$ clock transition in an ultracold gas of $^{173}$Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform high-precision tasks beyond GPS limit. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency ...

  5. Measuring absolute frequencies beyond the GPS limit via long-haul optical frequency dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, Cecilia; Cappellini, Giacomo; Livi, Lorenzo F; Poggiali, Francesco; de Cumis, Mario Siciliani; Mancini, Marco; Pagano, Guido; Frittelli, Matteo; Mura, Alberto; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide; Fallani, Leonardo; Catani, Jacopo; Inguscio, Massimo

    2016-05-30

    Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

  6. Fast, precise, and widely tunable frequency control of an optical parametric oscillator referenced to a frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Alexander; Glöckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard; Zeppenfeld, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide a convenient reference for the frequency stabilization of continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate a frequency control method relying on tracking over a wide range and stabilizing the beat note between the laser and the OFC. The approach combines fast frequency ramps on a millisecond timescale in the entire mode-hop free tuning range of the laser and precise stabilization to single frequencies. We apply it to a commercially available optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and demonstrate tuning over more than 60 GHz with a ramping speed up to 3 GHz/ms. Frequency ramps spanning 15 GHz are performed in less than 10 ms, with the OPO instantly relocked to the OFC after the ramp at any desired frequency. The developed control hardware and software are able to stabilize the OPO to sub-MHz precision and to perform sequences of fast frequency ramps automatically.

  7. Dual-recycled cavity-enhanced Michelson interferometer for gravitational-wave detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Guido; Delker, Tom; Tanner, David B; Reitze, David

    2003-03-01

    The baseline design for an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) is a dual-recycled Michelson interferometer with cavities in each of the Michelson interferometer arms. We describe one possible length-sensing and control scheme for such a dual-recycled, cavity-enhanced Michelson interferometer. We discuss the principles of this scheme and derive the first-order sensing signals. We also present a successful experimental verification of our length-sensing system using a prototype tabletop interferometer. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the scheme against deviations from the idealized design. We also identify potential weaknesses and discuss possible improvements. These results as well as other benchtop experiments that we present form the basis for a sensing and control scheme for Advanced LIGO.

  8. Cavity enhanced detection methods for probing the dynamics of spin correlated radical pairs in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Simon R. T.; Maeda, Kiminori; Henbest, Kevin B.; Goez, Martin; Hemmens, Robert; Timmel, Christiane R.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-04-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) combined with phase-sensitive detection is employed to study the effects of static magnetic fields on radical recombination reactions. The chemical system comprises the photochemically generated thionine semiquinone radical and a 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) cationic radical in a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Data obtained using the modulated CEAS technique, describing the magnetic field effect (MFE) on reaction yields, are shown to be superior to those obtained using conventional transient absorption (TA) flash photolysis methods typically employed for these measurements. The high sensitivity afforded by modulated CEAS detection is discussed in terms of the new possibilities it offers such as the measurement of magnetic field effects in real biological systems which have hitherto been largely beyond the detection capabilities of existing techniques.

  9. Sensitive and rapid laser diagnostic for shock tube kinetics studies using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Wang, Shengkai; Sur, Ritobrata; Chao, Xing; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2014-04-21

    We report the first application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using a coherent light source for sensitive and rapid gaseous species time-history measurements in a shock tube. Off-axis alignment and fast scanning of the laser wavelength were used to minimize coupling noise in a low-finesse cavity. An absorption gain factor of 83 with a measurement time resolution of 20 µs was demonstrated for C2H2 detection using a near-infrared transition near 1537 nm, corresponding to a noise-equivalent detection limit of 20 ppm at 296 K and 76 ppm at 906 K at 50 kHz. This substantial gain in signal, relative to conventional single-pass absorption, will enable ultra-sensitive species detection in shock tube kinetics studies, particularly useful for measurements of minor species and for studies of dilute reactive systems.

  10. Diagnosis of Multiple Gases Separated from Transformer Oil Using Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Yun; XIA Yu-Xing; HUANG Ju-Ming; ZHAN Li

    2008-01-01

    The Raman signal of gas molecules is very weak due to its small scattering cross section. Here, a near-confocal cavity-enhanced Raman detection system is demonstrated. In the cavity, a high power light of 9 W is achieved by using a cw 200mW 532nm laser, which greatly enhances the detection sensitivity of gas species. A photomultiplier tube connected to a spectrometer is used as the detection system. The Raman spectra of the mixed gases separated from transformer oil has been observed. The relationship of absolute Raman intensity and gas pressure is also obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first Raman system to detect the gases separated from transformer oil.

  11. Time-Delay Interferometry with optical frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Tinto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Heterodyne laser phase measurements in a space-based gravitational wave interferometer are degraded by the phase fluctuations of the onboard clocks, resulting in unacceptable sensitivity performance levels of the interferometric data. In order to calibrate out the clock phase noises it has been previously suggested that additional inter-spacecraft phase measurements must be performed by modulating the laser beams. This technique, however, considerably increases system complexity and probability of subsystem failure. With the advent of self-referenced optical frequency combs, it is possible to generate the heterodyne microwave signal that is coherently referenced to the onboard laser. We show in this case that the microwave noise can be cancelled directly by applying modified second-generation Time-Delay Interferometric combinations to the heterodyne phase measurements. This approach avoids use of modulated laser beams as well as the need of additional ultra-stable oscillator clocks.

  12. Dynamics of dual-polarization VCSEL-based optical frequency combs under optical injection locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, E; de Dios, C; Criado, R; Ortsiefer, M; Meissner, P; Acedo, P

    2016-09-01

    The present experimental work studies the dynamics of dual-polarization optical frequency combs (OFCs) based on gain switching (GS) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes under optical injection locking (OIL). This study presents two main results. First, we have obtained an overall comb formed by two orthogonally polarized sub-combs with comparable span and power. The overall comb shows enhanced optical span and flatness and high coherence between its modes. The second result is that we have been able to control the polarization state of the overall comb by tuning the polarization state of the injected light by locking the same single teeth of the comb. This produces an overall comb with single polarization that is parallel or orthogonal. These are novel findings that provide for the development of efficient and compact OFCs based on GS VCSEL sources with versatile polarization dynamics.

  13. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Posada-Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs (OFC generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz. Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  14. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information.

  15. All Optical Stabilization of a Soliton Frequency Comb in a Crystalline Microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, J D; Herr, T; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J

    2015-01-01

    Microresonator based optical frequency combs (MFC) have demonstrated promise in extending the capabilities of optical frequency combs. Here we demonstrate all optical stabilization of a low noise temporal soliton based MFC in a crystalline resonator via a new technique to control the repetition rate. This is accomplished by thermally heating the microresonator with an additional probe laser coupled to an auxiliary optical resonator mode. The offset frequency is controlled by stabilization of the pump laser frequency to a reference optical frequency comb. We analyze the stabilization by performing an out of loop comparison and measure the overlapping Allan deviation. This all optical stabilization technique can prove useful as a low added noise actuator for self-referenced microresonator frequency combs.

  16. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntz, Katanya B; Song, Hongbin; Webb, James G; Mabrok, Mohamed A; Huntington, Elanor H; Yonezawa, Hidehiro

    2016-01-01

    Precise knowledge of an optical device's frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity's optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator's frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation d...

  17. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: II. Theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1994-05-20

    Theoretical aspects of the frequency-translation ring circuit are considered through numerical simulations. We analyze the signal and noise propagation around an optical ring circuit that contains a frequency shifter, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a bandpass filter (BPF). The relations between the frequency-translation limit and some important parameters such as the BPF bandwidth and the polarization state are clarified. Numerical results for the frequency-translation limit are compared with reported experiments and a frequency translation of more than 100 GHz is predicted.

  18. Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Olivier; Chanteau, Bruno; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Georgio

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical link of 540 km for ultrastable frequency distribution over the Internet fiber network. The stable frequency optical signal is processed enabling uninterrupted propagation on both directions. The robustness and the performance of the link are enhanced by a cost effective fully automated optoelectronic station. This device is able to coherently regenerate the return optical signal with a heterodyne optical phase locking of a low noise laser diode. Moreover the incoming signal polarization variation are tracked and processed in order to maintain beat note amplitudes within the operation range. Stable fibered optical interferometer enables optical detection of the link round trip phase signal. The phase-noise compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability in 10 Hz bandwidth of 5\\times10-15 at one second measurement time and 2\\times10-19 at 30 000 s. This work is a significant step towards a sustainable wide area ultrastable optical frequency distribution and comparison network.

  19. Chromium:forsterite laser frequency comb stabilization and development of portable frequency references inside a hollow optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rajesh

    We have made significant accomplishments in the development of portable frequency standard inside hollow optical fibers. Such standards will improve portable optical frequency references available to the telecommunications industry. Our approach relies on the development of a stabilized Cr:forsterite laser to generate the frequency comb in the near-IR region. This laser is self referenced and locked to a CW laser which in turn is stabilized to a sub-Doppler feature of a molecular transition. The molecular transition is realized using a hollow core fiber filled with acetylene gas. We finally measured the absolute frequency of these molecular transitions to characterize the references. In this thesis, the major ideas, techniques and experimental results for the development and absolute frequency measurement of the portable frequency references are presented. A prism-based Cr:forsterite frequency comb is stabilized. We have effectively used the prism modulation along with power modulation inside the cavity in order to actively stabilize the frequency comb. We have also studied the carrier-envelope-offset frequency (f0) dynamics of the laser and its effect on laser stabilization. A reduction of f0 linewidth from ˜2 MHz to ˜20 kHz has also been observed. Both our in-loop and out-of-loop measurements of the comb stability showed that the comb is stable within a part in 1011 at 1-s gate time and is currently limited by our reference signal. In order to develop this portable frequency standard, saturated absorption spectroscopy is performed on the acetylene v1 + v3 band near 1532 nm inside different kinds of hollow optical fibers. The observed linewidths are a factor 2 narrower in the 20 mum fiber as compared to 10 mum fiber, and vary from 20-40 MHz depending on pressure and power. The 70 mum kagome fiber shows a further reduction in linewidth to less than 10 MHz. In order to seal the gas inside the hollow optical fiber, we have also developed a technique of splicing the

  20. Non-contact precision profile measurement to rough-surface objects with optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoe, Taro; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we developed a new method for the high precision and contactless profile measurement of rough-surfaced objects using optical frequency combs. The uncertainty of the frequency beats of an optical frequency comb is very small (relative uncertainty is 10-10 in our laboratory). In addition, the wavelengths corresponding to these frequency beats are long enough to measure rough-surfaced objects. We can conduct high-precision measurement because several GHz frequency beats can be used if the capability of the detector permits. Moreover, two optical frequency combs with Rb-stabilized repetition frequencies are used for the measurement instead of an RF frequency oscillator; thus, we can avoid the cyclic error caused by the RF frequency oscillator. We measured the profile of a wood cylinder with a rough surface (diameter is approximately 113.2 mm) and compared the result with that of coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

  1. Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectra of atmospherically relevant ether-1, 4-Dioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Satheesh; Varma, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    1, 4-Dioxane (DX) is a commonly found ether in industrially polluted atmosphere. The near infrared absorption spectra of this compound has been recorded in the region 5900-8230 cm- 1 with a resolution of 0.08 cm- 1 using a novel Fourier transform incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer (FT-IBBCEAS). All recorded spectra were found to contain regions that are only weakly perturbed. The possible combinations of fundamental modes and their overtone bands corresponding to selected regions in the measured spectra are tabulated. Two interesting spectral regions were identified as 5900-6400 cm- 1 and 8100-8230 cm- 1. No significant spectral interference due to presence of water vapor was observed suggesting the suitability of these spectral signatures for spectroscopic in situ detection of DX. The technique employed here is much more sensitive than standard Fourier transform spectrometer measurements on account of long effective path length achieved. Hence significant enhancement of weaker absorption lines above the noise level was observed as demonstrated by comparison with an available measurement from database.

  2. Shock-tube measurements of excited oxygen atoms using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marcel; Wang, Shengkai; Goldenstein, Christopher S; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-10-10

    We report the use of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using two distributed feedback diode lasers near 777.2 and 844.6 nm for sensitive, time-resolved, in situ measurements of excited-state populations of atomic oxygen in a shock tube. Here, a 1% O2/Ar mixture was shock-heated to 5400-8000 K behind reflected shock waves. The combined use of a low-finesse cavity, fast wavelength scanning of the lasers, and an off-axis alignment enabled measurements with 10 μs time response and low cavity noise. The CEAS absorption gain factors of 104 and 142 for the P35←S520 (777.2 nm) and P0,1,23←S310 (844.6 nm) atomic oxygen transitions, respectively, significantly improved the detection sensitivity over conventional single-pass measurements. This work demonstrates the potential of using CEAS to improve shock-tube studies of nonequilibrium electronic-excitation processes at high temperatures.

  3. High-Frequency RIN Transfer in Fibre Optic Parametric Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Kang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    ibre optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are versatile devices for amplification at arbitrary wavelengths, as well as a wide range of optical signal processing applications, including switching, wavelength conversion, regeneration, pulse generation etc [1]. Transfer of intensity fluctuations from...

  4. Design-oriented analytic model of phase and frequency modulated optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsurrò, Pietro; Saitto, Antonio; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro; Vannucci, Antonello; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2016-07-01

    An analytic design-oriented model of phase and frequency modulated microwave optical links has been developed. The models are suitable for design of broadband high dynamic range optical links for antenna remoting and optical beamforming, where noise and linearity of the subsystems are a concern Digital filter design techniques have been applied to the design of optical filters working as frequency discriminator, that are the bottleneck in terms of linearity for these systems. The models of frequency modulated, phase modulated, and coherent I/Q link have been used to compare performance of the different architectures in terms of linearity and SFDR.

  5. Frequency interleaving towards spectrally efficient directly detected optical OFDM for next-generation optical access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedy, Lenin; Bakaul, Masuduzzaman; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai

    2010-10-25

    In this paper, we theoretically analyze and demonstrate that spectral efficiency of a conventional direct detection based optical OFDM system (DDO-OFDM) can be improved significantly using frequency interleaving of adjacent DDO-OFDM channels where OFDM signal band of one channel occupies the spectral gap of other channel and vice versa. We show that, at optimum operating condition, the proposed technique can effectively improve the spectral efficiency of the conventional DDO-OFDM system as much as 50%. We also show that such a frequency interleaved DDO-OFDM system, with a bit rate of 48 Gb/s within 25 GHz bandwidth, achieves sufficient power budget after transmission over 25 km single mode fiber to be used in next-generation time-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (TDM-PON). Moreover, by applying 64- quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the system can be further scaled up to 96 Gb/s with a power budget sufficient for 1:16 split TDM-PON.

  6. Recent developments in fiber-based optical frequency comb and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Xuzong

    2016-04-01

    Fiber-based optical frequency combs, characterized by compact configuration and outstanding optical properties, have been developed into state-of-the-art precision instruments which are no longer used just for optical frequency metrology, but for a number of applications, including optical clocks, attosecond science, exoplanet searches, medical diagnostics, physicochemical processes control and advanced manufacturing. This short perspective presents some of the milestones and highlights in the evolution of fiber-based optical frequency combs and the technical revolution that are brought by them for a wide range of applications. Along the way, both the challenges and opportunities in the future development of the fiber-based optical frequency comb technology have been described as well.

  7. Experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Qin; Honggang Li; Wande Fan; Qiuqin Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We make an experimental study on vibration frequency response of micro-bend optic-fiber sensor, and single-mode fibers and multi-mode fibers are used as the sensitive optic-fibers. Contrast between the two sensitive fibers is presented. Result shows that the micro-bend optic-fiber sensor has good frequency response characteristics and strong ability to restore the waveform. With the frequency varying in the range of 500 - 4762 Hz, the vibration sensors using multi-mode optic-fiber as the sensitive fiber is more sensitive than that using single-mode optic-fiber. And the former has better frequency response characteristics and stronger capacity of waveform revivification. But with the frequency in the range of 287 - 500 Hz, the latter is better.

  8. Influence of low optical frequencies on actuation dynamics of microelectromechanical systems via Casimir forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi Ghozotkhar, Mehdi; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The role of the Casimir force on the analysis of microactuators is strongly influenced by the optical properties of interacting materials. Bifurcation and phase portrait analysis were used to compare the sensitivity of actuators when the optical properties at low optical frequencies were modeled usi

  9. Influence of optical filters on pulse circulation in fiber rings with a frequency shifter and EDFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2006-10-30

    Optical fiber ring circuits constructed with frequency shifters and EDFAs are applicable to pulsed lightwave frequency sweepers, wavelength converters, and optical packet buffers. The salient criterion for those applications is how many times the optical pulse can circle the ring. Optical band-pass filters in the ring can serve an important role for pulse circulation because the filter determines the gain bandwidth at every circulation under the condition of signal wavelength shift. This paper clarifies the effects of optical filter response on pulse circulation in the ring through numerical simulation of the EDFA dynamic model, considering the gain spectrum.

  10. Achieving High-Frequency Optical Control of Synaptic Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Beneduce, Brandon M.; Drew, Iain R.

    2014-01-01

    The optogenetic tool channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used to excite neurons to study neural circuits. Previous optogenetic studies of synapses suggest that light-evoked synaptic responses often exhibit artificial synaptic depression, which has been attributed to either the inability of ChR2 to reliably fire presynaptic axons or to ChR2 elevating the probability of release by depolarizing presynaptic boutons. Here, we compare light-evoked and electrically evoked synaptic responses for high-frequency stimulation at three synapses in the mouse brain. At synapses from Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nuclei neurons (PC→DCN), light- and electrically evoked synaptic currents were remarkably similar for ChR2 expressed transgenically or with adeno-associated virus (AAV) expression vectors. For hippocampal CA3→CA1 synapses, AAV expression vectors of serotype 1, 5, and 8 led to light-evoked synaptic currents that depressed much more than electrically evoked currents, even though ChR2 could fire axons reliably at up to 50 Hz. The disparity between optical and electrical stimulation was eliminated when ChR2 was expressed transgenically or with AAV9. For cerebellar granule cell to stellate cell (grc→SC) synapses, AAV1 also led to artificial synaptic depression and AAV9 provided superior performance. Artificial synaptic depression also occurred when stimulating over presynaptic boutons, rather than axons, at CA3→CA1 synapses, but not at PC→DCN synapses. These findings indicate that ChR2 expression methods and light stimulation techniques influence synaptic responses in a neuron-specific manner. They also identify pitfalls associated with using ChR2 to study synapses and suggest an approach that allows optogenetics to be applied in a manner that helps to avoid potential complications. PMID:24872574

  11. Inter-satellite coherent optical communication locked frequency analysis and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haichao; She, Shang; Xiaojun, Li; Song, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    In free space optical homodyne receiver that analyze Residual carrier COSTAS loop, Inter-satellite LEO-GEO laser communication link frequency analysis, result from Doppler frequency shift 10GHz in the maximum range, LEO-GEO inter-satellite laser links between Doppler rate of change in the 20MHz/s. The optical homodyne COSTAS receiver is the application in inter-satellite optical link coherent communication system. The homodyne receiver is the three processes: Scanning frequency, Locked frequency and Locked phase, before the homodyne coherent communication. The processes are validated in lab., and the paper presents the locked frequency data and chart, LO laser frequency with triangle control scanning and receiving optical frequency is mixed less 100MHz intermediate frequency, locked frequency range between 100MHz and 1MHz basically, discriminator method determines mixing intermediate frequency less 1MHz between the signal laser and the LO laser with the low-pass filter due to frequency loop and phase loop noise. When two loops are running, the boundary frequency of laser tuning is fuzzy, so that we must be decoupling internal PID parameters. In the Locked frequency and phase COSTAS loop homodyne receiver gave the eye-diagram with Bit error rate 10E-7.

  12. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  13. All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo

    2014-01-01

    When an atom strongly couples to a cavity, it can undergo coherent vacuum Rabi oscillations. Controlling these oscillatory dynamics quickly relative to the vacuum Rabi frequency enables remarkable capabilities such as Fock state generation and deterministic synthesis of quantum states of light, as demonstrated using microwave frequency devices. At optical frequencies, however, dynamical control of single-atom vacuum Rabi oscillations remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate coherent transfer of optical frequency excitation between a single quantum dot and a cavity by controlling vacuum Rabi oscillations. We utilize a photonic molecule to simultaneously attain strong coupling and a cavity-enhanced AC Stark shift. The Stark shift modulates the detuning between the two systems on picosecond timescales, faster than the vacuum Rabi frequency. We demonstrate the ability to add and remove excitation from the cavity, and perform coherent control of light-matter states. These results enable ultra-fast control of atom...

  14. Sub-optical wavelength acoustic wave modulation of integrated photonic resonators at microwave frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew

    2014-01-01

    Light-sound interactions have long been exploited in various acousto-optic devices based on bulk crystalline materials. Conventionally these devices operate in megahertz frequency range where the acoustic wavelength is much longer than the optical wavelength and a long interaction length is required to attain significant coupling. With nanoscale transducers, acoustic waves with sub-optical wavelengths can now be excited to induce strong acousto-optic coupling in nanophotonic devices. Here we demonstrate microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers co-integrated with nanophotonic resonators on piezoelectric aluminum nitride substrates. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength is achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this scheme are investigated for efficient modulation. The new acousto-optic platform can lead to novel optical devices based on nonlinear Brillouin processes and provides a direct...

  15. Mid-IR Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    publication of 14 refereed papers in Nature Communications, Optica, Optics Letters , etc. One more paper is currently under consideration in Laser...A. Matsko et al. Optics Letters 38, 525 (2013). Chaotic combs Numerical solutions of Eq. (2) showed that a chaotic comb generation regime...34 Optics Letters 39 (10), 2920-2923 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.002920 10. Andrey B. Matsko and L. Maleki, “On timing jitter of mode

  16. Liquid-state acoustically-nonlinear nanoplasmonic source of optical frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Maksymov, Ivan S

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic interactions in liquids are effectively stronger than nonlinear optical interactions in solids. Thus, harnessing these interactions will offer new possibilities in the design of ultra-compact nonlinear photonic devices. We theoretically demonstrate a hybrid, liquid-state and nanoplasmonic, source of optical frequency combs compatible with fibre-optic technology. This source relies on a nanoantenna to harness the strength of nonlinear acoustic effects and synthesise optical spectra from ultrasound.

  17. High-Speed Widely-Tunable 90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 8:45am - 9...00am WB2 High-Speed Widely-Tunable >90% Quantum-Efficiency Resonant Cavity Enhanced p-i-n Photodiodes Necmi Biyiklia. Ibrahim Kimukinb. Orhan ...Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. b Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06533, Turkey. c Department of Electrical and Computer

  18. Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Laura C; Swann, William C; Rieker, Greg B; Hati, Archita; Iwakuni, Kana; Newbury, Nathan R

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a self-referenced fiber frequency comb that can operate outside the well-controlled optical laboratory. The frequency comb has residual optical linewidths of < 1 Hz, sub-radian residual optical phase noise, and residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of 2.4 - 5 fs, when locked to an optical reference. This fully phase-locked frequency comb has been successfully operated in a moving vehicle with 0.5 g peak accelerations and on a shaker table with a sustained 0.5 g rms integrated acceleration, while retaining its optical coherence and 5-fs-level timing jitter. This frequency comb should enable metrological measurements outside the laboratory with the precision and accuracy that are the hallmarks of comb-based systems. Work of the U.S. government, not subject to copyright

  19. Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L C; Coddington, I; Swann, W C; Rieker, G B; Hati, A; Iwakuni, K; Newbury, N R

    2014-03-24

    We demonstrate a self-referenced fiber frequency comb that can operate outside the well-controlled optical laboratory. The frequency comb has residual optical linewidths of < 1 Hz, sub-radian residual optical phase noise, and residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of 2.4 - 5 fs, when locked to an optical reference. This fully phase-locked frequency comb has been successfully operated in a moving vehicle with 0.5 g peak accelerations and on a shaker table with a sustained 0.5 g rms integrated acceleration, while retaining its optical coherence and 5-fs-level timing jitter. This frequency comb should enable metrological measurements outside the laboratory with the precision and accuracy that are the hallmarks of comb-based systems.

  20. A distance meter using a terahertz intermode beat in an optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shuko; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Hagihara, Yuki; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2009-09-28

    We propose a distance meter that utilizes an intermode beat of terahertz frequency in an optical frequency comb to perform high resolution and high dynamic range absolute distance measurements. The proposed system is based on a novel method, called multiheterodyne cross-correlation detection, in which intermode beat frequencies are scaled down to radio frequencies by optical mixing of two detuned optical frequency combs with a nonlinear optical crystal. Using this method, we obtained a 1.056 THz intermode beat and achieved a distance resolution of 0.820 microm from its phase measurement. Absolute distance measurement using 1.056 THz and 8.187 GHz intermode beats was also demonstrated in the range of 10 mm, resulting in a precision of 0.688 microm.

  1. NIF Final Optics System: Frequency Conversion and Beam Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P; Auerbach, J; Biesiada, T; Dixit, S; Lawson, J; Menapace, J; Parham, T; Swift, D; Whitman, P; Williams, W

    2004-01-28

    Installation and commissioning of the first of forty-eight Final Optics Assemblies on the National Ignition Facility was completed this past year. This activity culminated in the delivery of first light to a target. The final optics design is described and selected results from first-article commissioning and performance tests are presented.

  2. A deep-UV optical frequency comb at 205 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E; Diddams, S A; Fendel, P; Reinhardt, S; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th

    2009-05-25

    By frequency quadrupling a picosecond pulse train from a Ti:sapphire laser at 820 nm we generate a frequency comb at 205 nm with nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. The nonlinear frequency conversion is accomplished by two successive frequency doubling stages that take place in resonant cavities that are matched to the pulse repetition rate of 82 MHz. This allows for an overall efficiency of 4.5 % and produces an output power of up to 70 mW for a few minutes and 25 mW with continuous operation for hours. Such a deep UV frequency comb may be employed for direct frequency comb spectroscopy in cases where it is less efficient to convert to these short wavelengths with continuous wave lasers.

  3. Carrier suppression in quadruple frequency modulation by cascaded optical external modulators for millimeter-wave generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng; Wei Zhang; Xiaoming Liu

    2009-01-01

    The optical carrier suppression in optical quadruple frequency modulation by cascaded external modulators is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the optical carrier suppression ratio is related with not only the initial phase difference of electrical signals applied on the two modulators, but also the optical phase shift between the two modulators. The maximum suppression ratio can be achieved when the total phase difference is equal to nπ+π/2(n=1,2…),which is verified by experiments. By properly controlling the total phase shift, 40-GHz millimeter-wave is generated by using a 10-GHz radio frequency (RF) source and the modulators.

  4. Influence of low optical frequencies on actuation dynamics of microelectromechanical systems via Casimir forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehdi; Palasantzas, George

    2015-04-01

    The role of the Casimir force on the analysis of microactuators is strongly influenced by the optical properties of interacting materials. Bifurcation and phase portrait analysis were used to compare the sensitivity of actuators when the optical properties at low optical frequencies were modeled using the Drude and Plasma models. Indeed, for metallic systems, which have strong Casimir attraction, the details of the modeling of the low optical frequency regime can be dramatic, leading to predictions of either stable motion or stiction instability. However, this difference is strongly minimized for weakly conductive systems as are the doped insulators making actuation modeling more certain to predict.

  5. Cylindrical PVF2 film based fiber optic phase modulator - Phase shift nonlinearity and frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.

