WorldWideScience

Sample records for cavity quantum electrodynamics

  1. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  2. Deterministic cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have employed radio-frequency trapping to localize a single 40Ca+-ion in a high-finesse optical cavity. By means of laser Doppler cooling, the position spread of the ion's wavefunction along the cavity axis was reduced to 42 nm, a fraction of the resonance wavelength of ionized calcium (λ = 397 nm). By controlling the position of the ion in the optical field, continuous and completely deterministic coupling of ion and field was realized. The precise three-dimensional location of the ion in the cavity was measured by observing the fluorescent light emitted upon excitation in the cavity field. The single-ion system is ideally suited to implement cavity quantum electrodynamics under cw conditions. To this end we operate the cavity on the D3/2-P1/2 transition of 40Ca+ (λ 866 nm). Applications include the controlled generation of single-photon pulses with high efficiency and two-ion quantum gates

  3. Structure an dynamics in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the theoretical background related to the radiative processes for atoms in the presence of boundaries comes from two often disjoint areas, namely cavity quantum electrodynamics and optical bistability with two-state atoms. While the former of these areas has been associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered associated to a large degree with studies in a perturbative domain of altered emission processes in the presence of boundaries other than those of free space, the latter is often viewed from the perspective of hysteresis cycles and device applications. With the exception of the laser, however, perhaps the most extensive investigations of quantum statistical processes in quantum optics are to be found in the literature on bistability with two-state atoms and on cavity QED. Unfortunately, the degree of overlap of these two areas has not always been fully appreciated. This circumstance is perhaps due in part to the fact that the investigation of dynamical processes in cavity QED has had as its cornerstone the Jaynes-Cummings problem, with extensions to include, for example, small amounts of dissipation. On the other hand, a principle aspect of the bistability literature has been the study of quantum fluctuations in open systems for which dissipation plays a central role, but for which the coherent quantum dynamics of the Haynes-Cummings model are to a large measure lost due to the usual assumption of large system size and weak coupling (as in the standard theory of the laser). 132 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  4. Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper, which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED. The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation. The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field. The capacity, imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol. It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping. In addition, its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits, larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols. (general)

  5. Large payload quantum steganography based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Tian-Yu; Jiang Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A large payload quantum steganography protocol based on cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented in this paper,which effectively uses the evolutionary law of atoms in cavity QED.The protocol builds up a hidden channel to transmit secret messages using entanglement swapping between one GHZ state and one Bell state in cavity QED together with the Hadamard operation.The quantum steganography protocol is insensitive to cavity decay and the thermal field.The capacity,imperceptibility and security against eavesdropping are analyzed in detail in the protocol.It turns out that the protocol not only has good imperceptibility but also possesses good security against eavesdropping.In addition,its capacity for a hidden channel achieves five bits,larger than most of the previous quantum steganography protocols.

  6. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics of Continuously Monitored Bose-Condensed Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study cavity quantum electrodynamics of Bose-condensed atoms that are subjected to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. Due to a given detection record of each stochastic realization, individual runs spontaneously break the symmetry of the spatial profile of the atom cloud and this symmetry can be restored by considering ensemble averages over many realizations. We show that the cavity optomechanical excitations of the condensate can be engineered to target specific collective modes. This is achieved by exploiting the spatial structure and symmetries of the collective modes and light fields. The cavity fields can be utilized both for strong driving of the collective modes and for their measurement. In the weak excitation limit the condensate–cavity system may be employed as a sensitive phonon detector which operates by counting photons outside the cavity that have been selectively scattered by desired phonons.

  7. Enhancements to cavity quantum electrodynamics system

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmarusti, A D; Norris, D G; Orozco, L A

    2011-01-01

    We show the planned upgrade of a cavity QED experimental apparatus. The system consists of an optical cavity and an ensemble of ultracold $^{85}$Rb atoms coupled to its mode. We propose enhancements to both. First, we document the building process for a new cavity, with a planned finesse of $\\sim$20000. We address problems of maintaining mirror integrity during mounting and improving vibration isolation. Second, we propose improvements to the cold atom source in order to achieve better optical pumping and control over the flux of atoms. We consider a 2-D optical molasses for atomic beam deflection, and show computer simulation results for evaluating the design. We also examine the possibility of all-optical atomic beam focusing, but find that it requires unreasonable experimental parameters.

  8. Quantum-to-Classical Transition in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, J M; Studer, P; Bishop, Lev S; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Bozyigit, D; Lang, C; Filipp, S; Leek, P J; Wallraff, A

    2010-01-01

    The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or any other type of harmonic oscillator can be revealed by investigating its strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity QED. At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the system. Here, we study how the classical response of a quantum cavity QED system emerges when its thermal occupation -- or effective temperature -- is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous cross-over from a quantum response to a classical response in the spirit of Bohr's correspondence principle. We also demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.

  9. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible

  10. Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger;

    2013-01-01

    We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...

  11. Teleportation of Atomic States via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity Quatum Electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic Bell states via the interaction of atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.

  12. Perfect photon absorption in nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by the destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze the perfect photon absorption and onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that the perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of the optical bistability. Therefore the perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals for the first time that the optical bistability is influenced by the input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative ph...

  13. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices....

  14. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, Mikayel

    2009-10-27

    In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the

  15. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing-Wu; Zhao, Guan-Xiang; He, Xiong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics. (general)

  17. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jing-Wu; Zhao Guan-Xiang; He Xiong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4)1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  18. Preparation of Genuinely Entangled Six-Atom State via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen; LIU Yi-Min; YIN Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Zhan-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme for preparing a genuinely entangled state [A. Borras, et al., J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 13407] on six two-level atoms is proposed. In the scheme, the atom-cavity detuning is much bigger than the atom-cavity coupling strength and the necessary preparation time is much shorter than the Rydberg-atom lifespan. Hence the scheme has two distinct features, i.e., insensitive to the cavity decay and the atom radiation.

  19. Efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jin; Ye Liu

    2004-01-01

    We present an efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics.Involved in this scheme are n identical two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. Discussion indicates that this scheme can be realized easily by current technologies.

  20. Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.

  1. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Classical Message using Cavity Quantum Electrodynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lian-Fang; LIU Yi-Min; ZHANG Zhan-Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ An experimental feasible scheme of multiparty secret sharing of classical messages is proposed, based on a cavity quantum electrodynamic system. The secret messages are imposed on atomic Bell states initially in the sender's possession by local unitary operations. By swapping quantum entanglement of atomic Bell states, the secret messages are split into several parts and each part is distributed to a separate party. In this case, any subset of the entire party group can not read out the secret message but the entirety via mutual cooperations. In this scheme, to discriminate atomic Bell states, additional classical fields are employed besides the same highly-detuned single-mode cavities used to prepare atomic Bell states. This scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field, and usual joint Bell-state measurements are unnecessary.

  2. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics: The Strange Theory of Light in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Sergio M.

    2004-12-01

    What happens to light when it is trapped in a box? Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics addresses a fascinating question in physics: what happens to light, and in particular to its interaction with matter, when it is trapped inside a box? With the aid of a model-building approach, readers discover the answer to this question and come to appreciate its important applications in computing, cryptography, quantum teleportation, and opto-electronics. Instead of taking a traditional approach that requires readers to first master a series of seemingly unconnected mathematical techniques, this book engages the readers' interest and imagination by going straight to the point, introducing the mathematics along the way as needed. Appendices are provided for the additional mathematical theory. Researchers, scientists, and students of modern physics can refer to Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and examine the field thoroughly. Several key topics covered that readers cannot find in any other quantum optics book include: * Introduction to the problem of the "vacuum catastrophe" and the cosmological constant * Detailed up-to-date account of cavity QED lasers and thresholdless lasing * Examination of cavities with movable walls * First-principles discussion about cavity QED in open cavities * Pedagogical account of microscopic quantization in dielectrics Complementing the coverage of the most advanced theory and techniques, the author provides context by discussing the historical evolution of the field and its discoveries. In that spirit, "recommended reading," provided in each chapter, leads readers to both contemporary literature as well as key historical papers. Despite being one of many specialties within physics, cavity quantum electrodynamics serves as a window to many of the fundamental issues of physics. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics will serve as an excellent resource for advanced undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as well as for graduate students, researchers, and

  3. A scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Ni Zhi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This scheme, which has a successful probability of 100 percent, does not require Bell-state measurement and performing any operations to reconstruct an initial state. Meanwhile, the scheme only involves atomfield interaction with a large detuning and does not require the transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavity. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. This scheme can also be extended to transfer ring an entangled state of n-atom.

  4. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.;

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates...

  5. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  6. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan [Sharif University of Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar

    2011-10-01

    A three-level atom in a configuration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efficient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high fidelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We find that the fidelity of storage is better, the stronger the control field and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control field. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.

  8. Cavity quantum electrodynamics of a quantum dot in a micropillar cavity: comparison between experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, S.;

    2010-01-01

    The coupling between a quantum dot (QD) and a micropillar cavity is experimentally investigated by performing time-resolved, correlation, and two-photon interference measurements. The Jaynes-Cummings model including dissipative Lindblad terms and dephasing is analyzed, and all the parameters for ...

  9. Quantum State Engineering by Superpositions of Coherent States along aStraight Line in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2001-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating the superpositions of several coherent states in a cavity field with dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the scheme, a sequence of atoms interacts dispersively with the cavity field, connected with a microwave source, and is manipulated by classical fields, followed by state-selective measurements. In this way, the cavity field is collapsed onto a superposition of several coherent states along a straight line with controllable coefficients. This scheme provides the possibility for quantum state engineering via coherent-state superpositions along a straight line in cavity QED for the first time.

  10. Vacuum-Induced Abelian and Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 梁奇锋; 俞立先; 陈刚

    2011-01-01

    Gauge potential plays an important role in exploring exotic phenomena in the single- and many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we propose a scheme to create both new Abelian and non-Abelian gauge potentials by adiabatically controlling the degenerate Dicke model in cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that a non-Abelian gauge potential is achieved only for a single atom, whereas an Abelianizen diagonal gauge potential is realized for the atomic ensemble. More importantly, two interesting quantum phenomena such as the geometric phase and the magnetic monopole induced by our created gauge potentials are also predicted. The possible physical realization is presented in the macroscopic circuit quantum electrodynamics with the Cooper pair boxes, which act as the artificial two-level atoms controlled by the gate voltage and the external magnetic flux.

  11. Three-qubit Fredkin gate based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Xiao-Qiang; Chen Li; Zhang Shou

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for implementing a Fredkin gate on three modes of a cavity.The scheme is based on the dispersive atom-cavity interaction.By modulating the cavity frequency and the atomic transition frequency appropriately,it obtains the effective form of nonlinear interaction between photons in the three-mode cavity.This availability is testified via numerical analysis.It also considers both the situations with and without dissipation.

  12. Preparation of W state in resonant bimodal cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating entangled W states with four cavity modes. In this scheme, we send a Ⅴ-type three-level atom through two identical two-mode cavities in succession. After the atom exits from the second cavity,the four cavity modes are prepared in the W state. On the other hand we can obtain three-atom W states by sending three Ⅴ-type three-level atoms through a two-mode cavity in turn. The present scheme does not require conditional measurement, and it is easily generalized to preparing 2n-mode W states and n-atom W states.

  13. Quantum Zeno effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics: Experimental proposal with nonideal cavities and detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R., Jr.; de Magalhães, A. R. Bosco; Nemes, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experiment for the observation of the quantum Zeno effect (QZE) in a bipartite system. The setup involves two microwave cavities and a “tunneling” photon, which is observed by the passage of Rydberg atoms. Our proposal allows for the consideration of two types of measurements, namely, sequential observations of the atomic state and its inclusive measurement. In the present system the two processes are shown to lead to the same result in the ideal case. We consider realistic atom-field interaction times, cavity dissipation, and limited detection efficiency. Analytical expressions for the “tunneling” probability are obtained exhibiting a competition between the environment induced exponential decay and the characteristic t2 (for short times) dependence of the QZE. We show that for sufficiently small dissipation constants the effect can be observed with current experimental facilities.

  14. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greuter, Lukas; Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Valentin, Sascha; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-P\\'{e}rot-like microcavity. Thereby a 3$\\lambda$/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4,100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor - mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggests that we are close to the strong coupling regime.

  15. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greuter, Lukas; Najer, Daniel; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Starosielec, Sebastian; Warburton, Richard J. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel 4056 (Switzerland); Valentin, Sascha R.; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    We demonstrate an approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-Pérot-like microcavity. Thereby, a 3λ/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor-mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggest that we are close to the strong coupling regime.

  16. Epitaxial lift-off for solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate an approach to incorporate self-assembled quantum dots into a Fabry-Pérot-like microcavity. Thereby, a 3λ/4 GaAs layer containing quantum dots is epitaxially removed and attached by van der Waals bonding to one of the microcavity mirrors. We reach a finesse as high as 4100 with this configuration limited by the reflectivity of the dielectric mirrors and not by scattering at the semiconductor-mirror interface, demonstrating that the epitaxial lift-off procedure is a promising procedure for cavity quantum electrodynamics in the solid state. As a first step in this direction, we demonstrate a clear cavity-quantum dot interaction in the weak coupling regime with a Purcell factor in the order of 3. Estimations of the coupling strength via the Purcell factor suggest that we are close to the strong coupling regime

  17. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e> via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest that the absence of interactions between remote Rydberg atoms may, due to a combinatorial effect, induce a cavity-assisted excitation blockade whose range is larger than the typical Rydberg dipole-dipole interaction length.

  18. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman;

    2010-01-01

    effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest......The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly...... couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e>via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the...

  19. Teleportation of two-atom entangled state in resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen-Biao

    2007-01-01

    An alternative scheme is presented for teleportation of a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is based on the resonant atom-cavity field interaction. In the scheme, only one cavity is involved, and the number of the atoms needed to be detected is decreased compared with the previous scheme. Since the resonant atom-cavity field interaction greatly reduces the interaction time, the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed during the teleportation process. The experimental feasibility of the scheme is discussed. The scheme can easily be generalized to the teleportation of N-atom Greeninger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states. The number of atoms needed to be detected does not increase as the number of the atoms in the GHZ state increases.

  20. Cavity quantum electrodynamics in the Anderson-localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission decay rate of single semiconductor quantum dots coupled to disorder-induced Anderson-localized modes with efficiencies reaching 94%....

  1. Quantum Electrodynamics with Semiconductor Quantum Dots Coupled to Anderson‐localized Random Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    spontaneous emission decay rate by up to a factor 15 and an efficiency of channeling single photons into Anderson-localized modes reaching values as high as 94%. These results prove that disordered photonic media provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering a novel route to quantum...

  2. A nanophotonic probe for quantum electrodynamics in random cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, S. R.; Frater, E. H.; Korterik, J. P.; Herek, J. L.; Mosk, A. P.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Lagendijk, A.; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, W. L.; Pinkse, P .W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Disorder in photonic-crystal slab waveguides can cause localization of light [1, 2]. Sapienza et al. observed that the interaction of localized light with embedded quantum dots is so strong that it yields a considerable Purcell enhancement of the emission rate [3]. This coupling between emitters...... and these “random cavities” warrants a more detailed investigation....

  3. A nanophotonic probe for quantum electrodynamics in random cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huisman, S. R.; Frater, E. H.; Korterik, J. P.;

    2011-01-01

    Disorder in photonic-crystal slab waveguides can cause localization of light [1, 2]. Sapienza et al. observed that the interaction of localized light with embedded quantum dots is so strong that it yields a considerable Purcell enhancement of the emission rate [3]. This coupling between emitters ...

  4. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, W L

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent work on three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with a "full and complete" 3D photonic band gap. We review five main aspects: 1) spontaneous emission inhibition, 2) spatial localization of light within a tiny nanoscale volume (aka "a nanobox for light"), 3) the introduction of a gain medium leading to thresholdless lasers, 4) breaking of the weak-coupling approximation of cavity QED, both in the frequency and in the time-domain, 5) decoherence, in particular the shielding of vacuum fluctuations by a 3D photonic bandgap. In addition, we list and evaluate all known photonic crystal structures with a demonstrated 3D band gap.

  5. Perfect photon absorption in the nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Di, Ke; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze perfect photon absorption and the onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of optical bistability. Therefore perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals that optical bistability is influenced by input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative phase of the two input fields.

  6. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document consists of translations of the following original papers: (A) the fluctuations of charge connected with the formation of matter from radiation, by W. Heisenberg, Sachsiche Akademie der Wissenschaften; 86:(1934) 317-322; (B) theory of the positron, by P.A.M. Dirac, Report to 7th Solvay Physics Conference, structure and properties of Atomic Nuclei (1934) 203-212; (C) comments on the Dirac theory of the positron, by W. Heisenberg, Zeitschrift fur Physik; 90:(1934) 209-231; and (D) the electrodynamics of the vacuum on the basis of the quantum theory of the electron, by V. Weisskopf, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Mathematiskfysiske Meddelelser XIV, no. 6 (1936) 3-39. (U.K.)

  7. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present detuning-dependent spectral and decay-rate measurements to study the difference between the spectral and dynamical properties of single quantum dots embedded in micropillar and photonic crystal cavities. For the micropillar cavity, the dynamics is well described by the dissipative Jayn...

  8. Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, K H

    2012-01-01

    We present detuning-dependent spectral and decay-rate measurements to study the difference between spectral and dynamical properties of single quantum dots embedded in micropillar and photonic-crystal cavities. For the micropillar cavity, the dynamics is well described by the dissipative Jaynes-Cummings model, while systematic deviations are observed for the emission spectra. The discrepancy for the spectra is attributed to coupling of other exciton lines to the cavity and interference of different propagation paths towards the detector of the fields emitted by the quantum dot. In contrast, quantitative information about the system can readily be extracted from the dynamical measurements. In the case of photonic crystal cavities we observe an anti crossing in the spectra when detuning a single quantum dot through resonance, which is the spectral signature of strong coupling. However, time-resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral...

  9. Magneto-optical cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in quantum dot - micropillar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Large In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of the micropillar facilitate the observation of strong coupling. In addition, they exhibit a particular large diamagnetic response which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning in the strong coupling regime. The magnetic field employed in Faraday configuration induces a transition from strong coupling towards the critical coupling regime which is explained in terms of a magnetic field dependent oscillator strength of the In0.3Ga0.7As QDs. We further study the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract the associated coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes and reveals an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states.

  10. Spin mediated magneto-optical cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in quantum dot micropillar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on magneto-optical studies of strongly coupled quantum dot - micropillar cavity systems. Laterally extended In0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots (QDs) in the active layer of a micropillar cavity facilitate the observation of strong coupling. These QDs are characterized by large oscillator strength and they exhibit a large diamagnetic response, which is exploited to demonstrate magneto-optical resonance tuning. In addition, the coherent interaction between spin resolved states of the QDs and microcavity photon modes is studied. We access the spin degree of freedom by applying a non-zero magnetic field in Faraday configuration, so that the spin degeneracy of the QD exciton is lifted, while the resonance tuning of the Zeeman split exciton lines is achieved by temperature variation. A detailed oscillator model is used to extract coupling parameters of the individual spin and cavity modes. Our results demonstrate an effective coupling between photon modes that is mediated by the exciton spin states. We further show simulations of the photon-photon coupling in dependence of the coupling parameters.

  11. Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly-driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state re-population in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms)

  12. Perturbation theory based on Darboux transformation on one-dimensional Dirac equation in the case of cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Trisetyarso, Agung

    2010-01-01

    We present the recent works \\cite{trisetyarso01,trisetyarso02} on the application of Darboux transformation on one-dimensional Dirac equation related to the field of Quantum Information and Computation (QIC). The representation of physical system in one-dimensional equation and its transformation due to the Bagrov, Baldiotti, Gitman, and Shamshutdinova (BBGS)-Darboux transformation showing the possibility admitting the concept of relativity and the trade-off of concurrent condition of quantum and classical physics play into the area of QIC. The applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and on the proposal of quantum transistor are presented.

  13. Bloch-wave engineering of quantum dot-micropillars for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lermer, Matthias; Gregersen, Niels; Dunzer, Florian;

    2012-01-01

    We have employed Bloch-wave engineering to realize submicron diameter ultra-high quality factor GaAs/AlAs micropillars (MPs). The design features a tapered cavity in which the fundamental Bloch mode is subject to an adiabatic transition to match the Bragg mirror Bloch mode. The resulting reduced ...

  14. Molecular quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, D P

    1998-01-01

    This systematic introduction to quantum electrodynamics focuses on the interaction of radiation with outer electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, answering the long-standing need of chemists and physicists for a comprehensive text on this highly specialized subject.Geared toward postgraduate students in the chemical sciences who require an understanding of quantum electrodynamics as applied to the interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules, the text offers a detailed explanation of the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. It feat

  15. Fano line-shape control and superluminal light using cavity quantum electrodynamics with a partially transmitting element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Liu, Jiuyang; Ding, Chunling; Wu, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We study the probe-field transmission in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity-QED) systems with a partially transmitting element (PTE), where the PTE is used to control and tune the amplitude of the weak probe field propagating along a single waveguide channel in the structure. We derive analytic formulas utilized to determine the transmission coefficient of the probe field within the framework of quantum optics. Using experimentally accessible parameters, it is clearly shown that the asymmetric Fano-resonance line shape can be formed and manipulated by means of the added PTE. Furthermore, we reveal that there exists superluminal light with large intensity transmission in the transport spectrum of the waveguide-coupled cavity-QED system. This superluminal-light propagation effect, which exhibits the anomalous phase shift and is characterized by the negative group delay, can be enhanced by properly choosing the system parameters. The obtained results may be used for designing switching, modulation, and sensing for nanophotonic applications and ultrafast on-chip signal processing in telecom applications.

  16. Asymptotic algebra of quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The Staruszkiewicz quantum model of the long-range structure in electrodynamics is reviewed in the form of a Weyl algebra. This is followed by a personal view on the asymptotic structure of quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Cavity quantum electrodynamics using a near-resonance two-level system: Emergence of the Glauber state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Burin, A. L. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Wellstood, F. C. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Osborn, K. D. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Random tunneling two-level systems (TLSs) in dielectrics have been of interest recently because they adversely affect the performance of superconducting qubits. The coupling of TLSs to qubits has allowed individual TLS characterization, which has previously been limited to TLSs within (thin) Josephson tunneling barriers made from aluminum oxide. Here, we report on the measurement of an individual TLS within the capacitor of a lumped-element LC microwave resonator, which forms a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system and allows for individual TLS characterization in a different structure and material than demonstrated with qubits. Due to the reduced volume of the dielectric (80 μm{sup 3}), even with a moderate dielectric thickness (250 nm), we achieve the strong coupling regime as evidenced by the vacuum Rabi splitting observed in the cavity spectrum. A TLS with a coherence time of 3.2 μs was observed in a film of silicon nitride as analyzed with a Jaynes-Cummings spectral model, which is larger than seen from superconducting qubits. As the drive power is increased, we observe an unusual but explicable set of continuous and discrete crossovers from the vacuum Rabi split transitions to the Glauber (coherent) state.

  18. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations in...

  19. Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Lev S

    2010-01-01

    Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED), the study of the interaction between superconducting circuits behaving as artificial atoms and 1-dimensional transmission-line resonators, has shown much promise for quantum information processing tasks. For the purposes of quantum computing it is usual to approximate the artificial atoms as 2-level qubits, and much effort has been expended on attempts to isolate these qubits from the environment and to invent ever more sophisticated control and measurement schemes. Rather than focussing on these technological aspects of the field, this thesis investigates the opportunities for using these carefully engineered systems for answering questions of fundamental physics.

  20. Planar Multilayer Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Z. K.; Serniak, K.; Pop, I. M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K.; Hatridge, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is rapidly advancing, driven by innovation in two classes of devices, one involving planar microfabricated (2D) resonators, and the other involving machined three-dimensional (3D) cavities. We demonstrate that circuit quantum electrodynamics can be implemented in a multilayer superconducting structure that combines 2D and 3D advantages. We employ standard microfabrication techniques to pattern each layer, and rely on a vacuum gap between the layers to store the electromagnetic energy. Planar qubits are lithographically defined as an aperture in a conducting boundary of the resonators. We demonstrate the aperture concept by implementing an integrated, two-cavity-mode, one-transmon-qubit system.

  1. Minimal Quantum Electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, R.; Berrondo, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the renormalization concept.

  2. Minimal quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the intereacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the ''renormalization'' concept

  3. Minimal Quantum Electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics is obtained within the general framework of the LSZ field theory. The commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori and the current densities fulfill the one particle stability conditions. Thus, the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism are avoided. The resulting spectral representations do not have any ambiguities so that we do not have to introduce the renormalization concept

  4. Generation of a multi-qubit W entangled state through spatially separated semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules in cavity-quantum electrodynamics arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siping [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Yu, Rong [Wuhan Institute of Technology, School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia-li@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@126.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-07

    Generating entangled states attract tremendous interest as the most vivid manifestation of nonlocality of quantum mechanics and also for emerging applications in quantum information processing (QIP). Here, we propose theoretically a scheme for the deterministic generation of a three-qubit W sate with three semiconductor quantum-dot-molecules (QDMs) trapped in spatially separated cavities connected by optical fibers. The proposed scheme takes full advantage of the voltage-controlled tunnelling effects in QDMs, which induces the quantum coherence and further controls the generation of the W entangled state. The influences of the system parameters and various decoherence processes including spontaneous decay and photon leakage on the fidelity of the W state are discussed in details. Numerical results indicate that our scheme is not only robust against these decoherence factors but also insensitive to the deviation of the system parameters from the ideal conditions. Furthermore, the present scheme can be directly extended to realize an N-qubit W state. Also, this scheme can be generically transferred to other physical systems, including circuit quantum electrodynamics and photonic crystal cavities. The results obtained here may be useful in real experiments for realizing QIP in a solid-state platform.