    1993-03-01

    A new cylindrical coil configuration for polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film based fiber optic phase modulator is studied for the frequency response and nonlinearity of phase shift at the resonance frequency. This configuration, hitherto unapproached for PVF2 film modulators, offers resonance at well defined, controllable and higher frequencies than possible for the flat-strip configuration. Two versions of this configuration are presented that differ strongly in both the resonance frequency and the phase shift nonlinearity coefficient.

  6. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  7. Development Of Frequency Transfer Via Optical Fiber Link at NICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    amplifier ( EDFA ), the modulated optical carrier is boosted up to +15 dBm, which is below the threshold for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). A...polarization scrambler is inserted after the EDFA to avoid the stability degradation due to the polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The polarization...transmission, another EDFA is inserted in the front of a fast photo-detector. Here, the EDFA works as a preamplifier. The amplified optical signal is

  8. Modal Frequency Detection in Composite Beams Using Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    interference have been developed. These include the Fabry-Perot interferometer , the Mach-Zehner interferometer , and the Michelson interferometer [8]. The...widely studied. A Fabry-Perot interferometer as a fiber optic sensor was first introduced in 1982 [10]. In a later study intrinsic Fabry-Perot...Yoshino, Kiyoshi Kurosawa, Katsuji Itoh, and Teruzi Ose, " Fiber -Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer and its Sensor Applications," IEEE Journal of Quantum

  9. Synchronously Pumped Optical Parametric Oscillator with Intracavity Difference Frequency Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-29

    Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Optical Sciences The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico Aug 1998 •"""’****, (Pll...Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Optical Sciences The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico...departing from the Rrpubbc of Panama when traveling on official orders." * "De eonfortnidad con el Parrafo 5u) del Articulo XVII del Acuerdo para U

  10. Using mechanics to convert between microwave and optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainsencher, A.; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate unique piezoelectric optomechanical devices able to coherently transfer microwave electrical signals to modulated optical signals, and vice versa, transferring modulated optical signals to microwave electrical signals. This coherent bilateral transfer, demonstrated most recently in a single device design, holds promise for the eventual demonstration of coherent transfer in the quantum domain. The basis of design for the devices with which this was accomplished is an optomechanical crystal that supports co-located optical and mechanical resonant modes, coupled to one other via moving boundary (index of refraction) modulation, either induced by motion from energy in the mechanical mode, or by optical pressure due to energy in the optical mode. The basis for coupling microwave mechanical motion to microwave electrical signals is via the use of a piezoelectric material for the entire device, where transduction itself is accomplished using metal transducers remote from the optomechanical structure. This remote design minimizes the lossy interaction of any optical signals with the metal electrode structures, but introduces the need to couple the electromechanical transducer to the optomechanical transducer via itinerant phonons, which presents a new challenge.

  11. An off Axis Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer and a Rapid Scan Spectrometer with a Room-Temperature External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Kang, Cheolhwa; Xu, Yunjie

    2009-06-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a new type of mid-infrared tunable diode lasers with superior output power and mode quality. Recent developments, such as room temperature operation, wide frequency tunability, and narrow line width, make QCLs an ideal light source for high resolution spectroscopy. Two slit jet infrared spectrometers, namely an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption (CEA) spectrometer and a rapid scan spectrometer with an astigmatic multi-pass cell assembly, have been coupled with a newly purchased room temperature tunable mod-hop-free QCL with a frequency coverage from 1592 cm^{-1} to 1698 cm^{-1} and a scan rate of 0.1 cm^{-1}/ms. Our aim is to utilize these two sensitive spectrometers, that are equipped with a molecular jet expansion, to investigate the chiral molecules-(water)_n clusters. To demonstrate the resolution and sensitivity achieved, the rovibrational transitions of the static N_2O gas and the bending rovibrational transitions of the Ar-water complex, a test system, at 1634 cm^{-1} have been measured. D. Hofstetter and J. Faist in High performance quantum cascade lasers and their applications, Vol.89 Springer-Verlag Berlin & Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 61-98. Y. Xu, X. Liu, Z. Su, R. M. Kulkarni, W. S. Tam, C. Kang, I. Leonov and L. D'Agostino, Proc. Spie, 2009, 722208 (1-11). M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 3078-3089.

  12. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of up-conversion optical parametric oscillation at $\\lambda_3=465$ nm are given for a periodically-poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd$^{3+}$ ions.

  13. Experimental generation of frequency-tunable entangled optical beams with continuous variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihui Yan; Yana Shang; Xiaojun Jia; Changde Xie

    2011-01-01

    Frequency tunable continuous variable (CV) entangled optical beams are experimentally demonstrated from a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator working above the threshold. The measured correlation variances of amplitude and phase quadratures are 3.2 and 1.5 dB, respectively, below the corresponding shot noise level (SNL) in the tuning range of 580 GHz (2.25 nm). The frequency tuning is realized by simply controlling the temperature of the nonlinear crystal.%@@ Frequency tunable continuous variable (CV) entangled optical beams are experimentally demonstrated from a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator working above the threshold.The measured correlation variances of amplitude and phase quadratures are 3.2 and 1.5 dB, respectively, below the corresponding shot noise level (SNL) in the tuning range of 580 GHz (2.25 nm).The frequency tuning is realized by simply controlling the temperature of the nonlinear crystal.

  14. Observation of Fundamental Thermal Noise in Optical Fibers down to Infrasonic Frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jing; Li, Tang; Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic thermal noise in optical fibers is the ultimate limit of fiber-based systems. However, at infrasonic frequencies, the spectral behavior of the intrinsic thermal noise remains unclear so far. We present the measurements of the fundamental thermal noise in optical fibers obtained using a balanced fiber Michelson interferometer. When an ultra-stable laser is used as the laser source and other noise sources are carefully controlled, the 1/f spectral density of thermal noise is observed down to infrasonic frequencies and the measured magnitude is consistent with the theoretical predictions at the frequencies from 0.2 Hz to 20 kHz. Moreover, as observed in the experiment, the level of 1/f thermal noise is reduced by changing the coating of optical fibers. Therefore, a possible way to reduce the thermal noise in optical fibers at low Fourier frequencies is indicated. Finally, the inconsistency between the experimental data on thermomechanical noise and existing theory is discussed.

  15. Manufacture of Free-Form Optical Surfaces with Limited Mid-Spatial Frequency Error Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed innovation is a robust manufacturing process for free-form optical surfaces with limited mid-spatial frequency (MSF) irregularity error. NASA and many...

  16. Frequency unlimited optical delay lines based on slow and fast light in SOAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Pu, Minhao

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that up-converted coherent population oscillations (CPO) in SOA open the possibility to conceive integrated optical tunable delay lines beyond the carrier lifetime limit, up to THz frequencies....

  17. Long-Distance Frequency Transfer Over an Urban Fiber Link Using Optical Phase Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    measurement frequency andwidth is 10 Hz. ig. 6. (Color online) Scheme of the 172 km link ( EDFA , see ext; AOM, PD, see Fig. 2).nd an acousto-optic...amplifier (EDFA2) was added t the remote end to amplify the return signal. Tempera- ure variations in EDFAs induce phase fluctuations, hich degrade...the long-term frequency stability. In order o correctly compensate for this effect, the output optical ignal should pass once through the EDFAs , whereas

  18. Frequency-resolved noise figure measurements of phase (in)sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M

    2014-11-17

    We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

  19. Phase stabilization of Kerr frequency comb internally without nonlinear optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S -W; Yang, J; Yu, M; Kwong, D -L; Wong, C W

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency comb (OFC) technology has been the cornerstone for scientific breakthroughs such as precision frequency metrology, redefinition of time, extreme light-matter interaction, and attosecond sciences. While the current mode-locked laser-based OFC has had great success in extending the scientific frontier, its use in real-world applications beyond the laboratory setting remains an unsolved challenge. Microresonator-based OFCs, or Kerr frequency comb, have recently emerged as a candidate solution to the challenge because of their preferable size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP). On the other hand, the current phase stabilization technology requires either external optical references or power-demanding nonlinear processes, overturning the SWaP benefit of Kerr frequency combs. Introducing a new concept in phase control, here we report an internally phase stabilized Kerr frequency comb without the need of any optical references or nonlinear processes. We describe the comb generation analytically ...

  20. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A

    2014-03-01

    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  1. Gaussian-shaped Optical Frequency Comb Generation for Microwave Photonic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rui; Hamidi, Ehsan; Supradeepa, V R; Song, Min Hyup; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Using only electro-optic modulators, we generate a 41-line 10-GHz Gaussian-shaped optical frequency comb. We use this comb to demonstrate apodized microwave photonic filters with greater than 43-dB sidelobe suppression without the need for a pulse shaper.

  2. A long-term frequency-stabilized erbium-fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb with an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Zhao, W; Meng, S; Fan, S; Zhang, L; Guo, G; Zhang, S; Jiang, H

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a home-made optical frequency comb based on an erbium-doped-fiber femtosecond laser with a ring cavity. The repetition rate of the laser is about 209 MHz determined by optical length of the laser cavity. By controlling an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator and a Piezo-transducer, the repetition rate can be stabilized with megahertz bandwidth in a range of 3 kilohertz, enabling long-term repetition rate phase-locking. The in-loop frequency instability of the repetition rate, limited by measurement system, is 1.3E-13 at 1 second integration time and inversely proportional to integration time for short terms. Using a common path f-2f interferometer, the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency of the frequency comb is obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of 40 dB for 3 megahertz resolution spectrum. Stabilized CEO frequency exhibits a deviation of 0.6 milihertz at 1 second integration time.

  3. Frequency dependent optical conductivity of strained graphene at T=0 from an effective quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jiang; Pan, Hui; Wang, Hai-Long

    2017-04-01

    An effective quantum field theory (EQFT) graphene sheet with arbitrary one dimensional strain field is derived from a microscopic effective low energy Hamiltonian. The geometric meaning of the strain-induced complex gauge field is clarified. The optical conductivity is also investigated, and a frequency dependent optical conductivity is obtained. The actual value of interband optical conductivity along the deformed direction is C0 + C1/ω2 in spite of the particular strain fields at T=0.

  4. Single-frequency and tunable operation of a continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    My, Thu-Hien; Drag, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2008-07-01

    A widely tunable continuous intracavity-frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal is described. The idler radiation resonating in the cavity is frequency doubled by an intracavity BBO crystal. Pumped in the green, this system can provide up to 485 mW of single-frequency orange radiation. The system is continuously temperature tunable between 1170 and 1355 nm for the idler, 876 and 975 nm for the signal, and between 585 and 678 nm for the doubled idler. The free-running power and frequency stability of the system have been observed to be better than those for a single-mode dye laser.

  5. Broadband Continuous-Wave Multi-Harmonic Optical Comb Based on a Frequency Division-by-Three Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Yin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a multi-watt broadband continuous-wave multi-harmonic optical comb based on a frequency division-by-three singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator. This cw optical comb is frequency-stabilized with the help of a beat signal derived from the signal and frequency-doubled idler waves. The measured frequency fluctuation in one standard deviation is ~437 kHz. This is comparable to the linewidth of the pump laser which is a master-oscillator seeded Yb:doped fiber amplifier at ~1064 nm. The measured powers of the fundamental wave and the harmonic waves up to the 6th harmonic wave are 1.64 W, 0.77 W, 3.9 W, 0.78 W, 0.17 W, and 0.11 W, respectively. The total spectral width covered by this multi-harmonic comb is ~470 THz. When properly phased, this multi-harmonic optical comb can be expected to produce by Fourier synthesis a light source consisting of periodic optical field waveforms that have an envelope full-width at half-maximum of 1.59 fs in each period.

  6. Frequency Ratio of ${}^{199}$Hg and ${}^{87}$Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a ${}^{199}$Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a ${}^{87}$Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of $7.2 \\times 10^{-17}$ for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be $\

  7. Optical and Acoustical Frequencies in a Nonlinear Helicoidal Model of DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZDRAVKOVI(C) S.; SATARI(C) M.V.

    2005-01-01

    @@ We compare optical and acoustical frequencies in the Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model, i.e.an extended Peyrard-Bishop model, of DNA molecules.We discuss how ratio of those frequencies depends on a value of the harmonic constant of the helicoidal spring K.Also, we suggest that the most favourable mode could be a resonance mode.

  8. Quartz optical filter for wavelength selection of frequency-doubled laser based on optical rotatory dispersion effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Zhang; Fuquan Wu; Wendi Wu; Haifeng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the optical rotatory dispersion effect, an optical filter for selecting the second harmonic of a frequency-doubled laser is constructed from quartz in combination with polarizers. The operating principle is analyzed by matrix formulation, and the result indicates that the second harmonic of a frequency-doubled laser will be obtained when the rotation angle has a difference of (2n + 1)π/2 (n = 0, 1, 2, 3,… ) between the two polarizations of the second-harmonic laser and the fundamental laser. The spectrum of the output laser is taken by the AQ-6315A spectrometer, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  9. Coherent, multi-heterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2007-01-01

    The broadband, coherent nature of narrow-linewidth fiber frequency combs is exploited to measure the full complex spectrum of a molecular gas through multi-heterodyne spectroscopy. We measure the absorption and phase shift experienced by each of 155,000 individual frequency comb lines, spaced by 100 MHz and spanning from 1495 nm to 1620 nm, after passing through a hydrogen cyanide gas. The measured phase spectrum agrees with Kramers-Kronig transformation of the absorption spectrum. This technique can provide a full complex spectrum rapidly, over wide bandwidths, and with hertz-level accuracy.

  10. Trace species detection in the near infrared using Fourier transform broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy: initial studies on potential breath analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D; Taylor, D

    2011-02-21

    Cavity enhanced absorption measurements have been made of several species that absorb light between 1.5 and 1.7 µm using both a supercontinuum source and superluminescent light emitting diodes. A system based upon an optical enhancement cavity of relatively high finesse, consisting of mirrors of reflectivity ∼99.98%, and a Fourier transform spectrometer, is demonstrated. Spectra are recorded of isoprene, butadiene, acetone and methane, highlighting problems with spectral interference and unambiguous concentration determinations. Initial results are presented of acetone within a breath-like matrix indicating ppm precision at absorption coefficient of ∼4 × 10(-9) cm(-1) reported within a 4 min acquisition time. Finally, two superluminescent light emitting diodes are coupled together to increase the wavelength coverage, and measurements are made simultaneously on acetylene, CO(2), and butadiene. The absorption cross-sections for acetone and isoprene have been measured with an instrumental resolution of 4 cm(-1) and are found to be 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) at a wavelength of 1671.9 nm and 3.6 ± 0.2 × 10(-21) cm(2) at 1624.7 nm, respectively.

  11. Noise-Induced Phase Locking and Frequency Mixing in an Optical Bistable System with Delayed Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    The interplay between stochastic resonance (SR) and coherence resonance (CR) is experimentally studied in an optical bistable system with a time-delayed feedback loop. We demonstrate that the phase of the noise-induced motion is locked to that of the periodic input when the ratio of their frequencies is a simple rational number. We also demonstrate that the interplay between SR and CR generates frequency-mixed modes, and that the efficiency of frequency mixing is enhanced by the optimum noise.

  12. Bromine Explosions In Smog Chamber Experiments: A comparison of Cavity-Enhanced (CE) and White-cell DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxmann, J.; Hoch, D. J.; Sihler, H.; Pöhler, D.; Platt, U.; Bleicher, S.; Balzer, N.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS), such as Cl, Br or BrO, can significantly influence chemical processes in the troposphere, including the destruction of ozone, change in the chemical balance of hydrogen radicals (OH, HO2), increased deposition of toxic compounds (like mercury) with potential consequences for the global climate. Previous studies have shown that salt lakes can be significant sources for gaseous RHS. Environmental conditions such as salt composition, relative humidity (RH), pH, and temperature (T) can strongly influence reactive bromine levels, but are difficult to quantify in the field. Therefore, we conducted laboratory experiments by exposing NaCl salt containing 0.33% (by weight) NaBr to simulated sunlight in a Teflon smog-chamber under various conditions of RH and ozone concentrations. BrO levels were observed by a Differential-Optical-Absorption-Spectrometer (DOAS) in combination with a multi-reflection cell (White-cell). The concentrations of OH- and Cl- radicals were quantified by the radical clock method. We present the first direct observation of BrO from the "Bromine Explosion" (auto catalytic release of reactive bromine from salt surfaces - key to ozone destruction) in the laboratory above a simulated salt pan. The maximum BrO mixing ratio of 6419±71 ppt at 60% RH was observed to be one order of magnitude higher than at 37% RH and 2% RH. The release of RHS from the salt pan is possibly controlled by the thickness of the quasi liquid layer, covering the reactive surface of the halide crystals, as the layer thickness strongly depends on RH. Furthermore, a new cavity enhanced DOAS (CE-DOAS) instrument was designed and successfully used in chamber experiments. For the first time, such an instrument uses a spectral interval in the UV - wavelength range (325-365 nm) to identify BrO. We show a comparison of the CE-DOAS and White-cell DOAS instrument in a series of experiments, where e.g. a peak BrO mixing ratio up to 380 ppt within the first

  13. Digital Square-Wave Frequency Modulated Microwave Sources for a Miniature Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jingbiao; ZHU Chengjin; LIU Ge; WANG Fengzhi; WANG Yiqiu; YANG Donghai

    2001-01-01

    Three different digital frequencymodulated microwave sources have been designed andapplied to our miniature optically pumped cesiumbeam clock.The main features and their influenceon clock accuracy have been experimentally tested.Itis proved that a digital square-wave frequency modu-lated microwave source using a microprocessor con-trolled direct-digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS)for our miniature optically pumped cesium beamclock works well,the frequency short term stability2 × 10 11/x r and the long term stability 3.5 x 10-13 forone day sample time have been obtained.

  14. A New Pumping-Probing Scheme for the Optically Pumped Cesium Beam Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景标; 朱程锦; 王凤芝; 杨东海

    2001-01-01

    A new pumping-probing scheme for the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard has been experimentally tested in our laboratory. The stability of the optically pumped cesium beam frequency standard was measured by comparing its 10 MHz output with an HP5071A commercial cesium atomic clock. The result shows that the frequency stability for the 1 s and 30000s sample times are 1.2 × 10-11 and 3.7 × 10-13, respectively. It was proved that the new pumping scheme works well.

  15. Tuning of Detection Wavelength in a Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Quantum-Dot-Embedded Photodiode by Changing Detection Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; ZHU Hui; ZHENG Hou-Zhi; XU Ping; PENG Hong-Ling; TAN Ping-Heng; YANG Fu-Hua; NI Hai-Qiao; ZENG Yu-Xin; GAN Hua-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have Fabricated a resonant-cavity-enhanced photodiode (RCE-PD) with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) as an active medium. This sort of QD-embedded RCE-PD is capable of a peak external quantum efficiency of 32%and responsivity of 0.27 A/W at 1.058 μm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5nm. Angle-resolved photocurrent response eventually proves that with the detection angle changing from 0° to 60°, the peak-current wavelength shifts towards the short wavelength side by 37nm, while the quantum efficiency remains larger than 15%.

  16. High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Mohsin; Hou, Lianping; Kelly, Anthony E; Akbar, Jehan; Marsh, John H; Arnold, John M; Ironside, Charles N

    2012-01-30

    Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors' knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

  17. Computer simulation of the collision frequency of two particles in optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sheng-Hua; Li Yin-Mei; Lou Li-Ren; Sun Zhi-Wei

    2005-01-01

    Optical tweezers have been successfully used in the study of colloid science. In most applications people are concerned with the behaviour of a single particle held in the optical tweezers. Recently, the ability of the optical tweezers to simultaneously hold two particles has been used to determine the stability ratio of colloidal dispersion. This new development stimulates the efforts to explore the characteristics of a two-particle system in the optical tweezers.An infinite spherical potential well has been used to estimate the collision frequency for two particles in the optical trap based on a Monte Carlo simulation. In this article, a more reasonable harmonic potential, commonly accepted for the optical tweezers, is adopted in a Monte Carlo simulation of the collision frequency. The effect of hydrodynamic interaction of particles in the trap is also considered. The simulation results based on this improved model show quantitatively that the collision frequency drops down sharply at first and then decreases slowly as the distance between the two particles increases. The simulation also shows how the collision frequency is related to the stiffness of the optical tweezers.

  18. Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, M; Weimann, C; Knopf, A; Heni, W; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Elder, D L; Bogaerts, W; Leuthold, J; Dalton, L R; Rembe, C; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon photonic platform using single-sideband modulation. The device is based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators, which combine conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguides with highly efficient electro-optic cladding materials. Using small-signal modulation, we demonstrate frequency shifts of up to 10 GHz. We further show large-signal modulation with optimized waveforms, enabling a conversion efficiency of -5.8 dB while suppressing spurious side-modes by more than 23 dB. In contrast to conventional acousto-optic frequency shifters, our devices lend themselves to large-scale integration on silicon substrates, while enabling frequency shifts that are several orders of magnitude larger than those demonstrated with all-silicon serrodyne devices.

  19. An aircraft based three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for simultaneous measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nightingale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A three channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS instrument has been developed for airborne measurements of atmospheric trace gases involved in night-time oxidation chemistry and air quality. The instrument was deployed on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe 146-301 atmospheric research aircraft during the Role of Nighttime Chemistry in Controlling the Oxidising Capacity of the Atmosphere (RONOCO measurement campaigns between December 2009 and January 2011. In its present configuration (i.e. specifications of the cavity optics and spectrometers the instrument is designed to measure NO3, N2O5 (by detection of NO3 after thermal dissociation of N2O5, H2O and NO2 by characterising the wavelength dependent optical attenuation within ambient samples by molecular absorption around 662 nm (NO3 and H2O and 445 nm (NO2. This paper reports novel advancements in BBCEAS instrumentation including a refined method for performing BBCEAS mirror reflectivity calibrations using measurements of the phase delay introduced by the optical cavities to amplitude modulated radiation. Furthermore, a new methodology is introduced for fitting the strong but unresolved transitions of water vapour, which is required for accurate retrieval of water absorption features from the 662 nm absorption band used to measure NO3 concentrations. The paper also details the first example of airborne measurements of NO3, N2O5 and NO2 over Europe from a flight over the North Sea and Thames Estuary on the night of the 20 July 2010, one of the most polluted days of the RONOCO summertime flying period. As part of this analysis, the performance of the BBCEAS instrument is assessed by comparing airborne NO2 measurements to those reported concurrently by a photolytic chemiluminescence based detector.

  20. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI. This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented.

  1. Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Olivier; Haboucha, Adil; Kéfélian, Fabien; Jiang, Haifeng; Chanteau, Bruno; Roncin, Vincent; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a cascaded optical link for ultrastable frequency dissemination comprised of two compensated links of 150 km and a repeater station. Each link includes 114 km of Internet fiber simultaneously carrying data traffic through a dense wavelength division multiplexing technology, and passes through two routing centers of the telecommunication network. The optical reference signal is inserted in and extracted from the communication network using bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexers. The repeater station operates autonomously ensuring noise compensation on the two links and the ultra-stable signal optical regeneration. The compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability of 3 x 10(-15) at one second measurement time and 5 x 10(-20) at 20 hours. This work paves the way to a wide dissemination of ultra-stable optical clock signals between distant laboratories via the Internet network.

  2. Cascaded multiplexed optical link on a telecommunication network for frequency dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Olivier; Kéfélian, Fabien; Jiang, Haifeng; Chanteau, Bruno; Roncin, Vincent; Chardonnet, Christian; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Georgio

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a cascaded optical link for ultrastable frequency dissemination comprised of two compensated links of 150 km and a repeater station. Each link includes 114 km of Internet fiber simultaneously carrying data traffic through a dense wavelength division multiplexing technology, and passes through two routing centers of the telecommunication network. The optical reference signal is inserted in and extracted from the communication network using bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexers. The repeater station operates autonomously ensuring noise compensation on the two links and the ultra-stable signal optical regeneration. The compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability of 3 \\times 10-15 at one second measurement time and 5 \\times 10-20 at 20 hours. This work paves the way to a wide dissemination of ultra-stable optical clock signals between distant laboratories via the Internet network.

  3. Manipulating the optical bistability at terahertz frequency in the Fabry-Perot cavity with graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Leyong; Guo, Jun; Wu, Leiming; Dai, Xiaoyu; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2015-11-30

    We investigate theoretically the optical bistability from a Fabry-Perot cavity with graphene in the terahertz (THz) frequency. It is demonstrated that the optical bistablility in this cavity can be realized due to the electric field enhancement and the giant third-order nonlinear conductivity of graphene. The optical bistable behavior is strongly dependent on the transmission amplitude of the mirror and the position of the graphene in the cavity. It is especially important that the hysterical behaviors of the transmitted light rely on the optical conductivity of graphene, making the Fabry-Perot cavity to be a good candidate for dynamic tunable optical bistable device in the THz frequencies, owing to the possibility of high tunability of graphene conductivity by means of external electrostatic or magnetostatic field.

  4. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Wilcox, R.

    2009-10-17

    An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more.

  5. Highly stable piezoelectrically tunable optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Möhle, Katharina; Döringshoff, Klaus; Nagel, Moritz; Peters, Achim

    2013-01-01

    We have implemented highly stable and tunable frequency references using optical high finesse cavities which incorporate a piezo actuator. As piezo material we used ceramic PZT, crystalline quartz, or PZN-PT single crystals. Lasers locked to these cavities show a relative frequency stability better than 1 x 10^{-14}, which is most likely not limited by the piezo actuators. The piezo cavities can be electrically tuned over more than one free spectral range (> 1.5 GHz) with only a minor decrease in frequency stability. Furthermore, we present a novel cavity design, where the piezo actuator is prestressed between the cavity spacer components. This design features a hermetically sealable intra cavity volume suitable for, e.g., cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  6. Testing Time and Frequency Fiber-Optic Link Transfer by Hardware Emulation of Acoustic-Band Optical Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.

  7. Nonlinear modification of the laser noise power spectrum induced by a frequency-shifted optical feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Lacot, Eric; Girardeau, Vadim; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study the non-linear coupling between the stationary (i.e. the beating modulation signal) and transient (i.e. the laser quantum noise) dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency shifted optical feedback. We show how the noise power spectrum and more specifically the relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser are modified under different optical feedback condition. Specifically we study the influence of (i) the amount of light returning to the laser cavity and (ii) the initial detuning between the frequency shift and intrinsic relaxation frequency. The present work shows how the relaxation frequency is related to the strength of the beating signal and the shape of the noise power spectrum gives an image of the Transfer Modulation Function (i.e. of the amplification gain) of the nonlinear-laser dynamics.The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical resolutions, are in good agreements with the experimental data.

  8. Frequency combs and platicons in optical microresonators with normal GVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, V E; Kippenberg, T J; Gorodetsky, M L

    2015-01-01

    We predict the existence of a novel type of the flat-top dissipative solitonic pulses, "platicons", in microresonators with normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). We propose methods to generate these platicons from cw pump. Their duration may be altered significantly by tuning the pump frequency. The transformation of a discrete energy spectrum of dark solitons of the Lugiato-Lefever equation into a quasicontinuous spectrum of platicons is demonstrated. Generation of similar structures is also possible with bi-harmonic, phase/amplitude modulated pump or via laser injection locking.

  9. Frequency combs and platicons in optical microresonators with normal GVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, V E; Lihachev, G; Kippenberg, T J; Gorodetsky, M L

    2015-03-23

    We predict the existence of a novel type of the flat-top dissipative solitonic pulses, "platicons", in microresonators with normal group velocity dispersion (GVD). We propose methods to generate these platicons from cw pump. Their duration may be altered significantly by tuning the pump frequency. The transformation of a discrete energy spectrum of dark solitons of the Lugiato-Lefever equation into a quasicontinuous spectrum of platicons is demonstrated. Generation of similar structures is also possible with bi-harmonic, phase/amplitude modulated pump or via laser injection locking.

  10. Absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent light waves through phase-modulation active optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1996-11-15

    A novel method for the broadband absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent lightwaves is demonstrated. It is based on pulse recirculation around an active optical feedback ring containing a delay-line fiber, an external phase modulator, an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS), and a high-finesse Fabry-Perot étalon. The modulation frequency F(M) and the frequency shift F(AO) that are due to AOFS are designed so that their sum or difference equals the free-spectral range of the étalon and F(AO) is set at larger than the half-width at full maximum of its resonant peaks. If one of the peak frequencies is tuned to the frequency of the initial pulse, the frequency of the recirculating pulse jumps to the next peak for each round trip. In the experiment the absolute frequency is synthesized over a frequency span of 700 GHz around the initial stabilized frequency of the master laser.

  11. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties.

  12. Tunable cavity-enhanced photon pairs source in Hermite-Gaussian mode

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    The spatial modes of light have grasped great research interests because of its great potentials in optical communications, optical manipulation and trapping, optical metrology and quantum information processing. Here we report on generating of photon pairs in Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode in a type-I optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operated far below threshold. The bandwidths of the photon pairs are 11.4 MHz and 20.8MHz for two different HG modes respectively, which is capable to be stored in cold Rubidium atomic ensembles. From correlation measurements, non-classical properties of HG modes in different directions are verified by tuning the cavity. Our study provides an effective way to generate photon pairs with narrow bandwidth in high order spatial modes for high dimensional quantum communication.

  13. Nonlinear-optical frequency-doubling metareflector: pulsed regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of backward-wave second-harmonic metareflector operating in pulse regime are investigated. It is made of metamaterial which enables phase matching of contra-propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. References are given to the works that prove such a possibility. Physical principles underlying differences in the proposed and standard settings as well as between continuous-wave and pulsed regimes are discussed. Pulsed regime is more practicable and has a broader scope of applications. A set of partial differential equations which describe such a reflector with the account for losses are solved numerically. It is shown that unlike second-harmonic generation in standard settings, contra-propagating pulse of second harmonic may become much longer than the incident fundamental one and the difference grows with decrease in the input pulse length as compared to thickness of the metaslab. The revealed properties are important for applications and may manifest themselves beyond the optical wavelength range.

  14. Microball lens integrated fiber probe for optical frequency domain imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Ho Han; J.U.Kang

    2011-01-01

    An integrated microball lens fiber catheter probe is demonstrated, which has better lateral resolution and longer working distance than a corresponding bare fiber probe with diverging beam for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT). Simulation results are shown to gain the effect of the distance between the microball lens and the bare fiber to the focusing plane and beam width. The freedom of modifying the working distance and lateral resolution is shown. This is achieved by changing the gap distance between the single-mode fiber and the microball lens within the packaged surgical needle catheter without using an additional beam expander having a fixed length. The probe successfully acquired cross-sectional images of ocular tissues from an animal sample with the proposed miniaturized imaging probe.%@@ An integrated microball lens fiber catheter probe is demonstrated,which has better lateral resolution and longer working distance than a corresponding bare fiber probe with diverging beam for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography(FDOCT).Simulation results are shown to gain the effect of the distance between the microball lens and the bare fiber to the focusing plane and beam width.The freedom of modifying the working distance and lateral resolution is shown.This is achieved by changing the gap distance between the single-mode fiber and the microball lens within the packaged surgical needle catheter without using an additional beam expander having a fixed length.The probe successfully acquired crosssectional images of ocular tissues from an animal sample with the proposed miniaturized imaging probe.

  15. Tailoring alphabetical metamaterials in optical frequency: plasmonic coupling, dispersion, and sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Cuong; Xu, Xinlong; Liow, Chihao; Li, Shuzhou; Tan, Pingheng; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-04-22

    Tailoring optical properties of artificial metamaterials, whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional and naturally occurring materials, is of importance in fundamental research and has led to many important applications such as security imaging, invisible cloak, negative refraction, ultrasensitive sensing, and transformable and switchable optics. Herein, by precisely controlling the size, symmetry, and topology of alphabetical metamaterials with U, S, Y, H, U-bar, and V shapes, we have obtained highly tunable optical response covering visible-to-infrared (vis-NIR) optical frequency. In addition, we show a detailed study on the physical origin of resonance modes, plasmonic coupling, the dispersion of resonance modes, and the possibility of negative refraction. We have found that all the electronic and magnetic modes follow the dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons; thus, essentially they are electronic- and magnetic-surface-plasmon-polaritons-like (ESPP-like and MSPP-like) modes resulted from diffraction coupling between localized surface plasmon and freely propagating light. On the basis of the fill factor and formula of magnetism permeability, we predict that the alphabetical metamaterials should show the negative refraction capability in visible optical frequency. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the specific ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing of monolayer molecules and femtomolar food contaminants by tuning their resonance to match the laser wavelength, or by tuning the laser wavelength to match the plasmon resonance of metamaterials. Our tunable alphabetical metamaterials provide a generic platform to study the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials and explore the novel applications in optical frequency.

  16. Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazda, Michael; Gerginov, Vladislav; Huntemann, Nils; Lipphardt, Burghard; Weyers, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Coherent manipulation of atomic states is a key concept in high-precision spectroscopy and used in atomic fountain clocks and a number of optical frequency standards. Operation of these standards can involve a number of cyclic switching processes, which may induce cycle-synchronous phase excursions of the interrogation signal and thus lead to shifts in the output of the frequency standard. We have built a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based phase analyzer to investigate these effects and conducted measurements on two kinds of frequency standards. For the caesium fountains PTB-CSF1 and PTB-CSF2, we were able to exclude phase variations of the microwave source at the level of a few microradians, corresponding to relative frequency shifts of less than [Formula: see text]. In the optical domain, we investigated phase variations in PTB's Yb (+) optical frequency standard and made detailed measurements of acousto-optic modulator (AOM) chirps and their scaling with duty cycle and driving power. We ascertained that cycle-synchronous as well as long-term phase excursion do not cause frequency shifts larger than [Formula: see text].

  17. Antenna-load interactions at optical frequencies: impedance matching to quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmon, R L; Raschke, M B

    2012-11-09

    The goal of antenna design at optical frequencies is to deliver optical electromagnetic energy to loads in the form of, e.g., atoms, molecules or nanostructures, or to enhance the radiative emission from such structures, or both. A true optical antenna would, on a qualitatively new level, control the light-matter interaction on the nanoscale for controlled optical signal transduction, radiative decay engineering, quantum coherent control, and super-resolution microscopy, and provide unprecedented sensitivity in spectroscopy. Resonant metallic structures have successfully been designed to approach these goals. They are called optical antennas in analogy to radiofrequency (RF) antennas due to their capability to collect and control electromagnetic fields at optical frequencies. However, in contrast to the RF, where exact design rules for antennas, waveguides, and antenna-load matching in terms of their impedances are well established, substantial physical differences limit the simple extension of the RF concepts into the optical regime. Key distinctions include, for one, intrinsic material resonances including quantum state excitations (metals, metal oxides, semiconductor homo- and heterostructures) and extrinsic resonances (surface plasmon/phonon polaritons) at optical frequencies. Second, in the absence of discrete inductors, capacitors, and resistors, new design strategies must be developed to impedance match the antenna to the load, ultimately in the form of a vibrational, electronic, or spin excitation on the quantum level. Third, there is as yet a lack of standard performance metrics for characterizing, comparing and quantifying optical antenna performance. Therefore, optical antenna development is currently challenged at all the levels of design, fabrication, and characterization. Here we generalize the ideal antenna-load interaction at optical frequencies, characterized by three main steps: (i) far-field reception of a propagating mode exciting an antenna

  18. Radio frequency phototube and optical clock: High resolution, high rate and highly stable single photon timing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaryan, Amur

    2011-10-01

    A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.

  19. Photonic chip based optical frequency comb using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Brasch, Victor; Geiselmann, Michael; Lihachev, Grigoriy; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Gorodetsky, Michael L; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2014-01-01

    By continuous wave pumping of a dispersion engineered, planar silicon nitride microresonator, continuously circulating, sub-30fs short temporal dissipative solitons are generated, that correspond to pulses of 6 optical cycles and constitute a coherent optical frequency comb in the spectral domain. Emission of soliton induced Cherenkov radiation caused by higher order dispersion broadens the spectral bandwidth to 2/3 of an octave, sufficient for self referencing, in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions and the broadest coherent microresonator frequency comb generated to date. The ability to preserve coherence over a broad spectral bandwidth using soliton induced Cherenkov radiation marks a critical milestone in the development of planar optical frequency combs, enabling on one hand application in e.g. coherent communications, broadband dual comb spectroscopy and Raman spectral imaging, while on the other hand significantly relaxing dispersion requirements for broadband microresonator frequen...

  20. Optical Synthesis of Terahertz and Millimeter-Wave Frequencies with Discrete Mode Diode Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, Stephen; Bitauld, David; Brandonisio, Nicola; Amann, Andreas; Phelan, Richard; Kelly, Brian; O'Gorman, James

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that optical synthesis of terahertz and millimeter-wave frequencies can be achieved using two-mode and mode-locked discrete mode diode lasers. These edge-emitting devices incorporate a spatially varying refractive index profile which is designed according to the spectral output desired of the laser. We first demonstrate a device which supports two primary modes simultaneously with high spectral purity. In this case sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity at terahertz frequencies can be obtained. Cross saturation of the material gain in quantum well lasers prevents simultaneous lasing of two modes with spacings in the millimeter-wave region. We show finally that by mode-locking of devices that are designed to support a minimal set of four primary modes, we obtain a sinusoidal modulation of the optical intensity in this frequency region.

  1. Photonic generation of linearly chirped millimeter wave based on comb-spacing tunable optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongyang; Xie, Weilin; Sun, Dongning; Shi, Hongxiao; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated a photonic approach to generate a phase-continuous frequency-linear-chirped millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal with high linearity based on continuous-wave phase modulated optical frequency comb and cascaded interleavers. Through linearly sweeping the frequency of the radio frequency (RF) driving signal, high-order frequency-linear-chirped optical comb lines are generated and then extracted by the cascaded interleavers. By beating the filtered high-order comb lines, center frequency and chirp range multiplied linear-chirp microwave signals are generated. Frequency doubled and quadrupled linear-chirp mm-wave signals of range 48.6 to 52.6 GHz and 97.2 to 105.2 GHz at chirp rates of 133.33 and 266.67 GHz/s are demonstrated with the ±1st and ±2nd optical comb lines, respectively, while the RF driving signal is of chirp range 24.3 to 26.3 GHz and chirp time 30 ms.

  2. Comment on "Orientation dependence of the optical spectra in graphene at high frequencies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy-Viet; Nguyen, V. Hung

    2016-09-01

    Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 77, 241402(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevB.77.241402] reported a theoretical study of the optical spectra of monolayer graphene employing the Kubo formula within a tight-binding model. Their calculations predicted that at high frequencies the optical conductivity of graphene becomes strongly anisotropic. In particular, at frequencies comparable to the energy separation of the upper and lower bands at the Γ point, the optical conductivity is strongly suppressed if the field polarization is along the zigzag direction whereas it is significantly high for the armchair one. We find that, unfortunately, this result is just a consequence of the incorrect determination of the current operator in k space. Here, we present a standard scheme to obtain this operator correctly. As a result, we show that the optical conductivity of monolayer graphene is indeed isotropic, which is consistent with the results of other (both theoretical and experimental) studies in the literature.

  3. Colloidal superlattices for unnaturally high-index metamaterials at broadband optical frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-11-02

    The recent advance in the assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has enabled sophisticated engineering of unprecedented light-matter interaction at the optical domain. In this work, I expand the design flexibility of NP optical metamaterial to push the upper limit of accessible refractive index to the unnaturally high regime. The precise control over the geometrical parameters of NP superlattice monolayer conferred the dramatic increase in electric resonance and related effective permittivity far beyond the naturally accessible regime. Simultaneously, effective permeability change, another key factor to achieving high refractive index, was effectively suppressed by reducing the thickness of NPs. By establishing this design rule, I have achieved unnaturally high refractive index (15.7 at the electric resonance and 7.3 at the quasi-static limit) at broadband optical frequencies (100 THz ~300 THz). I also combined this NP metamaterial with graphene to electrically control the high refractive index over the broad optical frequencies.

  4. WDM-CAP-PON integration with VLLC system based on optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Dong, Huan; Deng, Rui; Shi, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a wavelength division multiplexing carrier-less amplitude phase modulation passive optical network (WDM-CAP-PON) integration with visible laser light communication (VLLC) system is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To reduce the cost of WDM system, the optical frequency comb scheme using one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is utilized and five flat optical combs can be generated. Meanwhile, a blue laser diode (LD) as a VLLC optical source can provide high data rate and long transmission distance. Utilizing overlap frequency domain equalization (OFDE) and negative chirp of MZM, the system performance in both Q-factor and receiver sensitivity can be improved. After 20 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and 4.5 m free space transmission, the experimental results show that 10 Gb/s CAP signal can be achieved under 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3 . 8 × 10-3.

  5. Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li;

    2012-01-01

    A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fiber...... be proportionally improved by increasing the length of the optical fiber ring resonator....... of the fiber ring resonator can be measured with the transmission spectrum. A good linearity is obtained between displacement and the inverse of wavelength spacing with an R2 of 0.9989, and high sensitivities better than 40  pm/με within the range of 0 to 10  με are achieved. The sensitivity can...

  6. All-optical frequency downconversion technique utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In

    2012-03-26

    An all-optical frequency downconversion utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was experimentally demonstrated for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) applications. Two WDM optical radio frequency (RF) signals having 155 Mbps differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data at 28.5 GHz were simultaneously down-converted to two WDM optical intermediate frequency (IF) signals having an IF frequency of 4.5 GHz by mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a LO frequency of 24 GHz in the SOA. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the RoF up-links with different optical fiber lengths employing all-optical frequency downconversion was investigated. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with a 6 km single mode fiber and an optical IF signal in an optical double-sideband format was approximately -8.5 dBm and the power penalty for simultaneous frequency downconversion was approximately 0.63 dB. The BER performance showed a strong dependence on the fiber length due to the fiber dispersion. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with the optical IF signal in the optical single-sideband format was reduced to approximately -17.4 dBm and showed negligible dependence on the fiber length.

  7. Optically pumped terahertz lasers with high pulse repetition frequency: theory and design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yude Sun; Shiyou Fu; Jing Wang; Zhenghe Sun; Yanchao Zhang; Zhaoshuo Tian; Qi Wang

    2009-01-01

    Optically pumped terahertz (THz) lasers with high pulse repetition frequency are designed. Such a laser includes two parts: the optically pumping laser and the THz laser. The structures of the laser are described and analyzed. The rate equations for the pulsed THz laser are given. The kinetic process and laser pulse waveform for this kind of laser are numerically calculated based on the theory of rate equations. The theoretical results give a helpful guide to the research of such lasers.

  8. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing

    OpenAIRE

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2009-01-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large ...

  9. Influence of Feedback Levels on Polarized Optical Feedback Characteristics in Zeeman-Birefringence Dual Frequency Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; ZHANG Shu-Lian; ZHOU Lu-Fei; LIU Xiao-Yan; WANG Ming-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The influence of Feedback levels on the intensity and polarization properties of polarized optical feedback in a Zeeman-birefringence dual frequency laser is systematically investigated. By changing the feedback power ratio, different feedback levels are obtained. Three distinct regimes of polarized optical feedback effects are found and defined as regimes Ⅰ, Ⅱand Ⅲ. The feedback level boundaries among the regimes are acquired experimentally. The theoretical analysis is presented to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. The optical frequency method of distance measurement with sub-nanometer resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cip, Ondrej; Petru, Frantisek; Lazar, Josef

    2005-02-01

    We present design and experimental setup for direct transformation of the relative change of distances in measuring arm of the Michelson interferometer to relative changes of the resonant optical-frequency of Fabry-Perot (F.-P.) resonator. The method consists of a mechanical coupled moving system of the corner cube mirror of the interferometer measuring arm with one of the mirrors of F.-P. resonator. A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) with elongation 10 microns approximately drives that moving system. An external tunable laser source at 633 nm wavelength provides identification of one of the resonant optical frequency of F.-P. resonator by the frequency locking mechanism with synchronous detection technique in the servo loop feedback. Because the definition of the meter unit is based on iodine stabilized He-Ne laser, then the optical frequency of the locked tunable laser is frequency compared with He-Ne-I2 laser by the heterodyne optical mixing. A fast high-resolution counter counts the resultant radio-frequency signal as a product of the optical mixing. Measured frequency values and values of interference phase acquired by the interferometer are simultaneously sampled step by step for each elongation position of PZT element. We used that experimental setup for the testing process where a verification of scale-linearity of Michelson interferometer with total resolution 0,3 nm is investigated. The experimental data achieved by F.-P. resonator during such a way shows the absolute uncertainty better than 0,08 nm for the relative distance change 1.5 microns. We verified the scale-linearity of Michelson interferometer to +/-1,0 nm limit.

  11. Spectral characterization of a frequency comb based on cascaded quadratic nonlinearities inside an optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Ulvila, Ville; Halonen, Lauri; Vainio, Markku

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental study of optical frequency comb generation based on cascaded quadratic nonlinearities inside a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator. We demonstrate comb states which produce narrow-linewidth intermode beat note signals, and we verify the mode spacing uniformity of the comb at the Hz level. We also show that spectral quality of the comb can be improved by modulating the parametric gain at a frequency that corresponds to the comb mode spacing. We have reached a high average output power of over 4 W in the near-infrared region, at ~2 {\\mu}m.

  12. Weaving quantum optical frequency combs into continuous-variable hypercubic cluster states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Chen, Moran; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Pfister, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Cluster states with higher-dimensional lattices that cannot be physically embedded in three-dimensional space have important theoretical interest in quantum computation and quantum simulation of topologically ordered condensed-matter systems. We present a simple, scalable, top-down method of entangling the quantum optical frequency comb into hypercubic-lattice continuous-variable cluster states of a size of about 104 quantum field modes, using existing technology. A hypercubic lattice of dimension D (linear, square, cubic, hypercubic, etc.) requires but D optical parametric oscillators with bichromatic pumps whose frequency splittings alone determine the lattice dimensionality and the number of copies of the state.

  13. Frequency stabilization for space-based missions using optical fiber interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Terry G; Ngo, Silvie; Shaddock, Daniel A; Hsu, Magnus T L; Gray, Malcolm B

    2013-02-01

    We present measurement results for a laser frequency reference, implemented with an all-optical fiber Michelson interferometer, down to frequencies as low as 1 mHz. Optical fiber is attractive for space-based operations as it is physically robust, small and lightweight. The small free spectral range of fiber interferometers also provides the possibility to prestabilize two lasers on two distant spacecraft and ensures that the beatnote remains within the detector bandwidth. We demonstrate that these fiber interferometers are viable candidates for future laser-based gravity recovery and climate experiment missions requiring a stability of 30 Hz/√Hz over a 10 mHz-1 Hz bandwidth.

  14. Instability Parameters of Optical Oscillation Frequency in Plasma Central Discharge and Periphery Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-Wen; M.A.LIEBERMAN; Sungjin KIM

    2006-01-01

    @@ We have observed relaxation oscillations in a capacitive discharge in Ar gas, connected to a peripheral ground chamber. The plasma oscillations observed from time-varying optical emission from the main discharge chamber show, for example, a high frequency (75.37kHz) relaxation oscillation, at 100mTorr and 8 W absorbed power,and a low frequency (2.72 Hz) relaxation oscillation, 100mTorr and 325 W absorbed power. Time-varying optical emission intensity and plasma density are also detected with a Langmuir probe. The theoretical result agrees well with experiments.

  15. Temporal mode selectivity by frequency conversion in second-order nonlinear optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.;

    2013-01-01

    in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal waveforms to encode different channels. We model the process using coupled-mode equations appropriate for wave mixing in a uniform second-order nonlinear optical medium pumped by a strong laser pulse. We find Green functions describing the process...... in this optimal regime. We also find an operating regime in which high-efficiency frequency conversion without temporal-shape selectivity can be achieved while preserving the shapes of a wide class of input pulses. The results are applicable to both classical and quantum frequency conversion....

  16. Multifrequency Magneto-optic Bragg Diffraction and Radio Frequency Signal Parallel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Dan; WU Bao-jian; QIU Kun

    2008-01-01

    Magneto-optic(MO) coupling of guided optical waves with microwave magnetostatic waves(MSWs) simultaneously excited by multiple radio frequency(RF) signals can lead to multifrequency diffraction effects and then parallel processing of RF signals can be realized by using of the characteristics that diffraction efficiencies(Des) are approximately in direct proportion to RF signals intensities and diffraction angles are related to frequencies of the corresponding RF signals within linear MO interaction region. In this paper, studied is the multifrequency MO Bragg diffraction in first-order MO interaction approximation, and obtained was the approximate analytical expression for principle diffraction efficiency(PDE). Also, put forward was a parallel imaging method of relative intensity of RF signals based on single-frequency diffraction. By calculation and analysis, it is shown that the relative error is not more than 0.3 dB for the case of three RF signals within the frequency space of 60 MHz.

  17. Noise characterization of an Optical Frequency Comb using Offline Cross-Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Guyomarc'h, Didier; Ferrand, Didier; Hagel, Gaëtan; Houssin, Marie; Morizot, Olivier; Champenois, Caroline; Knoop, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Using an offline cross-correlation technique, we have analyzed the noise behavior of a new type of optical frequency comb (OFC), which is carrier envelope offset (CEO) free by configuration, due to difference frequency generation. In order to evaluate the instrument's ultimate noise floor, the phase and amplitude noise of a stabilized OFC are measured simultaneously using two analog-to-digital converters. Carrier recovery and phase detection are done by post-processing, eliminating the need for external phase-locked loops and complex calibration techniques. In order to adapt the measurement noise floor and the number of averages used in cross correlation, an adaptive frequency resolution for noise measurement is applied. Phase noise results are in excellent agreement with measurements of the fluctuations of the repetition frequency of the OFC obtained from optical signal.

  18. Reference-free, high-resolution measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Jeon, Chan-Gi; Shin, Junho; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Park, Sang Eon; Song, Youjian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Timing jitter is one of the most important properties of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and optical frequency combs. Accurate measurement of timing jitter power spectral density (PSD) is a critical prerequisite for optimizing overall noise performance and further advancing comb applications both in the time and frequency domains. Commonly used jitter measurement methods require a reference mode-locked laser with timing jitter similar to or lower than that of the laser-under-test, which is a demanding requirement for many laser laboratories, and/or have limited measurement resolution. Here we show a high-resolution and reference-source-free measurement method of timing jitter spectra of optical frequency combs using an optical fibre delay line and optical carrier interference. The demonstrated method works well for both mode-locked oscillators and supercontinua, with 2 × 10−9 fs2/Hz (equivalent to −174 dBc/Hz at 10-GHz carrier frequency) measurement noise floor. The demonstrated method can serve as a simple and powerful characterization tool for timing jitter PSDs of various comb sources including mode-locked oscillators, supercontinua and recently emerging Kerr-frequency combs; the jitter measurement results enabled by our method will provide new insights for understanding and optimizing timing noise in such comb sources. PMID:28102352

  19. Multicast contention resolution based on time-frequency joint scheduling in elastic optical switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Li, Yuan; Peng, Han; Huang, Jun; Kong, Deqian

    2017-01-01

    Resolving the optical multicast contention in optical switch node is an effective approach to improve the performance of elastic optical multicast switch. An optical node architecture integrating with output shared all-optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) network coding technology and shared feedback fiber delay lines (FDLs) buffer is designed. And a time-frequency joint scheduling strategy (TFJSS) is proposed. In TFJSS, the maximal weighted independent set algorithm is used to select the output packets with no overlapping spectrum among the contending multicast packets. The remaining contention packets are compressed by OFDM network coding with all-optical XOR operation. Hence, the contention is avoided in spectrum domain by encoding the contending unicast/multicast packets and changing the carrier frequency of encoded packets. If the network coding cannot successfully resolve the contending packets, the shared feedback FDLs are called to address the contention in time domain. Compared with the existing node architecture and scheduling algorithm, the simulation results show that the proposed architecture and the TFJSS can reduce the packet loss probability with low delay largely.

  20. Direct Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical with Fiber-Based Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    stabilization To fully stabilize the comb, there are three servo loops, shown in Fig. 1, that lock the carrier offset frequency f0 to an RF synthesizer ...GPS-Rb oscillator serves as the external reference for all synthesizers and frequency counters. The filtering cavity is stabilized to a particular...filled frequency reference in a 10 m length. Since optimal single-modedness is expected at longer lengths (~10-30 m), a gas such as ammonia , with weaker

  1. Simple laser velocimeter that uses photoconductive semiconductors to measure optical frequency differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C C; Davidson, F; Trivedi, S

    1995-10-01

    The dc photocurrents generated by steady-state moving space-charge fields inside photoconductive semiconductors containing deep level donors and traps can be used to determine the relative frequency differences between the two interfering optical fields that establish the space-charge fields. A simple laser velocimeter that uses a semi-insulating GaAs:Cr sample to detect the Doppler frequency shift between two laser beams is demonstrated.

  2. High-resolution absolute frequency referenced fiber optic sensor for quasi-static strain sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; Chow, Jong H.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Littler, Ian C. M.; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gray, Malcolm B.; McClelland, David E.

    2010-07-20

    We present a quasi-static fiber optic strain sensing system capable of resolving signals below nanostrain from 20 mHz. A telecom-grade distributed feedback CW diode laser is locked to a fiber Fabry-Perot sensor, transferring the detected signals onto the laser. An H{sup 13}C{sup 14}N absorption line is then used as a frequency reference to extract accurate low-frequency strain signals from the locked system.

  3. Frequency doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Theron, Fabien; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Zahzam, Nassim; Bresson, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A compact and robust laser system, based on a frequency-doubled telecom laser, providing all the lasers needed for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices is presented. Thanks to an optical switch at 1.5 \\mu m and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is needed for all the laser system. Our system delivers at 780 nm a power of 900 mW with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a power of 650 mW with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  4. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  5. Cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation via nonlinear-overlap optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zin; Loncar, Marko; Johnson, Steven G; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2015-01-01

    We describe an approach based on topology optimization that enables automatic discovery of wavelength-scale photonic structures for achieving high-efficiency second-harmonic generation (SHG). A key distinction from previous formulation and designs that seek to maximize Purcell factors at individual frequencies is that our method not only aims to achieve frequency matching (across an entire octave) and large radiative lifetimes, but also optimizes the equally important nonlinear--coupling figure of merit $\\bar{\\beta}$, involving a complicated spatial overlap-integral between modes. We apply this method to the particular problem of optimizing micropost and grating-slab cavities (one-dimensional multilayered structures) and demonstrate that a variety of material platforms can support modes with the requisite frequencies, large lifetimes $Q \\gtrsim 10^3$, small modal volumes $\\sim (\\lambda/n)^3$, and extremely large $\\bar{\\beta} \\gtrsim 10^{-2}$, orders of magnitude larger than the state of the art.