  5. Two simple schemes for implementing Toffoli gate via atom-cavity field interaction in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Xiao-Qiang; Chen Li; Zhang Shou

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes two schemes for implementing three-qubit Toffoli gate with an atom (as target qubit) sent through a two-mode cavity (as control qubits). The first scheme is based on the large-detuning atom-cavity field interaction and the second scheme is based on the resonant atom-field interaction. Both the situations with and without cavity decay and atomic spontaneous emission are considered. The advantages and the experimental feasibility of these two schemes are discussed.

  6. One-step generation of qutrit entanglement via adiabatic passage in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-She; Chen Mei-Feng; Jiang Xia-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating a three-dimensional entangled state for two atoms trapped in a cavity by one step via adiabatic passage.In the scheme,the two atoms are always in ground states and the field mode of the cavity excited is negligible under a certain condition.Therefore,the scheme is very robust against decoherence.Furthermore,it needs neither the exact control of all parameters nor the accurate control of the interaction time.It is shown that qutrit entanglement can be generated with a high fidelity.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics in a classical approximation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is formulated in a classical approximation. A quantum mechanical proper-time is employed as a useful parameter, which enables us to elucidate the relationship between quantum electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics. The classical motion of a charged particle is realized as an asymptotic limit of quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  8. Existence of Majorana fermion mode and Dirac equation in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sujit, E-mail: sujit.tifr@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    We present the results of low lying collective mode of coupled optical cavity arrays. We derive the Dirac equation for this system and explain the existence of Majorana fermion mode in the system. We present quite a few analytical relations between the Rabi frequency oscillation and the atom–photon coupling strength to explain the different physical situation of our study and also the condition for massless collective mode in the system. We present several analytical relations between the Dirac spinor field, order and disorder operators for our systems. We also show that the Luttinger liquid physics is one of the intrinsic concepts in our system.

  9. The effect of a permanent dipole moment on the polar molecule cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-Yun, Zhao; Li-Guo, Qin; Xun-Ming, Cai; Qiang, Lin; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-04-01

    A dressed-state perturbation theory beyond the rotating wave approximation (RWA) is presented to investigate the interaction between a two-level electronic transition of polar molecules and a quantized cavity field. Analytical expressions can be explicitly derived for both the ground- and excited-state-energy spectrums and wave functions of the system, where the contribution of permanent dipole moments (PDM) and the counter-rotating wave term (CRT) can be shown separately. The validity of these explicit results is discussed by comparison with the direct numerical simulation. Compared to the CRT coupling, PDM results in the coupling of more dressed states and the energy shift is proportional to the square of the normalized permanent dipole difference, and a greater Bloch–Siegert shift can be produced in the giant dipole molecule cavity QED. In addition, our method can also be extended to the solution of the two-level atom Rabi model Hamiltonian beyond the RWA. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475139, 11347147, and 11247014), the National Basics Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB329501), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. LQ13A040006).

  10. The relation between classical and quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2012-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an ex...

  11. Non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book presents a systematic account of non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics. The subject is discussed under the subject headings: classical equations of motion, canonical formalism, canonical quantization, symmetries and conservation laws, interaction of photons and atoms and lastly, path-dependent electrodynamics. (U.K.)

  12. Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the experimental status of quantum electrodynamics covers the fine structure constant, the muon g-2 value, the Lamb shift in hydrogen, the finite proton radius, progress in muonium, and positronium. 37 references

  13. Timelike Momenta In Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, S. J.; Ting, S. C. C.

    1965-12-01

    In this note we discuss the possibility of studying the quantum electrodynamics of timelike photon propagators in muon or electron pair production by incident high energy muon or electron beams from presently available proton or electron accelerators.

  14. Generation of Two-Mode Nonclassical States via Dispersive Interaction in Trapped-Ion Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a simple method to generate a practical SU(2)-Schrodinger-cat state of a single trapped-ion vibration mode and the light field state, using the method based on a quantum system, which is composed of the onedimensional trapped-ion motion and a single cavity field mode. Moreover, the method proposed can be used for the generation two-mode maximal quantum entangled state. The detection of such a state is also briefly discussed.

  15. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a nonlinear resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Bertet, P; Boissonneault, M; Bolduc, A; Mallet, F; Doherty, A C; Blais, A; Vion, D; Esteve, D

    2011-01-01

    One of the most studied model systems in quantum optics is a two-level atom strongly coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field stored in a cavity, a research field named cavity quantum electrodynamics or CQED. CQED has recently received renewed attention due to its implementation with superconducting artificial atoms and coplanar resonators in the so-called circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In cQED, the couplings can be much stronger than in CQED due to the design flexibility of superconducting circuits and to the enhanced field confinement in one-dimensional cavities. This enabled the realization of fundamental quantum physics and quantum information processing experiments with a degree of control comparable to that obtained in CQED. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the situation where the resonator to which the atom is coupled is made nonlinear with a Kerr-type nonlinearity, causing its energy levels to be nonequidistant. The system is then described by a nonlinea...

  16. Quantum Hall Effect in Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak universal dependence of the von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted.

  17. The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bacelar Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.

  18. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert B.

    2013-01-01

    The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by ...

  19. Renormalizability of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the study of the renormalizability of the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics ($GQED_{4}$). We begin the article by reviewing the on-shell renormalization scheme applied to $GQED_{4}$. Thereafter, we calculate the explicit expressions for all the counter-terms at one-loop approximation and discuss the infrared behavior of the theory as well. Next, we explore some properties of the effective coupling of the theory which would give an indictment of the validity regime of...

  20. The mechanism of producing energy-polarization entangled photon pairs in the cavity-quantum electrodynamics scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chang-Gan; Xin Xia; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yao Wen-Jie; Wang Dong-Lin; Cao Gui

    2012-01-01

    We investigate theoretically two photon entanglement processes in a photonic-crystal cavity embedding a quantum dot in the strong-coupling regime.The model proposed by Johne et al.(Johne R,Gippius N A,Pavlovic G,Solnyshkov D D,Shelykh I A and Malpuech G 2008 Phys.Rev.Lett.100 240404),and by Robert et al.(Robert J,Gippius N A and Malpuech G 2009 Phys.Rev.B 79 155317) is modified by considering irreversible dissipation and incoherent continuous pumping for the quantum dot,which is necessary to connect the realistic experiment.The dynamics of the system is analysed by employing the Born-Markov master equation,through which the spectra for the system are computed as a function of various parameters.By means of this analysis the photon-reabsorption process in the strongcoupling regime is first observed and analysed from the perspective of radiation spectrum and the optimal parameters for observing energy-entangled photon pairs are identified.

  1. Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Chun; CAO Shu-Ai; WU Yue-Qin; FANG Mao-Fa; LI Huai-Fan; ZHENG Xiao-Juan; ZHAO Ren; WANG Xin-Wen; LI Ze-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.

  2. Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.

  3. Quantum Electrodynamics of Nanosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2012-01-01

    Quantum description of mulitiparticle nano-systems is studied in a hot and dense electromagnetic medium. We use renormalization techniques of quantum field theory to show that the electromagnetic properties like electric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the temperature and density of the media. Casimir force also depends upon the physical properties of the medium and becomes a function of these parameters within the nano-systems. We discuss the effect of the Casimir force on the nanosystems in terms of temperature and density of the system. We present carbon nanotubes and biomolecules as examples.

  4. Offshell quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we develop the quantum field theory of off-shell electromagnetism, and use it to calculate the Møller scattering cross-section. This calculation leads to qualitative deviations from the usual scattering cross-sections, which are, however, small effects, but may be visible at small angles near the forward direction.

  5. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiahua [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: yurong321@126.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ma, Jinyong; Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-28

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  6. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Ma, Jinyong; Wu, Ying

    2014-10-01

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  7. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  8. Minimal theory of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the general framework of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann axiomatic field theory, we obtain a simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics. The definitions of the current densities fulfill the one-particle stability condition, and the commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori, thus avoiding the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism. This is possible due to the fact that we use the integral form of the equations of motion in order to compute the propagators and the S matrix. The resulting spectral representations automatically fulfill the correct boundary conditions thus fixing the ubiquitous quasilocal operators in a unique fashion

  9. One-Step Generation of Cluster States Assisted by a Strong Driving Classical Field in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xiao-Qiang; ZHANG Shou

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme for one-step generation of cluster states with atoms sent through a thermal cavity with strong classical driving field, based on the resonant atom-cavity interaction so that the operating time is sharply short, which is important in the view of decoherence.

  10. Scheme for implementing quantum secret sharing via cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhi-Hua; Lin Xiu-Min

    2005-01-01

    An experimentally feasible scheme for implementing quantum secret sharing via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed. The scheme requires the large detuning of the cavity field from the atomic transition, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavity is greatly loosened.

  11. Relativistic Geometry and Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    González-Martin, G R

    2000-01-01

    Excitations of a relativistic geometry are used to represent the theory of quantum electrodynamics. The connection excitations and the frame excitations reduce, respectively, to the electromagnetic field operator and electron field operator. Because of the inherent geometric algebraic structure these operators obey the standard commutation rules of QED. If we work with excitations, we need to use statistical theory when considering the evolution of microscopic subsystems. The use of classical statistics, in particular techniques of irreversible thermodynamics, determine that the probability of absorption or emission of a geometric excitation is a function of the classical energy density. Emission and absorption of geometric excitations imply discrete changes of certain physical variables, but with a probability determined by its wave energy density. Hence, this geometric theory, without contradicting the fundamental aspects of quantum physics, provides a geometric foundation for the theory.

  12. Renormalizability of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Zambrano, G E R; 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.125023

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the study of the renormalizability of the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics ($GQED_{4}$). We begin the article by reviewing the on-shell renormalization scheme applied to $GQED_{4}$. Thereafter, we calculate the explicit expressions for all the counter-terms at one-loop approximation and discuss the infrared behavior of the theory as well. Next, we explore some properties of the effective coupling of the theory which would give an indictment of the validity regime of theory: $m^{2} \\leq k^{2} < m_{P}^{2}$. Afterwards, we make use of experimental data from the electron anomalous magnetic moment to set possible values for the theory free parameter through the one-loop contribution of Podolsky mass-dependent term to Pauli's form factor $F_{2}(q^{2})$.

  13. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  14. The physical state space of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the fact that electrically charged particles are massive we derive a criterion which characterizes the state space of quantum electrodynamics. This criterion clarifies the special role of the electric charge amongst the uncountably many superselection rules in quantum electrodynamics and provides a basis for a general analysis of the infrared problem. Within this framework we establish the existence of asymptotic electromagnetic fields in all charge-sectors, find a general characterization of infraparticles and introduce a notion of asymptotic completeness. (orig.)

  15. On higher order estimates in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Matte, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to derive certain higher order estimates in quantum electrodynamics. Our method is particularly convenient in the application to the non-local semi-relativistic models of quantum electrodynamics as it avoids the use of iterated commutator expansions. We re-derive higher order estimates obtained earlier by Fr\\"ohlich, Griesemer, and Schlein and prove new estimates for a non-local molecular no-pair operator.

  16. On Quantum Corrections to Chern-Simons Spinor Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Fainberg, V Ya

    1998-01-01

    We make a detailed investigation on the quantum corrections to Abelian Chern-Simons spinor electrodynamics. Starting from Chern-Simons spinor quantum electrodynamics with the Maxwell term $-1/(4\\gamma){\\int}d^3x F_{\\mu\

  17. Dyson-Schwinger equations in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum field theory is completely determined by the knowledge of its Green functions and this thesis is concerned with the Salam and Delbourgo approximation method for the determination of the Green functions. In chapter 2 a Lorentz covariant, canonical formulation for quantum electrodynamics is described. In chapter 3 the definition of the Green functions in quantum electrodynamics is given with a derivation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The Ward-Takahashi identities, which are a consequence of current conservation, are derived and finally renormalization is briefly mentioned and the equations for the renormalized quantities are given. The gauge transformations, changing the gauge-parameter, a, discussed in Chapter 2 for the field operators, also have implications for the Green functions, and these are worked out in Chapter 4 for the electron propagator, which is not gauge-invariant. Before developing the main approximation, a simple, non-relativistic model is studied in Chapter 5. It has the feature of being exactly solvable in a way which closely resembles the approximation method of Chapter 6 for relativistic quantum electrodynamics. There the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the electron and photon propagator are studied. In chapter 7, the Johnson-Baker-Willey program of finite quantum electrodynamics is considered, in connection with the Ansatz of Salam and Delbourgo, and the question of a possible fixed point of the coupling constant is considered. In the last chapter, some remarks are made about how the results of the approximation scheme can be improved. (Auth.)

  18. Quantum optics and cavity QED with quantum dots in photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will primarily focus on the studies of quantum optics with semiconductor, epitaxially grown quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal cavities. We will start by giving brief introductions into photonic crystals and quantum dots, then proceed with the introduction to cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, with a particular emphasis on the demonstration of these effects on the quantum dot-photonic crystal platform. Finally, we will focus on the applications of such cavity QED effects.

  19. Quantum optics and cavity QED with quantum dots in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will primarily focus on the studies of quantum optics with semiconductor, epitaxially grown quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal cavities. We will start by giving brief introductions into photonic crystals and quantum dots, then proceed with the introduction to cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects, with a particular emphasis on the demonstration of these effects on the quantum dot-photonic crystal platform. Finally, we will focus on the applications of such cavity QE...

  20. Electron-photon coupling in mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.; Douçot, B.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the interaction between cavity photons and electronic nanocircuits is crucial for the development of mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics (QED). One has to combine ingredients from atomic cavity QED, such as orbital degrees of freedom, with tunneling physics and strong cavity field inhomogeneities, specific to superconducting circuit QED. It is therefore necessary to introduce a formalism which bridges between these two domains. We develop a general method based on a photonic pseudopotential to describe the electric coupling between electrons in a nanocircuit and cavity photons. In this picture, photons can induce simultaneously orbital energy shifts, tunneling, and local orbital transitions. We study in detail the elementary example of a single quantum dot with a single normal metal reservoir, coupled to a cavity. Photon-induced tunneling terms lead to a nonuniversal relation between the cavity frequency pull and the damping pull. Our formalism can also be applied to multiple quantum dot circuits, molecular circuits, quantum point contacts, metallic tunnel junctions, and superconducting nanostructures enclosing Andreev bound states or Majorana bound states, for instance.

  1. On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karplyuk, Kostyantyn; Zhmudsky, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.

  2. Massless quantum electrodynamics: a variational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational method was used to study the probable existence of a compound vacuum in quantum electrodynamics. An Ansatz containing a condensate of electron-positron pairs was investigated and an optimization equation for the condensate wave function found. (L.C.J.A.)

  3. Minimal resonator loss for circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, R.; Vercruyssen, N.; Endo, A.; De Visser, P.J.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Diener, P.; Yates, S.J.C.; Baselmans, J.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    We report quality factors of up to 500x10³ in superconducting resonators at the single photon levels needed for circuit quantum electrodynamics. This result is achieved by using NbTiN and removing the dielectric from regions with high electric fields. As demonstrated by a comparison with Ta, the cru

  4. Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotch, Howard

    1981-01-01

    The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)

  5. Quantum electrodynamic perspective on multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully quantum nonperturbative method is developed to describe multiphoton ionization in intense fields. It is shown that, treating the radiation field with quantum electrodynamic (QED) theory enables the authors to obtain the above-threshold ionization energy distribution spectrum in analytical form firstly. Moreover, in addition to the well-known semiclassical theory, the framework presented here, derived from a QED perspective, provides a new picture of the multiphoton ionization

  6. Applications of conformal symmetry in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodyanmics is a system in which the only scale is provided by the electron mass. A topic of continuing interest has been the structure of this field theory for spatial separations small in comparison to the scale defined by the Compton size ((h/2π)/mc), and one is thus led to consider 'massless' quantum electrodynamics (m equivalent to 0). The classical field equations for massless electrodynamics are invariant under a much larger group of space-time transformations than the massive theory, namely the full fifteen parameter conformal group. However, in contrast to the massive theory where calculations can be formulated in terms of a set of fully Lorentz covariant Green's functions, no fully conformally covariant formalism exists for the massless theory because of complications associated with gauge invariance. The authors present what they regard as the most salient aspects of the conformal symmetry when it is used to simplify calculations. (Auth.)

  7. Soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Skoromnik, O D; Keitel, C H

    2016-01-01

    A novel soliton-like solution in quantum electrodynamics is obtained via a self-consistent field method. By writing the Hamiltonian of quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge, we separate out a classical component in the density operator of the electron-positron field. Then, by modeling the state vector in analogy with the theory of superconductivity, we minimize the functional for the energy of the system. This results in the equations of the self-consistent field, where the solutions are associated with the collective excitation of the electron-positron field---the soliton-like solution. In addition, the canonical transformation of the variables allowed us to separate out the total momentum of the system and, consequently, to find the relativistic energy dispersion relation for the moving soliton.

  8. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a superconducting quantum point contact

    OpenAIRE

    Romero G; Lizuain I.; Shumeiko V.S.; Solano E.; Bergeret F.S.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a superconducting quantum point contact in a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup. We study three different configurations, attainable with current technology, where a quantum point contact is coupled galvanically to a coplanar waveguide resonator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the strong and ultrastrong coupling regimes can be achieved with realistic parameters, allowing the coherent exchange between a superconducting quantum point contact and a quantized intracavity field. ©...

  9. Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented

  10. Test of quantum electrodynamics at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections for the reactions e+e → e+e- and e+e- → γγ are given for energies between 27.7 and 31.6 GeV. The results agree with the predictions of standard quantum electrodynamics and set lower limits to the usual cut off parameters of up to 104 GeV. A limit on the Weinberg angle, sin2theta sub(W) 2. (orig.)

  11. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  12. Investigation on regulators in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    We present in this work three models which are able to suppress the divergences of approximate versions of Quantum Electrodynamics.It is indeed argued that, in view of the smallness of the fine structure constant, not only the first terms of a perturbation expansion, or of an expansion according to the number of particles involved in intermediate states, gives a fair approximattonbut furthermore, that it is in these terms that a breakdown of electrodynamics should be sought. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. The first model assumes the existence of a photon cut off, whose observable consequences are clearly stated, and of a fermion out off which, although unable to give a satisfactory ...

  13. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebeko, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT), put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR). In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3)) when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  14. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  15. Off-shell quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Land, M C

    1996-01-01

    More than twenty years have passed since the threads of the `proper time formalism' in covariant classical and quantum mechanics were brought together to construct a canonical formalism for the relativistic mechanics of many particles. Drawing on the work of Fock, Stueckelberg, Nambu, Schwinger, and Feynman, the formalism was raised from the status of a purely formal mathematical technique to a covariant evolution theory for interacting particles. In the context of this theory, solutions have been found for the relativistic bound state problem, classical and quantum scattering in relativistic potentials, as well as applications in statistical mechanics. It has been shown that a generalization of the Maxwell theory is required in order that the electromagnetic interaction be well-posed in the theory. The resulting theory of electromagnetism involves a fifth gauge field introduced to compensate for the dependence of the gauge transformation on the invariant time parameter; permitting such dependence relaxes the...

  16. Off-Shell Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Land, M. C.; Horwitz, L. P.

    1996-01-01

    More than twenty years have passed since the threads of the `proper time formalism' in covariant classical and quantum mechanics were brought together to construct a canonical formalism for the relativistic mechanics of many particles. Drawing on the work of Fock, Stueckelberg, Nambu, Schwinger, and Feynman, the formalism was raised from the status of a purely formal mathematical technique to a covariant evolution theory for interacting particles. In the context of this theory, solutions have...

  17. New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Kui Ng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac magnetic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop-form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultravioletdivergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED effects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these effects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED effect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the difficulties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED effect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.

  18. New Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Kui Ng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a photon with a specific frequency can be identified with the Dirac mag- netic monopole. When a Dirac-Wilson line forms a Dirac-Wilson loop, it is a photon. This loop model of photon is exactly solvable. From the winding numbers of this loop- form of photon, we derive the quantization properties of energy and electric charge. A new QED theory is presented that is free of ultraviolet divergences. The Dirac-Wilson line is as the quantum photon propagator of the new QED theory from which we can derive known QED e ects such as the anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift. The one-loop computation of these e ects is simpler and is more accurate than that in the conventional QED theory. Furthermore, from the new QED theory, we have derived a new QED e ect. A new formulation of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation solves the di culties of the BS equation and gives a modified ground state of the positronium. By the mentioned new QED e ect and by the new formulation of the BS equation, a term in the orthopositronium decay rate that is missing in the conventional QED is found, resolving the orthopositronium lifetime puzzle completely. It is also shown that the graviton can be constructed from the photon, yielding a theory of quantum gravity that unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.

  19. Theoretical analysis of quantum game in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent years, several ways of implementing quantum games in different physical systems have been presented. In this paper, we perform a theoretical analysis of an experimentally feasible way to implement a two player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamic(QED). In the scheme, the atoms interact simultaneously with a highly detuned cavity mode with the assistance of a classical field. So the scheme is insensitive to the influence from the cavity decay and the thermal field, and it does not require the cavity to remain in the vacuum state throughout the procedure. (general)

  20. Gauge independence of transition amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge independence of transition amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics is proved in the framework of covariant quantum electrodynamics exploited by Yokoyama. A systematic law of gauge transformation is given for general Green functions in QED. Gauge independence of the wave-function renormalization constant Z2 is also discussed to some extent. (author)

  1. Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wan-Ping; CAI Shao-Hong; LONG Zheng-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Using the Seiberg-Witten map,we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space,which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta.The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated.The uoncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics.

  2. Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum polarization solver

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, Pedro; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís

    2016-01-01

    The self-consistent modeling of vacuum polarization due to virtual electron-positron fluctuations is of relevance for many near term experiments associated with high intensity radiation sources and represents a milestone in describing scenarios of extreme energy density. We present a generalized finite-difference time-domain solver that can incorporate the modifications to Maxwells equations due to virtual vacuum polarization. Our multidimensional solver reproduced in one dimensional configurations the results for which an analytic treatment is possible, yielding vacuum harmonic generation and birefringence. The solver has also been tested for two-dimensional scenarios where finite laser beam spot sizes must be taken into account. We employ this solver to explore different types of counter-propagating configurations that can be relevant for future planned experiments aiming to detect quantum vacuum dynamics at ultra-high electromagnetic field intensities.

  3. Quantum Electrodynamics Theory of Laser Assisted Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 潘守甫; 傅盘铭

    2003-01-01

    Using a formal scattering theoretical approach, we develop a nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory to describe laser assisted recombination (LAR), in which an electron initially in the quantized Volkov state recombines with an ion and emits a high-energy photon with frequency defined by energy conservation laws.The transition probability is expressed as an analytic closed form and the spectrum of LAR reflects mainly the properties of general Bessel functions. For the case of a fast electron the LAR spectrum is confined in a well-defined range, while for a slow electron, the LAR spectrum exhibits a double-plateau structure.

  4. Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs

  5. Does quantum electrodynamics have an arrow of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David

    2006-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial stat

  6. On the finite-temperature quantum electrodynamics of gravitational acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, G.

    1989-12-01

    The temperature-dependent quantum-electrodynamic corrections to the Helmholtz free energy F of a particle at rest, and to its inertial mass minert, are the same: ΔF=Δminert=πe2(kT)2/3m. By contrast, the correction to the total energy U=F+TS is ΔU=-ΔF. Donoghue, Holstein, and Robinett have pointed out that if (as the equivalence principle appears to imply) weight is proportional to total energy, then the gravitational acceleration of a particle inside a blackbody cavity becomes g(m+ΔU)/(m+ΔF)~=g(1-2ΔF/m)Galilean acceleration g.

  7. Quantum electrodynamical corrections in critical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate field-theoretical corrections, such as vacuum polarization and self energy to study their influence on strongly bound electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms. In critical fields (Z≅170) for spontaneous e+e- pair creation the coupling constant of the external field Zα exceeds 1 thereby preventing the ordinary perturbative approach of quantum electrodynamical correction which employs an expansion in Zα. For heavy and superheavy elements radiative corrections have to be treated to all orders in Zα. The dominant effect is provided by the Uehling contribution being visualized by the first diagram on the right hand side. It is linear in the external field and thus of order α(Zα). (orig./HSI)

  8. A new view on quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Golovko, V A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the equations of quantum electrodynamics and establish that the electron must be described by two bispinors that satisfy two mutually connected Dirac equations. The equations of the electronic and electromagnetic fields are reformulated in terms of c-numbers, which enables one to elucidate the structure of the electron. Although the equations obtained allow only for numerical solution, some characteristics of the electron, in particular its size, can be found at this stage. It is shown also that the Dirac equation should, instead of the mass of the electron, contain a combination involving the electron Compton wavelength. In this case the equations obtained can be used not only for the description of the electron but also for the description of other leptons, which will allow one to find the mass spectrum of leptons.

  9. Quantum electrodynamic theory of the cardiac excitation propagation I: construction of quantum electrodynamics in the bidomain

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Sehun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a unified theoretical framework ranging from a cellular-level excitation mechanism to organic-level geometric propagation, a new theory inspired by quantum electrodynamic theory for light propagation is proposed by describing the cardiac excitation propagation as the continuation of absorption and emission of charged ions by myocardial cells. By the choice of gauge and the membrane current density, a set of Maxwell's equations with a charge density and a current density is constructed in macroscopic bidomain and is shown to be equivalent to the diffusion-reaction system with the B. van der Pol oscillator. The derived Maxwell's equations for the excitation propagation obeys the conservational laws of the number of the cations, energy and momentum, but the total charge is not conserved. The Lagrangian is derived to reveal that the trajectory and wavefront of the excitation propagation are the same as the electrodynamic wave if ion channels work uniformly. From the second quantization, the Hamiltonian...

  10. On the finite-temperature quantum electrodynamics of gravitational acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature-dependent quantum-electrodynamic corrections to the Helmholtz free energy F of a particle at rest, and to its inertial mass minert, are the same: ΔF=Δminert=πe2(kT)2/3m. By contrast, the correction to the total energy U=F+TS is ΔU=-ΔF. Donoghue, Holstein, and Robinett have pointed out that if (as the equivalence principle appears to imply) weight is proportional to total energy, then the gravitational acceleration of a particle inside a blackbody cavity becomes g(m+ΔU)/(m+ΔF)∼g(1-2ΔF/m)< g. However, while F represents the random kinetic energy of (and is thereby localized on) the particle, further analysis now suggests that the entropic energy difference TΔS=ΔU-ΔF is distributed over the cavity uniformly and independently of the particle position. If so, then the gravitational pull on TΔS cannot affect the motion of the particle well within the cavity, so that it will, after all, experience the universal Galilean acceleration g

  11. Quantum Logic Network for Cloning a State Near a Given One Based on Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Wei; SHAO Xiao-Qiang; ZHU Ai-Dong

    2008-01-01

    A quantum logic network is constructed to simulate a cloning machine which copies states near a given one. Meanwhile, a scheme for implementing this cloning network based on the technique of cavity quantum electrody-namics (QED) is presented. It is easy to implement this network of cloning machine in the framework of cavity QED and feasible in the experiment.

  12. A scheme for implementing quantum clock synchronization algorithm in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin-Qin; Kuang Le-Man

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme for implementing the quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) formalism. Our method is based on three-level ladder-type atoms interacting with classical and quantized cavity fields. Atom-qubit realizations of three-qubit and four-qubit QCS algorithms are explicitly presented.

  13. Quantum Logic Network for Cloning a State Near a Given One Based on Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum logic network is constructed to simulate a cloning machine which copies states near a given one. Meanwhile, a scheme for implementing this cloning network based on the technique of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is presented. It is easy to implement this network of cloning machine in the framework of cavity QED and feasible in the experiment. (general)

  14. Quantum theory of an electromagnetic observer: classically behaving macroscopic systems and emergence of classical world in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore...

  15. Quantum theory of an electromagnetic observer: Classically behaving macroscopic systems and the emergence of the classical world in quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha; Aiello, A.; Stenholm, S.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum electrodynamics under conditions of distinguishability of interacting matter entities, and of controlled actions and back-actions between them, is considered. Such "mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics" is shown to share its dynamical structure with the classical stochastic electrodynamics. In formal terms, we demonstrate that all general relations of the mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics may be recast in a form lacking Planck's constant. Mesoscopic quantum electrodynamics is therefore subject to "doing quantum electrodynamics while thinking classically," allowing one to substitute essentially classical considerations for quantum ones without any loss in generality. Implications of these results for the quantum measurement theory are discussed.

  16. Quantum electrodynamics and experiment demonstrate the non-retarded nature of electrodynamical force fields

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    In quantum electrodynamics, the quantitatively most successful theory in the history of science, intercharge forces obeying the inverse square law are due to the exchange of space-like virtual photons. The fundamental quantum process underlying applications as diverse as the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron and electrical machinery is then M{\\o}ller scattering $ee \\to ee$. Analysis of the quantum amplitude for this process shows that the corresponding intercharge force acts instantaneously....

  17. Quantum electrodynamics in a whispering-gallery microcavity coated with a polymer nanolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yun-Feng; Xue, Peng; Xiao, Lixin; Li, Yan; Dong, Chun-Hua; Han, Zheng-Fu; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    Quasi-transverse-electric and -transverse-magnetic fundamental whispering gallery modes in a polymer-coated silica microtoroid are theoretically investigated and demonstrated to possess very high-quality factors. The existence of a nanometer-thickness layer not only evidently reduces the cavity mode volume but also draws the maximal electric field's position of the mode to the outside of the silica toroid, where single quantum dots or nanocrystals are located. Both effects result in a strongly enhanced coherent interaction between a single dipole (for example, a single defect center in a diamond crystal) and the quantized cavity mode. Since the coated microtoroid is highly feasible and robust in experiments, it may offer an excellent platform to study strong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information, and quantum computation.

  18. Quantum electrodynamics in a whispering-gallery microcavity coated with a polymer nanolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-transverse-electric and -transverse-magnetic fundamental whispering gallery modes in a polymer-coated silica microtoroid are theoretically investigated and demonstrated to possess very high-quality factors. The existence of a nanometer-thickness layer not only evidently reduces the cavity mode volume but also draws the maximal electric field's position of the mode to the outside of the silica toroid, where single quantum dots or nanocrystals are located. Both effects result in a strongly enhanced coherent interaction between a single dipole (for example, a single defect center in a diamond crystal) and the quantized cavity mode. Since the coated microtoroid is highly feasible and robust in experiments, it may offer an excellent platform to study strong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information, and quantum computation.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  20. A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.

  1. An Experiment on the Limits of Quantum Electro-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, W. C.; Richter, B.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; O'Neill, G. K.; Gittelman, B.

    1959-06-01

    The limitations of previously performed or suggested electrodynamic cutoff experiments are reviewed, and an electron-electron scattering experiment to be performed with storage rings to investigate further the limits of the validity of quantum electrodynamics is described. The foreseen experimental problems are discussed, and the results of the associated calculations are given. The parameters and status of the equipment are summarized. (D.C.W.)

  2. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... photons as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs...

  3. A Toy Model of Quantum Electrodynamics in (1 + 1) Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a toy model of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in (1 + 1) dimensions. The QED model is much simpler than QED in (3 + 1) dimensions but exhibits many of the same physical phenomena, and serves as a pedagogical introduction to both QED and quantum field theory in general. We show how the QED model can be derived by quantizing a toy model of…

  4. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to ∼37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g0=2π.300 MHz respectively C0=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached.

  5. Quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new area in the field of Atomic Physics and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the precise theoretical and experimental study of high-Z few-electron atoms. Comparison of theory and experiment for the transition rates and energy splittings of these systems provides a fundamental test of the theory of strongly bound electrons. This reviews the quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms based on perturbation theory in the Furry bound interaction picture. A complete overview of the theory is given, from the basic equations to the numerical results for the energy splittings, with attention focused on the Lamb shift in two-electron atoms as an example

  6. Autonomous quantum thermal machines in atom-cavity systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchison, Mark T; Prior, Javier; Woods, Mischa P; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    An autonomous quantum thermal machine comprising a trapped atom or ion placed inside an optical cavity is proposed and analysed. Such a machine can operate as a heat engine whose working medium is the quantised atomic motion, or as an absorption refrigerator which cools without any work input. Focusing on the refrigerator mode, we predict that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology to cool a trapped ion almost to its motional ground state using a thermal light source such as sunlight. We nonetheless find that a laser or similar reference system is necessary to stabilise the cavity frequencies. Furthermore, we establish a direct and heretofore unacknowledged connection between the abstract theory of quantum absorption refrigerators and practical sideband cooling techniques. We also highlight and clarify some assumptions underlying several recent theoretical studies on self-contained quantum engines and refrigerators. Our work indicates that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a promising and versatile e...

  7. Applications of the Fokker-Planck equation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Matthew; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We study exact solutions of the steady state behaviour of several non-linear open quantum systems which can be applied to the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Using Fokker-Planck equations in the generalised P-representation we investigate the analytical solutions of two fundamental models. First, we solve for the steady-state response of a linear cavity that is coupled to an approximate transmon qubit and use this solution to study both the weak and strong driving regimes, using ana...

  8. Microscopic theory of indistinguishable single-photon emission from a quantum dot coupled to a cavity: The role of non-Markovian phonon-induced decoherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2013-01-01

    We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An...

  9. On Galilean invariance and nonlinearity in electrodynamics and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldin, G A; Goldin, Gerald A.; Shtelen, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental results on slow light heighten interest in nonlinear Maxwell theories. We obtain Galilei covariant equations for electromagnetism by allowing special nonlinearities in the constitutive equations only, keeping Maxwell's equations unchanged. Combining these with linear or nonlinear Schroedinger equations, e.g. as proposed by Doebner and Goldin, yields a Galilean quantum electrodynamics.

  10. Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeringen, W. van

    1960-01-01

    The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between

  11. A Parity Invariant Regularization in 3-D Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tadahiko

    1994-01-01

    We regularize the 3-D quantum electrodynamics by a parity invariant Pauli-Villars regularization method. We find that in the perturbation theory the Chern-Simons term is not induced in the massless fermion case and induced in the massive fermion case.

  12. Quantum signalling in cavity QED

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Robert H.; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-01-01

    We consider quantum signalling between two-level quantum systems in a cavity, in the pertubative regime of the earliest possible arrival times of the signal. We present two main results: First we find that, perhaps surprisingly, the analogue of amplitude modulated signalling (Alice using her energy eigenstates |g>, |e>, as in the Fermi problem) is generally sub-optimal for communication. Namely, e.g., phase modulated signalling (Alice using, e.g., |+>,|e>-states) overcomes the quantum noise a...

  13. Quantum electrodynamics in finite volume and nonrelativistic effective field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Z.; Hoelbling, C.; Katz, S. D.; Lellouch, L.; Portelli, A.; Szabo, K. K.; Toth, B. C.

    2016-04-01

    Electromagnetic effects are increasingly being accounted for in lattice quantum chromodynamics computations. Because of their long-range nature, they lead to large finite-size effects over which it is important to gain analytical control. Nonrelativistic effective field theories provide an efficient tool to describe these effects. Here we argue that some care has to be taken when applying these methods to quantum electrodynamics in a finite volume.

  14. Dimensional regularization and infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimensional continuation was devised as a powerful regularization method for ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. Recently it was clear, at least for quantum electrodynamics, that such a method could be employed for factorizing out infrared divergences from the on-shell S-matrix elements. This provides a renormalization scheme on the electron mass-shell without using a gauge violating ''photon mass''. (author)

  15. K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Cardoso, T. R.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional...

  16. Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Pimentel, Bruto Max; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an expl...

  17. K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann representation of noncommutative quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Pimentel, B M

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative (NC) quantum field theory is the subject of many analyses on formal and general aspects looking for deviations and, therefore, potential noncommutative spacetime effects. Within of this large class, we may now pay some attention to the quantization of NC field theory on lower dimensions and look closely at the issue of dynamical mass generation to the gauge field. This work encompasses the quantization of the two-dimensional massive quantum electrodynamics and three-dimensional topologically massive quantum electrodynamics. We begin by addressing the problem on a general dimensionality making use of the perturbative Seiberg-Witten map to, thus, construct a general action, to only then specify the problem to two and three dimensions. The quantization takes place through the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann spectral representation and Yang-Feldman-K\\"all\\'en formulation, where we calculate the respective spectral density function to the gauge field. Furthermore, regarding the photon two-point function, we disc...

  18. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  19. Path Integral Quantization of Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, Rodrigo; Zambrano, German Enrique Ramos

    2010-01-01

    It is shown in this paper a complete covariant quantization of Generalized Electrodynamics by path integral approach. To this goal we first studied the hamiltonian structure of system following Dirac's methodology, and then we follow the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to attain the amplitude transition. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) on correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation on one-loop approximation of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  20. Experiments on two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics. A superconducting quantum switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Elisabeth Christiane Maria

    2013-05-29

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level. In typical experiments individual natural atoms are interacting with individual photons trapped in three-dimensional cavities. Within the last decade the prospering new field of circuit QED has been developed. Here, the natural atoms are replaced by artificial solid state quantum circuits offering large dipole moments which are coupled to quasi-onedimensional cavities providing a small mode volume and hence a large vacuum field strength. In our experiments Josephson junction based superconducting quantum bits are coupled to superconducting microwave resonators. In circuit QED the number of parameters that can be varied is increased and regimes that are not accessible using natural atoms can be entered and investigated. Apart from design flexibility and tunability of system parameters a particular advantage of circuit QED is the scalability to larger system size enabled by well developed micro- and nanofabrication tools. When scaling up the resonator-qubit systems beyond a few coupled circuits, the rapidly increasing number of interacting subsystems requires an active control and directed transmission of quantum signals. This can, for example, be achieved by implementing switchable coupling between two microwave resonators. To this end, a superconducting flux qubit is used to realize a suitable coupling between two microwave resonators, all working in the Gigahertz regime. The resulting device is called quantum switch. The flux qubit mediates a second order tunable and switchable coupling between the resonators. Depending on the qubit state, this coupling can compensate for the direct geometric coupling of the two resonators. As the qubit may also be in a quantum superposition state, the switch itself can be ''quantum'': it can be a superposition of ''on'' and ''off''. This work

  1. Experiments on two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics. A superconducting quantum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level. In typical experiments individual natural atoms are interacting with individual photons trapped in three-dimensional cavities. Within the last decade the prospering new field of circuit QED has been developed. Here, the natural atoms are replaced by artificial solid state quantum circuits offering large dipole moments which are coupled to quasi-onedimensional cavities providing a small mode volume and hence a large vacuum field strength. In our experiments Josephson junction based superconducting quantum bits are coupled to superconducting microwave resonators. In circuit QED the number of parameters that can be varied is increased and regimes that are not accessible using natural atoms can be entered and investigated. Apart from design flexibility and tunability of system parameters a particular advantage of circuit QED is the scalability to larger system size enabled by well developed micro- and nanofabrication tools. When scaling up the resonator-qubit systems beyond a few coupled circuits, the rapidly increasing number of interacting subsystems requires an active control and directed transmission of quantum signals. This can, for example, be achieved by implementing switchable coupling between two microwave resonators. To this end, a superconducting flux qubit is used to realize a suitable coupling between two microwave resonators, all working in the Gigahertz regime. The resulting device is called quantum switch. The flux qubit mediates a second order tunable and switchable coupling between the resonators. Depending on the qubit state, this coupling can compensate for the direct geometric coupling of the two resonators. As the qubit may also be in a quantum superposition state, the switch itself can be ''quantum'': it can be a superposition of ''on'' and ''off''. This work presents the theoretical background, the fabrication techniques and

  2. Deterministic amplification of Schrödinger cat states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Elliott, Matthew; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Ginossar, Eran; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-02-01

    Perfect deterministic amplification of arbitrary quantum states is prohibited by quantum mechanics, but determinism can be achieved by compromising between fidelity and amplification power. We propose a dynamical scheme for deterministically amplifying photonic Schrödinger cat states, which show great promise as a tool for quantum information processing. Our protocol is designed for strongly coupled circuit quantum electrodynamics and utilizes artificial atomic states and external microwave controls to engineer a set of optimal state transfers and achieve high fidelity amplification. We compare analytical results with full simulations of the open, driven Jaynes-Cummings model, using realistic device parameters for state of the art superconducting circuits. Amplification with a fidelity of 0.9 can be achieved for sizable cat states in the presence of cavity and atomic-level decoherence. This tool could be applied to practical continuous-variable information processing for the purification and stabilization of cat states in the presence of photon losses.

  3. Thermal excitation of multi-photon dressed states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J M; Baur, M; Bianchetti, R; Filipp, S; Goeppl, M; Leek, P J; Steffen, L; Wallraff, A [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Blais, A [Departement de Physique, Universite de Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)], E-mail: jfink@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: andreas.wallraff@phys.ethz.ch

    2009-12-15

    The exceptionally strong coupling realizable between superconducting qubits and photons stored in an on-chip microwave resonator allows for the detailed study of matter-light interactions in the realm of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we investigate the resonant interaction between a single transmon-type multilevel artificial atom and weak thermal and coherent fields. We explore up to three photon dressed states of the coupled system in a linear response heterodyne transmission measurement. The results are in good quantitative agreement with a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Our data indicate that the role of thermal fields in resonant cavity QED can be studied in detail using superconducting circuits.

  4. Thermal excitation of multi-photon dressed states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exceptionally strong coupling realizable between superconducting qubits and photons stored in an on-chip microwave resonator allows for the detailed study of matter-light interactions in the realm of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we investigate the resonant interaction between a single transmon-type multilevel artificial atom and weak thermal and coherent fields. We explore up to three photon dressed states of the coupled system in a linear response heterodyne transmission measurement. The results are in good quantitative agreement with a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Our data indicate that the role of thermal fields in resonant cavity QED can be studied in detail using superconducting circuits.

  5. Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations in Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Concha-Sánchez, Y; Raya, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the Landau-Khalatnikov-Frandkin transformation (LKFT) for the fermion propagator in quantum electrodynamics (QED) described within a brane-world inspired framework where photons are allowed to move in $d_\\gamma$ space-time (bulk) dimensions while electrons remain confined to a $d_e$-dimensional brane, with $d_e < d_\\gamma$, referred to in the literature as Reduced Quantum Electrodynamics, RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$. Specializing to the case of graphene, namely RQED$_{4,3}$ with massless fermions, we derive the non-perturbative form of the fermion propagator starting from its bare counterpart and then compare its weak coupling expansion to known one- and two-loop perturbative results. The agreement of the gauge dependent terms at order $\\alpha$ and $\\alpha^{2}$ is reminiscent from the structure of LKFT in ordinary QED in arbitrary space-time dimensions and provides strong constraints for the multiplicative renormalizability of RQED$_{d_\\gamma,d_e}$.

  6. Entanglement distillation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Markus; Heinsoo, Johannes; Salathe, Yves; Potocnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    Entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing, such as quantum error correction, quantum teleportation and quantum communication. Such algorithms perform optimally with maximally entangled states. In practice entangled quantum states are very fragile due to a wide range of decoherence mechanisms. When two parties share degraded entangled states they are still able to generate an entangled state with higher fidelity using local operations and classical communication. This process is commonly referred to as entanglement distillation. Here we demonstrate distillation of highly entangled Bell states from two copies of less entangled states on a four transmon qubit device realized in the circuit-QED architecture. We characterize the output state for different degrees of entanglement at the input with quantum state tomography. A clear improvement of the entanglement measures is observed at the output.

  7. Fixed point structure of quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge theories exhibiting a hierarchy of fermion mass scales may contain a pseudo-Nambu-Boldstone boson of spontaneously broken scale invariance. The relation between scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied analytically in quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions. The model possesses a novel nonperturbative ultraviolet fixed point governing its strong coupling phase which requires the mixing of four fermion operators. 12 refs

  8. The Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem in quantum electrodynamics is presented on the basis of three kinds of Ward-Takahashi identities. Among them one is new and essential to the proof. By examining the consistency of these identities with the renormalization group we find three equations for the anomalous dimensions of the operators appearing in the Ward-Takahashi identities. Combination of these three equations immediately yields the Adler-Bardeen theorem. (author)

  9. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  10. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result...

  11. Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavity's scattering and anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, Thomas; Chang, Wei-Shun; Yang, Seung-Cheol; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Shi, Jinwei; Sun, Liuyang; Shvets, Gennady; Link, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqin

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonic cavities represent a promising platform for controlling light-matter interaction due to their exceptionally small mode volume and high density of photonic states. Using plasmonic cavities for enhancing light's coupling to individual two-level systems, such as single semiconductor quantum dots (QD), is particularly desirable for exploring cavity quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects and using them in quantum information applications. The lack of experimental progress in this area is in part due to the difficulty of precisely placing a QD within nanometers of the plasmonic cavity. Here, we study the simplest plasmonic cavity in the form of a spherical metallic nanoparticle (MNP). By controllably positioning a semiconductor QD in the close proximity of the MNP cavity via atomic force microscope (AFM) manipulation, the scattering spectrum of the MNP is dramatically modified due to Fano interference between the classical plasmonic resonance of the MNP and the quantized exciton resonance in the QD. Moreover, our experiment demonstrates that a single two-level system can render a spherical MNP strongly anisotropic. These findings represent an important step toward realizing quantum plasmonic devices. PMID:26372957

  12. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Penin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  13. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Alexander A., E-mail: penin@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  14. Quantum-electrodynamical approach to the Casimir force problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    We derive the Casimir force expression from Maxwell's stress tensor by means of original quantum-electro-dynamical cavity modes. In contrast with similar calculations, our method is straightforward and does not rely on intricate mathematical extrapolation relations.

  15. Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Vanita; Taylor, Jacob M.; Tahan, Charles

    Enabling modularity within a quantum information processing device relies on robust entanglement of coherent qubits at macroscopic distances. To address this challenge, we investigate theoretically a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. By analyzing three specific approaches drawn from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes, we show that methods for entangling superconducting qubits map directly to resonant exchange qubits. We also calculate the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well-suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the robustness of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.

  16. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  17. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  18. Giant Kerr Nonlinearities in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rebic, Stojan; Twamley, Jason; Milburn, Gerard J.

    2009-01-01

    The very small size of optical nonlinearities places wide ranging restrictions on the types of novel physics one can explore. For an ensemble of multi-level systems one can synthesize a large effective optical nonlinearity using quantum coherence effects but such non-linearities are technically extremely challenging to demonstrate at the single atom level. In this work we describe how a single artificial multi-level Cooper Pair Box molecule, interacting with a superconducting microwave coplan...

  19. Casimir effect from macroscopic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2011-01-01

    The canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism was recently presented in New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 123008. This theory is here used to derive the Casimir effect, by considering the special case of thermal and zero-point fields. The stress-energy-momentum tensor follows from Noether's theorem, and its electromagnetic part in thermal equilibrium gives the Casimir energy density and stress tensor. The results hold for arbitrary inhomogeneous magnetodielectrics and are obtained from a rigorous quantization of electromagnetism in dispersive, dissipative media. Continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz theory as a proper quantum treatment of Casimir forces do not apply to the derivation given here.

  20. Modified Maxwell equations in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Harmuth, Henning F; Meffert, Beate

    2001-01-01

    Divergencies in quantum field theory referred to as "infinite zero-point energy" have been a problem for 70 years. Renormalization has always been considered an unsatisfactory remedy. In 1985 it was found that Maxwell's equations generally do not have solutions that satisfy the causality law. An additional term for magnetic dipole currents corrected this shortcoming. Rotating magnetic dipoles produce magnetic dipole currents, just as rotating electric dipoles in a material like barium titanate produce electric dipole currents. Electric dipole currents were always part of Maxwell's equations. T

  1. Quantum Electrodynamics near a Huttner-Barnett dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Eberlein, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    We build up a consistent theory of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of macroscopic polarizable media. We use the Huttner-Barnett model of a dispersive and absorbing dielectric medium and formulate the theory in terms of interacting quantum fields. We integrate out the damped polaritons by using diagrammatic techniques and find an exact expression for the displacement field (photon) propagator in the presence of a dispersive and absorbing dielectric half-space. This opens a new route to traceable perturbative calculations of the same kind as in free-space quantum electrodynamics. As a worked-through example we consider the interaction of a neutral atom with a dispersive and absorbing dielectric half-space. For that we use the multipolar coupling $\\boldsymbol{\\mu}\\cdot\\mathbf{D}$ of the atomic dipole moment to the electromagnetic displacement field. We apply the newly developed formalism to calculate the one-loop correction to the atomic electron propagator and find the energy-level shift and changes in ...

  2. Dressed Zeno effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Ge, Guo-Qin; Feng, Shun-Bin

    2014-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum Zeno effect in a driven superconducting charge qubit strongly and ultrastrongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Using the dressed-state approach, we predict the different dynamics behaviors of the dressed qubit subjected to two opposite projection measurements. We show that, for very frequent measurements, the survival probability of the initial state is of exponential form and the Zeno time of the dressed qubit can be several orders of magnitude longer than that of the bare qubit. For slowly repeated measurements, the detuning of the driving field has significant impact on the measurement dynamics, and by choosing appropriate parameters for the dressed qubit, the Zeno effect can occur in the nonresonant coupling case. Such a Zeno effect is excluded from a usual two-level system.

  3. Infrared multiphoton resummation in quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mati, P

    2015-01-01

    Infrared singularities in massless gauge theories are known since the foundation of quantum field theories. The root of this problem can be tracked back to the very definition of these long-range interacting theories such as QED. It can be shown that singularities are caused by the massless degrees of freedom (i.e. the photons in the case of QED). In the Bloch-Nordsieck model the absence of the infrared catastrophe can be shown exactly by the complete summation of the radiative corrections. In this paper we will give the idea of the derivation of the Bloch-Nordsieck propagator, that describes the infrared structure of the electron propagation, at zero and finite temperatures. Some ideas of the possible applications are also mentioned.

  4. Strong-Field Quantum Electrodynamics and Muonic Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2014-01-01

    We explore the possibility of a breakdown of perturbative quantum electrodynamics in light muonic bound systems, notably, muonic hydrogen. The average electric field seen by a muon orbiting a proton is shown to be comparable to hydrogenlike Uranium and, notably, larger than the electric field achievable using even the most advanced strong-laser facilities. Following Maltman and Isgur who have shown that fundamental forces such as the meson exchange force may undergo a qualitative change in the strong-coupling regime, we investigate a concomitant possible existence of muon-proton and electron-proton contact interactions, of nonperturbative origin, and their influence on transition frequencies in light one-muon ions.

  5. On bosonization ambiguities of two dimensional quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study bosonization ambiguities in two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the presence and in the absence of topologically charged gauge fields. The computation of fermionic correlation functions gives us a mechanism to fix the ambiguities in nontrivial topologies, provided that we do not allow changes of sector as we evaluate functional integrals. This removes an infinite arbitrariness from the theory. In the case of trivial topologies, we find upper and lower bounds for the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter, corresponding to the limiting cases of regularizations which preserve gauge or chiral symmetry. (author). 19 refs

  6. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotka, Andrey V. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Oulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Glazov, Dmitry A.; Shabaev, Vladimir M. [Department of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Oulianovskaya 1, Petrodvorets, 198504, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Plunien, Guenter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnetic moments with heavy ions are discussed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Renormalization constants and asymptotic behaviour in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using dimensional regularization a field theory contains at least one parameter less than the dimension of a mass. The Callan-Symanzik equations for the renormalization constants then become soluble entirely in terms of the coefficient functions. Explicit expressions are obtained for all the renormalization constants in Quantum Electrodynamics. At nonexceptional momenta the infrared behaviour and the three leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of any Greens function are controlled by the Callan-Symanzik equations. For the propagators the three leading terms are computed explicitly in terms of functions of α only. The gauge dependence of the electron propagator in momentum space is solved explicitly in all orders of perturbation theory. (Auth.)