  6. Spectroscopy and frequency measurement of the $^{87}$Sr clock transition by laser linewidth transfer using an optical frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Onae, Atsushi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2014-01-01

    We perform spectroscopic observations of the 698-nm clock transition in $^{87}$Sr confined in an optical lattice using a laser linewidth transfer technique. A narrow-linewidth laser interrogating the clock transition is prepared by transferring the linewidth of a master laser (1064 nm) to that of a slave laser (698 nm) with a high-speed controllable fiber-based frequency comb. The Fourier-limited spectrum is observed for an 80-ms interrogating pulse. We determine that the absolute frequency of the 5s$^{2}$ $^{1}$S$_{0}$ - 5s5p $^{3}$P$_{0}$ clock transition in $^{87}$Sr is 429 228 004 229 872.0 (1.6) Hz referenced to the SI second.

  7. Two-Way Optical Frequency Comparisons Over 100km Telecommunication Network Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Bercy, Anthony; Lopez, Olivier; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-01-01

    By using two-way frequency transfer, we demonstrate ultra-high resolution comparison of optical frequencies over a telecommunication fiber link of 100 km operating simultaneously digital data transfer. We first propose and experiment a bi-directional scheme using a single fiber. We show that the relative stability at 1 s integration time is 7 10^18 and scales down to 5 10^21. The same level of performance is reached when an optical link is implemented with an active compensation of the fiber noise. We also implement a real-time two-way frequency comparison over a uni-directional telecommunication network using a pair of parallel fibers. The relative frequency stability is 10^15 at 1 s integration time and reaches 2 10^17 at 40 000 s. The fractional uncertainty of the frequency comparisons was evaluated for the best case to 2 10^20. These results open the way to accurate and high resolution frequency comparison of optical clocks over intercontinental fiber networks.

  8. Adaptive high-frequency information fusion algorithm of radar and optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiding; Qin, Shuai

    2011-12-01

    An adaptive High-frequency Information Fusion Algorithm of Radar and Optical Images is proposed in this paper, in order to improve the resolution of the radar image and reserve more radar information. Firstly, Hough Transform is adopted in the process of low-resolution radar image and high-resolution optical image registration. The implicit linear information is extracted from two different heterogeneous images for better result. Then NSCT transform is used for decomposition and fusion. In different decomposition layers or in the same layer with different directions, fusion rules are adaptive for the high-frequency information of images. The ratio values of high frequency information entropy, variance, gradient and edge strength are calculated after NSCT decomposition. High frequency information entropy, variance, gradient or edge strength, which has the smallest ratio value, is selected as an optimal rule for regional fusion. High-frequency information of radar image could be better retained, at the same time the low-frequency information of optical image also could be remained. Experimental results showed that our approach performs better than those methods with single fusion rule.

  9. Phase Analysis for Frequency Standards in the Microwave and Optical Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Kazda, M; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Weyers, S

    2015-01-01

    Coherent manipulation of atomic states is a key concept in high-precision spectroscopy and used in atomic fountain clocks and a number of optical frequency standards. Operation of these standards can involve a number of cyclic switching processes, which may induce cycle synchronous phase excursions of the interrogation signal and thus lead to shifts in the output of the frequency standard. We have built a FPGA-based phase analyzer to investigate these effects and conducted measurements on two frequency standards. For the caesium fountain PTB-CSF2 we were able to exclude phase variations of the microwave source at the level of a few $\\mu$rad, corresponding to relative frequency shifts of less than 10$^{-16}$. In the optical domain, we investigated phase variations in PTB's Yb$^+$ optical frequency standard and made detailed measurements of AOM chirps and their scaling with duty cycle and driving power. We ascertained that cycle-synchronous as well as long-term phase excursion do not cause frequency shifts larg...

  10. Frequency comparison of ${}^{171}$Yb${}^+$ ion optical clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP

    CERN Document Server

    Leute, J; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Chr; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2015-01-01

    We used Precise Point Positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions operated at NPL, UK and PTB, Germany. At both institutes an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator; it is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the ${{}^2S_{1/2}(F=0)-{}^2D_{3/2}(F=2)}$ electric quadrupole transition in ${}^{171}$Yb${}^+$ via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS link measurements we extrapolate over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS link. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using t...

  11. Multi-band local microwave signal generation based on an optical frequency comb generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimental demonstrate a new method to generate multi-band local microwave signals based on an optical frequency comb generator (OFCG) by applying an optical sideband injection locking technique and an optical heterodyning technique. The generated microwave signal can cover multi bands from S band to Ka band. A tunable multiband microwave signal spanning from 5 GHz to 40 GHz can be generated by the beating between the optical carrier and injection locked modulation sidebands in a photodetector without an optical filter. The wavelength of the slave laser can be continuously and near-linearly adjusted by proper changing its bias current. By tuning the bias current of the slave laser, the wavelength of that is matched to one of the modulation sidebands of the OFCG. The performance of the arrangement in terms of the tunability and stability of the generated microwave signal is also studied.

  12. Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2010-02-01

    Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.

  13. A broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer for measuring the extinction of aerosols at blue and near-UV wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Dean; Fullam, Donovan; Hoa Le, Phuoc; Chen, Jun; Böge, Olaf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for sensitive extinction measurements of aerosols. The instrument is distinguished by its broad and continuous spectral coverage from the near-UV to blue wavelengths (ca. 320 to 450 nm). The short wavelength region has been little explored compared to visible wavelengths, but is important because (1) brown carbon (BrC) absorbs strongly in this wavelength region, and (2) absorption of near-UV radiation in the atmosphere alters the photolysis rate of the key atmospheric species O3, NO2, and HONO, with implications for air quality and atmospheric oxidation capacity. The instrument performance and the effect of a switchable in-line filter are characterised. Early results using the instrument in the TROPOS atmospheric simulation chamber are presented. These experiments include studies of secondary organic aerosol formation (SOA), and biomass burning experiments of rice and wheat straw, followed by experiments simulating particle aging under daytime and nighttime conditions.

  14. Optimization of Ta2O5 optical thin film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoury, R; Willey, Ronald R

    2016-07-10

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been used here to find the parameters at which to deposit Ta2O5 optical thin films with negligible absorption in the visible spectrum. The design of experiment methodology was employed to minimize the number of experiments needed to find the optimal results. Two independent approaches were used to determine the index of refraction n and k values.

  15. All-Optical Frequency Modulated High Pressure MEMS Sensor for Remote and Distributed Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Hansen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a new all-optical frequency modulated pressure sensor. Using the tangential strain in a circular membrane, a waveguide with an integrated nanoscale Bragg grating is strained longitudinally proportional to the applied pressure causing a sh...

  16. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  17. Impact of Decoherence on Internal State Cooling using Optical Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Malinovskaya, S A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss femtosecond Raman type techniques to control molecular vibrations, which can be implemented for internal state cooling from Feshbach states with the use of optical frequency combs with and without modulation. The technique makes use of multiple two-photon resonances induced by optical frequencies present in the comb. It provides us with a useful tool to study the details of molecular dynamics at ultracold temperatures. In our theoretical model we take into account decoherence in the form of spontaneous emission and collisional dephasing in order to ascertain an accurate model of the population transfer in the three-level system. We analyze the effects of odd and even chirps of the optical frequency comb in the form of sine and cosine functions on the population transfer. We compare the effects of these chirps to the results attained with the standard optical frequency comb to see if they increase the population transfer to the final deeply bound state in the presence of decoherence. We also analyze...

  18. Bistability and low-frequency fluctuations in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: a theoretical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1988-01-01

    Near-threshold operation of a semiconductor laser exposed to moderate optical feedback may lead to low-frequency fluctuations. In the same region, a kink is observed in the light-current characteristic. Here it is demonstrated that these nonlinear phenomena are predicted by a noise driven multimode...

  19. New optical and radio frequency angular tropospheric refraction models for deep space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A. L.; Rockwell, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The development of angular tropospheric refraction models for optical and radio frequency usage is presented. The models are compact analytic functions, finite over the entire domain of elevation angle, and accurate over large ranges of pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Additionally, FORTRAN subroutines for each of the models are included.

  20. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  1. Comparative Study of Optical and Radio-Frequency Communication Systems for a Deep-Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M. K.; Harcke, L. J.; Wilhelm, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Lesh, J.; Feria, Y.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a study on telecommunication systems for a hypothetical mission to Mars. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the benefits that microwave-X-band (8.4 GHz) and Ka-band (32 GHz) - and optical communications technologies a afford to future missions. The telecommunication systems were required to return data after launch and in orbit at 2.7 AU with daily data volumes of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 Gbits (Gb). Spacecraft terminals capable of delivering each of the three data volumes were proposed and characterized in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost. The estimated parameters for X-band, Ka-band, and optical frequencies are compared and presented here. For all cases, the optical light terminal exhibits about 60 percent of the mass of the corresponding radio frequency (RF) subsystem. Power consumption is comparable for all three technologies at a 0.1 Gb/day data volume, but the power required at either Ka-band or optical is less than half of the X-band requirement at 10 Gb/day. These benefits can be obtained only with a suitable investment in reception facilities for Ka-band or optical frequencies.

  2. Extending the Effective Ranging Depth of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography by Spatial Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatial frequency domain multiplexing method for extending the imaging depth range of a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT system without any expensive device. This method uses two galvo scanners with different pivot-offset distances in two independent reference arms for spatial frequency modulation and multiplexing. The spatial frequency contents corresponding to different depth regions of the sample can be shifted to different frequency bands. The spatial frequency domain multiplexing SDOCT system provides an approximately 1.9-fold increase in the effective ranging depth compared with that of a conventional full-range SDOCT system. The reconstructed images of phantom and biological tissue demonstrate the expected increase in ranging depth. The parameters choice criterion for this method is discussed.

  3. A photo-driven dual-frequency addressable optical device of banana-shaped molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Prasad, S., E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Lakshmi Madhuri, P.; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V. [Centre for Soft Matter Research, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560 013 (India)

    2014-03-17

    We propose a photonic switch employing a blend of host banana-shaped liquid crystalline molecules and guest photoisomerizable calamitic molecules. The material exhibits a change in the sign of the dielectric anisotropy switching from positive to negative, at a certain crossover frequency of the probing field. The consequent change in electric torque can be used to alter the orientation of the molecules between surface-determined and field-driven optical states resulting in a large change in the optical transmission characteristics. Here, we demonstrate the realization of this feature by an unpolarized UV beam, the first of its kind for banana-shaped molecules. The underlying principle of photoisomerization eliminates the need for a second driving frequency. The device also acts as a reversible conductance switch with an order of magnitude increase of conductivity brought about by light. Possible usage of this for optically driven display devices and image storage applications is suggested.

  4. Enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rui; Huang, Nuo; Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Houyu; Chen, Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an enhanced hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (EHACO-OFDM) scheme, which benefits from the simultaneous transmission of ACO-OFDM, pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone modulation, and direct-current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM). Since the entire available bandwidth is utilized for data modulation, this scheme can achieve higher spectral efficiency than HACO-OFDM and ACO-OFDM. Moreover, as a smaller DC bias is introduced in our scheme, it is more power efficient than asymmetrically clipped DC-biased optical OFDM (ADO-OFDM) and DCO-OFDM. A modified receiver is also designed for this system, taking advantage of an iterative algorithm and a pairwise averaging. It has been shown by simulation that our three-path simultaneous transmission scheme can surpass the existing mixed OFDM-based schemes at high data rates. In addition, compared with the noniterative receiver, the modified receiver exhibits significant gains.

  5. Method for determiantion of the frequency-contrast characteristics of electronic-optic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Garo; Zhekov, Zhivko

    The frequency-contrast characteristics is an important criterion to judge the quality of electronic-optic systems, which boast an increasing application in space research, astronomy, martial art etc. The paper provides a brief description of the methods for determining the frequency-contrast characteristics of optic systems, developed at the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Science. The suggested methods have been used to develop a couple of electronic-optic systems participated in the designed ground-based and aerospace scientific-research equipment. Based on the obtained practical results, the conclusion was made that the methods provide to obtain sufficiently precise data, which coincide well with the results, obtained when using other methods.

  6. Single-branch Er:fiber frequency comb for optical synthesis at the $10^{-18}$ level

    CERN Document Server

    Leopardi, Holly; Quinlan, Franklyn; Olson, Judith; Diddams, Scott; Fortier, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Laser frequency combs based on erbium-doped fiber mode-locked lasers have shown great potential for compact, robust and efficient optical clock comparisons. However, to simultaneously compare multiple optical clock species, fiber laser frequency combs typically require multiple amplifiers and fiber optic paths that reduce the achievable frequency stability near 1 part in $10^{16}$ at 1s. In this paper we describe an erbium-fiber laser frequency comb that overcomes these conventional challenges and supports optical frequency synthesis at the millihertz level, or fractionally $3 x 10^{-18}$ $tau^{-1/2}$ by ensuring that all critical fiber paths are within the servo-controlled feedback loop. We demonstrate the application of this frequency comb as a synthesizer for optical clocks operating across a wavelength range from 650 nm to 2100 nm.

  7. Optical properties of hexagonal boron nitride thin films deposited by radio frequency bias magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jin-Xiang; Zhang Xiao-Kang; Yao Qian; Wang Xu-Yang; Chen Guang-Hua; He De-Yan

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin films were studied in this paper. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,UV-visible transmittance and reflection spectra,h-BN thin films with a wide optical band gap Eg (5.86 eV for the as-deposited film and 5.97 eV for the annealed film) approaching h-BN single crystal were successfully prepared by radio frequency (RF) bias magnetron sputtering and post-deposition annealing at 970 K. The optical absorption behaviour of h-BN films accords with the typical optical absorption characteristics of amorphous materials when fitting is made by the Urbach tail model. The annealed film shows satisfactory structure stability. However,high temperature still has a significant effect on the optical absorption properties,refractive index n,and optical conductivity σ of h-BN thin films. The blue-shift of the optical absorption edge and the increase of Eg probably result from stress relaxation in the film under high temperatures. In addition,it is found that the refractive index clearly exhibits different trends in the visible and ultraviolet regions. Previous calculational results of optical conductivity of h-BN films are confirmed in our experimental results.

  8. Ultrabroadband phased-array radio frequency (RF) receivers based on optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmiller, Brock M.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Schneider, Garrett; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W.

    2014-03-01

    Military operations require the ability to locate and identify electronic emissions in the battlefield environment. However, recent developments in radio detection and ranging (RADAR) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify such emissions. Phased array systems aid in discriminating emitters in the scene by virtue of their relatively high-gain beam steering and nulling capabilities. For the purpose of locating emitters, we present an approach realize a broadband receiver based on optical processing techniques applied to the response of detectors in conformal antenna arrays. This approach utilizes photonic techniques that enable us to capture, route, and process the incoming signals. Optical modulators convert the incoming signals up to and exceeding 110 GHz with appreciable conversion efficiency and route these signals via fiber optics to a central processing location. This central processor consists of a closed loop phase control system which compensates for phase fluctuations induced on the fibers due to thermal or acoustic vibrations as well as an optical heterodyne approach for signal conversion down to baseband. Our optical heterodyne approach uses injection-locked paired optical sources to perform heterodyne downconversion/frequency identification of the detected emission. Preliminary geolocation and frequency identification testing of electronic emissions has been performed demonstrating the capabilities of our RF receiver.

  9. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, A; Nishikawa, T; Goto, T; Hitachi, K; Sogawa, T; Gotoh, H

    2016-05-17

    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise "booster" for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz).

  10. Design of Transparent Anodes for Resonant Cavity Enhanced Light Harvesting in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sergeant, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-03

    The use of an ITO-free MoO 3/Ag/MoO 3 anode to control the photon harvesting in PCDTBT:PC 70BM solar cells is proposed. At first sight, the fact that these anodes possess reduced far-field transmission compared to ITO may seem to be a disadvantage. But, despite this, we show that by carefully tuning the resonant optical cavity we can enhance the external quantum efficiency close to the band edge of PCDTBT, resulting in high photocurrent and power conversion efficiency on par with ITO. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Tunable frequency reference by optical pumping-assisted intracavity V-type electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Kang; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Gong, Shangqing

    2013-01-01

    A tunable high resolution frequency reference is constructed using the narrowed cavity-linewidth by the optical pumping-assisted V-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). At room temperature, the optical pumping effect will increase the transparency for the V-type EIT and therefore the cavity-linewidth can be narrowed apparently. For the seven EITs observed in our previous study, cavity-linewidth narrowing is observed in all of them. More importantly, we find that the cavity-linewidth can keep at 1.2MHz in a wide frequency range of 100MHz by utilizing the central EIT. This property provides a novel way for constructing high resolution tunable frequency reference via the intracavity EIT.

  12. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  13. Imaging system of wavelet optics described by the Gaussian linear frequency-modulated complex wavelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangming

    2005-12-01

    The image formation and the point-spread function of an optical system are analyzed by use of the wavelet basis function. The image described by a wavelet is no longer an indivisible whole image. It is, rather, a complex image consisting of many wavelet subimages, which come from the changes of different parameters (scale) a and c, and parameters b and d show the positions of wavelet subimages under different scales. A Gaussian frequency-modulated complex-valued wavelet function is introduced to express the point-spread function of an optical system and used to describe the image formation. The analysis, in allusion to the situation of illumination with a monochromatic plain light wave, shows that using the theory of wavelet optics to describe the image formation of an optical system is feasible.

  14. Demonstration of Space Optical Transmitter Development for Multiple High Frequency Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  15. Demonstration of space optical transmitter development for multiple high-frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung; Simons, Rainee; Wintucky, Edwin; Freeman, Jon

    2013-05-01

    As the demand for multiple radio frequency carrier bands continues to grow in space communication systems, the design of a cost-effective compact optical transmitter that is capable of transmitting selective multiple RF bands is of great interest, particularly for NASA Space Communications Network Programs. This paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the feasibility of a concept based on an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique that enables multiple microwave bands with different modulation formats and bandwidths to be combined and transmitted all in one unit, resulting in many benefits to space communication systems including reduced size, weight and complexity with corresponding savings in cost. Experimental results will be presented including the individual received RF signal power spectra for the L, C, X, Ku, Ka, and Q frequency bands, and measurements of the phase noise associated with each RF frequency. Also to be presented is a swept RF frequency power spectrum showing simultaneous multiple RF frequency bands transmission. The RF frequency bands in this experiment are among those most commonly used in NASA space environment communications.

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Single-Photon Source Based on the Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikter, Julia; Kaupp, Hanno; Hümmer, Thomas; Liang, Yuejiang; Bommer, Alexander; Becher, Christoph; Krueger, Anke; Smith, Jason M.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2017-02-01

    Single-photon sources are an integral part of various quantum technologies, and solid-state quantum emitters at room temperature appear to be a promising implementation. We couple the fluorescence of individual silicon-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds to a tunable optical microcavity to demonstrate a single-photon source with high efficiency, increased emission rate, and improved spectral purity compared to the intrinsic emitter properties. We use a fiber-based microcavity with a mode volume as small as 3.4 λ3 and a quality factor of 1.9 ×1 04 and observe an effective Purcell factor of up to 9.2. Furthermore, we study modifications of the internal rate dynamics and propose a rate model that closely agrees with the measurements. We observe lifetime changes of up to 31%, limited by the finite quantum efficiency of the emitters studied here. With improved materials, our achieved parameters predict single-photon rates beyond 1 GHz.

  17. Silicon photonic crystal cavity enhanced second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryett, Taylor K.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Zheng, Jiajiu; Liu, Chang-Hua; Xu, Xiaodong; Majumdar, Arka

    2017-03-01

    Nano-resonators integrated with two-dimensional materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides) have recently emerged as a promising nano-optoelectronic platform. Here we demonstrate resonator-enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in tungsten diselenide using a silicon photonic crystal cavity. By pumping the device with ultrafast laser pulses near the cavity mode at the telecommunication wavelength, we observe a near visible SHG with a narrow linewidth and near unity linear polarization, originated from the coupling of the pump photon to the cavity mode. The observed SHG is enhanced by factor of ∼200 compared to a bare monolayer on silicon. Our results imply the efficacy of cavity integrated monolayer materials for nonlinear optics and the potential of building a silicon-compatible second-order nonlinear integrated photonic platform.

  18. Scaling laws of the cavity enhancement for NV centers in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Kaupp, Hanno; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2013-01-01

    We employ a fiber-based optical microcavity with high Finesse to study the enhancement of fluorescence emission of NV centers in nanodiamonds. Harnessing the full tunability and open access of the resonator, we explicitly demonstrate the scaling laws of the Purcell enhancement by varying both the mode volume and the quality factor over a large range. While changes in the emission lifetime remain small in the regime of a broadband emitter, we observe an ideal Purcell factor of up to 450. Our results show a way for the realization of wavelength-tunable, narrow-band single-photon sources and demonstrate a system that has the potential to reach the strong coupling regime.

  19. Silicon photonic crystal cavity enhanced second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2

    CERN Document Server

    Fryett, Taylor K; Zheng, Jiajiu; Liu, Chang-Hua; Xu, Xiaodong; Majumdar, Arka

    2016-01-01

    Nano-resonator integrated with two-dimensional materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides) have recently emerged as a promising nano-optoelectronic platform. Here we demonstrate resonatorenhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in tungsten diselenide using a silicon photonic crystal cavity. By pumping the device with the ultrafast laser pulses near the cavity mode at the telecommunication wavelength, we observe a near visible SHG with a narrow linewidth and near unity linear polarization, originated from the coupling of the pump photon to the cavity mode. The observed SHG is enhanced by factor of ~200 compared to a bare monolayer on silicon. Our results imply the efficacy of cavity integrated monolayer materials for nonlinear optics and the potential of building a silicon-compatible second-order nonlinear integrated photonic platform.

  20. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  1. Measurement of Frequency Shift Characteristics Based on LiNbO3 Waveguide Electro-Optic Intensity Modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Meng; Hui-Juan Zhou; Yi Liao; Qiong Yao

    2008-01-01

    High-speed and wide-band LiNbO3 waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator has drawn great attention in the field of optical fiber communi-cation and sensor. This paper reports the research results on the measurement of frequency shift character-istics of Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator. Two measurement methods of frequency shift character-istics for high and low frequency modulations are studied in theory and experiment and demonstrate different results. The realization of a multi-wavelength optical source based on Mach-Zehnder electro-optic intensity modulator has been introduced. The technique to reach the maximum intensity for interesting shift frequency, particularly for heterodyne detection of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensing, has been given.

  2. Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Sho; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-21

    We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν(3) band of CH(4) from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10(-11) over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F(2)((2)) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

  3. Direct generation of optical frequency combs in $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mosca, S; Parisi, M; Maddaloni, P; Santamaria, L; De Natale, P; De Rosa, M

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic nonlinear processes are currently exploited for frequency comb transfer and extension from the visible and near infrared regions to other spectral ranges where direct comb generation cannot be accomplished. However, frequency comb generation has been directly observed in continuously-pumped quadratic nonlinear crystals placed inside an optical cavity. At the same time, an introductory theoretical description of the phenomenon has been provided, showing a remarkable analogy with the dynamics of third-order Kerr microresonators. Here, we give an overview of our recent work on $\\chi^{(2)}$ frequency comb generation. Furthermore, we generalize the preliminary three-wave spectral model to a many-mode comb and present a stability analysis of different cavity field regimes. Although at a very early stage, our work lays the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.

  4. Coherent optical time domain reflectometry by logarithmic detection and timed random frequency hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lidong; Sun, Xiaoyan; Bu, Xiande; Li, Binglin

    2017-02-01

    A scheme using timed random frequency hopping and signal logarithmic mean method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in a coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) system to reduce the fading noise of the OTDR trace and simplify the signal processing procedure. The timed random frequency hopping is realized by randomly changing the driving current of the laser at certain time points. By this method, the fading noise of OTDR trace can be reduced to be 1/5 of that without using it. Also, a radio frequency power detector (RFPD), whose output voltage has linear relationship with the input logarithmic RF power, is used to extract the power of the RF signals from the balanced photodetector. Then, a data acquisition card directly captures and adds the digital voltage signals from the RFPD to reduce the fading noise and improve the measurement dynamic range. Compared with synchronous and asynchronous frequency hopping scheme, the proposed method is of high efficiency.

  5. Spatial-Resolution Improvement in Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry System Based on Tunable Linear Fiber Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guoyu; Li Yan [Institute of Information Engineering, Handan College, Handan, 056005 (China); Zhao Peng, E-mail: guoyu_li@yahoo.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system, the spatial resolution is obtained by using the total frequency-sweep span of the tunable laser. However, in practice, the spatial resolution is severely limited by nonlinearity in the lightwave-frequency sweep of the tunable laser. A closed-loop PZT modulated DBR linear fiber laser is proposed to improve the spatial resolution of the OFDR system. Experimental results show that the spatial resolution of OFDR system has improved greatly. When the frequency sweep excursion is 66GHz and the fiber under test (FUT) is 7 m, the OFDR system has a spatial resolution of 1.5 m with open-loop PZT modulated laser. But the spatial resolution increases to 35 cm with closed-loop PZT modulated laser.

  6. Direct generation of optical frequency combs in χ(2 nonlinear cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosca Simona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quadratic nonlinear processes are currently exploited for frequency comb transfer and extension from the visible and near infrared regions to other spectral ranges where direct comb generation cannot be accomplished. However, frequency comb generation has been directly observed in continuously pumped quadratic nonlinear crystals placed inside an optical cavity. At the same time, an introductory theoretical description of the phenomenon has been provided, showing a remarkable analogy with the dynamics of third-order Kerr microresonators. Here, we give an overview of our recent work on χ(2 frequency comb generation. Furthermore, we generalize the preliminary three-wave spectral model to a many-mode comb and present a stability analysis of different cavity field regimes. Although our work is a very early stage, it lays the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.

  7. Research on fiber-optic interferometric hydrophone array using frequency division multiplying technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jianian; LI Xuyou; WANG Zhaoxia; LUO Jicheng; FU Lintai

    2001-01-01

    From the point of view of system design, a configuration of fiber-optic interferometric hydrophone array and its modulation and demodulation approach using frequency division multiplexing technique based on Phase Generated Carrier (PGC) is introduced. And the emphasis on demonstrating the relationship among the number of units N, the detectable signal amplitude D and the detectable frequency ωs through analyzing the frequency spectrum of the output signal of the J × K array and the key factor which restricts N, D, ωo for increasing are presented. The maximum phase shift and the law of its variation according to frequency are specially analyzed. The results induced from some relative theory were verified by experiments.

  8. Multi-band radio over fiber system with all-optical halfwave rectification, transmission and frequency down-conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel application of all-optical half-wave rectification in the transportation and delivery of multi-frequency radio-over fiber signals. System evaluation was performed of transmission over various optical fiber types and all-optical envelope detection was implemented to achieve...

  9. Thermal self-frequency locking of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.L.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    The increase in the circulating signal and idler fields that occurs in a high-Q doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as it approaches resonance results in a small increase in the crystal temperature owing to absorption of the generated fields. The temperature change affects...... the refractice index of the crystal and alters the optical path length of the cavity. This effect may lend to self-frequency locking of the OPO to a specific resonance of the signal and idler fields, and it also results in peculiarities in the transient response of the system as it is scanned through resonance...

  10. Second harmonic 423-nm laser generated by BIBO crystal for calcium optical frequency standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhui Chen; Bo Lu; Zhixue Xu; Wei Zhuang; Chuang Yu; Deshui Yu; Kaikai Huang; Xuzong Chen; Jinbiao Chen

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one prospective element for the modern optical frequency standard.The 423-nm transition line of calcium atoms has been widely used in laser slowing and laser cooling, the precise spectrum measurement, and the magnetic optical trapping (MOT).However, there is no any available commercial diode laser working at this wavelength.We built a 423-nm laser based on extra bow-tie cavity and by using a Brewster cut uncoated BIBO (BiB3O6) crystal, which worked at room temperature, with conversion efficiency of 3.75%, and a potential up to 20%.