  8. Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics (semiclassical theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to bring some arguments to the proof of the Barut and Van Huele formula, which gives the Lamb shift in the semi-classical theory model: by shortening the calculation owing to the use of a decomposition of the self-potential of the electron; by eliminating the appeal to a divergent series; by bringing justifications and clarifications on some important points of the proof. The effective calculation of the coefficients of the formula is achieved for some of them, and the general analytical form of these coefficients is explicited. It is also proved that the B. and V.H. formula must give results at least as close to the experiment as those of the Bethe formula, which is obtained in Quantum Theory of Fields. Finally one shows that the B. and V.H. formula provides a justification de facto for the cut-off which is used for associating finite numbers to the divergent integrals of the Bethe formula

  9. Scheme for implementing quantum dense coding with W-class state in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Juan; Ye Liu; Ni Zhi-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    An experimentally feasible protocol for realizing dense coding by using a class of W-state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) is proposed in this paper.The prominent advantage of our scheme is that the succeasful probability of the dense coding with a W-class state can reach 1.In addition,the scheme can be implemented by the present cavity QED techniques.

  10. Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, J.W.

    2006-12-15

    We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)

  11. Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the Φ3 and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)

  12. Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in superheavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Pašteka, Lukáš F.; Punnett, Andrew; Bowman, Patrick O.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of relativistic electronic structure theory for superheavy elements is reviewed. Recent developments in relativistic quantum theory have made it possible to obtain accurate electronic properties for the trans-actinide elements with the aim to predict their chemical and physical behaviour. The role of quantum electrodynamic effects beyond the no-virtual-pair approximation, which is usually neglected in relativistic molecular calculations, is discussed. Changes in periodic trends due to relativistic effects are outlined for the superheavy elements with nuclear charge Z = 111- 120. We also analyse the role of the negative energy states for the electronic stability of superheavy elements beyond the critical nuclear charge (Zcrit ≈ 170), where the 1s state enters the negative energy continuum at - 2mec2.

  13. Quantum corrections to the Larmor radiation formula in scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, A

    2009-01-01

    We use the semi-classical approximation in perturbative scalar quantum electrodynamics to calculate the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation formula to first order in Planck's constant in the non-relativistic approximation, choosing the initial state of the charged particle to be a momentum eigenstate. We calculate this correction in two cases: in the first case the charged particle is accelerated by a time-dependent but space-independent vector potential whereas in the second case it is accelerated by a time-independent vector potential which is a function of one spatial coordinate. We find that the corrections in these two cases are different even for a charged particle with the same classical motion. The correction in each case turns out to be non-local in time in contrast to the classical approximation.

  14. Digital Quantum Simulation of Spin Models with Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Salathé, Y.; Mondal, M.; Oppliger, M.; Heinsoo, J.; Kurpiers, P.; Potočnik, A.; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Las Heras García, Urtzi; Lamata Manuel, Lucas; Solano Villanueva, Enrique Leónidas; Filipp, S.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-01-01

    Systems of interacting quantum spins show a rich spectrum of quantum phases and display interesting many-body dynamics. Computing characteristics of even small systems on conventional computers poses significant challenges. A quantum simulator has the potential to outperform standard computers in calculating the evolution of complex quantum systems. Here, we perform a digital quantum simulation of the paradigmatic Heisenberg and Ising interacting spin models using a two transmon-qubit circuit...

  15. Quantum Zeno effect in the strong measurement regime of circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slichter, D. H.; Müller, C.; Vijay, R.; Weber, S. J.; Blais, A.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-05-01

    We observe the quantum Zeno effect—where the act of measurement slows the rate of quantum state transitions—in a superconducting qubit using linear circuit quantum electrodynamics readout and a near-quantum-limited following amplifier. Under simultaneous strong measurement and qubit drive, the qubit undergoes a series of quantum jumps between states. These jumps are visible in the experimental measurement record and are analyzed using maximum likelihood estimation to determine qubit transition rates. The observed rates agree with both analytical predictions and numerical simulations. The analysis methods are suitable for processing general noisy random telegraph signals.

  16. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Odintsov, Sergei; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters,...

  17. Quantum networks based on cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Stephan; Bochmann, Joerg; Figueroa, Eden; Hahn, Carolin; Kalb, Norbert; Muecke, Martin; Neuzner, Andreas; Noelleke, Christian; Reiserer, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters require an efficient interface between stationary quantum memories and flying photons. Single atoms in optical cavities are ideally suited as universal quantum network nodes that are capable of sending, storing, retrieving, and even processing quantum information. We demonstrate this by presenting an elementary version of a quantum network based on two identical nodes in remote, independent laboratories. The reversible exchange of quantum information and the creation of remote entanglement are achieved by exchange of a single photon. Quantum teleportation is implemented using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement. Quantum control over all degrees of freedom of the single atom also allows for the nondestructive detection of flying photons and the implementation of a quantum gate between the spin state of the atom and the polarization of a photon upon its reflection from the cavity. Our approach to quantum networking offers a clear perspective for scalability and provides the essential components for the realization of a quantum repeater.

  18. Interacting Electrodynamics of Short Coherent Conductors in Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimiras, C.; Portier, F.; Joyez, P.

    2016-07-01

    When combining lumped mesoscopic electronic components to form a circuit, quantum fluctuations of electrical quantities lead to a nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between the components, which is generally not understood. The Landauer-Büttiker formalism that is frequently used to describe noninteracting coherent mesoscopic components is not directly suited to describe such circuits since it assumes perfect voltage bias, i.e., the absence of fluctuations. Here, we show that for short coherent conductors of arbitrary transmission, the Landauer-Büttiker formalism can be extended to take into account quantum voltage fluctuations similarly to what is done for tunnel junctions. The electrodynamics of the whole circuit is then formally worked out disregarding the non-Gaussianity of fluctuations. This reveals how the aforementioned nonlinear interaction operates in short coherent conductors: Voltage fluctuations induce a reduction of conductance through the phenomenon of dynamical Coulomb blockade, but they also modify their internal density of states, leading to an additional electrostatic modification of the transmission. Using this approach, we can quantitatively account for conductance measurements performed on quantum point contacts in series with impedances of the order of RK=h /e2 . Our work should enable a better engineering of quantum circuits with targeted properties.

  19. External cavity quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the progress of the development of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) operated in an external cavity configuration. We concentrate on QCLs based on the bound-to-continuum design, since this design is especially suitable for broadband applications. Since they were first demonstrated, these laser-based tunable sources have improved in performance in terms of output power, duty cycle, operation temperature and tuneability. Nowadays they are an interesting alternative to FTIRs for some applications. They operate at room temperature, feature a high spectral resolution while being small in size. They were successfully used in different absorption spectroscopy techniques. Due to their vast potential for applications in industry, medicine, security and research, these sources enjoy increasing interest within the research community as well as in industry. (topical review)

  20. Are There Topologically Charged States Associated with Quantum Electrodynamics ?

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, E C

    1994-01-01

    We present a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics in terms of an antisymmetric tensor gauge field. In this formulation the topological current of this field appears as a source for the electromagnetic field and the topological charge therefore acts physically as an electric charge. The charged states of QED lie in the sector where the topological charge is identical to the matter charge. The antisymmetric field theory, however, admits new sectors where the topological charge is more general. These nontrivial, electrically charged, sectors contain massless states orthogonal to the vacuum which are created by a gauge invariant operator and can be interpreted as coherent states of photons. We evaluate the correlation functions of these states in the absence of matter. The new states have a positive definite norm and do interact with the charged states of QED in the usual way. It is argued that if these new sectors are in fact realized in nature then a very intense background electromagnetic field is necessary ...

  1. Effective field theory of quantum gravity coupled to scalar electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiapina Bevilaqua, L.; Lehum, A. C.; da Silva, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we use the framework of effective field theory to couple Einstein’s gravity to scalar electrodynamics and determine the renormalization of the model through the study of physical processes below Planck scale, a realm where quantum mechanics and general relativity are perfectly compatible. We consider the effective field theory up to dimension six operators, corresponding to processes involving one-graviton exchange. Studying the renormalization group functions, we see that the beta function of the electric charge is positive and possesses no contribution coming from gravitational interaction. Our result indicates that gravitational corrections do not alter the running behavior of the gauge coupling constants, even if massive particles are present.

  2. Radiative emission of neutrino pair free of quantum electrodynamic backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme of quantum electrodynamic (QED) background-free radiative emission of a neutrino pair (RENP) is proposed in order to achieve precision determination of neutrino properties so far not accessible. The important point for the background rejection is the fact that the dispersion relation between the wave vector along the propagating direction in the wave guide (and in a photonic-crystal-type fiber) and the frequency is modified by a discretized non-vanishing effective mass. This effective mass acts as a cutoff of allowed frequencies, and one may select the RENP photon energy region free of all macro-coherently amplified QED processes by choosing the cutoff larger than the mass of neutrinos

  3. Nonperturbative renormalization of scalar quantum electrodynamics in d=3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimock, J., E-mail: dimock@buffalo.edu [Department of Mathematics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    For scalar quantum electrodynamics on a three-dimensional toroidal lattice with a fine lattice spacing, we consider the renormalization problem of choosing counter terms depending on the lattice spacing, so that the theory stays finite as the spacing goes to zero. We employ a renormalization group method which analyzes the flow of the mass and the vacuum energy as a problem in discrete dynamical systems. The main result is that counter terms can be chosen so that at the end of the iteration these quantities take preassigned values. No use is made of perturbation theory. The renormalization group transformations are defined with bounded fields, an approximation which can be justified in Balaban’s approach to the renormalization group.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics and plasmonic resonance of metallic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-04-20

    Plasmonic resonance of a metallic nanostructure results from coherent motion of its conduction electrons driven by incident light. At the resonance, the induced dipole in the nanostructure is proportional to the number of the conduction electrons, hence 10(7) times larger than that in an atom. The interaction energy between the induced dipole and fluctuating virtual field of the incident light can reach a few tenths of an eV. Therefore, the classical electromagnetism dominating the field may become inadequate. We propose that quantum electrodynamics (QED) may be used as a fundamental theory to describe the interaction between the virtual field and the oscillating electrons. Based on QED, we derive analytic expressions for the plasmon resonant frequency, which depends on three easily accessible material parameters. The analytic theory reproduces very well the experimental data, and can be used in rational design of materials for plasmonic applications. PMID:26987436

  5. Higgs-Like Particle due to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Higgs-like particle having zero net electric charge, zero spin, and a nonzero rest mass can be deduced from an earlier elaborated revised quantum electrodynamical theory which is based on linear symmetry breaking through a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. This special particle is obtained from a composite longitudinal solution based on a zero magnetic field strength and on a nonzero divergence but a vanishing curl of the electric field strength. The present theory further differs from that of the nonlinear spontaneously broken symmetry by Higgs, in which elementary particles obtain their masses through an interaction with the Higgs field. An experimental proof of the basic features of a Higgs-like particle thus supports the present theory, but does not for certain confirm the process which would generate massive particles through a Higgs field

  6. Entanglement generation and quantum information transfer between spatially-separated qubits in different cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation and control of quantum states of spatially-separated qubits distributed in different cavities constitute fundamental tasks in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). An interesting question in this context is how to prepare entanglement and realize quantum information transfer between qubits located at different cavities, which are important in large-scale quantum information processing. In this paper, we consider a physical system consisting of two cavities and three qubits. Two of the qubits are placed in two different cavities while the remaining one acts as a coupler, which is used to connect the two cavities. We propose an approach for generating quantum entanglement and implementing quantum information transfer between the two spatially-separated inter-cavity qubits. The quantum operations involved in this proposal are performed by a virtual photon process; thus the cavity decay is greatly suppressed during operations. In addition, to complete these tasks, only one coupler qubit and one operation step are needed. Moreover, there is no need to apply classical pulses, so that the engineering complexity is much reduced and the operation procedure is greatly simplified. Finally, our numerical results illustrate that high-fidelity implementation of this proposal using superconducting phase qubits and one-dimensional transmission line resonators is feasible for current circuit QED implementations. This proposal can also be applied to other types of superconducting qubits, including flux and charge qubits. (paper)

  7. Entanglement generation and quantum information transfer between spatially-separated qubits in different cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Su, Qi-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The generation and control of quantum states of spatially-separated qubits distributed in different cavities constitute fundamental tasks in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). An interesting question in this context is how to prepare entanglement and realize quantum information transfer between qubits located at different cavities, which are important in large-scale quantum information processing. In this paper, we consider a physical system consisting of two cavities and three qubits. Two of the qubits are placed in two different cavities while the remaining one acts as a coupler, which is used to connect the two cavities. We propose an approach for generating quantum entanglement and implementing quantum information transfer between the two spatially-separated inter-cavity qubits. The quantum operations involved in this proposal are performed by a virtual photon process; thus the cavity decay is greatly suppressed during operations. In addition, to complete these tasks, only one coupler qubit and one operation step are needed. Moreover, there is no need to apply classical pulses, so that the engineering complexity is much reduced and the operation procedure is greatly simplified. Finally, our numerical results illustrate that high-fidelity implementation of this proposal using superconducting phase qubits and one-dimensional transmission line resonators is feasible for current circuit QED implementations. This proposal can also be applied to other types of superconducting qubits, including flux and charge qubits.

  8. Quantum Mechanical Description of Raman Scattering from Molecules in Plasmonic Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mikolaj K; Esteban, Ruben; González-Tudela, Alejandro; Giedke, Geza; Aizpurua, Javier

    2016-06-28

    Plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering can push single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy beyond a regime addressable by classical electrodynamics. We employ a quantum electrodynamics (QED) description of the coherent interaction of plasmons and molecular vibrations that reveal the emergence of nonlinearities in the inelastic response of the system. For realistic situations, we predict the onset of phonon-stimulated Raman scattering and a counterintuitive dependence of the anti-Stokes emission on the frequency of excitation. We further show that this QED framework opens a venue to analyze the correlations of photons emitted from a plasmonic cavity. PMID:27203727

  9. Role of the lightmatter coupling strength on nonMarkovian phonon effects in semiconductor cavity QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor cavity quantum electrodynamical (CQED) devices are believed to be important components for future quantum information technologies. Being composed of a single quantum dot (QD) embedded in a cavity, semiconductor CQED systems resemble atomic CQED systems. However, recent experiments [1...

  10. Ultrahigh quality factor in a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Kumano, Hidekazu; Suemune, Ikuo

    2015-12-15

    We numerically and theoretically investigate electrodynamics of a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity. The electrodynamics of a cavity mode is discussed from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, which clarifies the condition for high Q factor. Using numerical calculations, we optimize the cavity structure and show that the Q factor can be increased up to 1,700,000. Our study suggests that the metal-embedded cavity is a promising candidate for cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) devices. PMID:26670507

  11. Two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics: A superconducting quantum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariantoni, Matteo; Deppe, Frank; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Solano, E.

    2008-09-01

    We introduce a systematic formalism for two-resonator circuit QED, where two on-chip microwave resonators are simultaneously coupled to one superconducting qubit. Within this framework, we demonstrate that the qubit can function as a quantum switch between the two resonators, which are assumed to be originally independent. In this three-circuit network, the qubit mediates a geometric second-order circuit interaction between the otherwise decoupled resonators. In the dispersive regime, it also gives rise to a dynamic second-order perturbative interaction. The geometric and dynamic coupling strengths can be tuned to be equal, thus permitting to switch on and off the interaction between the two resonators via a qubit population inversion or a shifting of the qubit operation point. We also show that our quantum switch represents a flexible architecture for the manipulation and generation of nonclassical microwave field states as well as the creation of controlled multipartite entanglement in circuit QED. In addition, we clarify the role played by the geometric interaction, which constitutes a fundamental property characteristic of superconducting quantum circuits without a counterpart in quantum-optical systems. We develop a detailed theory of the geometric second-order coupling by means of circuit transformations for superconducting charge and flux qubits. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the quantum switch operation with respect to decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we propose a realistic design for a two-resonator circuit QED setup based on a flux qubit and estimate all the related parameters. In this manner, we show that this setup can be used to implement a superconducting quantum switch with available technology.

  12. Discretized light-cone quantization: Application to quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a general method for solving quantum field theories, Discretized Light-Cone Quantization (DLCQ), is presented. The method is very straightforward and essentially consists of diagonalizing the light-cone Hamiltonian matrix for the mass spectrum and wavefunctions. This method has been applied successfully in the past to various one space, one time dimensional theories. In each of these past applications, the mass spectrum and wave functions were successfully obtained, and all results agree with previous analytical and numerical work. The success of DLCQ in 1 + 1 dimensions provides the hope of solving theories in three space and one time dimensions. The application to higher dimensions is much more involved than in 1 + 1 dimensions due to the need to introduce ultraviolet and infrared regulators, and invoke a renormalization scheme consistent with gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. This is in addition to the extra work involved implementing two extra dimensions with their added degrees of freedom. In this paper, I will present the application of DLCQ to 3 + 1 dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics. 24 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of resonance energy transfer in nanowire systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraddana, Dilusha; Premaratne, Malin; Andrews, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Nonradiative resonance energy transfer (RET) provides the ability to transfer excitation energy between contiguous nanowires (NWs) with high efficiency under certain conditions. Nevertheless, the well-established Förster formalism commonly used to represent RET was developed for energy transfer primarily between molecular blocks (i.e., from one molecule, or part of a molecule, to another). Although deviations from Förster theory for functional blocks such as NWs have been studied previously, the role of the relative distance, the orientation of transition dipole moment pairs, and the passively interacting matter on electronic energy transfer are to a large extent unknown. Thus, a comprehensive theory that models RET in NWs is required. In this context, analytical insights to give a deeper and more intuitive understanding of the distance and orientation dependence of RET in NWs is presented within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Additionally, the influence of an included intermediary on the rate of excitation energy transfer is illustrated, embracing indirect energy transfer rate and quantum interference. The results deliver equations that afford new intuitions into the behavior of virtual photons. In particular, results indicate that RET efficiency in a NW system can be explicitly expedited or inhibited by a neighboring mediator, depending on the relative spacing and orientation of NWs.

  14. Enhancing Quantum Discord in Cavity QED by Applying Classical Driving Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; XU Jing-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical Gelds and classical fields, and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields. It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields. Finally, the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.%We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical fields and classical fields,and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields.It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields.Finally,the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.

  15. Quantum gravitational contributions to the beta function of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Because of the negative mass dimension of the coupling constant perturbative Einstein quantum gravity (EQG) is nonrenormalizable. However, one can still make sense of EQG if it's interpreted as an effective field theory within a low energy expansion of a more fundamental theory. In an effective field theory all interactions compatible with its essential symmetry content are in principle allowed into the Lagrangian and thus it establishes a systematic framework to calculate quantum gravitational effects. This approach has been used to study the asymptotic behavior at high energies of quantum field theories that incorporate the gravitational field. Some studies analyze the asymptotic freedom for the coupling constants of some theories including gravitation near the Planck scale. For example, Robinson and Wilczek suggest that the gravitational field improve the asymptotic freedom of pure Yang-Mills near the Planck scale. Already , a similar calculation in the Maxwell-Einstein theory suggest that such conclusion is gauge dependence. This result was obtained by Pietrykowski. D. Toms say what the effective action is calculated in a gauge-condition independent version of the background field method using dimensional regularization it's argued that the gravitational field plays no role in the beta function of the Yang-Mills coupling. Another calculation done by Ebert, Plefka and Rodigast using conventional diagrammatic methods confirms the result obtained by Toms. In a recent publication, again published by Toms in 2010, claimed that quadratic divergent contributions were responsible to improve asymptotic freedom of fine structure constant by quantum gravity effects by using proper time cutoff regularization and effective action methods. However, the physical reality of the result in Tom's was questioned in recent work. This purpose of this work is to shed light on the origin of such controversies using only a diagrammatic analysis. As an effective model EQG is

  16. The quantum Hall's effect:A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.I. Arbab

    2012-01-01

    We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect.The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained.The Hall's voltage,VH =2πh2ns/e rn,where ns is the electron number density,for a 2-dimensional system,and h =2πh is the Planck's constant,is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor.Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance.Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached.At a fundamental level,the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with LH =2π m/e2ns and CH =me2/2πh2ns satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time,Ts.The Hall's resistance is found to be RH =√LH/CH.The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimeasional gas.

  17. Ion-cavity system for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A single atom interacting with a single mode of a cavity allows us to probe the quantum interaction between light and matter. In the context of quantum networks, such a system can provide an interface between stationary and flying qubits, making it possible for single photons to transport quantum information between the network nodes. We study a single 40Ca+ ion trapped inside a high-finesse optical resonator. First, we demonstrate and characterize a single-photon source, in which a vacuum-stimulated Raman process transfers atomic population between two Zeeman states of the ion, creating a single photon in the cavity. We evaluate the photon statistics by measuring the second-order correlation function. Moreover, we obtain the photon temporal profile and investigate the dynamics of the process. Secondly, we perform Raman spectroscopy using the cavity. Residual motion of the ion introduces motional sidebands in the Raman spectrum and thus offers prospects for cavity-assisted cooling. (author)

  18. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  19. Effect of laser polarization on quantum electrodynamical cascading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of quantum electrodynamical (QED) cascades in a standing electromagnetic wave for circular and linear polarizations is simulated numerically with a 3D PIC-MC code. It is demonstrated that for the same laser energy the number of particles produced in a circularly polarized field is greater than in a linearly polarized field, though the acquiring mean energy per particle is larger in the latter case. The qualitative model of laser-assisted QED cascades is extended by including the effect of polarization of the field. It turns out that cascade dynamics is notably more complicated in the case of linearly polarized field, where separation into the qualitatively different “electric” and “magnetic” regions (where the electric field is stronger than the magnetic field and vice versa) becomes essential. In the “magnetic” regions, acceleration is suppressed, and moreover the high-energy electrons are even getting cooled by photon emission. The volumes of the “electric” and “magnetic” regions evolve periodically in time and so does the cascade growth rate. In contrast to the linear polarization, the charged particles can be accelerated by circularly polarized wave even in “magnetic region.” The “electric” and “magnetic” regions do not evolve in time, and cascade growth rate almost does not depend on time for circular polarization

  20. Quantum Electrodynamics in d =3 from the ɛ Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Komargodski, Zohar; Shamir, Itamar; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics in d =3 coupled to Nf flavors of fermions. The theory flows to an IR fixed point for Nf larger than some critical number Nfc. For Nf≤Nfc, chiral-symmetry breaking is believed to take place. In analogy with the Wilson-Fisher description of the critical O (N ) models in d =3 , we make use of the existence of a fixed point in d =4 -2 ɛ to study the three-dimensional conformal theory. We compute, in perturbation theory, the IR dimensions of fermion bilinear and quadrilinear operators. For small Nf, a quadrilinear operator can become relevant in the IR and destabilize the fixed point. Therefore, the epsilon expansion can be used to estimate Nfc. An interesting novelty compared to the O (N ) models is that the theory in d =3 has an enhanced symmetry due to the structure of 3D spinors. We identify the operators in d =4 -2 ɛ that correspond to the additional conserved currents at d =3 and compute their infrared dimensions.

  1. Quantum Electrodynamics in d=3 from the ε Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Komargodski, Zohar; Shamir, Itamar; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    We study quantum electrodynamics in d=3 coupled to N_{f} flavors of fermions. The theory flows to an IR fixed point for N_{f} larger than some critical number N_{f}^{c}. For N_{f}≤N_{f}^{c}, chiral-symmetry breaking is believed to take place. In analogy with the Wilson-Fisher description of the critical O(N) models in d=3, we make use of the existence of a fixed point in d=4-2ε to study the three-dimensional conformal theory. We compute, in perturbation theory, the IR dimensions of fermion bilinear and quadrilinear operators. For small N_{f}, a quadrilinear operator can become relevant in the IR and destabilize the fixed point. Therefore, the epsilon expansion can be used to estimate N_{f}^{c}. An interesting novelty compared to the O(N) models is that the theory in d=3 has an enhanced symmetry due to the structure of 3D spinors. We identify the operators in d=4-2ε that correspond to the additional conserved currents at d=3 and compute their infrared dimensions. PMID:27081967

  2. Observing different quantum trajectories in cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Marcelo França

    2011-01-01

    The experimental observation of quantum jumps is an example of single open quantum systems that, when monitored, evolve in terms of stochastic trajectories conditioned on measurements results. Here we present a proposal that allows the experimental observation of a much larger class of quantum trajectories in cavity QED systems. In particular, our scheme allows for the monitoring of engineered thermal baths that are crucial for recent proposals for probing entanglement decay and also for entanglement protection. The scheme relies on the interaction of a three-level atom and a cavity mode that interchangeably play the roles of system and probe. If the atom is detected the evolution of the cavity fields follows quantum trajectories and vice-versa.

  3. Quantum Electrodynamics Basis of Classical-Field High-Harmonic Generation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵兵; 高靓辉; 傅盘铭; 郭东升; R. R. Freeman

    2001-01-01

    From the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics theory, we derive the Landau-Dykhne formula which represents the quantum-mechanical formulation of the three-step model. These studies provide a basis for the classical-field approaches to high-order harmonic generation and justify some assumptions used in classical-field modelling.

  4. Higher order energy transfer. Quantum electrodynamical calculations and graphical representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Chapter 1, a novel method of calculating quantum electrodynamic amplitudes is formulated using combinatorial theory. This technique is used throughout instead of conventional time-ordered methods. A variety of hyperspaces are discussed to highlight isomorphism between a number of A generalisation of Pascal's triangle is shown to be beneficial in determining the form of hyperspace graphs. Chapter 2 describes laser assisted resonance energy transfer (LARET), a higher order perturbative contribution to the well-known process resonance energy transfer, accommodating an off resonance auxiliary laser field to stimulate the migration. Interest focuses on energy exchanges between two uncorrelated molecular species, as in a system where molecules are randomly oriented. Both phase-weighted and standard isotropic averaging are required for the calculations. Results are discussed in terms of a laser intensity-dependent mechanism. Identifying the applied field regime where LARET should prove experimentally significant, transfer rate increases of up to 30% are predicted. General results for three-center energy transfer are elucidated in chapter 3. Cooperative and accretive mechanistic pathways are identified with theory formulated to elicit their role in a variety of energy transfer phenomena and their relative dominance. In multichromophoric the interplay of such factors is analysed with regard to molecular architectures. The alignments and magnitudes of donor and acceptor transition moments and polarisabilities prove to have profound effects on achievable pooling efficiency for linear configurations. Also optimum configurations are offered. In ionic lattices, although both mechanisms play significant roles in pooling and cutting processes, only the accretive is responsible for sensitisation. The local, microscopic level results are used to gauge the lattice response, encompassing concentration and structural effects. (author)

  5. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s22s22p2P03/2 level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s22p 2P03/2 level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s22s22p2P03/2-2P01/2 and 3s23p 2P03/2-2P01/2 to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)(+12-5) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3σ and 4σ to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  6. Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nation, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal and noise response where it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state. Next, we make use of a superconducting transmission line formed from an array of dc-SQUIDs for investigating analogue Hawking radiation. Biasing the array with a space-time varying flux modifies the propagation velocity of the transmission line, leading to an effective metric with a horizon. This setup allows for quan...