  11. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjugation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  12. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjusation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yang; WANG XiangZhao

    2008-01-01

    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation (FDPC) is based on phase conjugation of spectrum of an input signal. It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal. The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed. Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC. The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  13. Scheme for independently stabilizing the repetition rate and optical frequency of a laser using a regenerative mode-locking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-05-15

    We have succeeded in achieving independent control of the repetition rate and optical frequency of a pulse laser by employing a regenerative mode-locking technique. By adopting a voltage-controlled microwave phase shifter or an optical delay line in a regenerative feedback loop we can control the repetition rate of the laser without directly disturbing the optical frequencies. We experimentally show how this independent control can be realized by employing a 40 GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser.

  14. Eavesdropping time and frequency: phase noise cancellation along a time-varying path, such as an optical fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Grosche, Gesine

    2013-01-01

    Single-mode optical fiber is a highly efficient connecting medium, used not only for optical telecommunications but also for the dissemination of ultra-stable frequencies or timing signals. In 1994, Ma, Jungner, Ye and Hall described a measurement and control system to deliver the same optical frequency at two places, namely the two ends of a fiber, by eliminating the "fiber-induced phase-noise modulation, which corrupts high-precision frequency-based applications". We present a simple detection and control scheme to deliver the same optical frequency at many places anywhere along a transmission path, or in its vicinity, with a relative instability of 1 part in $10^{19}$. The same idea applies to radio frequency and timing signals. This considerably simplifies future efforts to make precise timing/frequency signals available to many users, as required in some large scale science experiments.

  15. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Verhagen, Ewold; L.,; Kuipers,; Polman, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. By properly controlling coupling between adjacent waveguides, a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack exhibiting an isotropic index of -1 can be achieved at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The general concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  16. Three-Dimensional Negative Index of Refraction at Optical Frequencies by Coupling Plasmonic Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L.; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-01

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  17. Weighted interframe averaging-based channel estimation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bangjiang; Li, Yiwei; Zhang, Shihao; Tang, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Weighted interframe averaging (WIFA)-based channel estimation (CE) is presented for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON), in which the CE results of the adjacent frames are directly averaged to increase the estimation accuracy. The effectiveness of WIFA combined with conventional least square, intrasymbol frequency-domain averaging, and minimum mean square error, respectively, is demonstrated through 26.7-km standard single-mode fiber transmission. The experimental results show that the WIFA method with low complexity can significantly enhance transmission performance of OFDM-PON.

  18. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-26

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  19. En face speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy by frequency compounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Hui; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the use of frequency compounding to significantly reduce speckle noise in optical coherence microscopy, more specifically on the en face images. This method relies on the fact that the speckle patterns recorded from different wavelengths simultaneously are independent; hence their summation yields significant reduction in noise, with only a single acquisition. The results of our experiments with microbeads show that the narrow confocal parameter, due to a high numerical aperture objective, restricts the axial resolution loss that would otherwise theoretically broaden linearly with the number of optical frequency bands used. This speckle reduction scheme preserves the lateral resolution since it is performed on individual A-scans. Finally, we apply this technique to images of fixed human brain tissue, showing significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio with only moderate loss of axial resolution, in an effort to improve automatic three-dimensional detection of cells and fibers in the cortex. PMID:27128040

  20. Low-frequency analog signal distribution on digital photonic networks by optical delta-sigma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2013-12-01

    We propose a delta-sigma modulation scheme for low- and medium-frequency signal transmission in a digital photonic network system. A 10-Gb/s-class optical transceiver with a delta-sigma modulator utilized as a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) provides a binary optical signal. On the signal reception side, a low-cost and slow-speed photonic receiver directly converts the binary signal into an analog signal at frequencies from several hundreds of kilohertz several tens of megahertz. Further, by using a clock and data recovery circuit at the receiver to reduce jitters, the single-sideband phase noise of the generated signals can be significantly reduced.

  1. Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, C R; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses has led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine all of these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device. Moreover, our approach simultaneously offers solutions to the performance-limiting issues in the conventionally-used techniques, and supports scaling in power and bandwidth of the laser source. The approach is based on two-dimensional patterning of quasi-phase-matching gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses...

  2. Comparison of different fiber amplifiers in Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Cao, S.; Lin, B.; Fang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, Yb-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency combs (Yb-FOFCs) have obtained high repetition rates and high power outputs, and the wavelengths can cover the visible region by using a photonic crystal fiber to broaden the spectrum. In this paper, f0 (carrier-envelope offset frequency) with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40 dB is generated in an Yb-FOFC by adopting a scheme which includes the three processes of amplifying, broadening the spectrum and detecting f0, and optimizing the system parameters. The effects of two types of amplifiers which employ direct optical pulse amplification and self-similar amplification, respectively, on the output parameters of the amplifiers, minimal output power of the octave spectrum meeting f0 detection requirements, and the SNR of f0 are compared and analyzed in detail.

  3. Stabilized fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for carrier-frequency rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Nathan; Bateman, James; Dunning, Alexander; Freegarde, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated stabilization of a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with a centimeter-scale path difference, to the transmission minimum for the carrier wave of a frequency-modulated laser beam. A time-averaged extinction of 32 dB, limited by the bandwidth of the feedback, was maintained over several hours. The interferometer was used to remove the carrier wave from a 780 nm laser beam that had been phase modulated at 2.7 GHz.

  4. Control of the soliton self-frequency shift dynamics using topographic optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendahmane, A; Vanvincq, O; Mussot, A; Kudlinski, A

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate that the dynamics of the soliton self-frequency shift can be accurately controlled by using tapered optical fibers with optimized longitudinal profile shape (that we term topographic fibers). The tapering profiles tailored for a targeted soliton spectral trajectory through dispersion and nonlinearity management are determined by an inverse algorithm. This control is demonstrated experimentally with topographic photonic crystal fibers fabricated directly on a drawing tower.

  5. Envelope time reversal of optical pulses following frequency conversion with accelerating quasi-phase-matching

    CERN Document Server

    Yachini, Michal; Bahabad, Alon

    2016-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that the use of accelerating spatiotemporal quasi-phase-matching (QPM) modulation patterns in media with parametric optical interactions makes it possible to generate a time-reversed replica of the pump pulse envelope in a frequency converted signal. The conversion is dependent on the group-velocity mismatch between the fundamental and up-converted harmonics, and controlled by the acceleration rate (chirp) of the QPM phase pattern. Analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations.

  6. Laser frequency locking with 46 GHz offset using an electro-optic modulator for magneto-optical trapping of francium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, K; Ezure, S; Kato, K; Hayamizu, T; Kawamura, H; Inoue, T; Arikawa, H; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, T; Uchiyama, A; Sakamoto, K; Ito, S; Itoh, M; Ando, S; Hatakeyama, A; Hatanaka, K; Imai, K; Murakami, T; Nataraj, H S; Shimizu, Y; Sato, T; Wakasa, T; Yoshida, H P; Sakemi, Y

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated a frequency offset locking between two laser sources using a waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM) with 10th-order sidebands for magneto-optical trapping of Fr atoms. The frequency locking error signal was successfully obtained by performing delayed self-homodyne detection of the beat signal between the repumping frequency and the 10th-order sideband component of the trapping light. Sweeping the trapping-light and repumping-light frequencies with keeping its frequency difference of 46 GHz was confirmed over 1 GHz by monitoring the Doppler absorption profile of I2. This technique enables us to search for a resonance frequency of magneto-optical trapping of Fr.

  7. Time-Frequency (Wigner Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Azaña

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-frequency analysis, and, in particular, Wigner analysis, is applied to the study of picosecond pulse propagation through optical fibers in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The effects of first- and second-order group velocity dispersion (GVD and self-phase modulation (SPM are first analyzed separately. The phenomena resulting from the interplay between GVD and SPM in fibers (e.g., soliton formation or optical wave breaking are also investigated in detail. Wigner analysis is demonstrated to be an extremely powerful tool for investigating pulse propagation dynamics in nonlinear dispersive systems (e.g., optical fibers, providing a clearer and deeper insight into the physical phenomena that determine the behavior of these systems.

  8. Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films deposited by the radio-frequency sputtering technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A ATTA; M M EL-NAHASS; KHALED M ELSABAWY; M M ABD EL-RAHEEM; A M HASSANIEN; A ALHUTHALI; ALI BADAWI; AMAR MERAZGA

    2016-11-01

    Transparent metal oxide thin films of samarium oxide (Sm$_2$O$_3$) were prepared on pre-cleaned fused optically flat quartz substrates by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique. The as-deposited thin films were annealed at different temperatures (873, 973 and 1073 K) for 4 h in air under normal atmospheric pressure. The topological morphology of the film surface was characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical properties of the as-prepared and annealed thin films were studied using their reflectance and transmittance spectra at nearly normal incident light. The estimated direct optical band gap energy (E$^{d}_{g}$ ) values were found to increase by increasing the annealing temperatures. The dispersion curves of the refractive index of Sm$_2$O$_3$ thin films were found to obey the single oscillator model.

  9. Colloidal superlattices for unnaturally high-index metamaterials at broadband optical frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-01-01

    The recent advance in the assembly of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has enabled sophisticated engineering of unprecedented light-matter interaction at the optical domain. In this work, I expand the design flexibility of NP optical metamaterial to push the upper limit of accessible refractive index to the unnaturally high regime. The precise control over the geometrical parameters of NP superlattice monolayer conferred the dramatic increase in electric resonance and related effective permittivity far beyond the naturally accessible regime. Simultaneously, effective permeability, another key factor to achieving high refractive index, was effectively suppressed by reducing the thickness of NPs. By establishing this design rule, I have achieved unnaturally high refractive index (15.7 at the electric resonance and 7.3 at the quasi-static limit) at broadband optical frequencies (100 THz ~ 300 THz). I also combined this NP metamaterial with graphene to electrically control the high refractive index over the broad opt...

  10. Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Harald; Terra, Osama; Predehl, Katharina; Feldmann, Thorsten; Legero, Thomas; Lipphardt, Burghard; Sterr, Uwe; Grosche, Gesine; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Udem, Thomas; Lu, Zehuang H; Wang, Li J; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Friebe, Jan; Pape, Andrè; Rasel, Ernst-M; Riedmann, Mathias; Wübbena, Temmo

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the performance of 2 "dark fibers" of a commercial telecommunication fiber link for a remote comparison of optical clocks. These fibers establish a network in Germany that will eventually link optical frequency standards at PTB with those at the Institute of Quantum Optics (IQ) at the Leibniz University of Hanover, and the Max Planck Institutes in Erlangen (MPL) and Garching (MPQ). We demonstrate for the first time that within several minutes a phase coherent comparison of clock lasers at the few 10(-15) level can also be accomplished when the lasers are more than 100 km apart. Based on the performance of the fiber link to the IQ, we estimate the expected stability for the link from PTB to MPQ via MPL that bridges a distance of approximately 900 km.

  11. Optical feedback characteristics in a dual-frequency laser during laser cavity tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gang; Zhang Shu-Lian; Li Yan; Zhu Jun

    2005-01-01

    The optical feedback characteristics in a Zeeman-birefringence dual-frequency laser are studied during the laser cavity tuning in three different kinds of optical feedback conditions: (i) only //-light is fed back; (ii) only (┴)-light is fed back; (iii) both lights are fed back. A compact displacement sensor is designed using the experimental result that there is a nearly 90 degrees phase delay between the two lights' cosine optical feedback signals when both lights are fed back into the laser cavity. The priority order that the two lights' intensity curves appear can be used for direction discrimination. The resolution of the displacement sensor is at least 79 nm, and the sensor can discriminate the target's moving direction easily.

  12. Influence of optical feedback on laser frequency spectrum and threshold conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Jens Henrik; Gade, Niels

    1983-01-01

    The steady state behavior of the external cavity operated laser has been analyzed, taking into account multiple reflections. The effect of optical feedback is included in the phase- and gain-conditions by a factor which is shown to have a simple geometrical representation. From this representation...... it is easily seen how the laser frequency spectrum and the threshold gain depend on external parameters such as distance to the reflection point and the amount of optical feedback. Furthermore, by inserting a variable attenuator in the external cavity and measuring the threshold current versus transmittance we...... have simultaneously determined the photon lifetime and the absolute amount of optical feedback. For the laser considered we found the photon lifetimetau_{p} = 1.55ps....

  13. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Balram, Krishna C; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of optical and mechanical modes in nanoscale optomechanical systems has been widely studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for cavity optomechanical circuits in which localized and interacting 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency field through the piezo-electric effect, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. We use this to demonstrate a novel acoustic wave interference effect, analogous to coherent population trapping in atomic systems, in which the coherent mechanical motion induced by the electrical drive can be completely cancelled out by the optically-driven motion. The ability to manipulate cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through either photonic or phononic channels enables new device and system architectures for signal transduction betwee...

  14. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.

  15. Influence of PDMS encapsulation on the sensitivity and frequency range of fiber-optic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are one of the dynamically developing areas of photonics and photonic applications. This group of sensors can also include fiber-optic interferometers which enable very sensitive sensing. They are entirely passive regarding power supply, and immune to electromagnetic interference. This type of sensor is dependent on the phase change. It mostly used in the field which requires high measurement accuracy. We can achieve a change of sensitivity in the order of 10-8. The fundamental problem of fiber-optic interferometry is a design and imposition (encapsulation) of the measuring arm and reference arm of the interferometer. Polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMS) is one of the possibilities to encapsulation of the sensory arm. Two-component PDMS Sylgard 184 is used type. The article analyzes the effect of encapsulation into a PDMS of the measuring arm of the interferometer to frequency response and sensitivity of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the division of power in a ratio of 1:1 (measuring arm and reference arm). Input power set to a reference value of 1 mW, this value was constant for all performed experimental measurements. The generator of a harmonic signal with fixed amplitude signal used for analysis of the frequency characteristic of the interferometer. The application written in LabView development environment, evaluated the amplitude-frequency spectra of the signal. Repeated test of assembled prototype verified the measured results.

  16. In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, C; Bolognini, G; Calonico, D; Faralli, S; Mura, A; Levi, F

    2015-04-20

    Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) is widely exploited for the transmission of broadband, modulated signals used in data links, but not yet in coherent optical links for frequency metrology, where the requirements are rather different. After preliminary tests on fiber spools, in this paper we deeper investigate Raman amplification on deployed in-field optical metrological links. We actually test a Doppler-stabilized optical link both on a 94 km-long metro-network implementation with multiplexed ITU data channels and on a 180 km-long dedicated fiber haul connecting two cities, where DRA is employed in combination with Erbium-doped fiber amplification (EDFA). The performance of DRA is detailed in both experiments, indicating that it does not introduce noticeable penalties for the metrological signal or for the ITU data channels. We hence show that Raman amplification of metrological signals can be compatible with a wavelength division multiplexing architecture and that it can be used as an alternative or in combination with dedicated bidirectional EDFAs. No deterioration is noticed in the coherence properties of the delivered signal, which attains frequency instability at the 10(-19) level in both cases. This study can be of interest also in view of the undergoing deployment of continental fiber networks for frequency metrology.

  17. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication. PMID:27609521

  18. Time-frequency analysis in optical coherence tomography for technical objects examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    StrÄ kowski, Marcin R.; Kraszewski, Maciej; Trojanowski, Michał; Pluciński, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most advanced optical measurement techniques for complex structure visualization. The advantages of OCT have been used for surface and subsurface defect detection in composite materials, polymers, ceramics, non-metallic protective coatings, and many more. Our research activity has been focused on timefrequency spectroscopic analysis in OCT. It is based on time resolved spectral analysis of the backscattered optical signal delivered by the OCT. The time-frequency method gives spectral characteristic of optical radiation backscattered or backreflected from the particular points inside the tested device. This provides more information about the sample, which are useful for further analysis. Nowadays, the applications of spectroscopic analysis for composite layers characterization or tissue recognition have been reported. During our studies we have found new applications of spectroscopic analysis. We have used this method for thickness estimation of thin films, which are under the resolution of OCT. Also, we have combined the spectroscopic analysis with polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT). This approach enables to obtain a multiorder retardation value directly and may become a breakthrough in PS-OCT measurements of highly birefringent media. In this work, we present the time-frequency spectroscopic algorithms and their applications for OCT. Also, the theoretical simulations and measurement validation of this method are shown.

  19. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-09-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication.

  20. Long-distance remote comparison of ultrastable optical frequencies with 10(-15) instability in fractions of a second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, A; Terra, O; Friebe, J; Riedmann, M; Wübbena, T; Rasel, E M; Predehl, K; Legero, T; Lipphardt, B; Schnatz, H; Grosche, G

    2010-09-27

    We demonstrate a fully optical, long-distance remote comparison of independent ultrastable optical frequencies reaching a short term stability that is superior to any reported remote comparison of optical frequencies. We use two ultrastable lasers, which are separated by a geographical distance of more than 50 km, and compare them via a 73 km long phase-stabilized fiber in a commercial telecommunication network. The remote characterization spans more than one optical octave and reaches a fractional frequency instability between the independent ultrastable laser systems of 3 x 10 (-15) in 0.1 s. The achieved performance at 100 ms represents an improvement by one order of magnitude to any previously reported remote comparison of optical frequencies and enables future remote dissemination of the stability of 100 mHz linewidth lasers within seconds.

  1. Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Terra, O; Schnatz, H

    2010-01-01

    We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2x10-18 and an instability sigma(tau) = 2x10-14/(tau/second).

  2. Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, O; Grosche, G; Schnatz, H

    2010-07-19

    We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2 x 10(-18) and an instability sigma y(tau) = 2 x 10(-14) /(tau/s).

  3. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10(-16) relative uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-04-01

    Optical frequency combs-coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations-have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb's two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of [Formula: see text]. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10(-16), heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography.

  4. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10−16 relative uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H.; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs—coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations—have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb’s two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of 3.6mHz/τ. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10−16, heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  5. Observation of the inverse Doppler effect in negative-index materials at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabi; Wang, Yan; Jia, Baohua; Geng, Tao; Li, Xiangping; Feng, Lie; Qian, Wei; Liang, Bingming; Zhang, Xuanxiong; Gu, Min; Zhuang, Songlin

    2011-04-01

    The Doppler effect is a fundamental frequency shift phenomenon that occurs whenever a wave source and an observer are moving with respect to one another. It has well-established applications in astrophotonics, biological diagnostics, weather and aircraft radar systems, velocimetry and vibrometry. The counterintuitive inverse Doppler effect was theoretically predicted in 1968 by Veselago in negative-index materials. However, because of the tremendous challenges of frequency shift measurements inside such materials, most investigations of the inverse Doppler effect have been limited to theoretical predictions and numerical simulations. Indirect experimental measurements have been conducted only in nonlinear transmission lines at ~1-2 GHz (ref. 8) and in acoustic media at 1-3 kHz (ref. 9). Here, we report the first experimental observation of the inverse Doppler shift at an optical frequency (λ = 10.6 µm) by refracting a laser beam in a photonic-crystal prism that has the properties of a negative-index material.

  6. Effects of laser frequency drift in phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry fiber sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirnov, Andrey; Stepanov, Konstantin; Nesterov, Evgeny; Karasik, Valery; Svelto, Cesare; Pnev, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The present work studies the influence of laser frequency drifts on operating of phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry ($\\Phi$-OTDR) fiber sensors. A mathematical model and numerical simulations are employed to highlight the influence of frequency drifts of light sources on two characteristic scales: large-time (minutes) and short-time (milliseconds) frequency drifts. Numerical simulation results are compared with predictions given by the fluctuation ratio coefficient (FRC), and they are in a qualitative agreement. In addition to qualitative criteria for light sources given by the FRC, quantitive requirements for optimal light sources for $\\Phi$-OTDR sensors are obtained. Numerical simulation results are verified by comparison with experimental data for three significantly different types of light source.

  7. Implementation of a single femtosecond optical frequency comb for molecular cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, W

    2010-01-01

    We show that a single femtosecond optical frequency comb may be used to induce two-photon transitions between molecular vibrational levels to form ultracold molecules, e.g., KRb. The phase across an individual pulse in the pulse train is sinusoidally modulated with a carefully chosen amplitude and modulation frequency. Piecewise adiabatic population transfer is fulfilled to the final state by each pulse in the applied pulse train providing a controlled population accumulation in the final state. Detuning the pule train parameters to less than the frequency difference between the initial and final states changes the time scale of molecular dynamics but leads to the same complete population transfer to the cold state.

  8. Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo

    -signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain......The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small...... copression in the lasing mode. An integral equation for the electrical field is derived from the frequency domain model and used for time domain simulations of large-signal behavior....

  9. Joint time and frequency dissemination network over delay-stabilized fiber optic links

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Cheng, Nan; Xu, Dan; Yang, Fei; Gui, Youzhen; Cai, Haiwen

    2015-01-01

    A precise fiber-based time and frequency dissemination scheme for multiple users with a tree-like branching topology is proposed. Through this scheme, ultra-stable signals can be easily accessed online anywhere along the fiber without affecting other sites. The scheme is tested through an experiment, in which a modulated frequency signal and a synchronized time signal are transferred to multiple remote sites over a delay-stabilized fiber optic links that are over 50 km long. Results show that the relative stabilities are 5E-14@1s and 2E-17@10000s. Meanwhile, compared with each site, time synchronization precision is less than 80 ps. These results can pave the way to practical applications in joint time and frequency dissemination network systems.

  10. Quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A new quasi-optical antenna-mixer-array design for terahertz frequencies is presented. In the design, antenna and mixer are combined into an entity, based on the technology in which millimeter-wave horn antenna arrays have been fabricated in silicon wafers. It consists of a set of forward- and backward-looking horns made with a set of silicon wafers. The front side is used to receive incoming signal, and the back side is used to feed local oscillator signal. Intermediate frequency is led out from the side of the array. Signal received by the horn array is picked up by antenna probes suspended on thin silicon-oxynitride membranes inside the horns. Mixer diodes will be located on the membranes inside the horns. Modeling of such an antenna-mixer-array design is done on a scaled model at microwave frequencies. The impedance matching, RF and LO isolation, and patterns of the array have been tested and analyzed.

  11. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  12. Monitoring of interaction of low-frequency electric field with biological tissues upon optical clearing with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adrián F.; Doronin, Alexander; Tuchin, Valery V.; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-08-01

    The influence of a low-frequency electric field applied to soft biological tissues ex vivo at normal conditions and upon the topical application of optical clearing agents has been studied by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The electro-kinetic response of tissues has been observed and quantitatively evaluated by the double correlation OCT approach, utilizing consistent application of an adaptive Wiener filtering and Fourier domain correlation algorithm. The results show that fluctuations, induced by the electric field within the biological tissues are exponentially increased in time. We demonstrate that in comparison to impedance measurements and the mapping of the temperature profile at the surface of the tissue samples, the double correlation OCT approach is much more sensitive to the changes associated with the tissues' electro-kinetic response. We also found that topical application of the optical clearing agent reduces the tissues' electro-kinetic response and is cooling the tissue, thus reducing the temperature induced by the electric current by a few degrees. We anticipate that dcOCT approach can find a new application in bioelectrical impedance analysis and monitoring of the electric properties of biological tissues, including the resistivity of high water content tissues and its variations.

  13. Evaluating the thermal stability of multi-pass cells' effective optical path length using optical frequency domain reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Cao, Xiuhan; Li, Jinyi; Du, Zhenhui

    2016-10-01

    Multi-pass cells (MPCs) are commonly used to improve the sensitivity for trace gas detection using spectroscopy technologies. The determination of Effective Optical Path Length (EOPL) of a MPC is very important and challenging in applications which aim at absolute measurements. It is well-known that the temperature changing will exercise some influence on the MPCs' spatial structure, however, measurements of the influence haven't been reported which might due to the limitation of measuring method. In this paper, we used a direct high-precision measuring method with Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) to evaluate the thermal stability of a multi-pass cell. To simulate the environment with a large range of temperature changing, this paper gave a series of experiments by setting the temperature control unit in system from 25 to 175 degree Celsius, and the MPC's EOPL was measured simultaneously for the investigation of temperature response. The results showed that the effective optical path length increase monotonically along with the variation of the temperature, and the rising rate is 0.5 mm/ºC with the total length of about 3 meters which should be pay attention to when the ultra-high accuracy results are demanded. To stabilize the EOPL of the system, if it is possible, the environment temperature of gas cell can be controlled with a constant temperature. In practical applications, the real-time monitoring of EOPL with a direct measuring method may be necessary.

  14. Spatial transformation-enabled electromagnetic devices: from radio frequencies to optical wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Turpin, Jeremy P; Morgan, Kennith; Lu, Bingqian; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-08-28

    Transformation optics provides scientists and engineers with a new powerful design paradigm to manipulate the flow of electromagnetic waves in a user-defined manner and with unprecedented flexibility, by controlling the spatial distribution of the electromagnetic properties of a medium. Using this approach, over the past decade, various previously undiscovered physical wave phenomena have been revealed and novel electromagnetic devices have been demonstrated throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we present versatile theoretical and experimental investigations on designing transformation optics-enabled devices for shaping electromagnetic wave radiation and guidance, at both radio frequencies and optical wavelengths. Different from conventional coordinate transformations, more advanced and versatile coordinate transformations are exploited here to benefit diverse applications, thereby providing expanded design flexibility, enhanced device performance, as well as reduced implementation complexity. These design examples demonstrate the comprehensive capability of transformation optics in controlling electromagnetic waves, while the associated novel devices will open up new paths towards future integrated electromagnetic component synthesis and design, from microwave to optical spectral regimes.

  15. Sensitivity and resolution in frequency comb spectroscopy of buffer gas cooled polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changala, P. Bryan; Spaun, Ben; Patterson, David; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the use of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region with buffer gas cooling of polyatomic molecules for high-precision rovibrational absorption spectroscopy. A frequency comb coupled to an optical enhancement cavity allows us to collect high-resolution, broad-bandwidth infrared spectra of translationally and rotationally cold (10-20 K) gas-phase molecules with high absorption sensitivity and fast acquisition times. The design and performance of the combined apparatus are discussed in detail. Recorded rovibrational spectra in the CH stretching region of several organic molecules, including vinyl bromide (CH_2CHBr), adamantane (C_{10}H_{16}), and diamantane (C_{14}H_{20}) demonstrate the resolution and sensitivity of this technique, as well as the intrinsic challenges faced in extending the frontier of high-resolution spectroscopy to large complex molecules.

  16. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  17. Raman Self-Frequency Shift of Dissipative Kerr Solitons in an Optical Microresonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Maxim; Guo, Hairun; Kordts, Arne; Brasch, Victor; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Zervas, Michail; Geiselmann, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-03-11

    The formation of temporal dissipative Kerr solitons in microresonators driven by a continuous-wave laser enables the generation of coherent, broadband, and spectrally smooth optical frequency combs as well as femtosecond pulse sources with compact form factors. Here we report the observation of a Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift for a microresonator dissipative Kerr soliton also referred to as the frequency-locked Raman soliton. In amorphous silicon nitride microresonator-based single soliton states the Raman effect manifests itself by a spectrum that is sech^{2} in shape and whose center is spectrally redshifted from the continuous wave pump laser. The shift is theoretically described by the first-order shock term of the material's Raman response, and we infer a Raman shock time of ∼20  fs for amorphous silicon nitride. Moreover, we observe that the Raman-induced frequency shift can lead to a cancellation or overcompensation of the soliton recoil caused by the formation of a coherent dispersive wave. The observations are in agreement with numerical simulations based on the Lugiato-Lefever equation with a Raman shock term. Our results contribute to the understanding of Kerr frequency combs in the soliton regime, enable one to substantially improve the accuracy of modeling, and are relevant to the understanding of the fundamental timing jitter of microresonator solitons.