  7. Phenomenology of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining forces that arise by the restriction of the fluctuation modes of the vacuum by the insertion of boundaries or the observation of altered light propagation in external fields is a versatile means to investigate the vacuum structure of quantum electrodynamics. For these quantum vacuum probes, the vacuum can be understood and effectively modeled as a medium. Investigating the properties of this medium cannot only test and broaden our understanding of known interactions but can also be a valuable tool in the search for particles at low energy scales which arise in extensions of the standard model. In this thesis, we first study the geometry dependence of fluctuation modes in the Dirichlet-scalar analog of Casimir-Polder forces between an atom and a surface with arbitrary uniaxial corrugations. To this end we employ a technique which is fully nonperturbative in the height profile. We parameterize the differences to the distance dependencies in the planar limit in terms of an anomalous dimension quantifying the power-law deviation from the planar case. In numerical studies of experimentally relevant corrugations, we identify a universal regime of the anomalous dimension at larger distances. We argue that this universality arises as the relevant fluctuations average over corrugation structures smaller than the atom-wall distance. Turning to modified light propagation as a probe of the quantum vacuum, we show that a combination of strong, pulsed magnets and gravitational-wave interferometers can not only facilitate the detection of strong-field QED phenomena, but also significantly enlarges the accessible parameter space of hypothetical hidden-sector particles. We identify pulsed magnets as a suitable strong-field source to induce quantum nonlinearities, since their pulse frequency can be perfectly matched with the domain of highest sensitivity of modern gravitational-wave interferometers. Pushing current laboratory field-strengths to their limits, we suggest a

  8. Phenomenology of the vacuum in quantum electrodynamics and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette

    2011-09-30

    Determining forces that arise by the restriction of the fluctuation modes of the vacuum by the insertion of boundaries or the observation of altered light propagation in external fields is a versatile means to investigate the vacuum structure of quantum electrodynamics. For these quantum vacuum probes, the vacuum can be understood and effectively modeled as a medium. Investigating the properties of this medium cannot only test and broaden our understanding of known interactions but can also be a valuable tool in the search for particles at low energy scales which arise in extensions of the standard model. In this thesis, we first study the geometry dependence of fluctuation modes in the Dirichlet-scalar analog of Casimir-Polder forces between an atom and a surface with arbitrary uniaxial corrugations. To this end we employ a technique which is fully nonperturbative in the height profile. We parameterize the differences to the distance dependencies in the planar limit in terms of an anomalous dimension quantifying the power-law deviation from the planar case. In numerical studies of experimentally relevant corrugations, we identify a universal regime of the anomalous dimension at larger distances. We argue that this universality arises as the relevant fluctuations average over corrugation structures smaller than the atom-wall distance. Turning to modified light propagation as a probe of the quantum vacuum, we show that a combination of strong, pulsed magnets and gravitational-wave interferometers can not only facilitate the detection of strong-field QED phenomena, but also significantly enlarges the accessible parameter space of hypothetical hidden-sector particles. We identify pulsed magnets as a suitable strong-field source to induce quantum nonlinearities, since their pulse frequency can be perfectly matched with the domain of highest sensitivity of modern gravitational-wave interferometers. Pushing current laboratory field-strengths to their limits, we suggest a

  9. Applications of quantum and classical connections in modeling atomic, molecular and electrodynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Applications of Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamical Systems is a reference on the new field of relativistic optics, examining topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles. Based on 30 years of research, this unique book connects the properties of quantum equations to corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems. In addition, it examines applications for these methods, and for the calculation of

  10. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Tao; Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed.By modulating the parameters of the system,the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine,1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine,and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed.The present scheme,which is attainable with current technology,saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines.

  11. Nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in distant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for implementing nonlocal quantum cloning via quantum dots trapped in cavities is proposed. By modulating the parameters of the system, the optimal 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning machine, 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning machine, and 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning machine are constructed. The present scheme, which is attainable with current technology, saves two qubits compared with previous cloning machines. (general)

  12. Microwave Reentrant Cavities for Quantum Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia C.; Bourhill, Jeremy; Creedon, Daniel; Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Tobar, Michael

    A microwave reentrant cavity is a device able to provide a very sensitive high-Q microwave mode. Its design can be highly advantageous for electromechanical devices and quantum measurements. In this sense, a tuneable device based on a narrow-gap superconducting reentrant cavity is under development. The resonant frequency is able to be fine-tuned over a range larger than 500 MHz at 10 mK with an electrical Q-factor of 105. Such a cavity could possibly accommodate a transmon qubit to control and manipulate its quantum state. We are also working on the investigation of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators in microwave reentrant cavities. BAW resonators offer a promising way to process quantum information through the coupling between microwaves and acoustic phonons. Thus, we are developing a device able to excite phonons through non-linearities and the piezoelectricity of the plano-convex quartz crystal. We will detail our experiments that work towards cooling gram scale phonon resonances to the quantum ground state. Funded by ARC Grant No. CE110001013 (Australia) and National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (Brazil).

  13. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-22

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme. PMID:27152802

  14. Cavity QED Experiments with Ion Coulomb Crystals. Towards quantum memories and photon counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapped and laser cooled atomic ions in the form of Coulomb crystals represent interesting objects for investigation of Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics (CQED) and related phenomena. First of all, the number and density of atoms in such crystals as well as the shapes of the crystals can relatively easily be controlled. Second, the ion-ion Coulomb repulsion results in an essentially collision-free environment with the prospect of long coherence times. These properties were recently exploited in experiments focused on investigations of the collective coupling of cold ion ensembles to light modes of a Fabry-Perot cavity, as well as in demonstration of cavity Electromagnetically induced Transparency (EIT) and a photon blockade mechanism. The next step of these experiments will be to realize a light storage scheme, partly for demonstrating an efficient photon counting device and partly for eventually establishing a quantum memory for light with both high efficiency and fidelity. (author)

  15. Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kater

    2013-03-01

    In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation. This work was supported by the IARPA CSQ program.

  16. Quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory: Bridging quantum optics and electronic-structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggenthaler, Michael; Flick, Johannes; Pellegrini, Camilla; Appel, Heiko; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Rubio, Angel

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we give a comprehensive derivation of an exact and numerically feasible method to perform ab initio calculations of quantum particles interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field. We present a hierarchy of density-functional-type theories that describe the interaction of charged particles with photons and introduce the appropriate Kohn-Sham schemes. We show how the evolution of a system described by quantum electrodynamics in Coulomb gauge is uniquely determined by its initial state and two reduced quantities. These two fundamental observables, the polarization of the Dirac field and the vector potential of the photon field, can be calculated by solving two coupled, nonlinear evolution equations without the need to explicitly determine the (numerically infeasible) many-body wave function of the coupled quantum system. To find reliable approximations to the implicit functionals, we present the appropriate Kohn-Sham construction. In the nonrelativistic limit, this density-functional-type theory of quantum electrodynamics reduces to the density-functional reformulation of the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian, which is based on the current density of the electrons and the vector potential of the photon field. By making further approximations, e.g., restricting the allowed modes of the photon field, we derive further density-functional-type theories of coupled matter-photon systems for the corresponding approximate Hamiltonians. In the limit of only two sites and one mode we deduce the appropriate effective theory for the two-site Hubbard model coupled to one photonic mode. This model system is used to illustrate the basic ideas of a density-functional reformulation in great detail and we present the exact Kohn-Sham potentials for our coupled matter-photon model system.

  17. Cavity mode entanglement in relativistic quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Friis, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    A central aim of relativistic quantum information (RQI) is the investigation of quantum information tasks and resources taking into account the relativistic aspects of nature. More precisely, it is of fundamental interest to understand how the storage, manipulation, and transmission of information utilizing quantum systems are influenced by the fact that these processes take place in a relativistic spacetime. In particular, many studies in RQI have been focused on the effects of non-uniform motion on entanglement, the main resource of quantum information protocols. Early investigations in this direction were performed in highly idealized settings that prompted questions as to the practical accessibility of these results. To overcome these limitations it is necessary to consider quantum systems that are in principle accessible to localized observers. In this thesis we present such a model, the rigid relativistic cavity, and its extensions, focusing on the effects of motion on entanglement and applications such...

  18. Computational Method for the Retarded Potential in the Real-Time Simulation of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the method to compute the integrals which appear in the retarded potential term for a real-time simulation based on QED (Quantum Electrodynamics). We show that the oscillatory integrals over the infinite interval involved in them can be efficiently performed by the method developed by Ooura and Mori based on the double exponential (DE) formula.

  19. Mode expansions in the quantum electrodynamics of photonic media with disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We address two issues in the quantum electrodynamical description of photonic media with some disorder, neglecting material dispersion. When choosing a gauge in which the static potential vanishes, the normal modes of the medium with disorder satisfy another transversality condition than the modes...

  20. Cavity-induced quantum cooperative phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastina, F.; Falcone, G.; Francica, F.; Liberti, G.; Piperno, F.; Maniscalco, S.

    2010-09-01

    Two kinds of cooperative effects are discussed for two-level atoms (qubits) interacting with an electromagnetic resonator, both of them concerning Dicke super-radiance. The first is a static, critical phenomenon: the so-called super-radiant phase transition, occurring when a large number of qubits are coupled to a single cavity mode giving rise to a quantum phase transition for a critical value of the interaction strength. The second is a dynamic phenomenon, producing (among other effects) the generation and/or preservation of entanglement between qubits even in the presence of cavity losses.

  1. Cavity-induced quantum cooperative phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of cooperative effects are discussed for two-level atoms (qubits) interacting with an electromagnetic resonator, both of them concerning Dicke super-radiance. The first is a static, critical phenomenon: the so-called super-radiant phase transition, occurring when a large number of qubits are coupled to a single cavity mode giving rise to a quantum phase transition for a critical value of the interaction strength. The second is a dynamic phenomenon, producing (among other effects) the generation and/or preservation of entanglement between qubits even in the presence of cavity losses.

  2. Quantum noise in rectangular cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors calculate the energy spectrum of vacuum fluctuations for a massless scalar field which satisfies boundary conditions inside a wave guide or a rectangular box. The spectrum is piecewise continuous in the first case and discrete in the second, and exhibits resonances which correspond, as expected, to the energy levels of a particle in a box (with the difference that all these levels are occupied). Since it is known that these fluctuations exhibit a very slow convergence to a Poisson distribution, we conjecture that a realistic detector must find severe quantum vacuum deviations from white noise, except in the non-realistic limit of extremely high frequencies

  3. Quantum noise in rectangular cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal, C.; Jauregui, R.; Hacyan, S.; Cocho, G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica)

    1992-10-10

    In this paper the authors calculate the energy spectrum of vacuum fluctuations for a massless scalar field which satisfies boundary conditions inside a wave guide or a rectangular box. The spectrum is piecewise continuous in the first case and discrete in the second, and exhibits resonances which correspond, as expected, to the energy levels of a particle in a box (with the difference that all these levels are occupied). Since it is known that these fluctuations exhibit a very slow convergence to a Poisson distribution, we conjecture that a realistic detector must find severe quantum vacuum deviations from white noise, except in the non-realistic limit of extremely high frequencies.

  4. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, W.L.; Woldering, L.A.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is Chapter 8 of the book "Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Pseudorandom Photonic Structures", edited by Mher Ghulinyan and Lorenzo Pavesi (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015). It provides an overview of much recent work on 3D photonic crystals with a complete photonic b

  5. Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung

    2016-07-15

    We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function. PMID:27420523

  6. On Galilean invariance and nonlinearity in electrodynamics and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Gerald A.; Shtelen, Vladimir M.

    2001-02-01

    Recent experimental results such as those on slow light heighten interest in nonlinear Maxwell theories. We obtain Galilei covariant equations for electromagnetism by allowing special nonlinearities in the constitutive equations only, keeping Maxwell's equations unchanged. Combining these with linear or nonlinear Schrödinger equations, e.g., as proposed by Doebner and Goldin, yields a consistent, nonlinear, Galilean Schrödinger-Maxwell electrodynamics.

  7. Temperature tunability of quantum emitter - cavity coupling in a photonic wire microcavity with shielded sidewall loss

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, M

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have allowed to implement in solid-state cavity-based devices phenomena of quantum nature such as vacuum Rabi splitting, controllable single photon emission and quantum entanglement. For a sufficiently strong coupling between a quantum emitter and a cavity, large quality factors ($Q$) along with small modal volume ($V_{eff}$) are essential. Here we show that by applying a 5nm Al coating to the sidewalls of a submicrometer-sized Fabry-P\\'{e}rot microcavity, the cavity $Q$ can be temperature-tuned from few hundreds at room temperatures to 2$\\times$10$^5$ below 30~K. This is achieved by, first, a complete shielding of the sidewall loss with ideally reflecting lateral metallic mirrors and, secondly, a dramatic decrease of the cavity's axial loss for small-sized devices due to the largely off-axis wavevector within the multilayered structure. Our findings offer a novel temperature-tunable platform to study quantum electrodynamical phenomena of emitter-cavity coupling. We demonstra...

  8. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm−2 sr−1 is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date

  9. High brightness angled cavity quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, D.; Bai, Y.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    A quantum cascade laser (QCL) with an output power of 203 W is demonstrated in pulsed mode at 283 K with an angled cavity. The device has a ridge width of 300 μm, a cavity length of 5.8 mm, and a tilt angle of 12°. The back facet is high reflection coated, and the front facet is anti-reflection coated. The emitting wavelength is around 4.8 μm. In distinct contrast to a straight cavity broad area QCL, the lateral far field is single lobed with a divergence angle of only 3°. An ultrahigh brightness value of 156 MW cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} is obtained, which marks the brightest QCL to date.

  10. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.

  11. Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrzakulov, R.; Odintsov, S. D.; Sebastiani, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space-time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.

  12. Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Myron W

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn

  13. Tunable Hybrid Quantum Electrodynamics from Non-Linear Electron Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schiró, Marco; Hur, Karyn Le

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum electronics have allowed to engineer hybrid nano-devices comprising on chip a microwave electromagnetic resonator coupled to an artificial atom, a quantum dot. These systems realize novel platforms to explore non-equilibrium quantum impurity physics with light and matter. Coupling the quantum dot system to reservoir leads (source and drain) produces an electronic current as well as dissipation when applying a bias voltage across the system. Focusing on a standard mo...

  14. Quantum state engineering and reconstruction in cavity QED. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lougovski, P.

    2004-09-25

    The models of a strongly-driven micromaser and a one-atom laser are developed. Their analytical solutions are obtained by means of phase space techniques. It is shown how to exploit the model of a one-atom laser for simultaneous generation and monitoring of the decoherence of the atom-field ''Schroedinger cat'' states. The similar machinery applied to the problem of the generation of the maximally-entangled states of two atoms placed inside an optical cavity permits its analytical solution. The steady-state solution of the problem exhibits a structure in which the two-atom maximally-entangled state correlates with the vacuum state of the cavity. As a consequence, it is demonstrated that the atomic maximally-entangled state, depending on a coupling regime, can be produced via a single or a sequence of no-photon measurements. The question of the implementation of a quantum memory device using a dispersive interaction between the collective internal ground state of an atomic ensemble and two orthogonal modes of a cavity is addressed. The problem of quantum state reconstruction in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics is considered. The optimal operational definition of the Wigner function of a cavity field is worked out. It is based on the Fresnel transform of the atomic inversion of a probe atom. The general integral transformation for the Wigner function reconstruction of a particle in an arbitrary symmetric potential is derived.

  15. Theory of quantum and classical connections in modeling atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon

  16. Radiative corrections for the matter-zeropoint field system: establishing contact with quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrödinger quantum mechanics has been shown in previous work to emerge as a consequence of matter-zeropoint field interaction, in the time-asymptotic regime where an energy balance has been achieved and the radiationless approximation can be taken. In this paper, we show that Planck's constant enters the quantum description precisely through the condition of energy balance. We then study the two most important effects to first order of previously neglected radiative terms on the atom, namely atomic transitions and the Lamb shift. The respective nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics formulae are fully recovered, with a clear role assigned to the intervention of the zeropoint field.

  17. Phase-selective reversible quantum decoherence in cavity QED experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Radim

    2001-01-01

    New feasible cavity QED experiment is proposed to analyse reversible quantum decoherence in consequence of quantum complementarity and entanglement. Utilizing the phase selective manipulations with enviroment, it is demonstrated how the complementarity particularly induces a preservation of visibility, whereas quantum decoherence is more progressive due to pronounced entanglement between system and enviroment. This effect can be directly observed using the proposed cavity QED measurements.

  18. Mathematica® for Theoretical Physics Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...

  19. Atomistic electrodynamics simulations of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles in the quantum size regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Moore, Justin E; Zekarias, Meserret; Jensen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles with nanometre dimensions exhibit features that cannot be described by classical electrodynamics. In this quantum size regime, the near-field properties are significantly modified and depend strongly on the geometric arrangements. However, simulating realistically sized systems while retaining the atomistic description remains computationally intractable for fully quantum mechanical approaches. Here we introduce an atomistic electrodynamics model where the traditional description of nanoparticles in terms of a macroscopic homogenous dielectric constant is replaced by an atomic representation with dielectric properties that depend on the local chemical environment. This model provides a unified description of bare and ligand-coated nanoparticles, as well as strongly interacting nanoparticle dimer systems. The non-local screening owing to an inhomogeneous ligand layer is shown to drastically modify the near-field properties. This will be important to consider in optimization of plasmonic nanostructures for near-field spectroscopy and sensing applications. PMID:26555179

  20. Photonic Quantum Computation with Waveguide-Linked Optical Cavities and Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Makoto; Sato, Yoshiya; Noda, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for solid-state photonic quantum computation in which trapped photons in optical cavities are taken as a quantum bit. Quantum gates can be realized by coupling the cavities with quantum dots through waveguides. The proposed scheme allows programmable and deterministic gate operations and the system can be scaled up to many quantum bits.

  1. SIMLA: Simulating laser-particle interactions via classical and quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D. G.; Harvey, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Fortran code SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. This can be done classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation, or alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo type routines. Multiple laser fields can be included in the simulation and the propagation direction, beam shape (plane wave, focussed paraxi...

  2. Infinity in the regularization of Quantum Electrodynamics: A non standard Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Barcenas, J.; Reyes, L.; Esquivel--Sirvent, R.

    2006-01-01

    We review the concept of infinity as applied to regularization procedures in Quantum Electrodynamics. A clear distinction that is lacking in current literature is made between the physical contents of renormalization, and the mathematical aspects of regularization. Robinson's non-standard analysis is offered as a means to settle the ambiguities of the theory, in the spirit of Paul Dirac's well known comments concerning the weak status of the mathematics used in traditional regularization sche...

  3. Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated

  4. What we can learn about quantum electrodynamics from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great success of quantum electrodynamics carries with it the importance of finding the limits of validity for the theory. A heavy-ion beam can be used to test some of these limits. Questions connected with the experimental proof of the instability of the neutral vacuum in supercritical fields and its decays into charged vacuum by means of positron emission are reviewed. The measurement of vacuum polarization in heavy-ion scattering is also discussed. (14 figures) (U.S.)

  5. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Soto, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the impli...

  6. Quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum electrodynamics is discussed within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. A possible and crucial experimental test of the new 4-dimensional symmetry is discussed

  7. Semidirect product of CCR and CAR algebras and asymptotic states in quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    1997-01-01

    A C*-algebra containing the CCR and CAR algebras as its subalgebras and naturally described as the semidirect product of these algebras is discussed. A particular example of this structure is considered as a model for the algebra of asymptotic fields in quantum electrodynamics, in which Gauss' law is respected. The appearence in this algebra of a phase variable related to electromagnetic potential leads to the universal charge quantization. Translationally covariant representations of this al...

  8. Breit and Quantum Electrodynamics Energy Contributions in Multielectron Atoms from the Relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.

  9. Tunable coupling and ultrastrong interaction in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For future quantum information and quantum simulation architectures with superconducting circuits, a profound understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the individual building blocks is essential. In our work, we investigate galvanically coupled qubit-resonator systems, demonstrate the phenomenon of ultrastrong coupling and realize qubit mediated tunable and switchable coupling between two frequency-degenerate coplanar microwave resonators.

  10. Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamical density-functional theory: Exact time-dependent effective potentials in real space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Johannes; Ruggenthaler, Michael; Appel, Heiko; Rubio, Angel

    2015-12-15

    The density-functional approach to quantum electrodynamics extends traditional density-functional theory and opens the possibility to describe electron-photon interactions in terms of effective Kohn-Sham potentials. In this work, we numerically construct the exact electron-photon Kohn-Sham potentials for a prototype system that consists of a trapped electron coupled to a quantized electromagnetic mode in an optical high-Q cavity. Although the effective current that acts on the photons is known explicitly, the exact effective potential that describes the forces exerted by the photons on the electrons is obtained from a fixed-point inversion scheme. This procedure allows us to uncover important beyond-mean-field features of the effective potential that mark the breakdown of classical light-matter interactions. We observe peak and step structures in the effective potentials, which can be attributed solely to the quantum nature of light; i.e., they are real-space signatures of the photons. Our findings show how the ubiquitous dipole interaction with a classical electromagnetic field has to be modified in real space to take the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field fully into account. PMID:26627715

  11. A Scheme for Preparation of W-Type Entangled Coherent State of Three-Cavity Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chun-Hua; OU Yong-Cheng; ZHANG Zhi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present an experimental scheme to prepare the three-cavity W-type entangled coherent state in the context of dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics. The discussion of our scheme indicates that it can be realized by current technology.

  12. Microscopic theory of indistinguishable single-photon emission from a quantum dot coupled to a cavity: The role of non-Markovian phonon-induced decoherence

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods. An important finding is that short-time non-Markovian effects limit the maximal attainable indistinguishability. The results are explained using a polariton picture that yields valuable insight into the phonon...

  13. Random electrodynamics : a classical foundation for key quantum concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of random electrodynamics, in which electromagnetic particles are subjected, in a classical manner, to the forces of radiation damping and the fluctuating zero-point fields provides the framework in which the following results are obtained: (1) The precession dynamics of a long-lived, non-relativistic particle with a magnetic moment proportional to its spin, leads to a self-consistent determination of the spin value as one-half. (2) The internal dynamic underlying the intrinsic magnetic moment of a Dirac particle yields a classically visualizable picture of the spin-magnetic moment. (3) The Bose correlation among indistinguishable, non-interacting, spin-zero Particles arises from the coupling through the common- zero point fields and the radiation reaction fields when the particles are close together in both the r vector and the energy spaces. (4) The (exclusion principle-induced) correlation among identical, non-interacting magnetic particles with spin 1/2 is brought about by the coupling, (through the common fields of radiation reaction and the vacuum fluctuations), of the spins as well as the translational motions when the particles are close together in r vector and the energy spaces. (5) A dilute gas of free electrons has a Maxwellian distribution of velocities and the correct value of the djamagnetic moment in the presence of a magnetic field. Considerations on the centre of mass motion of a composite neutral particle lead to a simple resolution of the foundational paradoxes of statistical mechanics. (6) An approximate treatment of the hydrogen atom leads to a description of the evolution to the ground state at absolute zero and an estimation of the mass frequency and the line-width of the radiation emitted when an excited atom decays. (author)

  14. A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pétri, J

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of $\\BQ=4.4\\times10^9$~T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we ...

  15. Scalable photonic quantum computation through cavity-assisted interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, L M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme for scalable photonic quantum computation based on cavity assisted interaction between single-photon pulses. The prototypical quantum controlled phase-flip gate between the single-photon pulses is achieved by successively reflecting them from an optical cavity with a single-trapped atom. Our proposed protocol is shown to be robust to practical nose and experimental imperfections in current cavity-QED setups.

  16. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schlemmer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  17. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Jan; Zahn, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac's method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space-times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress-energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  18. Emergence of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics on the surface of a correlated topological insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jian, Shao-Kai; Maciejko, Joseph; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We show that a supersymmetric gauge theory with dynamical gauge bosons and fermionic gauginos emerges naturally at the pair-density-wave (PDW) quantum phase transition on the surface of a correlated topological insulator (TI) hosting three Dirac cones, such as the candidate topological Kondo insulator SmB$_6$. At the tricritical point separating the first- and second-order quantum phase transitions between the surface Dirac semimetal and nematic PDW phases, three massless bosonic Cooper pair fields emerge as the superpartners of three massless surface Dirac fermions. The resulting low-energy effective theory is the supersymmetric XYZ model, which is dual by mirror symmetry to $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) in 2+1 dimensions. Using supersymmetry, we calculate exactly certain critical exponents and the optical conductivity of the surface states at the tricritical point, which may be measured in future experiments.

  19. Lasing in circuit quantum electrodynamics with strong noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, M.; Utsumi, Y.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-01

    We study a model which can describe a superconducting single-electron transistor or a double quantum dot coupled to a transmission-line oscillator. In both cases the degree of freedom is given by a charged particle, which couples strongly to the electromagnetic environment or phonons. We consider the case where a lasing condition is established and study the dependence of the average photon number in the resonator on the spectral function of the electromagnetic environment. We focus on three important cases: a strongly coupled environment with a small cutoff frequency, a structured environment peaked at a specific frequency, and 1 /f noise. We find that the electromagnetic environment can have a substantial impact on the photon creation. Resonance peaks are in general broadened and additional resonances can appear.

  20. Observable effects and parametrized scaling limits of a model in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hiroshima, F

    2001-01-01

    Scaling limits of the Hamiltonian $H$ of a system of $N$ charged particles coupled to a quantized radiation field are considered. Ultraviolet cutoffs, $\\la_1,....,\\la_N$, are imposed on the radiation field and the Coulomb gauge is taken. It is so called the Pauli-Fierz model in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. We mainly consider two cases: (i) all the ultraviolet cutoffs are identical, $\\la_1=\\cdots=\\la_N$, (ii) supports of ultraviolet cutoffs have no intersection, ${\\rm supp}\\la_i\\cap{\\rm supp}\\laj=\\emptyset$, $i\

  1. SIMLA: Simulating laser-particle interactions via classical and quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2014-01-01

    We present the Fortran code SIMLA, which is designed for the study of charged particle dynamics in laser and other background fields. This can be done classically via the Landau-Lifshitz equation, or alternatively, via the simulation of photon emission events determined by strong-field quantum-electrodynamics amplitudes and implemented using Monte-Carlo type routines. Multiple laser fields can be included in the simulation and the propagation direction, beam shape (plane wave, focussed paraxial, constant crossed, or constant magnetic), and time envelope of each can be independently specified.

  2. Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Soto, D E

    2015-01-01

    The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the implication of the gauge invariance onto the model and obtain the respective Ward-Takahashi-Fradkin identities.

  3. Explicit Derivation of Duality between a Free Dirac Cone and Quantum Electrodynamics in (2 +1 ) Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mross, David F.; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly derive the duality between a free electronic Dirac cone and quantum electrodynamics in (2 +1 ) dimensions (QED3 ) with N =1 fermion flavors. The duality proceeds via an exact, nonlocal mapping from electrons to dual fermions with long-range interactions encoded by an emergent gauge field. This mapping allows us to construct parent Hamiltonians for exotic topological-insulator surface phases, derive the particle-hole-symmetric field theory of a half-filled Landau level, and nontrivially constrain QED3 scaling dimensions. We similarly establish duality between bosonic topological insulator surfaces and N =2 QED3 .

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.

  5. Mesoscopic entangled coherent states implemented with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ying-Yan; Jiang Nian-Quan

    2013-01-01

    We show a scheme to generate entangled coherent states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of a nanomechanical resonator,a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB),and a superconducting transmission line resonator.In the system,the CPB plays the role of a nonlinear medium and can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage including direct-current and alternating-current components.The scheme provides a powerful tool for preparing the multipartite mesoscopic entangled coherent states.

  6. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Igor F.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional (d =3 ) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions N =Nc. We discuss the root of universality of Nc in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the (d ,N ) plane. In particular, it is shown that as d →4 , Nc→0 with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that Nc=2.89 in d =3 .

  7. Time Evolution in the external field problem of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarovici, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    A general problem of quantum field theories is the fact that the free vacuum and the vacuum for an interacting theory belong to different, non-equivalent representations of the canonical (anti-)commutation relations. In the external field problem of QED, we encounter this problem in the form that the Dirac time evolution for an external field with non-vanishing magnetic components will not satisfy the Shale-Stinespring condition, known to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of an implementation on the fermionic Fock space. Therefore, a second quantization of the time evolution in the usual way is impossible. In this thesis, we present several rigorous approaches to QED with time-dependent, external fields and analyze in what sense a time evolution can exist in the second quantized theory. We study different constructions of the fermionic Fock space and prove their equivalence. We study and compare the results of Deckert et. al. (2010), where the time evolution is realized as unitary transformations ...

  8. Quasieigenstate coalescence in an atom-cavity quantum composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngwoon; Kang, Sungsam; Lim, Sooin; Kim, Wookrae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon

    2010-04-16

    We report the first direct observation of an exceptional point (EP) in an open quantum composite of a single atom and a high-Q cavity mode. The atom-cavity coupling constant was made a continuous variable by utilizing the multisublevel nature of a single rubidium atom when it is optimally coupled to the cavity mode. The spectroscopic properties of quasieigenstates of the atom-cavity composite were experimentally investigated near the EP. Branch-point singularity of quasieigenenergies was observed and its 4pi symmetry was demonstrated. Consequently, the cavity transmission at the quasieigenstate was observed to exhibit a critical behavior at the EP. PMID:20481988

  9. Scheme for Quantum Entanglement Swapping on Cavity QED System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-Yong; YU Yan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing quantum entanglement swapping between the atoms in cavity QED.With only virtual excitation of the cavity during the interaction between the atoms and cavity, the scheme is insensitive to the cavity mode states and the cavity decay. The ideas can also be utilized for realizing entanglement swapping between the atomic levels in a single atom and the atomic levels in the Bell states and between the atomic levels in the Bell states and the atomic levels in the W states.

  10. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ginossar, E.; J Joo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mod...

  11. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jaewoo Joo; Eran Ginossar

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mod...

  12. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, David

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  13. A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover, strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of BQ = 4.4 × 109 T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we derive the non-linear Maxwell equations in general relativity including quantum vacuum effects. We also derive a prescription for the force-free limit and show that these equations can be solved with classical finite volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws. It is therefore straightforward to include general relativity and QED in the description of neutron star magnetospheres by using standard classical numerical techniques borrowed from Maxwell and Newton theory. As an application, we show that spin-down luminosity corrections associated with QED effects are negligible with respect to GR corrections.

  14. Controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin-Qin; Liao Jie-Qiao; Kuang Le-Man

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to enable a controllable cross-Kerr interaction between microwave photons in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system. In this scheme we use two transmission-line resonators (TLRs) and one superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) type charge qubit, which acts as an artificial atom. It is shown that in the dispersive regime of the circuit-QED system, a controllable cross-Kerr interaction can be obtained by properly preparing the initial state of the qubit, and a large cross-phase shift between two microwave fields in the two TLRs can then be reached. Based on this cross-Kerr interaction, we show how to create a macroscopic entangled state between the two TLRs.

  15. Quantum superdense coding via cavity-assisted interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum superdense coding (QSC) is an example of how entanglement can be used to minimize the number of carriers of classical information. This paper proposes two schemes for implementing QSC by means of cavity assisted interactions with single-photon pulses. The schemes are insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field, thus it might be realizable based on the current cavity QED techniques

  16. Novel approaches to high fidelity qubit state measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Eran

    2011-03-01

    Qubit state measurement (`readout') in solid state systems is an open problem, which is currently the subject of intensive experimental and theoretical research. Achieving high fidelity in a single-shot measurement is an interesting quantum control problem, as well as an important component for the successful implementation of quantum information protocols. For superconducting qubits we can distinguish between linear dispersive and nonlinear methods, the latter relying on the bistability of a nonlinear resonator. In the context of circuit quantum electrodynamics, the transmon qubit is strongly coupled to a linear resonator and described by a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) with external drive and dissipation. Recent novel approaches to achieve high-fidelity readout in the dispersive regime rely on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the JCM and its ultimate linearity in the high excitation regime. In the degenerate regime we rely on the photon blockade and precise transient dynamics of the system. This regime presents a theoretical challenge and the driven damped JCM model exhibits a dynamical phase transition. Another proposed approach extends the Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier and employs the dynamical effects of frequency chirping of the drive on the coupled qubit-resonator system. We will discuss the physics of these different regimes and describe the readout schemes which have been demonstrated by recent experiments and quantum simulations, as well as the role of quantum fluctuations and optimal control.

  17. Quantum frequency up-conversion with a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yun-Fei; Zhai Shu-Qin; Gao Jiang-Rui; Zhang Jun-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The quantum state transfer from subharmonic frequency to harmonic frequency based on asymmetrically pumped second harmonic generation in a cavity is investigated theoretically. The performance of noise-free frequency up-conversion is evaluated by the signal transfer coefficient and the conversion efficiency,in which both the quadrature fluctuation and the average photon number are taken into consideration.It is shown that the quantum property can be preserved during frequency up-conversion via operating the cavity far below the threshold.The dependences of the transfer coefficient and the conversion efficiency on pump parameter,analysing frequency,and cavity extra loss are also discussed.

  18. Modeling of radiative and quantum electrodynamics effects in PIC simulations of ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, M.; d'Humières, E.; Grech, M.; Ruyer, C.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.

    2016-03-01

    Next generation of ultra-intense laser facilities will lead to novel physical conditions ruled by collective and quantum electrodynamics effects, such as synchrotron-like emission of high-energy photons and e + e - pair generation. In view of the future experiments performed in this regime, the latter processes have been implemented into the particle-in-cell code CALDER.

  19. Relativistic wave equations of n-body systems of fermions and antifermions of various masses in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive relativistic wave equations for systems consisting of n fermions and antifermions of various masses. The derived interaction kernels of these equations include one-photon exchange interactions. The equations have the expected Schroedinger non-relativistic limit. Application to some exotic few lepton systems is discussed briefly. (author)

  20. Modeling of photon and pair production due to quantum electrodynamics effects in particle-in-cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -M; Gibbon, P; Li, Y -T

    2016-01-01

    We develop the particle-in-cell (PIC) code KLAPS to include the photon generation via the Compton scattering and electron-positron creation via the Breit-Wheeler process due to quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects. We compare two sets of existing formulas for the photon generation and different Monte Carlo algorithms. Then we benchmark the PIC simulation results.

  1. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  2. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-01-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits. PMID:27245775

  3. Quantum interference effects in a cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the effect of quantum interference on population distribution and photon statistics of a cavity field interacting with dressed states of a strongly driven three-level atom. We analyse three coupling configurations of the cavity field to the driven atom, with the cavity frequency tuned to the outer Rabi sideband, the inner Rabi sideband and the central frequency of the 'singly dressed' three-level atom. The quantum doubly dressed states for each configuration are identified and the population distribution and photon statistics are interpreted in terms of transitions among these dressed states and their populations. We find that the population distribution depends strongly on quantum interference and the cavity damping. For the cavity field tuned to the outer or inner Rabi sidebands the cavity damping induces transitions between the dressed states which are forbidden for the ordinary spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find that in the case of the cavity field coupled to the inner Rabi sideband the population distribution is almost Poissonian with a large average number of photons that can be controlled by quantum interference. This system can be considered as a one-atom dressed-state laser with controlled intensity

  4. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...

  5. Circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of flat band physics in a Lieb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-He; Wang, Yan-Pu; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Yang, Wan-Li; Hu, Yong; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The concept of flat band plays an important role in strongly correlated many-body physics. However, the demonstration of the flat band physics is highly nontrivial due to intrinsic limitations in conventional condensed-matter materials. Here we propose a circuit quantum electrodynamics simulator of the two-dimensional (2D) Lieb lattice exhibiting a flat middle band. By exploiting the parametric conversion method, we design a photonic Lieb lattice with in situ tunable hopping strengths in a 2D array of coupled superconducting transmissionline resonators. Moreover, the flexibility of our proposal enables the incorporation of both the artificial gauge field and the strong photon-photon interaction in a time- and site-resolved manner. To unambiguously demonstrate the synthesized flat band, we further investigate the observation of the flat band localization of microwave photons through the pumping and the steady-state measurements of only a few sites on the lattice. Requiring only current level of technique and being robust against imperfections in realistic circuits, our scheme can be readily tested in experiment and may pave a new way towards the realization of exotic photonic quantum Hall fluids including anomalous quantum Hall effect and bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect without magnetic field.

  6. Beating quantum limits in an optomechanical sensor by cavity detuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the quantum limits in an optomechanical sensor based on a detuned high-finesse cavity with a movable mirror. We show that the radiation pressure exerted on the mirror by the light in the detuned cavity induces a modification of the mirror dynamics and makes the mirror motion sensitive to the signal. This leads to an amplification of the signal by the mirror dynamics, and to an improvement of the sensor sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit, up to an ultimate quantum limit only related to the mechanical dissipation of the mirror. This improvement is somewhat similar to the one predicted in detuned signal-recycled gravitational-wave interferometers, and makes a high-finesse cavity a model system to test these quantum effects

  7. Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi2Se3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craco, L.

    2015-11-01

    Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi2Se3 topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to LixBi2Se3 battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.

  8. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in time-dependent external potentials and the Schwinger effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in external potentials, we introduce a method to compute the time-dependence of the expectation value of the current density for time-dependent homogeneous external electric fields. We apply it to the so-called Sauter pulse. For late times, our results agree with the asymptotic value due to electron-positron pair production. We correct a general expression derived by Serber for the expectation value of the current, linearized in the external field, and compare with our results for the Sauter pulse. Based on the properties of the current density, we argue that the appearance of enhanced quasi-particle densities at intermediate times in slowly varying sub-critical potentials is generic. Also an alternative approach, which circumvents these difficulties, is sketched. (paper)

  9. The positronium and the dipositronium in a Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Jérémy

    2016-02-01

    The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is a no-photon approximation of quantum electrodynamics. It allows to study relativistic electrons in interaction with the Dirac sea. A state is fully characterized by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank non-negative projector. We prove the existence of the para-positronium, the bound state of an electron and a positron with antiparallel spins, in the BDF model represented by a critical point of the energy functional in the absence of an external field. We also prove the existence of the dipositronium, a molecule made of two electrons and two positrons that also appears as a critical point. More generally, for any half integer j ∈ 1/2 + Z + , we prove the existence of a critical point of the energy functional made of 2j + 1 electrons and 2j + 1 positrons.

  10. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S—2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state—-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity. (general)

  11. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guang-Jiong; Xu, Jian-Jun; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2011-02-01

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S—2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state—-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.

  12. Space-time-resolved quantum electrodynamics: A (1+1)-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Scott; Smith, Dallas; Pritchett, Luke; Gardner, John; Ware, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model that reduces quantum electrodynamics (QED) in time plus three spatial dimensions to time plus a single spatial dimension, making it is possible to numerically calculate the dynamic behavior of simple QED systems. The dimensionality is restricted in such a way as to preserve the influence of spin and angular momentum. In contrast to the S -matrix scattering approach, these calculations are not perturbative within the zero- and one-photon sector of the relevant Hilbert space. The model restricts the electron occupation number to one and the photon occupation number to zero or one. We use this model to calculate the dynamics of a so-called bare electron that dresses itself by a photon field.

  13. Quantum Electrodynamical Density-matrix Functional Theory and Group-theoretical Consideration of its Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsaku, T; Yamaki, D; Yamaguchi, K

    2002-01-01

    For studying the group theoretical classification of the solutions of the density functional theory in relativistic framework, we propose quantum electrodynamical density-matrix functional theory (QED-DMFT). QED-DMFT gives the energy as a functional of a local one-body $4\\times4$ matrix $Q(x)\\equiv -$, where $\\psi$ and $\\bar{\\psi}$ are 4-component Dirac field and its Dirac conjugate, respectively. We examine some characters of QED-DMFT. After these preparations, by using Q(x), we classify the solutions of QED-DMFT under O(3) rotation, time reversal and spatial inversion. The behavior of Q(x) under nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits are also presented. Finally, we give plans for several extensions and applications of QED-DMFT.

  14. Reduced Dirac equation and Lamb shift as off-mass-shell effect in quantum electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Guang-Jiong; Xu Jian-Jun; Lou Sea-Yue

    2011-01-01

    Based on the accurate experimental data of energy-level differences in hydrogen-like atoms, especially the 1S-2S transitions of hydrogen and deuterium, the necessity of introducing a reduced Dirac equation with reduced mass as the substitution of original electron mass is stressed. Based on new cognition about the essence of special relativity, we provide a reasonable argument for the reduced Dirac equation to have two symmetries, the invariance under the (newly defined) space-time inversion and that under the pure space inversion, in a noninertial frame. By using the reduced Dirac equation and within the framework of quantum electrodynamics in covariant form, the Lamb shift can be evaluated (at one-loop level) as the radiative correction on a bound electron staying in an off-mass-shell state-a new approach eliminating the infrared divergence. Hence the whole calculation, though with limited accuracy, is simplified, getting rid of all divergences and free of ambiguity.

  15. Geometric phase, quantum Fisher information, geometric quantum correlation and quantum phase transition in the cavity-Bose-Einstein-condensate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-mode optical cavity via the geometric phase and quantum Fisher information of an extra probe atom which is injected into the optical cavity and interacts with the cavity field. We also find that the geometric quantum correlation between two probe atoms exhibits a double sudden transition phenomenon and show this double sudden transition phenomenon is closely associated with the quantum phase transition of the atomic ensemble. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical scheme to prolong the frozen time during which the geometric quantum correlation remains constant by applying time-dependent electromagnetic field.

  16. Scheme for Implementing Quantum Cloning Restoring Machine in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Long-Bao; ZHANG Wen-Hai; YE Liu

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme for implementing quantum restoring machine of the optimal universal 1 → 2 quanturn cloning machine in the context of cavity QED.In our scheme,two atoms (the clones) simultaneously interact with a cavity field,and meanwhile they are driven by a classical field.Then an arbitrary unknown input state can be restored in the ancilla by applying appropriate unitary local operation.

  17. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration

  18. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  19. Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States of Cavity Modes Using rf-SQUIDs in a Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo

    2008-01-01

    We propose a potential scheme of preparing Schrodinger-cat state of the cavity mode by placing an rf-superconducting quantum interference device (rf-SQUID) in a single-mode microwave cavity. By properly adjusting the detuning and the strength regarding the radiation fields, we show how to generate single-mode Schrodinger-eat state. Generalizing this method we discuss the generation of the engtangled coherent states. The experimental feasibility of our scheme is discussed under consideration of the cavity decay.

  20. Quantum logic gates operation using SQUID qubits in bimodal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ke-Hui

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme to realize the basic two-qubit logic gates such as the quantum phase gate and SWAP gate using a detuned microwave cavity interacting with three-level superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) qubit(s), by placing SQUID(s) in a two-mode microwave cavity and using adiabatic passage methods. In this scheme, the two logical states of the qubit are represented by the two lowest levels of the SQUID, and the cavity fields are treated as quantized. Compared with the previous method, the complex procedures of adjusting the level spacing of the SQUID and applying the resonant microwave pulse to the SQUID to create transformation are not required. Based on superconducting device with relatively long decoherence time and simplified operation procedure, the gates operate at a high speed, which is important in view of decoherence.

  1. Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D.; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single 87Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics.

  2. Cavity approach to variational quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ramezanpour, A

    2011-01-01

    A local and distributive algorithm is proposed to find an optimal trial wave-function minimizing the Hamiltonian expectation in a quantum system. To this end, the quantum state of the system is connected to the Gibbs state of a classical system with the set of couplings playing the role of variational parameters. The average energy is written within the replica-symmetric approximation and the optimal parameters are obtained by a heuristic message passing algorithm based on the Bethe approximation. The performance of this approximate algorithm depends on the structure and quality of the trial wave-functions; starting from a classical system of isolated elements, i.e. mean-field approximation, and improving on that by considering the higher order many-body interactions. The method is applied to some disordered quantum Ising models in transverse fields and the results are compared with the exact ones for small systems.

  3. Coupled cavity terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated emission monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Michael; Martl, Michael; Bachmann, Dominic; Deutsch, Christoph; Andrews, Aaron M; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the on-chip generation and detection of terahertz radiation in coupled cavity systems using a single semiconductor heterostructure. Multiple sections of a terahertz quantum cascade laser structure in a double-metal waveguide are optically coupled and operate either as a laser or an integrated emission monitor. A detailed analysis of the photon-assisted carrier transport in the active region below threshold reveals the detection mechanism for photons emitted by the very same structure above threshold. Configurations with a single laser cavity and two coupled laser cavities are studied. It is shown that the integrated detector can be used for spatial sensing of the light intensity within a coupled cavity. PMID:25836210

  4. High-Q resonant cavities for terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, A; Consolino, L; Ravaro, M; Mazzotti, D; Vitiello, M S; Bartalini, S; De Natale, P

    2015-02-01

    We report on the realization and characterization of two different designs for resonant THz cavities, based on wire-grid polarizers as input/output couplers, and injected by a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting at 2.55 THz. A comparison between the measured resonators parameters and the expected theoretical values is reported. With achieved quality factor Q ≈ 2.5 × 10(5), these cavities show resonant peaks as narrow as few MHz, comparable with the typical Doppler linewidth of THz molecular transitions and slightly broader than the free-running QCL emission spectrum. The effects of the optical feedback from one cavity to the QCL are examined by using the other cavity as a frequency reference. PMID:25836227

  5. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  6. Extended Jaynes-Cummings Models In Cavity Qed

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Due to the improvement within cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments during the last decades, what was former seen as 'toy models' are today realized in laboratories. A controlled isolated coherent evolution of one or a few atoms coupled to a single mode inside a cavity is achievable. Such systems are well suited for studying purely quantum mechanical effects, and also for performing quantum gates, necessary for quantum computing. The Jaynes-Cummings model has served as a theoretical desc...

  7. Efficient atomic quantum memory for photonic qubits in cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Katsuji

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a scheme of atomic quantum memory to store photonic qubits of polarization in cavity QED. It is observed that the quantum-state swapping between a single-photon pulse and a $ \\Lambda $-type atom can be made via scattering in an optical cavity [T. W. Chen, C. K. Law, P. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 69} (2004) 063810]. This swapping operates limitedly in the strong coupling regime for $ \\Lambda $-type atoms with equal dipole couplings. We extend this scheme in cavity QED to present a more feasible and efficient method for quantum memory combined with projective measurement. This method works without requiring such a condition on the dipole couplings. The fidelity is significantly higher than that of the swapping, and even in the moderate coupling regime it reaches almost unity by narrowing sufficiently the photon-pulse spectrum. This high performance is rather unaffected by the atomic loss, cavity leakage or detunings, while a trade-off is paid in the success probability for projective measurement...

  8. Magnetic monopole plasma phase in (2+1)d compact quantum electrodynamics with fermionic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first evidence from lattice simulations that the magnetic monopoles in three-dimensional compact quantum electrodynamics (cQED3) with Nf=2 and Nf=4 four-component fermion flavors are in a plasma phase. The evidence is based mainly on the divergence of the monopole susceptibility (polarizability) with the lattice size at weak gauge couplings. A weak four-Fermi term added to the cQED3 action enabled simulations with massless fermions. The exact chiral symmetry of the interaction terms forbids symmetry breaking lattice discretization counterterms to appear in the theory's effective action. It is also shown that the scenario of a monopole plasma does not depend on the strength of the four-Fermi coupling. Other observables such as the densities of isolated dipoles and monopoles and the so-called specific heat show that a crossover from a dense monopole plasma to a dilute monopole gas occurs at strong couplings. The implications of our results on the stability of U(1) spin liquids in two spatial dimensions are also discussed.

  9. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, Ilya D

    2007-01-01

    The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ``physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ``primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ``bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ``physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider $\\mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_{\\mu}/m$; iii) to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e \\ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ``primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 \\sim e $ when the interaction between the ``physical'' electr...

  10. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feranchuk, Ilya D.; Feranchuk, Sergey I.

    2007-12-01

    The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF) is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron) and it allows one to solve the following problems: i) to express the ''primary'' charge e0 and the mass m0 of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of e and m of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii) to consider μ-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio mμ/m; iii) to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass m; iv) to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge e << 1 corresponds to the strong coupling e! xpansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge e-10 ~ e when the interaction between the ``physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  11. Nonperturbative Description Of The Mass And Charge Renormalization In Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Feranchuk, I D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the nonperturbative analysis of the spectrum for one-particle excitations of the electron-positron field (EPF) is considered in the paper. A standard form of the quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used but the charge of the "bare" electron $e_0$ is supposed to be of a large value. It is shown that in this case the quasi-particle can be formed with a non-zero averaged value of the scalar component of the electromagnetic field (EMF). Self-consistent equations for the distribution of charge density in the "physical" electron (positron) are derived. A variational solution of these equations is obtained and it defines the finite renormalization of the charge and mass of the electron (positron). It is found that the coupling constant between EPF and EMF and mass of the "bare" electron can be connected with the observed values of the fine structure constant and the mass of the "physical" electron. It is also shown that although the non-renormalized QED corresponds to the strong coupling between EPF and E...

  12. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, B.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Burin, A. L.; Wellstood, F. C.; Osborn, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual pz , dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 pz . We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p =p1=2.8 ±0.2 D and p =p2=8.3 ±0.4 D . For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with pz and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume.