  18. Frequency-domain analysis of computer-controlled optical surfacing processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Mid-high spatial frequency errors are often induced on optical surfaces polished by computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) processes. In order to efficiently remove these errors, which would degrade the performances of optical systems, the ability of a CCOS process to correct the errors have been investigated based on the convolution integral model in view of the availability of material removal. To quantify the ability, some conceptions, such as figure correcting ability and material removal availability (MRA), have been proposed. The research result reveals that the MRA of the CCOS process to correct a single spatial frequency error is determined by its tool removal function (TRF), and it equals the normalized amplitude spectrum of the Fourier transform of its TRF. Finally, three sine surfaces were etched using ion beam figuring (IBF), which is a typical CCOS process. The experimental results have verified the theoretical analysis. The employed method and the conclusions of this work provide a useful mathematical basis to analyze and optimize CCOS processes.

  19. Frequency ratios of Sr, Yb and Hg based optical lattice clocks and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Takamoto, Masao; Das, Manoj; Nemitz, Nils; Ohkubo, Takuya; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Takano, Tetsushi; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the recent progress of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium ($^{87}$Sr), ytterbium ($^{171}$Yb) and mercury ($^{199}$Hg) atoms. In particular, we present frequency comparison between the clocks locally via an optical frequency comb and between two Sr clocks at remote sites using a phase-stabilized fibre link. We first review cryogenic Sr optical lattice clocks that reduce the room-temperature blackbody radiation shift by two orders of magnitude and serve as a reference in the following clock comparisons. Similar physical properties of Sr and Yb atoms, such as transition wavelengths and vapour pressure, have allowed our development of a compatible clock for both species. A cryogenic Yb clock is evaluated by referencing a Sr clock. We also report on a Hg clock, which shows one order of magnitude less sensitivity to blackbody radiation, while its large nuclear charge makes the clock sensitive to the variation of fine-structure constant. Connecting all three types of clocks by an o...

  20. Evaluation of thermal expansion coefficient of Fabry-Perot cavity using an optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulehla, Jindřich; Šmíd, Radek; Buchta, Zdeněk; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Jedlička, Petr; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2011-05-01

    In construction of highly mechanically stable measuring devices like AFM microscopes or nano-comparators the use of low expansion materials is very necessary. We can find Zerodur ceramics or ULE glasses used as a frame or basement of these devices. The expansion coefficient of such low-expansion materials is lower than 0.01 x 10-6 m•K-1. For example in case of a frame or basement 20 cm long it leads to a dilatation approximately 4 nm per 1 K. For calculation of the total uncertainty of the mentioned measuring devices the knowledge of the thermal expansion coefficient of the frame or basement is necessary. In this work we present a method, where small distance changes are transformed into rf-frequency signal. The frequency of this signal is detected by a counter which measures the value of the frequency with respect to an ultra-stable time-base. This method uses a Fabry-Perot cavity as a distance measuring tool. The spacer of the optical resonator is made from the investigated low-expansion material. It is placed into a vacuum chamber where the inside temperature is controlled. A selected mode of the femtosecond frequency of the femtosecond comb which represent the distance changes of the optical resonator. The frequency is measured by the rf-counter which is synchronized by a time-base signal from an atomic clock. The first results show the resolution of the method in the 0.1 nm order. Therefore the method has a potential in characterisation of materials in the nanoworld.

  1. Measurement of optical-beat frequency in a photoconductive terahertz-wave generator using microwave higher harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Kengo; Sato, Koki; Hidaka, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    A new method for measuring optical-beat frequencies in the terahertz (THz) region using microwave higher harmonics is presented. A microwave signal was applied to the antenna gap of a photoconductive (PC) device emitting a continuous electromagnetic wave at about 1 THz by the photomixing technique. The microwave higher harmonics with THz frequencies are generated in the PC device owing to the nonlinearity of the biased photoconductance, which is briefly described in this article. Thirteen nearly periodic peaks in the photocurrent were observed when the microwave was swept from 16 to 20 GHz at a power of -48 dBm. The nearly periodic peaks are generated by the homodyne detection of the optical beat with the microwave higher harmonics when the frequency of the harmonics coincides with the optical-beat frequency. Each peak frequency and its peak width were determined by fitting a Gaussian function, and the order of microwave harmonics was determined using a coarse (i.e., lower resolution) measurement of the optical-beat frequency. By applying the Kalman algorithm to the peak frequencies of the higher harmonics and their standard deviations, the optical-beat frequency near 1 THz was estimated to be 1029.81 GHz with the standard deviation of 0.82 GHz. The proposed method is applicable to a conventional THz-wave generator with a photomixer.

  2. Linear systems modeling of adaptive optics in the spatial-frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbroek, Brent L

    2005-02-01

    Spatial-frequency domain techniques have traditionally been applied to obtain estimates for the independent effects of a variety of individual error sources in adaptive optics (AO). Overall system performance is sometimes estimated by introducing the approximation that these individual error terms are statistically independent, so that their magnitudes may be summed in quadrature. More accurate evaluation methods that account for the correlations between the individual error sources have required Monte Carlo simulations or large matrix calculations that can take much longer to compute, particularly as the order of the AO system increases beyond a few hundred degrees of freedom. We describe an approach to evaluating AO system performance in the spatial-frequency domain that is relatively computationally efficient but still accounts for many of the interactions between the fundamental error sources in AO. We exploit the fact that (in the limits of an infinite aperture and geometrical optics) all the basic wave-front propagation, sensing, and correction processes that describe the behavior of an AO system are spatial-filtering operations in the Fourier domain. Essentially all classical wave-front control algorithms and evaluation formulas are expressed in terms of these filters and may therefore be evaluated one spatial-frequency component at a time. Performance estimates for very-high-order AO systems may be obtained in 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less time than needed when detailed simulations or analytical models in the spatial domain are used, with a relative discrepancy of 5% to 10% for typical sample problems.

  3. Laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion in an optical frequency standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepurov, S V; Lugovoy, A A; Kuznetsov, S N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-30

    A laser system for Doppler cooling of ytterbium ion on the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition in a single-ion optical frequency standard is developed. The second harmonic of a semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 739 nm is used for cooling. The laser frequency is doubled in a nonlinear BiBO crystal embedded in a ring resonator, which also serves as a reference for laser frequency stabilisation. Second-harmonic power of ∼100 μW is generated at a wavelength of 369.5 nm. Diode laser radiation is modulated by an electro-optic modulator at 14.75 GHz to generate a sideband exciting the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) → {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} (F = 1) hyperfine component of the cooling transition that is not excited by resonant cooling light. The sideband relative intensity of a few percent proved to be sufficient to reduce the ion dwelling time in the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (F = 0) state to less than 10{sup -4} s and increase the cooling efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  4. Frequency division multiplexed microwave and baseband digital optical fiber link for phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Peter J.; McClay, C. Phillip

    1990-05-01

    A frequency-division multiplexed optical fiber link is described in which microwave (1-8 GHz) and baseband digital (1-10 Mb/s) signals are combined electrically and transmitted through a direct-modulation microwave optical link. The microwave signal does not affect bit error rate (BER) performance of the Manchester-coded baseband digital data link. The baseband digital signal affects microwave signal quality by generating second-order intermodulation noise. The intermodulation noise power density is found to be proportional to both the microwave input power and the digital input power, enabling the system to be modeled as a mixer (AM modulator). The conversion loss for the digital signal is approximately 68 dB for a 1-GHz microwave signal and is highly dependent on the microwave frequency, reaching a minimum value of 41 dB at 4.5 GHz, corresponding to the laser diode relaxation oscillation frequency. It is shown that Manchester coding on the digital link places the intermodulation noise peak away from the microwave signal, preventing degradation of close-carrier phase noise (<1 kHz offset). A direct trade-off between intermodulation noise and digital link margin is developed to project system performance.

  5. Using a fourth-generation cavity enhanced spectrometer to isotopically investigate nitrous oxide emissions from biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhofer, Jutta; Dercon, Gerd; Heiling, Maria; Mayr, Leo; Resch, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Research into the impacts of biochar on key processes in the nitrogen cycle is important to understand biochar's potential role in sustainable agriculture. There is conflicting evidence that biochar can reduce globally significant greenhouse gas emissions, especially N2O, one of the most important greenhouse gases in agriculture. However to date there is little information on the mechanisms involved. The source of N2O is dependent on the physical, chemical and biological status of the soil at a microbial scale and we need to understand how biochar influences it. Using the 15N2O gas flux method combined with gross rate measurements of nitrification and modelling, it should be possible to determine the parameters which drive N2O emissions and to evaluate the specific impact of biochar on these important N loss processes. To date the scope of isotopic studies on nitrous oxide emissions have been limited, due in part to technical and infrastructural access to complex and expensive mass spectrometry. With the advent of laser based systems these logistical and analytical constraints could be overcome and allow for a deeper and geographically more representative, understanding and assessment of the role of biochar in reducing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. In this study we have developed a simple method for investigated nitrous oxide emissions from soils amended with biochar, employing state of the art stable isotope techniques, using a fourth-generation cavity enhanced absorption technique a variant of conventional Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) for measurement of isotopes of nitrous oxide. We will present methodologies used and results from these experiments, techniques that should path the way for a greater global understand nitrous oxide emissions from soils.

  6. Frequency domain laser ultrasonics: Optical transduction of acoustic waves and nanomechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhavar, Suraj

    The concept of optical excitation and detection of nanoscale mechanical motion has led to a variety of tools for non-destructive materials characterization and remote sensing. These techniques, commonly referred to as laser ultrasonics, offer the benefit of high-bandwidth, highly localized measurements, and also allow for the ability to investigate nanoscale devices. The impact of laser ultrasonic systems has been felt in industries ranging from semiconductor metrology to biological and chemical sensing. In this thesis, we develop a variety of techniques utilizing a frequency domain laser ultrasonic approach, where amplitude modulated continuous wave laser light is used instead of traditional pulsed laser sources, and we apply these systems in free-space, optical fiber based, and integrated on-chip configurations. In doing so, we demonstrate the ability to efficiently transduce various types of mechanical motion including surface and bulk acoustic waves, guided acoustic waves, and resonant motion from nanomechanical systems (NEMS). First, we develop a superheterodyne free-space ultrasonic inspection system in an effort to characterize surface acoustic wave dispersion in thin-film material systems. We utilize a similar system to study negative refraction and focusing behavior of guided elastic waves in a thin metal plate, providing a novel approach for the study of negative index physics. Furthermore, we develop a near-field optical technique using optical fibers to simultaneously transduce the motion of 70 NEMS resonators using a single channel. This multiplexed approach serves as a crucial step in moving NEMS technology out of the research laboratory. Finally, we go on to study opto-mechanical interactions between optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators and integrated NEMS devices on the same chip, using the enhanced interactions to study optical forces acting on the nanoscale mechanical devices. This integrated system provides a very efficient mechanical

  7. Absolute frequency measurement of an SF6 two-photon line using a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amy-Klein, A; Guinet, M; Daussy, C; López, O; Shelkovnikov, A; Chardonnet, C; Amy-Klein, Anne; Goncharov, Andrei; Guinet, Mickael; Daussy, Christophe; Lopez, Olivier; Shelkovnikov, Alexander; Chardonnet, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new simple technique to measure IR frequencies near 30 THz using a femtosecond (fs) laser optical comb and sum-frequency generation. The optical frequency is directly compared to the distance between two modes of the fs laser, and the resulting beat note is used to control this distance which depends only on the repetition rate fr of the fs laser. The absolute frequency of a CO2 laser stabilized onto an SF6 two-photon line has been measured for the first time. This line is an attractive alternative to the usual saturated absorption OsO4 resonances used for the stabilization of CO2 lasers. First results demonstrate a fractional Allan deviation of 3.10-14 at 1 s.

  8. Ultrahigh-frequency microwave phase shifts mediated by ultrafast dynamics in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel scheme to achieve tunable microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on wavelength conversion induced by high-speed cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.......We present a novel scheme to achieve tunable microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on wavelength conversion induced by high-speed cross-gain modulation in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  9. Application of Electron-Shelving Detection via 423 nm Transition in Calcium-Beam Optical Frequency Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Kai-Kai; ZHANG Jian-Wei; YU De-Shui; CHEN Zhen-Hui; ZHUAN Wei; CHEN Jing-Biao

    2006-01-01

    A new scheme of small compact optical frequency standard based on thermal calcium beam with application of 423 nm shelving detection and sharp-angle velocity selection detection is proposed. Combining these presented techniques, we conclude that a small compact optical frequency standard based on thermal calcium beam will outperform the commercial caesium-beam microwave clock, like the 5071 Cs clock (from HP to Agilent, now Symmetricom company), both in accuracy and stability.

  10. High frequency electro-optic measurement of strained silicon racetrack resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Borghi, M; Merget, F; Witzens, J; Bernard, M; Ghulinyan, M; Pucker, G; Pavesi, L

    2015-01-01

    The observation of the electro-optic effect in strained silicon waveguides has been considered as a direct manifestation of an induced $\\chi^{(2)}$ non-linearity in the material. In this work, we perform high frequency measurements on strained silicon racetrack resonators. Strain is controlled by a mechanical deformation of the waveguide. It is shown that any optical modulation vanishes independently of the applied strain when the applied voltage varies much faster than the carrier effective lifetime, and that the DC modulation is also largely independent of the applied strain. This demonstrates that plasma carrier dispersion is responsible for the observed electro-optic effect. After normalizing out free carrier effects, our results set an upper limit of $8\\,pm/V$ to the induced high-speed $\\chi^{(2)}_{eff,zzz}$ tensor element at an applied stress of $-0.5\\,GPa$. This upper limit is about one order of magnitude lower than the previously reported values for static electro-optic measurements.

  11. High-frequency electro-optic measurement of strained silicon racetrack resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M; Mancinelli, M; Merget, F; Witzens, J; Bernard, M; Ghulinyan, M; Pucker, G; Pavesi, L

    2015-11-15

    The observation of the electro-optic effect in strained silicon waveguides has been considered a direct manifestation of an induced χ(2) nonlinearity in the material. In this work, we perform high-frequency measurements on strained silicon racetrack resonators. Strain is controlled by a mechanical deformation of the waveguide. It is shown that any optical modulation vanishes, independent of the applied strain, when the applied voltage varies much faster than the carrier effective lifetime and that the DC modulation is also largely independent of the applied strain. This demonstrates that plasma carrier dispersion is responsible for the observed electro-optic effect. After normalizing out free-carrier effects, our results set an upper limit of (8±3) pm/V to the induced high-speed effective χeff,zzz(2) tensor element at an applied stress of -0.5 GPa. This upper limit is about 1 order of magnitude lower than previously reported values for static electro-optic measurements.

  12. High sensitivity resonance frequency measurements of individualmicro-cantilevers using fiber optical interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duden, Thomas; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2009-03-04

    We describe a setup for the resonance frequency measurement of individual microcantilevers. The setup displays both high spatial selectivity and sensitivity to specimen vibrations by utilizing a tapered uncoated fiber tip. The high sensitivity to specimen vibrations is achieved by the combination of optical Fabry-Perot interferometry and narrow band RF detection. Wave fronts reflected on the specimen and on the fiber tip end face interfere, thus no reference plane on the specimen is needed, as demonstrated with the example of freestanding silicon nitride micro-cantilevers. The resulting system is integrated in a DB-235 dual beam FIB system, thereby allowing the measurement of micro-cantilever responses during observation in SEM mode. The FIB was used to modify the optical fiber tip. At this point of our RF system development, the microcantilevers used to characterize the detector were not modified in situ.

  13. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-03

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission.

  14. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  15. Digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation for coherent optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Donghe; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenbo; Qiao, Yaojun; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-21

    We present a digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation (FOE) method for coherent optical transmission systems. Unlike the conventional pilot tone insertion scheme, the pilot of the proposed method is generated in a digital manner and can serve as a good FOE indicator. Aided by this kind of digital pilot, the FOE is implemented by determining the location of the digital pilot in the spectrum. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the proposed method has the advantages in wide range, high accuracy, modulation formats independent, no need to remove the modulation, and high tolerance to the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD).

  16. Frequency-Domain Chromatic Dispersion Equalization Using Overlap-Add Methods in Coherent Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Forzati, Marco; Martensson, Jonas; Mussolin, Marco; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-01-01

    The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

  17. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Joffray; Šmíd, Radek; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Alexandre, Christophe; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  18. Generating topological optical flux lattices for ultracold atoms by modulated Raman and radio-frequency couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinlong; Xu, Zhi-Fang; You, Li

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to dynamically generate optical flux lattices with nontrivial band topology using amplitude-modulated Raman lasers and radio-frequency (rf) magnetic fields. By tuning the strength of Raman and rf fields, three distinct phases are realized at unit filling for a unit cell. Respectively, these three phases correspond to normal insulator, topological Chern insulator, and semimetal. Nearly nondispersive bands are found to appear in the topological phase, which promises opportunities for investigating strongly correlated quantum states within a simple cold-atom setup. The validity of our proposal is confirmed by comparing the Floquet quasienergies from the evolution operator with the spectrum of the effective Hamiltonian.

  19. Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail: andre_charette@uqac.ca

    2007-03-15

    A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients.

  20. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.

  1. Resonance Frequency of Optical Microbubble Resonators: Direct Measurements and Mitigation of Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Alessandro; Berneschi, Simone; Giannetti, Ambra; Farnesi, Daniele; Cosi, Franco; Baldini, Francesco; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia; Barucci, Andrea; Righini, Giancarlo; Pelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the improvements in the sensing capabilities and precision of an Optical Microbubble Resonator due to the introduction of an encaging poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) box. A frequency fluctuation parameter σ was defined as a score of resonance stability and was evaluated in the presence and absence of the encaging system and in the case of air- or water-filling of the cavity. Furthermore, the noise interference introduced by the peristaltic and the syringe pumping system was studied. The measurements showed a reduction of σ in the presence of the encaging PMMA box and when the syringe pump was used as flowing system. PMID:27589761

  2. A proposal for the generation of optical frequency comb in temperature insensitive microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xun; Bian, Dandan; Chen, Shaowu

    2016-11-01

    We numerically simulate the generation of an optical frequency comb (OFC) in a microring based on the traditional Si3N4 strip waveguide and a temperature compensated slot waveguide. The results show that OFCs are susceptible to temperature with strip waveguide while they can keep stable when temperature changes 10 K in either low-Q (105) or high-Q (106) microcavity with the well-designed slot waveguide, which has great superiority in practical applications where the temperature drift of the cavity due to the intense pump or surrounding change is unavoidable. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435002, 61527823, and 61321063).

  3. Optical coherence tomography and low-frequency mechanics: A moderated discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ruggero, Mario A. [Knowles Hearing Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of “Optical Coherence Tomography” and “Low-Frequency Mechanics”. The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12{sup th} International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  4. Tunable High-Frequency Gravitational-Wave Detection with optically-levitated sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Arvanitaki, Asimina

    2012-01-01

    We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 30 - 300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or micro-discs. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range by 1 - 3 orders of magnitude, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for 100 kHz gravitational wave sources by more than 10^6, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.

  5. Centralized optical-frequency-comb-based RF carrier generator for DWDM fiber-wireless access systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Beltran, Marta; Sanchez, Jose;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a gigabit capacity fiber-wireless system that enables smooth integration between high-speed wireless networks and dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) access networks. By employing a centralized optical frequency comb, both the wireline and the wireless services....... For demonstration, we transmit a 2.5 Gbit/s signal through the proposed system and successfully achieve a bit-error-rate (BER) performance well below the 7% overhead forward error correction limit of the BER of 2 × 10¿3 for both the wireline and the wireless signals in the 60 GHz band after 25 km single-mode fiber...... for each DWDM user can be simultaneously supported. Besides, each baseband channel can be transparently upconverted tomultiple radio-frequency (RF) bands for different wireless standards, which can be flexibly filtered at the end user to select the on-demand RF band, depending on the wireless applications...

  6. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J. [Physical Sciences Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation 2310, E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, California 90245 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  7. Negative frequencies get real: a missing puzzle piece in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Conforti, Matteo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental results, we demonstrate that the ubiquitous pulse propagation equation based on a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation is incomplete and inadequate to explain the formation of the so called negative resonant radiation emitted by optical solitons. The origin of this deficiency is due to the absence of a peculiar nonlinear coupling between the positive and negative frequency components of the ultrashort pulse spectrum during propagation, a feature that the slowly-varying envelope approximation is unable to capture. We therefore introduce a conceptually new model, based on the envelope of the analytic signal, that takes into account the full spectral dynamics of all frequency components, is prone to analytical treatment and retains the simulation efficiency of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. We use our new equation to derive from first principles the phase-matching condition of the negative resonant radiation observed in previous experiments.

  8. Effect of higher order non-linearity in frequency variation of self-phase modulation in optical fiber communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhijit Sinha; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    In optical soliton propagation through a single mode optical fiber,it is established that self-phase mod ulation is maintained by the third order non-linearity of the silica-based glass material of the fiber.In this paper we show that the fifth order non-linearity has also some contribution in frequency variation of self-phase modulation.

  9. Artificial optical emissions at HAARP for pump frequencies near the third and second electron gyro-harmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kosch

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High-power high-frequency radio waves beamed into the ionosphere cause plasma turbulence, which can accelerate electrons. These electrons collide with the F-layer neutral oxygen causing artificial optical emissions identical to natural aurora. Pumping at electron gyro-harmonic frequencies has special significance as many phenomena change their character. In particular, artificial optical emissions become strongly reduced for the third and higher gyro-harmonics. The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility is unique in that it can select a frequency near the second gyro-harmonic. On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic. We provide the first experimental evidence for these effects, which have been predicted theoretically. In addition, irregular optical structures were created when the pump frequency was above the ionospheric critical frequency.

    Keywords. Active experiments – Auroral ionosphere – Wave-particle interactions

  10. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  11. Temporal characterization of FEL micropulses as function of cavity length detuning using frequency-resolved optical gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); DeLong, K.W.; Trebino, R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results of frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements on the Stanford mid-IR FEL system show the effect of FEL cavity length detuning on the micropulse temporal structure. The FROG technique enables the acquisition of complete and uniquely invertible amplitude and phase temporal dependence of optical pulses. Unambiguous phase and amplitude profiles are recovered from the data. The optical pulses are nearly transform limited, and the pulse length increases with cavity length detuning.

  12. Full investigation of the resonant frequency servo loop for resonator fiber-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Lu, Xiao; Yao, Linzhi; Yu, Xuhui; Jin, Zhonghe

    2012-07-20

    Resonator fiber-optic gyro (RFOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A high-accuracy resonant frequency servo loop is indispensable for a high-performance RFOG. It is composed of a frequency discriminator, a loop filter, and a laser actuator. Influences of the loop parameters are fully developed. Optimized loop parameters are obtained by considering the noise reduction and wide dynamic performance of the RFOG. As a result, with the integration time of 10 s, the accuracy of the resonant frequency loop is increased to 0.02 Hz (1σ). It is equivalent to a rotation rate of 0.067°/h, which is close to the shot noise limit for the RFOG, while a minimum rotation of ±0.05°/s has been carried out simultaneously. These are the best results reported to date, to the best of our knowledge, for an RFOG using the miniature semiconductor laser that benefits from the optimization of the resonant frequency servo-loop parameters.

  13. Ge Nanoislands Grown by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Comprehensive Investigation of Surface Morphology and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samavati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive investigation of the effect of growth parameters on structural and optical properties of Si-based single layer Ge nanoislands grown via Stranski-Krastanov mechanism employing radio frequency magnetron sputtering due to its high deposition rate, easy procedure, economical cost, and safety is carried out. The estimated width and height of Ge nanoislands produced by this technique are in the range of ∼8 to ∼30 and ∼2 to 8 nm, respectively. Varieties parameters are manipulated to optimize the surface morphology and structural and optical behavior of Ge nanoislands. The resulted nanoislands are analyzed using various analytical techniques including atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum parameters for growing high quality samples having high number density and homogenous and small size distribution are found to be 400°C for substrate temperature, 300 sec for deposition time, 10 sccm for Ar flow, and 100 W for radio frequency power. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic investigation on the organized growth factors and their effects on surface parameters and photoluminescence emission energy may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of Ge nanoislands (100 nanoislands suitable in nanophotonics.

  14. High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling.

  15. Polyimide-etalon all-optical ultrasound transducer for high frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaff, Clay; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    We have enhanced our design for an all-optical high frequency ultrasound transducer consisting of a UV-absorbing polyimide film integrated into an etalon receiver operating in the NIR range. A dielectric stack having high NIR reflectivity and high UV transmittance was chosen as the first mirror for increased sensitivity and the allowance of polyimide as the etalon medium. A 13 ns, 0.7 μJ optical pulse at 355 nm and a continuous-wave NIR laser were focused onto the structure with a spot diameter of 120 and 35 μm, respectively. In receive mode the etalon had a noise-equivalent pressure of 4.1 kPa over a bandwidth of 5 - 50 MHz (0.61 Pa/√Hz ). The device generated a pressure of 270 kPa at a depth of 200 μm, and the -3 dB bandwidth of the emission extended from 27 to 60 MHz. In transmit/receive mode, the pulse-echo had a center frequency of 35 MHz with a -6 dB bandwidth of 49 MHz (140 %). Lastly, wire targets were imaged by scanning the UV spot to create a synthetic aperture of transmitters centered upon a single receiver.

  16. Effects of initial frequency chirp on the linear propagation characteristics of the exponential optical pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Hong-Jun; Liu Shan-Liang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the linear propagation characteristics of the exponential optical pulse with initial linear and nonlinear frequency chirp are numerically studied in a single mode fibre for β2< 0. It can be found that the temporal full width at half maximum and time-bandwidth product of exponential pulse monotonically increase with the increase of propagation distance and decrease with the increase of linear chirp C for C < 0.5, go through an initial decreasing stage near ζ = 1, then increase with the increase of propagation distance and linear chirp C for C ≥ 0.5. The broadening of pulses with negative chirp is faster than that with positive chirp. The exponential pulse with linear chirp gradually evolves into a near-Gaussian pulse. The effect of nonlinear chirp on waveform of the pulse is much greater than that of linear chirp. The temporal waveform breaking of exponential pulse with nonlinear chirp is first observed in linear propagation. Furthermore, the expressions of the spectral width and time-bandwidth product of the exponential optical pulse with the frequency chirp are given by use of the numerical analysis method.

  17. Ultra-stable optical frequency dissemination on a multi-access fibre network

    CERN Document Server

    Bercy, Anthony; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We report the dissemination of an ultrastable optical frequency signal to two distant users simultaneously using a branching network. The ultrastable signal is extracted along a main fibre link; it is optically tracked with a narrow-linewidth laser diode, which light is injected in a secondary link. The propagation noise of both links is actively compensated. We implement this scheme with two links of 50-km fibre spools, the extraction being setup at the mid-point of the main link. We show that the extracted signal at the end of the secondary link exhibits fractional frequency instability of 1.4x10-15 at 1-s measurement time, almost equal to the 1.3x10-15 instability of the main link output end. The long-term instabilities are also very similar, at a level of 3-5x10-20 at 3x104-s integration time. We also show that the setting up of this extraction device, or a simpler one, at the main link input, can test the proper functioning of the noise rejection on this main link. This work is a significant step towards...

  18. Frequency shifts in an optical lattice clock due to magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Oates, C W

    2008-11-01

    We report a hitherto undiscovered frequency shift for forbidden J = 0-->J = 0 clock transitions excited in atoms confined to an optical lattice. These shifts result from magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole transitions, which have a spatial dependence in an optical lattice that differs from that of the stronger electric-dipole transitions. In combination with the residual translational motion of atoms in an optical lattice, this spatial mismatch leads to a frequency shift via differential energy level spacing in the lattice wells for ground state and excited state atoms. We estimate that this effect could lead to fractional frequency shifts as large as 10(-16), which might prevent lattice-based optical clocks from reaching their predicted performance levels. Moreover, these effects could shift the magic wavelength in lattice clocks in three dimensions by as much as 100 MHz, depending on the lattice configuration.

  19. Multi-service small-cell cloud wired/wireless access network based on tunable optical frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Liu; Pan, Lei; Liao, Zhen-wan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel multi-service wired/wireless integrated access architecture of cloud radio access network (C-RAN) based on radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system, which utilizes scalable multiple- frequency millimeter-wave (MF-MMW) generation based on tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC). In the baseband unit (BBU) pool, the generated optical comb lines are modulated into wired, RoF and WiFi/WiMAX signals, respectively. The multi-frequency RoF signals are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs in the small cell. The WiFi/WiMAX signals are demodulated after passing through the band pass filter (BPF) and band stop filter (BSF), respectively, whereas the wired signal can be received directly. The feasibility and scalability of the proposed multi-service wired/wireless integrated C-RAN are confirmed by the simulations.

  20. Semiconductor ring lasers with delayed optical feedback: low-frequency fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Mashal, Lilia; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Cornelles-Soriano, Miguel C.; Danckaert, Jan; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor lasers subject to external feedback are known to exhibit a wide variety of dynamical regimes desired for some applications such as chaos cryptography, random bit generation, and reservoir computing. Low-frequency fluctuations is one of the most frequently encountered regimes. It is characterized by a fast drop in laser intensity followed by a gradual recovery. The duration of this recovery process is irregular and of the order of hundred nanoseconds. The average time between dropouts is much larger than the laser system characteristic time-scales. Semiconductor ring lasers are currently the focus of a rapidly thriving research activity due to their unique feature of directional bistability. They can be employed in systems for all-optical switching, gating, wavelength-conversion functions, and all-optical memories. Semiconductor ring lasers do not require cleaved facets or gratings for optical feedback and are thus particularly suited for monolithic integration. We experimentally and numerically address the issue of low-frequency fluctuations considering a semiconductor ring laser in a feedback configuration where only one directional mode is re-injected into the same directional mode, a so-called single self-feedback. We have observed that the system is very sensitive to the feedback strength and the injection current. In particular, the power dropouts are more regular when the pump current is increased and become less frequent when the feedback strength is increased. In addition, we find two different recovery processes after the power dropouts of the low-frequency fluctuations. The recovery can either occur via pulses or in a stepwise manner. Since low-frequency fluctuations are not specific to semiconductor ring lasers, we expect these recovery processes to appear also in VCSELs and edge-emitting lasers under similar feedback conditions. The numerical simulations also capture these different behaviors, where the representation in the phase space of

  1. Asynchronous, all-optical signal processing based on the self-frequency shift of a gigahertz Raman soliton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masao; Fujiura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi

    2005-03-10

    Ultrafast asynchronous all-optical signal processing is experimentally demonstrated. It is based on the intensity-dependent, self-frequency shift of a gigahertz Raman soliton. We demonstrate error-free, asynchronous, all-optical, bit-by-bit, self-signal recognition and demultiplexing from contended optical packets without use of an optical buffer, control pulse, or bit-phase synchronization. Fourfold, contended, 9.95-Gbit/s optical packets are transmitted through a conventional repeater span of 80 km and simultaneously demultiplexed to multiwavelength 9.95-Gbit/s optical packets with 0.5-dB processing sensitivity. Furthermore, we successfully accomplish demultiplexing from overlapping signals in contended optical packets with better than 3-dB recognition sensitivity. We confirm the capability of realizing a 3x cascade operation from bit-error-rate measurements.

  2. Optical characteristics for capacitively and inductively radio frequency discharge and post-discharge of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanışlı, Murat, E-mail: mtanisli@anadolu.edu.tr; Şahin, Neslihan [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunusemre Campus 26470 Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    The optical properties for radiofrequency (RF) post-discharge of pure helium (He) with two different methods as capacitively and inductively have been presented using the modified Boltzmann method in comparison. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is often used in the diagnosis of laboratory plasma, such as gas discharge plasma. OES is a very useful method for calculating of the electron temperature in the plasma and the determination of different atoms and molecules. In this study, OES is applied for characterizations of capacitively and inductively RF He plasma at pressures between 0.62 and 2.2 mbar for newly reactor type. Plasmas are generated with an RF power generator at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and output powers of 100, 160, and 200 W. Spectra have been evaluated in the range 200–1200 nm by an optical spectrometer. At low pressure, the main spectral features reported are the wavelengths of the atomic He transitions at 388.87 and 728.13 nm. The atomic emission intensities showed a maximum in inductive system when the pressure is about 0.62 mbar. OES of capacitive discharge and inductive discharge is compared in detail. The transition for 587.56 nm is shown to be increased in time.

  3. Measurement of the Yb I $^1S_0 - ^1P_1$ transition frequency at 399 nm using an optical frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinert, Michaela; Bergeson, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    We determine the frequency of the Yb I $^1S_0 - ^1P_1$ transition at 399 nm using an optical frequency comb. Although this transition was measured previously using an optical transfer cavity [D. Das et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032506 (2005)], recent work has uncovered significant errors in that method. We compare our result of 750 526 533.49 $\\pm$ 0.33 MHz for the Yb-174 isotope with those from the literature and discuss observed differences. We verify the correctness of our method by measuring the frequencies of well-known transitions in Rb and Cs, and by demonstrating proper control of systematic errors in both laser metrology and atomic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate the effect of quantum interference due to hyperfine structure in a divalent atomic system.

  4. Generation of coherent and frequency-lock multi-carriers using cascaded phase modulators and recirculating frequency shifter for Tb/s optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shao, Yufeng; Zhu, Jiangbo; Huang, Bo; Tao, Li

    2011-07-04

    We investigate to generate coherent and frequency-lock optical multi-carriers by using cascaded phase modulators and recirculating frequency shifter (RFS) based on an EDFA loop. The phase and amplitude relation of RF signals on two cascaded phase modulators and the impact of EDFA gain are investigated. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The performance of 113 coherent and frequency-lock subcarriers with tone-to-noise ratio larger than 26dB and amplitude difference of 5dB obtained after a tilt filter covering totally 22.6nm shows that this scheme is a promising technique for the coming Tb/s optical communication.

  5. Frequency measurement of THz waves by electro-optic sampling using Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Isao; Kirigaya, Mayu; Kaneko, Yuta; Katayama, Ikufumi; Sakamoto, Takahide; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-02-01

    In the recent progress in terahertz (THz) devices, various kinds of source devices, such as resonant tunneling diodes, quantum cascade lasers and so forth, have been developed. Frequency measurement of THz radiations, which can operate in high speed and at room-temperature, is important for development of high-performance THz source devices. Recently, frequency measurement using optical combs are demonstrated by several groups. In these techniques, modelocked lasers (MLLs) are used for optical comb source, so that phase-locking techniques are required in order to stabilize the repetition frequency of the MLLs. On the other hand, a modulator-based optical comb generator has high accuracy and stability in the comb spacing, which is comparable to that of microwave signal driving the modulator. Thus it is suitable for frequency measurement of THz waves. In this paper, we demonstrated frequency measurement of THz waves using a Mach-Zehnder-modulator-based flat comb generator (MZ-FCG). The frequency measurement was carried out by an electro-optic (EO) sampling method, where an optical two-tone signal extracted from the optical comb generated by the MZ-FCG was used for the probe light. A 100 GHz signal generated by a W-band frequency multiplier and the probe beam collinearly traveled through an EO crystal, and beat signals between them were measured by a combination of a balanced photodetector and a spectrum analyzer. As a result, frequency measurement of the 100 GHz wave was successfully demonstrated, in which the linewidth of the beat signal was less than 1 Hz.

  6. Linking the thermodynamic temperature to an optical frequency: recent advances in Doppler broadening thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy in the linear regime of radiation–matter interaction is a powerful tool for measuring thermodynamic quantities in a gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the Doppler effect can be considered a gift of nature, linking the thermal energy to an optical frequency, namely the line centre frequency of an atomic or molecular spectral line. This is the basis of a relatively new method of primary gas thermometry, known as Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT). This paper reports on the efforts that have been carried out, in the last decade, worldwide, to the end of making DBT competitive with more consolidated and accurate methodologies, such as acoustic gas thermometry and dielectric constant gas thermometry. The main requirements for low-uncertainty DBT, of both theoretical and technical nature, will be discussed, with a special focus on those related to the line shape model and to the frequency scale. A deep comparison among the different molecules that have been selected in successful DBT implementations is also reported. Finally, for the first time, to the best of my knowledge, the influence of refractive index effects is discussed. PMID:26903093

  7. Auto-elimination of fiber optical path-length drift in a frequency scanning interferometer for absolute distance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo

    2015-09-01

    Because of its compact size and portability, optical fiber has been wildly used as optical paths in frequency-scanning interferometers for high-precision absolute distance measurements. However, since the fiber is sensitive to ambient temperature, its length and refractive index change with temperature, resulting in an optical path length drift that influences the repeatability of measurements. To improve the thermal stability of the measurement system, a novel frequency-scanning interferometer composed of two Michelson-type interferometers sharing a common fiber optical path is proposed. One interferometer defined as origin interferometer is used to monitor the drift of the measurement origin due to the optical path length drift of the optical fiber under on-site environment. The other interferometer defined as measurement interferometer is used to measure the distance to the target. Because the optical path length drift of the fiber appears in both interferometers, its influence can be eliminated by subtracting the optical path difference of the origin interferometer from the optical path difference of the measurement interferometer. A prototype interferometer was developed in our research, and experimental results demonstrate its robustness and stability. Under on-site environment, an accuracy about 4 μm was achieved for a distance of about 1 m.

  8. Low Power-Consumption and High Response Frequency Thermo-Optic Variable Optical Attenuators Based on Silicon-on-Insulator Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qing; CHEN Peng; XIN Hong-Li; WANG Chun-Xia; LI Fang; LIU Yu-Liang

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic variable optical attenuator with isolated grooves based on a multimode interference coupler principle is fabricated by the inductive coupled plasma etching technology. The maximum fibre-to-fibre insertion loss is lower than 2.2 dB, the dynamic attenuation range is from 0 to 30 dB in the wavelength range 1500-1600nm, and the maximum power consumption is only 140mW. The response frequency of the fabricated variable optical attenuator is about 30 kHz. Compared to the variable optical attenuator without isolated grooves, the maximum power consumption decreases more than 220mW, and the response frequency rises are more than 20kHz.

  9. A stabilized 18 GHz chip-scale optical frequency comb at 2.8x10-16 relative inaccuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S -W; Yu, M; McGuyer, B H; Kwong, D -L; Zelevinsky, T; Wong, C W

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency combs, coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations, have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but four-wave-mixing in high-Q resonators have emerged as alternative platforms. Here we report the generation and full stabilization of CMOS-compatible optical frequency combs. The spiral microcomb's two degrees-of-freedom, one of the comb line and the native 18 GHz comb spacing, are first simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Second, with pump power control, active comb spacing stabilization improves the long-term stability by six orders-of-magnitude, reaching an instrument-limited 3.6 mHz/sqrt(t) residual instability. Third, referencing thirty-three of the nitride frequency comb lines against a fiber comb, we demonstrate the comb tooth-to-tooth frequency relative inaccu...

  10. Optical frequency comb spectroscopy at 3-5.4 {\\mu}m with a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johansson, Alexandra C; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Mohr, Christian; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We present a versatile mid-infrared frequency comb spectroscopy system based on a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator tunable in the 3-5.4 {\\mu}m range and two detection methods, a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a Vernier spectrometer. Using the FTS with a multipass cell we measure high-precision broadband absorption spectra of CH$_4$ and NO at ~3.3 {\\mu}m and ~5.2 {\\mu}m, respectively, and of atmospheric species (CH$_4$, CO, CO$_2$ and H$_2$O) in air in the signal and idler wavelength range. The figure of merit of the system is on the order of 10$^{-8}$ cm$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ per spectral element, and multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentrations of 10-20 ppb Hz$^{-1/2}$ for CH$_4$, NO and CO. For the first time in the mid-infrared, we perform continuous-filtering Vernier spectroscopy using a low finesse enhancement cavity, a grating and a single detector, and measure the absorption spectrum of CH$_4$ and H$_2$O in ambient air at ~3.3 {\\mu}m.

  11. Backreflection diagnostics for ultra-intense laser plasma experiments based on frequency resolved optical gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Hornung, J.; Schmidt, C.; Eckhardt, M.; Roth, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Bagnoud, V.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the development and implementation of a time resolved backscatter diagnostics for high power laser plasma experiments at the petawatt-class laser facility PHELIX. Pulses that are backscattered or reflected from overcritical plasmas are characterized spectrally and temporally resolved using a specially designed second harmonic generation frequency resolved optical gating system. The diagnostics meets the requirements made by typical experiments, i.e., a spectral bandwidth of more than 30 nm with sub-nanometer resolution and a temporal window of 10 ps with 50 fs temporal resolution. The diagnostics is permanently installed at the PHELIX target area and can be used to study effects such as laser-hole boring or relativistic self-phase-modulation which are important features of laser-driven particle acceleration experiments.

  12. Theoretical analyses of resonant frequency shift in anomalous dispersion enhanced resonant optical gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Hao; Li, Wenxiu; Zhao, Lu; Jin, Junjie; Huang, Anping; Zhang, Xiaofu; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-12-01

    Rigorous expressions of resonant frequency shift (RFS) in anomalous dispersion enhanced resonant optical gyroscopes (ADEROGs) are deduced without making approximation, which provides a precise theoretical guidance to achieve ultra-sensitive ADEROGs. A refractive index related modification factor is introduced when considering special theory of relativity (STR). We demonstrate that the RFS will not be ”infinitely large” by using critical anomalous dispersion (CAD) and negative modification does not exist, which make the mechanism of anomalous dispersion enhancement clear and coherent. Although step change of RFS will happen when the anomalous dispersion condition varies, the amplification of RFS is limited by attainable variation of refractive index in practice. Moreover, it is shown that the properties of anomalous dispersion will influence not only the amplification of RFS, but also the detection range of ADEROGs.

  13. Optical field enhancement of nanometer-sized gaps at near-infrared frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Singh, Dilip K; Bahk, Young-Mi; Lee, Hyunhwa; Choi, Soo Bong; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2015-02-23

    We report near-field and far-field measurements of transmission through nanometer-sized gaps at near-infrared frequencies with varying the gap size from 1 nm to 10 nm. In the far-field measurements, we excluded direct transmission on the metal film surface via interferometric method. Kirchhoff integral formalism was used to relate the far-field intensity to the electric field at the nanogaps. In near-field measurements, field enhancement factors of the nanogaps were quantified by measuring transmission of the nanogaps using near-field scanning optical microscopy. All the measurements produce similar field enhancements of about ten, which we put in the context of comparing with the giant field enhancements in the terahertz regime.

  14. Second-harmonic mode coupling in microresonator-based optical frequency comb generation

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Xiaoxiao; Xuan, Yi; Jaramillo-Villegas, Jose A; Wang, Pei-Hsun; Leaird, Daniel E; Erkintalo, Miro; Qi, Minghao; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Microresonator-based optical frequency comb (microcomb) generation can potentially achieve ultra-compact volume and low power consumption for portable applications. The comb formation is a consequence of cascaded four-wave-mixing due to the third-order Kerr nonlinearity. Mode coupling can affect the comb self-starting and mode-locking behaviors, resulting in complex dynamics that is far from well understood. Understanding the mechanism of mode coupling in comb generation proves highly important to achieve stable and robust microcomb sources. Here, we report a nonlinear mode coupling mechanism in microresonators with simultaneous second- and third-order nonlinearities. The nonlinear dynamics governed by the third-order nonlinearity is altered by second-harmonic mode coupling. As a demonstration of this effect, second-harmonic assisted coherent comb generation is achieved in the normal dispersion region, where comb creation is prohibited in the absence of mode coupling. Since second-order nonlinearity has been ...

  15. Fiber laser optical frequency standard at 1.54 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Jan; Nielsen, Lars; Petersen, Jan C; Varming, Poul; Pedersen, Jens E

    2011-01-31

    A 32 mW fiber laser is stabilized to the (13)C(2)H(2) P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. The short-term shot-noise limited fractional frequency instability is 5.0 × 10(-13)(τ/s)-½ for averaging times τ up to about 100 s. The relative lock-point repeatability over 2½ month is 4.3 × 10(-13) corresponding to 83 Hz. The simple setup includes a 21 cm long gas cell, but it does not require an enhancement cavity or external modulators. The spectroscopic lineshape is analyzed with respect to optical power and acetylene pressure. Narrow linewidths of 300 kHz FWHM are observed with a signal to noise ratio of 35 dB in a 9 Hz bandwidth.

  16. High-Power Blue Light Generation by External Frequency Doubling of an Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕勇; 张鸿博; 孙志培; 包照日格图; 李惠清; 孔宇鹏; 林学春; 王桂玲; 张杰; 侯玮; 李瑞宁; 崔大复; 许祖彦; 宋立维; 章萍; 崔建峰; 樊仲维

    2003-01-01

    We report on an all-solid-state high-power quasi-continuous blue light source by the frequency doubling of a signal wave from an optical parametric oscillator(OPO).A 50-mm-long LiB3O5(LBO)crystal is used for the OPO,which is pumped by a diode-pumped Nd:YAG green laser(10kHz,50ns).Tunable blue emission in a new nonlinear crystal BiB3O6(BiBO)is obtained with a wavelength range from 450 to 495 nm.The average power of the signal output is as high as 9.3 W from 924 to 970nm.The maximum output of the blue laser with the second harmonic walk-off compensation is 1.3 W average power at 470nm for 6.2 W of OPO signal light at 940nm.

  17. Performance analysis of modified Asymmetrically-Clipped Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Salma D.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Andonovic, Ivan; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2016-12-01

    A modification to the Asymmetrically-Clipped Optical Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) technique is proposed through unipolar encoding. A performance analysis of the Bit Error Rate (BER) is developed and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the analysis. Results are compared to that of the corresponding ACO-OFDM system under the same bit energy and transmission rate; an improvement of 1 dB is obtained at a BER of 10-4 . In addition, the performance of the proposed system in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is investigated using single-input multiple-output (SIMO) configuration and its performance under that environment is compared to that of ACO-OFDM. Energy improvements of 4 dB and 2.2 dB are obtained at a BER of 10-4 for SIMO systems of 1 and 2 photodetectors at the receiver for the case of strong turbulence, respectively.

  18. Optical Time-Frequency Packing: Principles, Design, Implementation, and Experimental Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Secondini, Marco; Fresi, Francesco; Meloni, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Fabio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Forestieri, Enrico; Potì, Luca; Sabella, Roberto; Prati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Time-frequency packing (TFP) transmission provides the highest achievable spectral efficiency with a constrained modulation format and detector complexity. In this work, the application of the TFP technique to fiber-optic systems is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The main theoretical aspects, design guidelines, and implementation issues are discussed, focusing on those aspects which are peculiar to TFP systems. In particular, adaptive compensation of propagation impairments, matched filtering, and maximum a posteriori probability detection are obtained by a combination of a butterfly equalizer and four low-complexity parallel Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) detectors. A novel algorithm that ensures adaptive equalization, channel estimation, and a proper distribution of tasks between the equalizer and BCJR detectors is proposed. A set of irregular low-density parity-check codes with different rates is designed to operate at low error rates and approach the spectral efficiency limit achievable by...

  19. Spectral characterization of integrated acousto-optic tunable filters by means of laser frequency modulation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonio; Salza, Mario; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Ferraro, Pietro; De Natale, Paolo

    2006-12-20

    The spectral characteristics of an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as well as its responsivity to the rf driving signal and sensitivity to temperature changes are experimentally investigated and quantified using a diode-laser-based interrogation system. A spectroscopic technique, exploiting the rf frequency modulation of the laser beam and the phase-sensitive detection of the AOTF transmission, has been used for this purpose. That allows for the generation of a dispersivelike signal, which serves as a reference for tracking any wavelength change of the filter's peak with high resolution. The possibility of using the integrated AOTF as a spectrum analyzer with this interrogation scheme for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensing is also discussed.

  20. Time-and-frequency domains approach to data processing in multiwavelength optical scatterometry of dielectric gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Granet, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on scatterometry problems arising in lithography production of periodic gratings. Namely, the paper introduces a theoretical and numerical-modeling-oriented approach to scatterometry problems and discusses its capabilities. The approach allows for reliable detection of deviations in gratings\\' critical dimensions (CDs) during the manufacturing process. The core of the approach is the one-to-one correspondence between the electromagnetic (EM) characteristics and the geometric/material properties of gratings. The approach is based on highly accurate solutions of initial boundary-value problems describing EM waves\\' interaction on periodic gratings. The advantage of the approach is the ability to perform simultaneously and interactively both in frequency and time domains under conditions of possible resonant scattering of EM waves by infinite or finite gratings. This allows a detection of CDs for a wide range of gratings, and, thus is beneficial for the applied scatterometry. (C) 2013 Optical Society of America

  1. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithm for frequency resolved optical gating: super-resolution and supreme robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Pavel; Avnat, Zohar; Cohen, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) is probably the most popular technique for complete characterization of ultrashort laser pulses. In FROG, a reconstruction algorithm retrieves the pulse from a measured spectrogram, yet current FROG reconstruction algorithms require and exhibit several restricting features that weaken FROG performances. For example, the delay step must correspond to the spectral bandwidth measured with large enough SNR a condition that limits the temporal resolution of the reconstructed pulse, obscures measurements of weak broadband pulses, and makes measurement of broadband mid-IR pulses hard and slow because the spectrograms become huge. We develop a new approach for FROG reconstruction, based on ptychography (a scanning coherent diffraction imaging technique), that removes many of the algorithmic restrictions. The ptychographic reconstruction algorithm is significantly faster and more robust to noise than current FROG algorithms, which are based on generalized projections (GP). We d...

  2. A new Generation of Spectrometer Calibration Techniques based on Optical Frequency Combs

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Piet O; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Typical astronomical spectrographs have a resolution ranging between a few hundred to 200.000. Deconvolution and correlation techniques are being employed with a significance down to 1/1000 th of a pixel. HeAr and ThAr lamps are usually used for calibration in low and high resolution spectroscopy, respectively. Unfortunately, the emitted lines typically cover only a small fraction of the spectrometer's spectral range. Furthermore, their exact position depends strongly on environmental conditions. A problem is the strong intensity variation between different (intensity ratios {>300). In addition, the brightness of the lamps is insufficient to illuminate a spectrograph via an integrating sphere, which in turn is important to calibrate a long-slit spectrograph, as this is the only way to assure a uniform illumination of the spectrograph pupil. Laboratory precision laser spectroscopy has experienced a major advance with the development of optical frequency combs generated by pulsed femto-second lasers. These lase...

  3. Every photon counts: improving low, mid, and high-spatial frequency errors on astronomical optics and materials with MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Lormeau, Jean Pierre; Dumas, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Many astronomical sensing applications operate in low-light conditions; for these applications every photon counts. Controlling mid-spatial frequencies and surface roughness on astronomical optics are critical for mitigating scattering effects such as flare and energy loss. By improving these two frequency regimes higher contrast images can be collected with improved efficiency. Classically, Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) has offered an optical fabrication technique to correct low order errors as well has quilting/print-through errors left over in light-weighted optics from conventional polishing techniques. MRF is a deterministic, sub-aperture polishing process that has been used to improve figure on an ever expanding assortment of optical geometries, such as planos, spheres, on and off axis aspheres, primary mirrors and freeform optics. Precision optics are routinely manufactured by this technology with sizes ranging from 5-2,000mm in diameter. MRF can be used for form corrections; turning a sphere into an asphere or free form, but more commonly for figure corrections achieving figure errors as low as 1nm RMS while using careful metrology setups. Recent advancements in MRF technology have improved the polishing performance expected for astronomical optics in low, mid and high spatial frequency regimes. Deterministic figure correction with MRF is compatible with most materials, including some recent examples on Silicon Carbide and RSA905 Aluminum. MRF also has the ability to produce `perfectly-bad' compensating surfaces, which may be used to compensate for measured or modeled optical deformation from sources such as gravity or mounting. In addition, recent advances in MRF technology allow for corrections of mid-spatial wavelengths as small as 1mm simultaneously with form error correction. Efficient midspatial frequency corrections make use of optimized process conditions including raster polishing in combination with a small tool size. Furthermore, a novel MRF

  4. Advanced demodulation technique for the extraction of tissue optical properties and structural orientation contrast in the spatial frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform.

  5. Influence of the chopped frequency of light on optical transport characteristics of human skin including at acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-qin; Xie, Shu-sen; Liu, Song-hao; Li, Hui; Wang, Yu-hua; Guo, Zhou-yi

    2007-11-01

    An experimental protocol was established for noninvasively measuring the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue along human meridian direction over body surface including at acupuncture points. The diffuse remittance for 658 nm light radiation along the pericardium meridian and non-meridian directions were measured respectively. The influence of the chopped frequency of light on the detected light signal was investigated. It is shown that the optical transport characteristics of skin tissue accords with the Beer's exponential attenuation law along the meridian including at acupuncture points and non-median directions. However there is an obvious difference between the propagations along the meridian direction and non-meridian direction (P<0.05). Furthermore, the chopped frequency can affect the detected signal. The diffuse remittance signal decreased with the chopped frequency's increase and it was different between the meridian and non-meridian directions. These findings are important and meaningful for interpreting the human meridian phenomena by biomedical optics.

  6. Reversibly Stretchable, Optically Transparent Radio-Frequency Antennas Based on Wavy Ag Nanowire Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Shin, Keun-Young; Pyo, Jun Beom; Lee, Jonghwi; Son, Jeong Gon; Lee, Sang-Soo; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile approach for producing reversibly stretchable, optically transparent radio-frequency antennas based on wavy Ag nanowire (NW) networks. The wavy configuration of Ag NWs is obtained by floating the NW networks on the surface of water, followed by compression. Stretchable antennas are prepared by transferring the compressed NW networks onto elastomeric substrates. The resulting antennas show excellent performance under mechanical deformation due to the wavy configuration, which allows the release of stress applied to the NWs and an increase in the contact area between NWs. The antennas formed from the wavy NW networks exhibit a smaller return loss and a higher radiation efficiency when strained than the antennas formed from the straight NW networks, as well as an improved stability in cyclic deformation tests. Moreover, the wavy NW antennas require a relatively small quantity of NWs, which leads to low production costs and provides an optical transparency. These results demonstrate the potential of these wavy Ag NW antennas in applications of wireless communications for wearable systems.