  13. Quantum electrodynamics tests and X-rays standards using pionic atoms and highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this thesis is to present a new measurement of the pion mass using pionic nitrogen X-ray spectroscopy and results on helium-like argon and sulphur spectroscopy. The new pion mass has been measured with an accuracy of 1.7 ppm, 30% better that the present world average value, and it is obtained from Bragg spectroscopy of 5 ->4 pionic nitrogen transitions using the theoretical predictions provided by quantum electrodynamics. We have got: m(π-) = (139.571042 ± 0.000210 ± 0.000110) where the first error is due to the statistics and the second is the systematic error. I present the calculation of the hyperfine structure and recoil corrections for pionic atoms using a new perturbation method for the Klein-Gordon equation. The spectrometer used for this measurement has been characterized with the relativistic M1 transitions from helium-like ions produced with a new device, the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Trap. High statistics spectra from these ions have enabled us to measure transition energies with an accuracy of some ppm which has allowed us to compare theoretical predictions with experiment data. X-ray emission from pionic atoms and multicharged ions can be used to define new types of X-ray standards for energies of a few keV

  14. On the possible existence of vacuum oscillations in the quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this thesis was the study of the possibility that the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics at presence of strong electric fields possesses excitation models of collective nature. The starting point of the discussion was the two-particle Green function, for which we have derived an integral equation of the Bethe-salpeter type. From the numerical results we conclude that the particle-hole correlations are of subordered importance concerning the electron-positron excitation energies in the field of a heavy atomic nucleus. The resulting energy shifts are not larger than 1 keV, so that the relative difference between the excitation energies of the free and the interacting electron-positron configurations is smaller than 0.5%. Furthermore from our calculations with a coupling constant α, which is by a factor 10 to 100 larger than the real value of 1/137 results, that also in the case of an essentially stronger electron-positron interaction no collective states are formed. The numerical results concerning the transition strength with and without regardment of the elctron-positron interactions support evidently our conclusions. (orig./HSI)

  15. Projected Dipole Moments of Individual Two-Level Defects Extracted Using Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, B; Ramanayaka, A N; Burin, A L; Wellstood, F C; Osborn, K D

    2016-04-22

    Material-based two-level systems (TLSs), appearing as defects in low-temperature devices including superconducting qubits and photon detectors, are difficult to characterize. In this study we apply a uniform dc electric field across a film to tune the energies of TLSs within. The film is embedded in a superconducting resonator such that it forms a circuit quantum electrodynamical system. The energy of individual TLSs is observed as a function of the known tuning field. By studying TLSs for which we can determine the tunneling energy, the actual p_{z}, dipole moments projected along the uniform field direction, are individually obtained. A distribution is created with 60 p_{z}. We describe the distribution using a model with two dipole moment magnitudes, and a fit yields the corresponding values p=p_{1}=2.8±0.2  D and p=p_{2}=8.3±0.4  D. For a strong-coupled TLS the vacuum-Rabi splitting can be obtained with p_{z} and tunneling energy. This allows a measurement of the circuit's zero-point electric-field fluctuations, in a method that does not need the electric-field volume. PMID:27152820

  16. Self-Localized Quasi-Particle Excitation in Quantum Electrodynamics and Its Physical Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya D. Feranchuk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-localized quasi-particle excitation of the electron-positron field (EPF is found for the first time in the framework of a standard form of the quantum electrodynamics. This state is interpreted as the ''physical'' electron (positron and it allows one to solve the following problems: i to express the ''primary'' charge $e_0$ and the mass $m_0$ of the ''bare'' electron in terms of the observed values of $e$ and $m$ of the ''physical'' electron without any infinite parameters and by essentially nonperturbative way; ii to consider $mu$-meson as another self-localized EPF state and to estimate the ratio $m_mu/m$; iii to prove that the self-localized state is Lorentz-invariant and its energy spectrum corresponds to the relativistic free particle with the observed mass $m$; iv to show that the expansion in a power of the observed charge $e ll 1$ corresponds to the strong coupling expansion in a power of the ''primary'' charge $e^{-1}_0 sim e$ when the interaction between the ''physical'' electron and the transverse electromagnetic field is considered by means of the perturbation theory and all terms of this series are free from the ultraviolet divergence.

  17. Analysis of a teleportation scheme involving cavity field states in a linear superposition of Fock states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. R.; Guerra, E. S.; Jalbert, Ginette

    2008-04-01

    We analyse a teleportation scheme of cavity field states. The experimental sketch discussed makes use of cavity quantum electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with superconducting (micromaser) cavities as well as with classical microwave (Ramsey) cavities. In our scheme the Ramsey cavities and the atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to teleport a field state, which is formed by a linear superposition of vacuum |∅> and the one-photon state |1>, from a micromaser cavity to another.

  18. Linear cavity optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, A G V; Hancock, G; Ritchie, G A D; Weidmann, D

    2013-07-15

    A cw distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) coupled to a two-mirror linear optical cavity has been used to successfully demonstrate optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at 5.5 μm. The noise-equivalent absorption coefficient, α(min), was 2.4×10(-8) cm(-1) for 1 s averaging, limited by etalon-fringing. The temporal stability of the instrument allows NO detection down to 5 ppb in 2 s. PMID:23939085

  19. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    OpenAIRE

    Revin, D. G.; Hemingway, M.; Vaitiekus, D.; Cockburn, J.W.; Hempler, N.; Maker, G.T.; Malcolm, G.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emi...

  20. Electron transport through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate transient transport of electrons through a single-quantum-dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire that is weakly coupled to leads and strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full electron-photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger gate voltage to lift a many-body state...

  1. External cavity coherent quantum cascade laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Raphael; Parvitte, Bertrand; Bizet, Laurent; De Naurois, Guy Mael; Simozrag, Bouzid; Maisons, Grégory; Carras, Mathieu; Zeninari, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a coherent quantum cascade laser array that consists in the fabrication of multi-stripes array. The main characteristic of this kind of source is that an anti-symmetrical signature with two lobes is obtained in the far field. Taking advantage of this drawback, a grating is aligned with one lobe of the source. Thus a Littrow configuration is designed that permit to obtain a wide tunability of the source. First results are presented and a preliminary test of the source is realized by measurements on acetone.

  2. Derivative expansion of the effective action for quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivative expansion of the one-loop effective action in QED3 and QED4 (quantum electrodynamics) is considered. The first term in such an expansion is the effective action for a constant electromagnetic field. An explicit expression for the next term containing two derivatives of the field strength Fμν, but exact in the magnitude of the field strength, is obtained. The general results for both fermion and scalar electrodynamics are presented. The cases of pure electric and pure magnetic external fields are considered in detail. The Feynman technique for the perturbative expansion of the one-loop effective action in the number of derivatives is developed. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Quantum Cavity Optomechanics with Phononic Bandgap Shielded Silicon Nitride Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, William Hvidtfelt Padkær

    Cavity optomechanics, a field which has matured tremendously over the last decade,has conclusively reached the quantum regime. Noteworthy experimentalachievements include cooling of the vibrational motion of macroscopic objects tothe quantum ground state, the observation of shot noise of radiation...... placedbetween two highly reflective mirrors, all of which are embedded in a helium flowcryostat. In order to reach truly quantum territory, severe shielding of the membranefrom the environment is required, as well as meticulous concern for auxiliarysources of noise, both from the laser and mirrors used...... suppresses the light noise by - 2:4 dB, implying the hitherto strongest correlations observed between light and mechanics. A secondary result is the coolingof the mechanical motion close to the quantum ground state....

  4. Hybrid Quantum System:Coupling Color Centers to Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reversible transfer of quantum information between long-lived memories and quantum processors is a favorable building block of scalable quantum information devices. We present recent experimental results of strong coupling between an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in diamond and a superconducting microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. Although the coupling between a single spin and the electromagnetic field is typically rather weak, collective enhancement allows entering the strong coupling regime. With our experimental set-up we are able to directly observe this characteristic scaling of the collective coupling strength with the square root of the number of emitters. Additionally, we measure hyperfine coupling to 13C nuclear spins, which is a first step towards a nuclear ensemble quantum memory. Using the dispersive shift of the cavity resonance frequency, we measure the relaxation time T1 of the NV center at milli kelvin temperatures in a nondestructive way. (author)

  5. Cavity nonlinear optics with few photons and ultracold quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The light force on particles trapped in the field of a high-Q cavity mode depends on the quantum state of field and particle. Different photon numbers generate different optical potentials and different motional states induce different field evolution. Even for negligible internal particle excitation, which yields linear polarizability, the quantum character of particle motion generates nonlinear field dynamics. We derive a corresponding effective field Hamiltonian containing all the powers of the photon number operator, which predicts nonlinear phase shifts and squeezing even at the few-photon level. Simulations of the full particle-field dynamics confirm this and show significant particle-field entanglement. (author)

  6. Continuous wave room temperature external ring cavity quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external ring cavity quantum cascade laser operating at ∼5.2 μm wavelength in a continuous-wave regime at the temperature of 15 °C is demonstrated. Out-coupled continuous-wave optical powers of up to 23 mW are observed for light of one propagation direction with an estimated total intra-cavity optical power flux in excess of 340 mW. The uni-directional regime characterized by the intensity ratio of more than 60 for the light propagating in the opposite directions was achieved. A single emission peak wavelength tuning range of 90 cm−1 is realized by the incorporation of a diffraction grating into the cavity

  7. Cavity quantum interferences with three-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, Victor; Macovei, Mihai A.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss quantum interference phenomena in a system consisting from a laser driven three-level ladder-type emitter possessing orthogonal transition dipoles and embedded in a leaking optical resonator. The cavity mean-photon number vanishes due to the destructive nature of the interference phenomena. The effect occurs for some particular parameter regimes which were identified. Furthermore, upper bare-state population inversion occurs as well.

  8. A Method for the Measurement of Photons Number and Squeezing Parameter in a Quantum Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasem Naeimi; Siamak Khademi; Ozra Heibati

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of photons number in a quantum cavity is very difficult and the photons number is changed after each measurement. Recently, many efforts have been done for the nondemolition measurement methods. Haroche et al. succeed in recognizing existence or nonexistence of one photon in a quantum cavity. In this paper, we employ their experimental setup for a quantum nondemolition measurement and pump a coherent state in their quantum cavity. In this case, we could detect more photons in the ...

  9. Causal approach for the electron-positron scattering in Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Soto, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the generalized electrodynamics contribution for the electron-positron scattering process, $e^{-}e^{+}\\rightarrow e^{-}e^{+}$, the Bhabha scattering. Within the framework of the standard model, for energies larger when compared to the electron mass, we calculate the cross section expression for the scattering process. This quantity is usually calculated in the framework of the Maxwell electrodynamics and, by phenomenological reasons, corrected by a cut-off parameter. On...

  10. Evaluating charge noise acting on semiconductor quantum dots in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the charge noise acting on a GaAs/GaAlAs based semiconductor double quantum dot dipole-coupled to the voltage oscillations of a superconducting transmission line resonator. The in-phase (I) and the quadrature (Q) components of the microwave tone transmitted through the resonator are sensitive to charging events in the surrounding environment of the double dot with an optimum sensitivity of 8.5×10−5 e/√(Hz). A low frequency 1/f type noise spectrum combined with a white noise level of 6.6×10−6 e2/Hz above 1 Hz is extracted, consistent with previous results obtained with quantum point contact charge detectors on similar heterostructures. The slope of the 1/f noise allows to extract a lower bound for the double-dot charge qubit dephasing rate which we compare to the one extracted from a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian approach. The two rates are found to be similar emphasizing that charge noise is the main source of dephasing in our system

  11. Preparation of the W state via cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin; YE Liu

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for preparation of the tripartite W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics is presented in this paper. And the scheme can be generalized to prepare the n-atom W states. The second part of this paper shows how to prepare n-cavity W states. All cavities involved are initially in the vacuum states, thus the requirement on the quality factor of the cavities is greatly loosened.

  12. Teleportation of atomic entangled states with a thermal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Cai Jian-Wu; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2006-01-01

    We propose a most simple and experimentally feasible scheme for teleporting unknown atomic entangled states in driven cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In our scheme, the joint Bell-state measurement (BSM) is not required,and the successful probability can reach 1.0. Furthermore, the scheme is insensitive to the cavity decay and the thermal field.

  13. Probing anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator in an optomechanical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latmiral, Ludovico; Armata, Federico; Genoni, Marco G.; Pikovski, Igor; Kim, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a way of measuring with high precision the anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator coupled to an optical field via radiation pressure. Our protocol uses a sequence of pulsed interactions to perform a loop in the phase space of the mechanical oscillator, which is prepared in a thermal state. We show how the optical field acquires a phase depending on the anharmonicity. Remarkably, one only needs small initial cooling of the mechanical motion to probe even small anharmonicities. Finally, by applying tools from quantum estimation theory, we calculate the ultimate bound on the estimation precision posed by quantum mechanics and compare it with the precision obtainable with feasible measurements such as homodyne and heterodyne detection on the cavity field. In particular we demonstrate that homodyne detection is nearly optimal in the limit of a large number of photons of the field and we discuss the estimation precision of small anharmonicities in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages-these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition would

  15. Photon-photon interaction in strong-coupling cavity-atom system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jian; Kwiat, Paul G. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We study photon-photon interactions mediated by a cavity-atom system in the strongcoupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). Different temporal shapes of the incident photons have been explored via numerical calculations. Especially, time-reversed photons can be in the cavity simultaneously and potentially acquire strong interaction with each other, advancing quantum information applications, e.g., quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement.

  16. The Utility of Naturalness, and how its Application to Quantum Electrodynamics envisages the Standard Model and Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2015-01-01

    With the Higgs boson discovery and no new physics found at the LHC, confidence in Naturalness as a guiding principle for particle physics is under increased pressure. We wait to see if it proves its mettle in the LHC upgrades ahead, and beyond. In the meantime, in a series of "realistic intellectual leaps" I present a justification {\\it a posteriori} of the Naturalness criterion by suggesting that uncompromising application of the principle to quantum electrodynamics leads toward the Standard Model and Higgs boson without additional experimental input. Potential lessons for today and future theory building are commented upon.

  17. No one-loop gauge anomalies for a Lorentz-violating quantum electrodynamics: evaluation of the three-photon vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of the diagrams that can lead to gauge anomalies in the (minimal) Lorentz- and CPT-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics reveal these to be the electron self-energy and vertex correction (related to the Ward–Takahashi identity), the photon self-energy (related to the vacuum polarization tensor transversality) and the three-photon vertex diagrams. All but the latter were explicitly verified to be free of anomalies to first order in loop expansion. Here we provide this remaining evaluation and verify the absence of anomalies in this process. (paper)

  18. Existence of Atoms and Molecules in the Mean-Field Approximation of No-Photon Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hainzl, Christian; Lewin, Mathieu; Sere, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is the mean-field approximation of no-photon Quantum Electrodynamics. The present paper is devoted to the study of the minimization of the BDF energy functional under a charge constraint. An associated minimizer, if it exists, will usually represent the ground state of a system of $N$ electrons interacting with the Dirac sea, in an external electrostatic field generated by one or several fixed nuclei. We prove that such a minimizer exists when a binding (...

  19. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radożycki, Tomasz, E-mail: t.radozycki@uksw.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-24

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe–Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a ‘meson’) this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles (‘quarks’), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties.

  20. Lorentz contraction of the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radozycki, Tomasz [Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-15

    The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a 'meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles ('quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. (orig.)

  1. Circuit-quantum electrodynamics with direct magnetic coupling to single-atom spin qubits in isotopically enriched 28Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Tosi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in silicon nanofabrication have allowed the manipulation of spin qubits that are extremely isolated from noise sources, being therefore the semiconductor equivalent of single atoms in vacuum. We investigate the possibility of directly coupling an electron spin qubit to a superconducting resonator magnetic vacuum field. By using resonators modified to increase the vacuum magnetic field at the qubit location, and isotopically purified 28Si substrates, it is possible to achieve coupling rates faster than the single spin dephasing. This opens up new avenues for circuit-quantum electrodynamics with spins, and provides a pathway for dispersive read-out of spin qubits via superconducting resonators.

  2. Dynamics of dispersive single-qubit readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum state of a superconducting qubit nonresonantly coupled to a transmission line resonator can be determined by measuring the quadrature amplitudes of an electromagnetic field transmitted through the resonator. We present experiments in which we analyze in detail the dynamics of the transmitted field as a function of the measurement frequency for both weak continuous and pulsed measurements. We find excellent agreement between our data and calculations based on a set of Bloch-type differential equations for the cavity field derived from the dispersive Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian including dissipation. We show that the measured system response can be used to construct a measurement operator from which the qubit population can be inferred accurately. Such a measurement operator can be used in tomographic methods to reconstruct single and multiqubit states in ensemble-averaged measurements.

  3. Electron transport through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate transient transport of electrons through a single quantum dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire with length Lx assumed to lie along the x-direction with a parabolic confinement in the y-direction. The quantum wire, originally with hard-wall confinement at its ends, ±Lx/2, is weakly coupled at t = 0 to left and right leads acting as external electron reservoirs. The central system, the dot and the finite wire, is strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full electron–photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger-gate voltage to lift a many-body state of the system into the source–drain bias window. In the presence of an x-polarized photon field, additional side peaks can be found due to photon-assisted transport. By appropriately tuning the plunger-gate voltage, the electrons in the left lead are allowed to undergo coherent inelastic scattering to a two-photon state above the bias window if initially one photon was present in the cavity. However, this photon-assisted feature is suppressed in the case of a y-polarized photon field due to the anisotropy of our system caused by its geometry. (paper)

  4. Electron transport through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2013-11-01

    We investigate transient transport of electrons through a single quantum dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire with length Lx assumed to lie along the x-direction with a parabolic confinement in the y-direction. The quantum wire, originally with hard-wall confinement at its ends, ±Lx/2, is weakly coupled at t = 0 to left and right leads acting as external electron reservoirs. The central system, the dot and the finite wire, is strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full electron-photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger-gate voltage to lift a many-body state of the system into the source-drain bias window. In the presence of an x-polarized photon field, additional side peaks can be found due to photon-assisted transport. By appropriately tuning the plunger-gate voltage, the electrons in the left lead are allowed to undergo coherent inelastic scattering to a two-photon state above the bias window if initially one photon was present in the cavity. However, this photon-assisted feature is suppressed in the case of a y-polarized photon field due to the anisotropy of our system caused by its geometry.

  5. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  6. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guan-yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our sch...

  7. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Guan-Yu Wang; Qian Liu; Hai-Rui Wei; Tao Li; Qing Ai; Fu-Guo Deng

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our sch...

  8. Cavity enhanced second-order nonlinear quantum photonic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Trivedi, Rahul; Majumdar, Arka

    2015-01-01

    A large obstacle for realizing quantum photonic logic is the weak optical nonlinearity of available materials, which results in large power consumption. In this paper, we argue that second order ($\\chi^{(2)}$) nonlinear optical devices are more suitable for achieving low power photonic logic. We present the theoretical design of all-optical logic with $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear bimodal cavities and their networks. Using semiclassical models derived from the Wigner quasi-probability distribution function, we analyze the power consumption of networks implementing an optical AND gate and an optical latch. Comparison between the second and third order $(\\chi^{(3)})$ optical logic reveals that the $\\chi^{(2)}$ design outperforms the corresponding $\\chi^{(3)}$ design in terms of the gate power consumption at high quality factors. Specifically, using realistic estimates for the $\\chi^{(2)}$ and $\\chi^{(3)}$ susceptibilities of available materials we show that at cavity quality factors $\\sim 10^4$, optical logic designed...

  9. Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).

  10. The Causal approach for the electron-positron scattering in the Generalized Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Soto, D E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the generalized electrodynamics contribution for the electron-positron scattering process, $e^{-}e^{+}\\rightarrow e^{-}e^{+}$, the Bhabha scattering. Within the framework of the standard model, for energies larger when compared to the electron mass, we calculate the cross section expression for the scattering process. This quantity is usually calculated in the framework of the Maxwell electrodynamics and, by phenomenological reasons, corrected by a cut-off parameter. On the other hand, by considering the generalized electrodynamics instead of Maxwell's, we can show that the effects played by the Podolsky mass is actually a natural cut-off parameter for this scattering process. Furthermore, by means of experimental data of Bhabha scattering we will estimate its lower bound value. Nevertheless, in order to have a mathematically well defined description of our study we shall present our discussion in the framework of the Epstein-Glaser causal theory.

  11. Quantum controlled phase gate based on two nonresonant quantum dots trapped in two coupled photonic crystal cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yu, Ya-Fei; Feng, Xun-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing two-qubit quantum phase gates with two nonidentical quantum dots trapped in two coupled photonic crystal cavities and driven by classical laser fields. During the gate operation, neither the cavity modes nor the quantum dots are excited, so the decoherence can be suppressed. The system can acquire a phase conditional upon the states of the quantum dots, which can be used to realize the controlled phase gate.

  12. Quantum Interference Induced Photon Blockade in a Coupled Single Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jing; Xu, Xiulai

    2015-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to implement a strong photon blockade with a single quantum dot coupled to a nanocavity. The photon blockade effect can be tremendously enhanced by driving the cavity and the quantum dot simultaneously with two classical laser fields. This enhancement of photon blockade is ascribed to the quantum interference effect to avoid two-photon excitation of the cavity field. Comparing with Jaynes-Cummings model, the second-order correlation function at zero time delay $g^{(2)}(0)$ in our scheme can be reduced by two orders of magnitude and the system sustains a large intracavity photon number. A red (blue) cavity-light detuning asymmetry for photon quantum statistics with bunching or antibunching characteristics is also observed. The photon blockade effect has a controllable flexibility by tuning the relative phase between the two pumping laser fields and the Rabi coupling strength between the quantum dot and the pumping field. Moreover, the photon blockade scheme based on quantum in...

  13. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-fields: On the origin of thermal radiation detected by an accelerating observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We continue with our series of papers concerning a self-field approach to quantum electrodynamics that is not second quantized. We use the theory here to show that a detector with a uniform acceleration a will respond to its own self-field as if immersed in a thermal photon bath at temperature Ta=ℎa/2πkc. This is the celebrated Unruh effect, and it is closely related to the emission of Hawking radiation from the event horizon of a black hole. Our approach is novel in that the radiation field is classical and not quantized; the vacuum field being identically zero with no zero-point energy. From our point of view, all radiative effects are accounted for when the self-field of the detector, and not the hypothetical zero-point field of the vacuum, acts back on the detector in a quantum-electrodynamic analog of the classical phenomenon of radiation reaction. When the detector is accelerating, its transformed self-field induces a different back reaction than when it is moving inertially. This process gives rise to the appearance of a photon bath, but the photons are not real in the sense that the space surrounding the accelerating detector is truly empty of radiation, a fact that is verified by the null response of an inertially moving detector in the same vicinity. The thermal photons are in this sense fictitious, and they have no independent existence outside the detector

  14. Measurement of the cross-section of electron-positron scattering at high energy and quantum electrodynamics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment we have performed on the ACO (Orsay Collider Ring) is one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics over very short interaction distances (10-14 cm). We have studied the electron-positron elastic scattering at very wide angle. This work is divided into 4 parts. The first part reviews recent tests of quantum electrodynamics and presents the electron-positron elastic scattering. The second part describes the measurement of brightness: the experimental device, data analysis and accuracy. The measurement of brightness has been performed by detecting the photons emitted in the double Bremsstrahlung reaction: e+e- → e+e-γγ. The third part deals with the measurement of the number of Bhabha events. The last part compares the experimental value of the Bhabha scattering with the theoretically expected value. We have got the following results: the number of Bhabha events: 757 events, the experimental value for Bhabha scattering cross-section: [1.97 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.)]*10-31 cm2. The comparison of this experimental value with the expected value has allowed us to set the lower limit of the cutting parameter Λ: Λ > 2 GeV

  15. Multipartite entangled states in coupled quantum dots and cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the generation of multipartite entangled state in a system of N quantum dots embedded in a microcavity and examine the emergence of genuine multipartite entanglement by three different characterizations of entanglement. At certain times of dynamical evolution one can generate multipartite entangled coherent exciton states or multiqubit W states by initially preparing the cavity field in a superposition of coherent states or the Fock state with one photon, respectively. Finally, we study environmental effects on multipartite entanglement generation and find that the decay rate for the entanglement is proportional to the number of excitons

  16. Quantum feedback in a non-resonant cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon correlation measurements reveal the response of the conditional evolution of the cavity QED system to a novel quantum feedback protocol. A photodetection collapses the state of the system and triggers a feedback pulse with an adjustable delay and amplitude that alters the intensity driving the system. The conditional evolution of the system freezes into a new steady state where it resides until, after an amount of time determined by the experimenter, it re-equilibrates into the original steady state. We carry out a sensitivity analysis using a theoretical model with atomic detuning and make quantitative comparisons with measured results

  17. Autonomous quantum thermal machines in atom-cavity systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison, Mark T.; Huber, Marcus; Prior, Javier; Woods, Mischa P.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    An autonomous quantum thermal machine comprising a trapped atom or ion placed inside an optical cavity is proposed and analysed. Such a machine can operate as a heat engine whose working medium is the quantised atomic motion, or as an absorption refrigerator which cools without any work input. Focusing on the refrigerator mode, we predict that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology to cool a trapped ion almost to its motional ground state using a thermal light source such as sunlight...

  18. Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Apollo V; Neves, M J

    2016-01-01

    The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e., the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

  19. Quantum electrodynamics and the electron self-energy in a deformed space with a minimal length scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Apollo V.; Abreu, E. M. C.; Neves, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The main motivation to study models in the presence of a minimal length is to obtain a quantum field theory free of the divergences. In this way, in this paper, we have constructed a new framework for quantum electrodynamics embedded in a minimal length scale background. New operators are introduced and the Green function method was used for the solution of the field equations, i.e. the Maxwell, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We have analyzed specifically the scalar field and its one loop propagator. The mass of the scalar field regularized by the minimal length was obtained. The QED Lagrangian containing a minimal length was also constructed and the divergences were analyzed. The electron and photon propagators, and the electron self-energy at one loop as a function of the minimal length was also obtained.

  20. Quantum electrodynamical time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team

    2015-03-01

    We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).

  1. Quantum correlations of light and matter through environmental transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Nazir, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    -state and atomic systems. Here we predict a striking and important example of such an effect. We show that in solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, interactions with the host vibrational environment can generate quantum cavity-emitter correlations in regimes that are semiclassical for atomic systems...

  2. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.;

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral...

  3. Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisks Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Woolf, Alexander; Aharanovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A; Hu, Evelyn L

    2014-01-01

    Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest ...

  4. Quantum statistical relation for black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider curvature-squared corrections to Einstein-Hilbert gravity action in the form of a Gauss-Bonnet term in D>4 dimensions. In this theory, we study the thermodynamics of charged static black holes with anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics. These objects have received considerable attention in recent literature on gravity/gauge dualities. It is well-known that, within the framework of anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, there exists a nonvanishing Casimir contribution to the internal energy of the system, manifested as the vacuum energy for global AdS spacetime in odd dimensions. Because of this reason, we derive a quantum statistical relation directly from the Euclidean action and not from the integration of the first law of thermodynamics. To this end, we employ a background-independent regularization scheme which consists, in addition to the bulk action, of counterterms that depend on both extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures of the boundary (Kounterterm series). This procedure results in a consistent inclusion of the vacuum energy and chemical potential in the thermodynamic description for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity regardless of the explicit form of the nonlinear electrodynamics Lagrangian.

  5. Generating and Revealing a Quantum Superposition of Electromagnetic Field Binomial States in a Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, R. Lo; Compagno, G; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the $N$-photon quantum superposition of two orthogonal generalized binomial states of electromagnetic field. We then propose, using resonant atom-cavity interactions, non-conditional schemes to generate and reveal such a quantum superposition for the two-photon case in a single-mode high-$Q$ cavity. We finally discuss the implementation of the proposed schemes.