  7. Frequency-swept coherently detected spectral amplitude code for flexible implicit optical label switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng Cao; Fushen Chen; Zhigao Yang

    2011-01-01

    A new optical label switching system with coherently detected implicit spectral amplitude code(SAC)labels is proposed in this letter.The implicit SAC labels are recognized using a frequency-swept local light source oscillator.Intensity modulation payloads of 625 Mb/s and 1.25 Gb/s are considered.Label and pavload bit error rate(BER) performances are assessed and compared by simulations.The results reveal that,at a BER value of 10-9,-32.4dBm label received power can be obtained.In addition,8.3-dB optical signal-to-noise ratio(OSNR) is obtained when carrying a payload of 625 Mb/s.The label BER value hardly reaches 10-9 if the payload bit rate is at 1.25 Gb/s; however,a high payload bit rate only has little influence on received payload quality at a BER value of 10-9.Finally,a payload of 1.25 Gb/s could obtain-28.2 dBm received power and 9.5-dB OSNR.

  8. Suppression of optical beat interference-noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network link using self-homodyne balanced detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Jung, Sang-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2014-08-01

    A new technique, which reduces optical beat interference (OBI) noise in orthogonal frequency division multiple access-passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) links, is proposed. A self-homodyne balanced detection, which uses a single laser for the optical line terminal (OLT) as well as for the optical network unit (ONU), reduces OBI noise and also improves the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the discrete multi-tone (DMT) signal. The proposed scheme is verified by transmitting quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)-modulated DMT signal over a 20-km single mode fiber. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), that is required for BER of 10-5, is reduced by 2 dB in the balanced detection compared with a single channel due to the cancellation of OBI noise in conjunction with the local laser.

  9. Stabilization and frequency control of a DFB laser with a tunable optical reflector integrated in a Silicon Photonics PIC

    CERN Document Server

    Hauck, Johannes; Romero-García, Sebastían; Müller, Juliana; Shen, Bin; Richter, Jens; Merget, Florian; Witzens, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of tunable optical feedback on a commercial DFB laser edge coupled to a Silicon Photonics planar integrated circuit in which a tunable reflector has been implemented by means of a ring resonator based add-drop multiplexer. Controlled optical feedback allows for fine-tuning of the laser oscillation frequency. Under certain conditions it also allows suppression of bifurcation modes triggered by reflections occurring elsewhere on the chip. A semi-analytical model describing laser dynamics under combined optical feedback from the input facet of the edge coupler and from the tunable on-chip reflector fits the measurements. Compensation of detrimental effects from reflections induced elsewhere on a transceiver chip may allow moving isolators downstream in future communications systems, facilitating direct hybrid laser integration in Silicon Photonics chips, provided a suitable feedback signal for a control system can be identified. Moreover, the optical frequency tuning at lower feedback l...

  10. Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for N2O detection at 2.86μm using a continuous tunable color center laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaocheng Li(李少成); Qingxu Yu(于清旭); Maarten van Herpen; Sacco te Lintel Hekkert; Frans J. M. Harren

    2003-01-01

    The cavity enhanced absorption technique is applied to N2O detection around 2.86 μm using a continuouswave color center laser. A high-finesse triangular ring cavity is used in this technology. Transmission through the cavity is obtained by jittering the cavity-length with a piezo on one of the cavity mirrors.A minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 2 × 10-6 cm-1 is achieved with a mirror reflectivity of 99.24%, corresponding to a N2O detection limit of 600 parts per billion.

  11. Acousto-optic pulse picking scheme with carrier-frequency-to-pulse-repetition-rate synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Oliver; Saule, Tobias; Plötner, Marco; Lücking, Fabian; Eidam, Tino; Hoffmann, Armin; Klenke, Arno; Hädrich, Steffen; Limpert, Jens; Holzberger, Simon; Schreiber, Thomas; Eberhardt, Ramona; Pupeza, Ioachim; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-07-27

    We introduce and experimentally validate a pulse picking technique based on a travelling-wave-type acousto-optic modulator (AOM) having the AOM carrier frequency synchronized to the repetition rate of the original pulse train. As a consequence, the phase noise characteristic of the original pulse train is largely preserved, rendering this technique suitable for applications requiring carrier-envelope phase stabilization. In a proof-of-principle experiment, the 1030-nm spectral part of an 74-MHz, carrier-envelope phase stable Ti:sapphire oscillator is amplified and reduced in pulse repetition frequency by a factor of two, maintaining an unprecedentedly low carrier-envelope phase noise spectral density of below 68 mrad. Furthermore, a comparative analysis reveals that the pulse-picking-induced additional amplitude noise is minimized, when the AOM is operated under synchronicity. The proposed scheme is particularly suitable when the down-picked repetition rate is still in the multi-MHz-range, where Pockels cells cannot be applied due to piezoelectric ringing.

  12. Integrated wideband optical frequency combs with high stability and their application in microwave photonic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhui; Wang, Sunlong; Zhong, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Wenting; Tong, Youwan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Haiqing; Yu, Lijuan; Zhu, Ninghua

    2016-08-01

    An integrated wideband optical frequency comb (OFC) based on a semiconductor quantum dot laser is realized with high stability. The OFC module is packaged in our lab. A circuit which is designed to provide a low-ripple current and control the temperature regards as a servo system to enhance the stability of the OFC. The frequency stability of the OFC is 2.7×10-9 (Allan Variance). The free spectral range (FSR) of the OFC is 40 GHz and the number of comb lines is up to 55. The flatness of the OFC over span of 4 nm can be limited to 0.5 dB. Negative coefficients microwave photonic filters with multiple taps are generated based on the proposed OFC. For the 10 taps microwave photonic filter, the pass-band at 8.74 GHz has a 3 dB bandwidth of 630 MHz with 16.58 dB side-lobe suppression. Compared with the published microwave photonic filters, the proposed system is more stable, of more compact structures, and of less power consumption.

  13. Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Doležal, Miroslav; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; King, Steven A; Jones, Jonathan M; Klein, Hugh A; Gill, Patrick; Lindvall, Thomas; Wallin, Anders E; Merimaa, Mikko; Tamm, Christian; Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Scharnhorst, Nils; Leroux, Ian D; Schmidt, Piet O; Burgermeister, Tobias; Mehlstäubler, Tanja E; Peik, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the AC Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for 5 ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for ...

  14. Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhuge, Qunbi; Plant, David V

    2011-04-11

    This paper presents a new channel estimation/equalization algorithm for coherent OFDM (CO-OFDM) digital receivers, which enables the elimination of the cyclic prefix (CP) for OFDM transmission. We term this new system as the zero-guard-interval (ZGI)-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM employs an overlapped frequency-domain equalizer (OFDE) to compensate both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) before the OFDM demodulation. Despite the zero CP overhead, ZGI-CO-OFDM demonstrates a superior PMD tolerance than the previous reduced-GI (RGI)-CO-OFDM, which is verified under several different PMD conditions. Additionally, ZGI-CO-OFDM can improve the channel estimation accuracy under high PMD conditions by using a larger intra-symbol frequency-averaging (ISFA) length as compared to RGI-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM also enables the use of ever smaller fast Fourier transform (FFT) sizes (i.e. OFDM. We show that ZGI-CO-OFDM requires reasonably small additional computation effort (~13.6%) compared to RGI-CO-OFDM for 112-Gb/s transmission over a 1600-km dispersion-uncompensated optical link.

  15. Design and modeling of an all-optical frequency modulated MEMS strain sensor using nanoscale Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Mar, Mikkel Dysseholm;

    2009-01-01

    We present modeling and design of an all-optical MEMS Bragg grating (half-pitch of 125 nm) strain sensor for single-fiber distributed sensing. Low optical loss and the use of frequency modulation rather than amplitude modulation, makes this sensor better suited for distributed systems than...... mechanical amplification can be obtained if using an angled double beam micrometer scale MEMS structure, compared to conventional fiber Bragg grating sensors. An optimized design and fabrication process is presented....

  16. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    the patients. Most biomolecules have characteristic signature frequencies in the terahertz (THz) range, which can reveal their presence and determine the concentration. Therefore, this paper is intended to study the blood optical properties in the THz frequency range in order to determine THz radiation effect on blood. The main aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of blood glucose concentration on the blood optical properties. In the case if blood optical properties vary at different glucose concentrations having a proportional relationship between them, these results will confirm the possibility of development of non-invasive procedures for blood glucose level diagnostics.

  17. Joint nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion pre-compensation for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Yao-Jun; Liu Xue-Jun; Ji Yue-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a joint nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion pre-compensation method for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems.The research results show that this method can reduce the walkoff effect and can therefore equalize the nonlinear impairments effectively. Compared with the only other existing nonlinearity pre-compensation method,the joint nonlinearity and chromatic dispersion pre-compensation method is not only suitable for low-dispersion optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system,but also effective for highdispersion optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing transmission system with higher input power but without optical dispersion compensation.The suggested solution does not increase computation complexity compared with only nonlinearity pre-compensation method.For 40 Gbit/s coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 20 × 80 km standard single-mode fibre system,the suggested method can improve the nonlinear threshold (for Q > 10 dB) about 2.7,1.2 and 1.0 dB,and the maximum Q factor about 1.2,0.4 and 0.3 dB,for 2,8 and 16 ps/(nm·km) dispersion coefficients.

  18. On the performance of joint iterative detection and decoding in coherent optical channels with laser frequency fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillón, Mario A.; Morero, Damián A.; Agazzi, Oscar E.; Hueda, Mario R.

    2015-08-01

    The joint iterative detection and decoding (JIDD) technique has been proposed by Barbieri et al. (2007) with the objective of compensating the time-varying phase noise and constant frequency offset experienced in satellite communication systems. The application of JIDD to optical coherent receivers in the presence of laser frequency fluctuations has not been reported in prior literature. Laser frequency fluctuations are caused by mechanical vibrations, power supply noise, and other mechanisms. They significantly degrade the performance of the carrier phase estimator in high-speed intradyne coherent optical receivers. This work investigates the performance of the JIDD algorithm in multi-gigabit optical coherent receivers. We present simulation results of bit error rate (BER) for non-differential polarization division multiplexing (PDM)-16QAM modulation in a 200 Gb/s coherent optical system that includes an LDPC code with 20% overhead and net coding gain of 11.3 dB at BER = 10-15. Our study shows that JIDD with a pilot rate ⩽ 5 % compensates for both laser phase noise and laser frequency fluctuation. Furthermore, since JIDD is used with non-differential modulation formats, we find that gains in excess of 1 dB can be achieved over existing solutions based on an explicit carrier phase estimator with differential modulation. The impact of the fiber nonlinearities in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems is also investigated. Our results demonstrate that JIDD is an excellent candidate for application in next generation high-speed optical coherent receivers.

  19. Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10(-19) frequency stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, Cecilia; Mura, Alberto; Calonico, Davide; Levi, Filippo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Calosso, Claudio E; Godone, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    We stabilized the frequency of a compact planar-waveguide external cavity laser (ECL) on a Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC) through a Pound-Drever-Hall scheme. The residual frequency stability of the ECL is 10(-14), comparable to the stability achievable with a fiber laser (FL) locked to an FPC through the same scheme. We set up an optical link of 100 km, based on fiber spools, that reaches 10(-19) relative stability, and we show that its performances using the ECL or FL are comparable. Thus ECLs could serve as an excellent replacement for FLs in optical links where cost-effectiveness and robustness are important considerations.

  20. Real-time frequency domain temperature and oxygen sensor with a single optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S C; Xu, Z; Izatt, J A; Alcala, J R

    1997-11-01

    The combined excited-state phosphorescence life-times of an alexandrite crystal and platinum tetraphenylporphyrin Pt(TPP) in a single-fiber sensor are used to monitor temperature and oxygen concentration in the physiological range from 15-45 degrees C and 0-50% O2 with precision of 0.24 degree C and 0.15% O2 and accuracy of 0.28 degree C and 0.2% O2. A 500-micron cubic alexandrite crystal bound to the distal end of a 750-micron-diameter optical fiber core and the Pt(TPP) coated circumferentially with a length of 1 cm from the end of the same fiber are excited with pulsed super-bright blue LED light. This apparatus uses a 125-kHz sampler for data acquisition and frequency domain methods for signal processing. The instrument amplifies both the dc and ac components of the photomultiplier output and band limits the signal to 20 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is set to 488.3 Hz and the highest harmonic used is the 35th. This bandlimited signal is sampled and averaged over a few hundred cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic are then computed. At least four log-spaced harmonic phases or modulations are averaged before decoding the two lifetimes of temperature and oxygen phosphorescent sensors. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the excitation backscatter leakage through optical interference filters seen by the photodetector. Linear and second-order empirical polynomials are employed to compute the temperatures and oxygen concentrations from the inverse lifetimes. In the situation of constant oxygen concentration, the lifetime of Pt(TPP) changes with temperature but can be compensated using the measured temperature lifetime. The system drift is 0.24 degree C for the temperature measurement and 0.59% for the oxygen concentration measurement over 30 h of continuous operation

  1. Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéfélian, Fabien; Jiang, Haifeng; Lemonde, Pierre; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2009-04-01

    We report the frequency stabilization of an erbium-doped fiber distributed-feedback laser using an all-fiber-based Michelson interferometer of large arm imbalance. The interferometer uses a 1 km SMF-28 optical fiber spool and an acousto-optic modulator allowing heterodyne detection. The frequency-noise power spectral density is reduced by more than 40 dB for Fourier frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 10 kHz, corresponding to a level well below 1 Hz2/Hz over the entire range; it reaches 10(-2) Hz2/Hz at 1 kHz. Between 40 Hz and 30 kHz, the frequency noise is shown to be comparable to the one obtained by Pound-Drever-Hall locking to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. Locking to a fiber delay line could consequently represent a reliable, simple, and compact alternative to cavity stabilization for short-term linewidth reduction.

  2. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f_1: 2403 nm, f_2: 1201 nm, f_3: 801 nm, f_4: 600 nm, and f_5: 480 nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical-frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  3. Two-way optical frequency comparisons at 5 ×10-21 relative stability over 100-km telecommunication network fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercy, Anthony; Stefani, Fabio; Lopez, Olivier; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne

    2014-12-01

    By using two-way frequency transfer, we implement a real-time frequency comparison over a uni-directional telecommunication network of 100 km using a pair of parallel fibers with simultaneous digital data transfer. The relative frequency stability is 10-15 at 1-s integration time and reaches 2 ×10-17 at 40 000 s, three orders of magnitude below the one-way fiber instability. We also demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution comparison of optical frequencies with a bidirectional scheme using a single fiber. We show that the relative stability at 1-s integration time is 7 ×10-18 and scales down to 5 ×10-21 . The same level of performance is reached when an optical link is implemented with an active compensation of the fiber noise. The fractional uncertainty of the frequency comparisons was evaluated for the best case to 2 ×10-20 . These results open the way to accurate and high-resolution frequency comparison of optical clocks over intercontinental fiber networks.

  4. Tunable error-free optical frequency conversion of a 4ps optical short pulse over 25 nm by four-wave mixing in a polarisation-maintaining optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T.; Kawanishi, S.; Saruwatari, M.

    1994-05-01

    Error-free, tunable optical frequency conversion of a transform-limited 4.0 ps optical pulse signalis demonstrated at 6.3 Gbit/s using four-wave mixing in a polarization-maintaining optical fibre. The process generates 4.0-4.6 ps pulses over a 25nm range with time-bandwidth products of 0.31-0.43 and conversion power penalties of less than 1.5 dB.

  5. Laser phase and frequency noise measurement by Michelson interferometer composed of a 3 × 3 optical fiber coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Yang, Fei; Chen, Dijun; Wei, Fang; Cai, Haiwen; Fang, Zujie; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-08-24

    A laser phase and frequency noise measurement method by an unbalanced Michelson interferometer composed of a 3 × 3 optical fiber coupler is proposed. The relations and differences of the power spectral density (PSD) of differential phase and frequency fluctuation, PSD of instantaneous phase and frequency fluctuation, phase noise and linewidth are derived strictly and discussed carefully. The method obtains the noise features of a narrow linewidth laser conveniently without any specific assumptions or noise models. The technique is also used to characterize the noise features of a narrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser, which confirms the correction and robustness of the method.

  6. DEMODULATION OF FREQUENCY OR SPACE MODULATED LIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGHT , DEMODULATION), (*OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS, FREQUENCY MODULATION), (*FREQUENCY MODULATION, LIGHT ), OPTICAL TRACKING, BEAMS(ELECTROMAGNETIC), DEFLECTION, MICROWAVE FREQUENCY, ELECTRON BEAMS, PHOTOCATHODES

  7. Spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Han Yong

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) employs near-infrared light to image the concentration of chromophores and cell organelles in tissue and thereby providing access to functional parameters that can differentiate cancerous from normal tissues. This thesis describes research at the bench and in the clinic that explores and identifies the potential of DOT breast cancer imaging. The bench and clinic instrumentation differ but share important features: they utilize a very large, spatially dense, set of source-detector pairs (10 7) for imaging in the parallel-plate geometry. The bench experiments explored three-dimensional (3D) image resolution and fidelity as a function of numerous parameters and also ascertained the effects of a chest wall phantom. The chest wall is always present but is typically ignored in breast DOT. My experiments clarified chest wall influences and developed schemes to mitigate these effects. Mostly, these schemes involved selective data exclusion, but their efficacy also depended on reconstruction approach. Reconstruction algorithms based on analytic (fast) Fourier inversion and linear algebraic techniques were explored. The clinical experiments centered around a DOT instrument that I designed, constructed, and have begun to test (in-vitro and in-vivo). This instrumentation offers many features new to the field. Specifically, the imager employs spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain data; it possesses the world's largest optical source-detector density yet reported, facilitated by highly-parallel CCD-based frequency-domain imaging based on gain-modulation heterodyne detection. The instrument thus measures both phase and amplitude of the diffusive light waves. Other features include both frontal and sagittal breast imaging capabilities, ancillary cameras for measurement of breast boundary profiles, real-time data normalization, and mechanical improvements for patient comfort. The instrument design and construction is my most significant

  8. How to realize a negative refractive index material at the atomic level in an optical frequency range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-qi; Ruan, Zhi-chao; He, Sai-ling

    2004-11-01

    The theoretical mechanism for realizing a negative refractive index material in an optical frequency range with an atomic gas system of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. It is shown that under certain conditions such a dense gas can exhibit simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, and negligibly small loss.

  9. Yellow nanosecond sum-frequency generating optical parametric oscillator using periodically poled LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Bruun-Larsen, M.; Balle-Petersen, O.;

    2008-01-01

    Nanosecond yellow light has been generated through simultaneously phase matched sum-frequency generation and optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal. 300 mW of yellow light at a wavelength of 586 nm has been generated from 1.3 W of laser power from a Q-switched Yb...

  10. Science Letters: How to realize a negative refractive index material at the atomic level in an optical frequency range?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建其; 阮智超; 何赛灵

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical mechanism for realizing a negative refractive index material in an optical frequency range with an atomic gas system of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. It is shown that under certain conditions such a dense gas can exhibit simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, and negligibly small loss.

  11. Limitations in distance and frequency due to chromatic dispersion in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov

    1996-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion significantly limits the distance and/or frequency in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links based on direct detection due to a decrease of the carrier to noise ratio. The limitations in links based on coherent remote heterodyne detection, however, are far less...

  12. Quantitative imaging of nanometric optical path length modulations by time-averaged heterodyne holography in coherent frequency-division multiplexing regime

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Francois; Lesaffre, Max; Verrier, Nicolas; Atlan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a demonstration of amplitude and phase imaging of out-of-plane sinusoidal vibration at nanometer scales with a heterodyne holographic interferometer. Time-averaged holograms of a phase-modulated optical field are recorded with an exposure time much longer than the modulation period. Optical heterodyning, a frequency-conversion process aimed at shifting a given radiofrequency optical side band in the sensor bandwidth, is performed with an off-axis and frequency-shifted optical local oscillator. The originality of the proposed method is to make use of a multiplexed local oscillator to address several optical side bands into the temporal bandwidth of the sensor array. This process is called coherent frequency-division multiplexing. It enables simultaneous recording and pixel-to-pixel division of two side band holograms, which permits quantitative mapping of the modulation depth of local optical path lengths yielding small optical phase modulations. Additionally, a linear frequency chirp ensures the ret...

  13. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: discrimination between optical absorbers based on nonlinear photoacoustics at high frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Simandoux, Oliver; Gâteau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In the thermoelastic regime, photoacoustic sensing of optical absorption relies on conversion from light to acoustic energy via the coefficient of thermal expansion \\beta. In this work, we confront confront experimental measurements to theoretical predictions of nonlinear photoacoustic generation based on the dynamic variation of \\beta(T) during the optical excitation of absorbers in aqueous solution. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of organic dye and gold nanospheres (with same optical densities), illuminated with 532 nm nanosecond pulses, was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (center frequency 20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence (a few mJ/cm2) for an equilibrium temperature around 4{\\deg}C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. Under the same condition, no emission was observed with the absorbing organic dye. At a fixed fluence of 5 mJ/cm2, th...

  14. Optical Fiber Link with 1E-19 frequency stability using a Planar-Waveguide External Cavity Laser Diode

    CERN Document Server

    Clivati, Cecilia; Calonico, Davide; Levi, Filippo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Calosso, Claudio E; Godone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    We compare the performances of a compact planar-waveguide external cavity laser (ECL) and a traditional fiber laser (FL) frequency locked to a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity and demonstrate the possibility to use such ECL in an optical link for ultra stable frequency dissemination. A relative stability of the ECL of 1E-14 is obtained and an optical link of 100 km based on fiber spools has been realized, that reaches 2E-19 relative stability, limited by the system noise floor. The performances of ECL and FL are shown to be comparable. Thus, ECLs could be a better choice than FLs in longer optical links with amplification and regenerating stations, thanks to their cost-effectiveness, robustness and small size.

  15. Stabilization and Frequency Control of a DFB Laser With a Tunable Optical Reflector Integrated in a Silicon Photonics PIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Johannes; Schrammen, Matthias; Romero-Garcia, Sebastian; Muller, Juliana; Shen, Bin; Richter, Jens; Merget, Florian; Witzens, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the effect of tunable optical feedback on a commercial DFB laser edge coupled to a Silicon Photonics planar integrated circuit in which a tunable reflector has been implemented by means of a ring resonator based add-drop multiplexer. Controlled optical feedback allows for fine-tuning of the laser oscillation frequency. Under certain conditions it also allows suppression of bifurcation modes triggered by reflections occurring elsewhere on the chip. A semi-analytical model describing laser dynamics under combined optical feedback from the input facet of the edge coupler and from the tunable on-chip reflector fits the measurements. Compensation of detrimental effects from reflections induced elsewhere on a transceiver chip may allow moving isolators downstream in future communications systems, facilitating direct hybrid laser integration in Silicon Photonics chips, provided a suitable feedback signal for a control system can be identified. Moreover, the optical frequency tuning at lower feedback levels can be used to form a rapidly tunable optical oscillator as part of an optical phase locked loop, circumventing the problem of the thermal to free carrier effect crossover in the FM response of injection current controlled semiconductor laser diodes.

  16. Two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography for low-frequency vibration measurement and response-only modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun

    2016-10-01

    A high-speed camera-based two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography (2DOCVT) system with a subnanometre displacement resolution was developed and employed for low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis. Experimental results demonstrated the ability of low-frequency absolute displacement measurement of structural line vibrations without scanning. Three-dimensional (3D) surface displacement of a vibrating structure could also be obtained using the developed 2DOCVT by scanning the structure. The scanning 2DOCVT system acted like a 3D optical coherence vibration tomography system. The developed 2DOCVT system could capture structural modal parameters without vibration excitation input information, and therefore, it is a response-only method. The 2DOCVT could be recommended in the application of low-frequency vibration measurement and modal analysis of beam and plate structures, especially when the vibration amplitude is at nanometre or micrometre scale.

  17. Identifying the role of the local density of optical states in frequency conversion of light in a microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Yüce, Emre; Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Vos, Willem L

    2014-01-01

    We have reversibly switched the resonance of a GaAs-AlAs microcavity in the near-infrared near $\\lambda =1300$ nm within 300 fs by the electronic Kerr effect. We reveal by pump-probe spectroscopy a remarkable red shift or blue shift of the light confined inside the cavity for small pulse delays, depending on their temporal ordering. The color-converted light is efficiently generated in a broad frequency continuum that differs markedly from the instantaneous cavity resonance in terms of the central frequency and bandwidth. From observations on cavities with different quality factors, we identify the role of the local density of optical states (LDOS) available to the newly generated light frequencies. In particular, we distinguish the effect of the LDOS related to the cavity resonance itself, and the LDOS continuum that leaks in from the vacuum surrounding the cavity. Our new insights provide a unified picture for seemingly disparate results in traditional and nanophotonic nonlinear optics.

  18. Theory of quantum frequency translation of light in optical fiber: application to interference of two photons of different color

    CERN Document Server

    McGuinness, H J; McKinstrie, C J

    2011-01-01

    We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "non-discriminatory" or "discriminatory" in regards to their propensity to exhibit high-efficiency translation or high-visibility two-photon interference for many different shapes of input wave packets or for only a few input wave packets, respectively. Also, for a particular case, the Schmidt mode set was found to be nearly equal to a Hermite-Gaussian function set. The methods and results also apply with little modification to frequency conversion by sum-frequency conversion in optical crystals.

  19. Spectroscopy of 171Yb in an optical lattice based on laser linewidth transfer using a narrow linewidth frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Iwakuni, Kana; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Okubo, Sho; Kohno, Takuya; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2013-04-08

    We propose a novel, high-performance, and practical laser source system for optical clocks. The laser linewidth of a fiber-based frequency comb is reduced by phase locking a comb mode to an ultrastable master laser at 1064 nm with a broad servo bandwidth. A slave laser at 578 nm is successively phase locked to a comb mode at 578 nm with a broad servo bandwidth without any pre-stabilization. Laser frequency characteristics such as spectral linewidth and frequency stability are transferred to the 578-nm slave laser from the 1064-nm master laser. Using the slave laser, we have succeeded in observing the clock transition of (171)Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice with a 20-Hz spectral linewidth.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Instantaneous Frequency Scaling Factor as Derived From Optical Disdrometer Measurements At KQ Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Houts, Jacquelynne; Luini, Lorenzo; Riva, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The rain rate data and statistics of a location are often used in conjunction with models to predict rain attenuation. However, the true attenuation is a function not only of rain rate, but also of the drop size distribution (DSD). Generally, models utilize an average drop size distribution (Laws and Parsons or Marshall and Palmer. However, individual rain events may deviate from these models significantly if their DSD is not well approximated by the average. Therefore, characterizing the relationship between the DSD and attenuation is valuable in improving modeled predictions of rain attenuation statistics. The DSD may also be used to derive the instantaneous frequency scaling factor and thus validate frequency scaling models. Since June of 2014, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) have jointly conducted a propagation study in Milan, Italy utilizing the 20 and 40 GHz beacon signals of the Alphasat TDP#5 Aldo Paraboni payload. The Ka- and Q-band beacon receivers provide a direct measurement of the signal attenuation while concurrent weather instrumentation provides measurements of the atmospheric conditions at the receiver. Among these instruments is a Thies Clima Laser Precipitation Monitor (optical disdrometer) which yields droplet size distributions (DSD); this DSD information can be used to derive a scaling factor that scales the measured 20 GHz data to expected 40 GHz attenuation. Given the capability to both predict and directly observe 40 GHz attenuation, this site is uniquely situated to assess and characterize such predictions. Previous work using this data has examined the relationship between the measured drop-size distribution and the measured attenuation of the link]. The focus of this paper now turns to a deeper analysis of the scaling factor, including the prediction error as a function of attenuation level, correlation between the scaling factor and the rain rate, and the temporal variability of the drop size