  6. Cavity optomechanical cooling of a mechanical resonator in presence of a quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Bijita

    2015-01-01

    Ground state cooling of micromechanical oscillator is a paradigmatic goal for observing quantum mechanical effects in cavity optomechanics. We study theoretically the ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator in an optomechanical cavity in presence of a quantum well placed inside the cavity. Due to mode tailoring in presence of the quantum well, the cavity response gets modified and leads to asymmetric heating and cooling processes. This facilitates the cooling of the mechanical oscillator even in the unresolved-sideband regime, via inhibition of Stokes scattering.

  7. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  8. Simulating Topological Effects with Photons in Coupled QED Cavity Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Changsuk; Angelakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical account of an early proposal realizing fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) using coupled quantum electrodynamics (QED) cavity arrays (CQCAs). We start with a brief introduction on the basics of quantum Hall effects and then review the early proposals in the simulation of spin-models and fractional quantum Hall (FQH) physics with photons in coupled atom-cavity arrays. We calculate the energy gap and the overlap between the ground state of the system and the corresponding Laughlin wavefunction to analyze the FQH physics arising in the system and discuss possibilities to reach the ground state using adiabatic methods used in Cavity QED.

  9. Perturbing Open Cavities: Anomalous Resonance Frequency Shifts in a Hybrid Cavity-Nanoantenna System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesink, Freek; Doeleman, Hugo M; Hendrikx, Ruud; Koenderink, A Femius; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-11-13

    The influence of a small perturbation on a cavity mode plays an important role in fields like optical sensing, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and cavity optomechanics. Typically, the resulting cavity frequency shift directly relates to the polarizability of the perturbation. Here, we demonstrate that particles perturbing a radiating cavity can induce strong frequency shifts that are opposite to, and even exceed, the effects based on the particles' polarizability. A full electrodynamic theory reveals that these anomalous results rely on a nontrivial phase relation between cavity and nanoparticle radiation, allowing backaction via the radiation continuum. In addition, an intuitive model based on coupled mode theory is presented that relates the phenomenon to retardation. Because of the ubiquity of dissipation, we expect these findings to benefit the understanding and engineering of a wide class of systems. PMID:26613442

  10. Protocol for multi-party superdense coding by using multi-atom in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jia; Fang Mao-Fa

    2006-01-01

    We present a protocol for multi-party superdense coding by using multi-atom in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is shown that, with a highly detuned cavity mode and a strong driving field, the protocol is insensitive to both cavity decay and thermal field. It is even certain to identify GHZ states via detecting the atomic states. Therefore we can realize the quantum dense coding in a simple way in the multiparty system.

  11. Electrodynamics and quantum capacity: The case of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craco, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, MT (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Layered Bi-chalcogenide topological insulators are among the most available energy conversion (thermoelectric) and storage (battery) materials. Motivated by this applied aspect of fundamental importance and the good agreement between theory and key experiments probing spectroscopy and dc transport, we undertake a detailed study of electrodynamic responses of bulk Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator. In particular, we confirm that the interplay between spin-orbit and electron correlations underpins its bulk metallicity. We show the implications of our proposal for the multi-channel nature of galvanostatic, voltage-capacity profiles intrinsic to Li{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} battery material. Supported by a microscopic description of quantum capacity, we predict that layered Bi-based topological insulators are promising candidates for future high-voltage solid-state batteries.

  12. Polarization of vacuum of (2 + 1) dimensional quantum electrodynamics with nonzero density of fermions by external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One plotted the Green function of the Dirac equation within external constant and uniform field in terms of (2 + 1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QRD2+1) with nonzero density of fermions. In terms of QRD2+1 single-loop approximation one derived expression for polarization operator within external constant and uniform magnetic field at nonzero chemical potential. One calculated contribution of the Chern-Simon induced term into polarization operator and efficient Lagrangian at fermion density corresponding to occupation of the Landau n relativistic levels by them in the external magnetic field. One derived expression for the Chern-Simon induced term in the magnetic field at end temperature and nonzero chemical potential

  13. Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Bayn, Igal; Meyler, Boris; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection e...

  14. Nonprobabilistic teleportation of a field state via cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, E S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 23851, 23890-000 Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Jalbert, Ginette [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garreau, J C [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bat. P5, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2007-03-28

    In this paper, we discuss a teleportation scheme of coherent states of a cavity field. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity quantum electrodynamics, involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with micromaser and Ramsey cavities. In our scheme the Ramsey cavities and the atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to teleport the state from one micromaser cavity to another. We show that, even if the correct atomic detection fails in the first trials, one can succeed in teleportating the cavity field state if proper measurement occurs in a later atom.

  15. Efficient generation of Bell-cat states in remote cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing; ZHANG Ying-Jie; XIA Yun-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), a potential scheme is proposed to generate entangled coherentstates. The scheme includes twice interactions of two-level atoms with cavities. In the first interaction, two atoms are sentinto a microwave cavity with the large detuning respectively. And then the second interaction is that the two atoms enteranother microwave cavity and are driven by a resonant classical field meantime. When we choose the proper interactiontime and make measurement on the two atoms, the two microwave cavity mode fields are determinatively entangled. Inaddition, it is easy to generalize the scheme to multi-cavity and multi-atom.

  16. Dynamically Reconfigurable Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; McCutcheon, Murray W.; Loncar, Marko

    2009-01-01

    Wavelength-scale, high Q-factor photonic crystal cavities have emerged as a platform of choice for on-chip manipulation of optical signals, with applications ranging from low-power optical signal processing and cavity quantum electrodynamics, to biochemical sensing. Many of these applications, however, are limited by the fabrication tolerances and the inability to precisely control the resonant wavelength of fabricated structures. Various techniques for post-fabrication wavelength trimming an...

  17. Proposal for a telecom quantum repeater with single atoms in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Quantum repeaters hold the promise to enable long-distance quantum communication via entanglement generation over arbitrary distances. Single atoms in optical cavities have been shown to be ideally suited for the experimental realization of many tasks in quantum communication. To utilize these systems for a quantum repeater, it would be desirable to operate them at telecom wavelengths. We propose to use a cascaded scheme employing transitions at telecom wavelengths between excited states of alkali atoms for entanglement generation between a single photon at telecom wavelength and a single atom at the crossing point of two cavity modes. A cavity-assisted quantum gate can be used for entanglement swapping. We estimate the performance of these systems using numerical simulations based on experimental parameters obtained for CO2 laser-machined fiber cavities in our laboratory. Finally, we show that a quantum repeater employing the aforementioned scheme and current technology could outperform corresponding schemes based on direct transmission.

  18. Spontaneous emission control of single quantum dots by electromechanical tuning of a photonic crystal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Midolo, L.; Pagliano, F.; Hoang, T.B.; Xia, T; van Otten, F. W. M.; Li, L. H.; Linfield, E. H.; Lermer, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the control of the spontaneous emission rate of single InAs quantum dots embedded in a double-membrane photonic crystal cavity by the electromechanical tuning of the cavity resonance. Controlling the separation between the two membranes with an electrostatic field we obtain the real-time spectral alignment of the cavity mode to the excitonic line and we observe an enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate at resonance. The cavity has been tuned over 13 nm without shifting th...

  19. Cluster state quantum computation in coupled cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, D G; Angelakis, Dimitris G.; Kay, Alastair

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for cluster state quantum computation in an array of coupled cavities. Each cavity is doped with a single two-level system. The detuning of the atomic level spacing and photonic frequency can be externally controlled and tuned to achieve photon blockade in the array. We show that in such a regime, long-lived light-matter excitations (polaritons) are generated, and the polaritons effectively become two-level systems which interact through an XY Hamiltonian. A protocol is proposed where the cluster state is prepared in four steps using a part of the available physical qubits as gate ``mediators" and the rest as the logical qubits. The long life of the polaritonic qubits and the ability to perform individual addressing in this system allows for both the efficient preparation of the cluster state and the successful completion of the necessary individual measurements at the end. Possible implementations using coupled defects in photonic crystals, toroidal microcavities and superconducting qubit...

  20. Some quantum experiments from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    Singapore : World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd, 2007 - (Nieuwenhuizen, T.; Špička, V.; Aghdami, M.; Khrennikov, A.), s. 247-270 ISBN 978-981-277-117-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010404; GA ČR GA202/04/0585; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : stochastic electrodynamics * zero - point energy * black-body radiation * noise measurements * weak localization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  1. Role of nonlinearity in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics: Description of linear quantum electrodynamics from the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Gilbert C.; Gazeau, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider a basic two-level nonlinear quantum model consisting in a two-particle interacting bound-state system. It is described by means of two different approaches: i) the mean-field stationary nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation with classical Coulomb interaction and harmonic potential; ii) the linear quantum electrodynamics Hamiltonian of a quantized field coupled to two fixed charges. Computing numerically the ground state and the first excited state about the maximum eigenstate overlap (which is not zero because of eigenstate non-orthogonality), we numerically demonstrate that these two descriptions coincide at first order. As a consequence, a specific definition of the fine-structure constant α is provided within 99.95% accuracy by the present first-order non-relativistic and nonlinear quantum description. This result also means that the internal Coulomb interaction commutes with external particle confinement for the calculation of the ground state. Consequently peculiar nonlinear quantum properties become observable (an experiment with GaAs quantum-dot helium is suggested).

  2. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  3. Generation of Cluster States in Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-Li; YANG Li-Jia; DAI Hong-Yi

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes for the generation of cluster states in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).In the first scheme,we prepare multi-cavity cluster states with information encoded in the coherent states.The second scheme is to generate multi-atom cluster states,where qubits are represented by the states of cascade Rydberg atoms.Both the schemes are based on the atom-cavity interaction and the atomic spontaneous radiation can be effciently reduced since the cavity frequency is largely detuned from the atomic transition frequency.

  4. Engineering topological materials in microwave cavity arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brandon M; Owens, Clai; Schuster, David I; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present a scalable architecture for the exploration of interacting topological phases of photons in arrays of microwave cavities, using established techniques from cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics. A time-reversal symmetry breaking (non-reciprocal) flux is induced by coupling the microwave cavities to ferrites, allowing for the production of a variety of topological band structures including the $\\alpha=1/4$ Hofstadter model. Effective photon-photon interactions are included by coupling the cavities to superconducting qubits, and are sufficient to produce a $\

  5. Microscopic theory of phonon-induced effects on semiconductor quantum dot decay dynamics in cavity QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, P.;

    2012-01-01

    dependencies are covered. We find that in general the electron-phonon interaction gives rise to a greatly increased bandwidth of the coupling between quantum dot and cavity. At low temperature, an asymmetry in the quantum dot decay rate is observed, leading to a faster decay when the quantum dot has a larger...

  6. Coupling of PbS Quantum Dots to Photonic Crystal Cavities at Room Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Fushman, I; Vuckovic, J; Fushman, Ilya; Englund, Dirk; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of PbS quantum dot emission to photonic crystal cavities at room temperature. The cavities are defined in 33% Al, AlGaAs membranes on top of oxidized AlAs. Quantum dots were dissolved in Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and spun on top of the cavities. Quantum dot emission is shown to map out the structure resonances, and may prove to be viable sources for room temperature cavity coupled single photon generation for quantum information processing applications. These results also indicate that such commercially available quantum dots can be used for passive structure characterization. The deposition technique is versatile and allows layers with different dot densities and emission wavelengths to be re-deposited on the same chip.

  7. Recurrent Delocalization and Quasiequilibration of Photons in Coupled Systems in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myung-Joong; Kim, M S; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2016-04-15

    We explore the photon population dynamics in two coupled circuit QED systems. For a sufficiently weak intercavity photon hopping, as the photon-cavity coupling increases, the dynamics undergoes double transitions first from a delocalized to a localized phase and then from the localized to another delocalized phase. The latter delocalized phase is distinguished from the former one; instead of oscillating between the two cavities, the photons rapidly quasiequilibrate over the two cavities. These intriguing features are attributed to an interplay between two qualitatively distinctive nonlinear behaviors of the circuit QED systems in the utrastrong coupling regime, whose distinction has been widely overlooked. PMID:27127967

  8. Observation of Non-Markovian Dynamics of a Single Quantum Dot in a Micropillar Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Löffler, A.; Reitzenstein, S.; Forchel, A.; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We measure the detuning-dependent dynamics of a quasiresonantly excited single quantum dot coupled to a micropillar cavity. The system is modeled with the dissipative Jaynes-Cummings model where all experimental parameters are determined by explicit measurements. We observe non-Markovian dynamics...... when the quantum dot is tuned into resonance with the cavity leading to a nonexponential decay in time. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed with no free parameters providing the first quantitative description of an all-solid-state cavity QED system based on quantum dot...

  9. Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Liberal, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high Q photonics crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. Here, we theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology...). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of both the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide...

  10. Nonlinear photon transport in a semiconductor waveguide-cavity system containing a single quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, S

    2011-01-01

    The input/output characteristics of coherent photon transport through a semiconductor cavity system containing a single quantum dot is presented. The nonlinear quantum optics formalism uses a master equation approach and focuses on a waveguide-cavity system containing a semiconductor quantum dot; our general technique also applies to studying coherent reflection from a micropillar cavity. We investigate the effects of light propagation and show the need for quantized multiphoton effects for various dot-cavity systems, including weakly-coupled, intermediately-coupled, and strongly-coupled regimes. We demonstrate that for mean photon numbers much less than 0.1, the commonly adopted weak excitation (single quantum) approximation breaks down---even in the weak coupling regime. As a measure of the photon correlations, we compute the Fano factor and the error associated with making a semiclassical approximation. We also investigate the role of electron--acoustic-phonon scattering and show that phonon-mediated scatt...

  11. Rapid Swept-Wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Open Path Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumfield, Brian E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2015-07-01

    A rapidly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser system is used for open path sensing. The system permits acquisition of transient absorption spectra over a 125 cm-1 tuning range in less than 0.01 s.

  12. Analysis of Trace Gas Mixtures Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-07-01

    We measure and analyze mixtures of trace gases at ppb-ppm levels using an external cavity quantum cascade laser sensor with a 1-second response time. Accurate spectral fits are obtained in the presence of overlapping spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-04-01

    A hyperspectral infrared microscope using external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination and a microbolometer focal plane array is used to characterize nanogram-scale particles of the explosives RDX, tetryl, and PETN at fast acquisition rates.

  14. Optimization of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Chemical Sensing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-03-01

    We describe and characterize an external cavity quantum cascade laser designed for detection of multiple airborne chemicals, and used with a compact astigmatic Herriott cell for sensing of acetone and hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Switching from positive to negative absorption with electromagnetically induced transparency in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a superconducting quantum circuit with a tunable V-shaped energy spectrum derived from two superconducting Josephson charge qubits coupled with each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. Using the density matrix formalism and the steady-state approximation, we obtain the analytical expressions of the first-order matrix element associated with the absorption and dispersion of the probe field for two different V-type schemes. Our results show that, for this superconducting quantum system, it is possible to realize a remarkable phenomenon that dynamic conversion between EIT and EIT with amplification without population inversion. Such a unique optical feature has potential applications in quantum optical devices and quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. A quantum dynamical comparison of the electronic couplings derived from quantum electrodynamics and Förster theory: application to 2D molecular aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate under what circumstances Förster theory of electronic (resonance) energy transfer breaks down in molecular aggregates. This is achieved by simulating the dynamics of exciton diffusion, on the femtosecond timescale, in molecular aggregates using the Liouville–von Neumann equation of motion. Specifically the focus of this work is the investigation of both spatial and temporal deviations between exciton dynamics driven by electronic couplings calculated from Förster theory and those calculated from quantum electrodynamics. The quantum electrodynamics (QED) derived couplings contain medium- and far-zone terms that do not exist in Förster theory. The results of the simulations indicate that Förster coupling is valid when the dipole centres are within a few nanometres of one another. However, as the distance between the dipole centres increases from 2 nm to 10 nm, the intermediate- and far-zone coupling terms play non-negligible roles and Förster theory begins to break down. Interestingly, the simulations illustrate how contributions to the exciton dynamics from the intermediate- and far-zone coupling terms of QED are quickly washed-out by the near-zone mechanism of Förster theory for lattices comprising closely packed molecules. On the other hand, in the case of sparsely packed arrays, the exciton dynamics resulting from the different theories diverge within the 100 fs lifetime of the trajectories. These results could have implications for the application of spectroscopic ruler techniques as well as design principles relating to energy harvesting materials. (paper)

  17. Scheme for Generation of Entanglement among Bimodal Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin-Guo; FENG Xun-Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ We present a scheme for generation of an entangled state in many spatially separated bimodal cavity modes via cavity quantum electrodynamics. A V-type three-level atom, initially prepared in a coherent superposition of its excited states, successively passes through both the bimodal cavities. If the atom is measured in its ground state after leaving the last cavity, an entangled state of many cavity modes can be generated. The conditions to generate the maximally entangled state with unity probability are worked out.

  18. Quantum nondemolition measurement of photon-number distribution for a weak cavity field with resonant atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2003-01-01

    We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the photon-number distribution for a weak cavity field with no more than two photons. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of atoms with the cavity field, and thus the required interaction time is much shorter than that using dispersive interaction. This is important in view of decoherence. Our scheme can also be used to generate even and odd coherent states for a weak cavity field with resonant atoms.

  19. Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

    OpenAIRE

    Maisons, G.; Gorrotxategi Carbajo, P.; Carras, M.; Romanini, D.

    2010-01-01

    Optical{feedback cavity{enhanced absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated in the mid{IR using a quantum cascade laser (emitting at 4.46 ¹m). The laser linewidth reduction and frequency locking by selective optical feedback from the resonant cavity ¯eld turns out to be particularly important in this spectral range: It allows strong cavity transmission which compensates for low light sensitivity, especially when using room temperature detectors. We obtain a noise equivalent absorption coe±cient ...

  20. Observation of non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot in a micropillar cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Löffler, A.; Reitzenstein, S.; Forchel, A.; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We measure the detuning-dependent dynamics of a quasi-resonantly excited single quantum dot coupled to a micropillar cavity, and under resonant conditions we observe non-Markovian dynamics leading to nonexponential decays in time.......We measure the detuning-dependent dynamics of a quasi-resonantly excited single quantum dot coupled to a micropillar cavity, and under resonant conditions we observe non-Markovian dynamics leading to nonexponential decays in time....

  1. Spatial mode effects in a cavity-EIT based quantum memory with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Kasper Rothe; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum storage and retrieval of light in ion Coulomb crystals using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency are investigated theoretically. It is found that when both the control and the probe fields are coupled to the same spatial cavity mode, their transverse mode profile affects the...

  2. Proposed Coupling of an Electron Spin in a Semiconductor Quantum Dot to a Nanosize Optical Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumdar, Arka; Nielsen, Per Kær; Bajcsy, Michal;

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to efficiently couple a single quantum dot electron spin to an optical nano-cavity, which enables us to simultaneously benefit from a cavity as an efficient photonic interface, as well as to perform high fidelity (nearly 100%) spin initialization and manipulation achievable in...

  3. Intrinsic limitation of cavity-enhanced Faraday detection of spin noise in quantum wells and quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalbert, D.

    2016-04-01

    Spin noise spectroscopy is a quite attractive experimental tool for studying unperturbed spin dynamics and magnetic resonance in semiconductor nanostructures. However in some cases its practical interest maybe severely limited by the weakness of the spin noise signal to be detected. In this paper we examine by how much the detection of spin noise of magnetic atoms or of nuclei, in quantum wells or quantum dots, can be improved by making use of cavity-enhanced Faraday rotation. The conditions for optimized cavities are first determined. In reflection geometry it corresponds to tune the cavity to the critical point of impedance matching. It is shown that even for optimized cavities the enhancement in spin noise detection is intrinsically limited by absorption. It turns out that the cavity effect improves the spin noise detection only when the inhomogeneous broadening of the involved optical resonance is large compared to its radiative broadening.

  4. Vacuum Rabi splitting in a plasmonic cavity at the single quantum emitter limit

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, Kotni; Chuntonov, Lev; Haran, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    The strong interaction of individual quantum emitters with resonant cavities is of fundamental interest for understanding light matter interactions, as well as for quantum information processing and quantum communication applications. Plasmonic cavities hold the promise of attaining the strong coupling regime even under ambient conditions and within subdiffraction volumes. Recent experiments revealed strong coupling between individual plasmonic structures and multiple organic molecules, but so far strong coupling at the limit of a single quantum emitter has not been reported. Here we demonstrate vacuum Rabi splitting, a manifestation of strong coupling, using silver bowtie plasmonic cavities loaded with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). A transparency dip is observed in the scattering spectra of individual bowties with one to a few QDs in their gaps. Rabi splitting values as high as 180 meV are registered with a single QD. These observations are verified by polarization-dependent experiments and validated by ...

  5. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupledquantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing thesample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning and, on spectral resonance...

  6. Efficient transfer of an arbitrary qutrit state in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Compared with a qubit, a qutrit (i.e., three-level quantum system) has a larger Hilbert space and thus can be used to encode more information in quantum information processing and communication. Here, we propose a method to transfer an arbitrary quantum state between two flux qutrits coupled to two resonators. This scheme is simple because it only requires two basic operations. The state-transfer operation can be performed fast because only resonant interactions are used. Numerical simulations show that the high-fidelity transfer of quantum states between the two qutrits is feasible with current circuit-QED technology. This scheme is quite general and can be applied to accomplish the same task for other solid-state qutrits coupled to resonators. PMID:26625061

  7. Quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, without second quantization: The Lamb shift and long-range Casimir-Polder van der Waals forces near boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a previously formulated theory of quantum electrodynamics based on self-energy, we give a general method for computing the Lamb shift and related Casimir-Polder energies for a quantum system in the vicinity of perfectly conducting boundaries. Our results are exact and easily extendable to a full covariant relativistic form. As a particular example we apply the method to an atom near an infinite conducting plane, and we recover the standard QED results (which are known only in the dipole approximation) in a simple and straightforward manner. This is accomplished in the context of the new theory which is not second quantized and contains no vacuum fluctuations. (author)

  8. An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Quantum repeaters promise to enable quantum networks over global distances by circumventing the exponential decrease in success probability inherent in direct photon transmission. We propose a realistic, functionally integrated quantum-repeater implementation based on single atoms in optical cavities. Entanglement is directly generated between the single-atom quantum memory and a photon at telecom wavelength. The latter is collected with high efficiency and adjustable temporal and spectral properties into a spatially well-defined cavity mode. It is heralded by a near-infrared photon emitted from a second, orthogonal cavity. Entanglement between two remote quantum memories can be generated via an optical Bell-state measurement, while we propose entanglement swapping based on a highly efficient, cavity-assisted atom-atom gate. Our quantum-repeater scheme eliminates any requirement for wavelength conversion such that only a single system is needed at each node. We investigate a particular implementation with rubidium and realistic parameters for Fabry-Perot cavities based on hbox {CO}_2 laser-machined optical fibers. We show that the scheme enables the implementation of a rather simple quantum repeater that outperforms direct entanglement generation over large distances and does not require any improvements in technology beyond the state of the art.

  9. Quantum Statistical Relation for black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Miskovic, Olivera

    2010-01-01

    We consider curvature-squared corrections to Einstein-Hilbert gravity action in the form of Gauss-Bonnet term in D>4 dimensions. In this theory, we study the thermodynamics of charged static black holes with anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics (NED). These objects have received considerable attention in recent literature on gravity/gauge dualities. It is well-known that, within the framework of anti de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, there exists a nonvanishing Casimir contribution to the internal energy of the system, manifested as the vacuum energy for global AdS spacetime in odd dimensions. Because of this reason, we derive a Quantum Statistical Relation directly from the Euclidean action and not from the integration of the First Law of thermodynamics. To this end, we employ a background-independent regularization scheme which consists in the addition to the bulk action of counterterms that depend on both extrinsic and...

  10. Cross-Kerr-effect induced by coupled Josephson qubits in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme for implementing cross-Kerr nonlinearity between two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs) via their interactions with a coupler constructed by two superconducting transmon qubits connected to each other through a superconducting quantum interference device. When suitably driven, the coupler can induce very strong cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two TLRs due to its N-type level structure and the consequent electromagnetically induced transparency in its lowest states. The flexibility of our design can lead to various inter-TLR coupling configurations. The obtained cross-Kerr coefficient is large enough to allow many important quantum operations in which only few photons are involved. We further show that this scheme is very robust against fluctuations in solid-state quantum circuits. Our numerical calculations imply that the absorption and the dispersion of the TLRs resulting from the decoherence of the coupler are very small compared with the proposed XPM strength.

  11. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in coupled-cavity arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    We introduce quantum spin models whose ground states allow for sizeable entanglement between distant spins. We discuss how spin models with global end-to-end entanglement realize quantum teleportation channels with optimal compromise between scalability and resilience to thermal decoherence, and can be implemented straightforwardly in suitably engineered arrays of coupled optical cavities.

  12. Deterministic nanoassembly of a coupled quantum emitter–photonic crystal cavity system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sar, T.; Hagemeier, J.; Pfaff, W.; Heeres, E.C.; Thon, S.M.; Kim, H.; Petroff, P.M.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Bouwmeester, D.; Hanson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the interaction of a single quantum emitter with its environment is a key challenge in quantum optics. Here, we demonstrate deterministic coupling of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to high-quality photonic crystal cavities. We preselect single NV centers and position their 50-nm-si

  13. Quantum state transmission in a cavity array via two-photon exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yu-Li; You, Wen-Long

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of a coupled cavity array is investigated when each cavity contains a three-level atom. For the uniform and staggered intercavity hopping, the whole system Hamiltonian can be analytically diagonalized in the subspace of single-atom excitation. The quantum state transfer along the cavities is analyzed in detail for distinct regimes of parameters, and some interesting phenomena including binary transmission, selective localization of the excitation population are revealed. We demonstrate that the uniform coupling is more suitable for the quantum state transfer. It is shown that the initial state of polariton located in the first cavity is crucial to the transmission fidelity, and the local entanglement depresses the state transfer probability. Exploiting the metastable state, the distance of the quantum state transfer can be much longer than that of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. A higher transmission probability and longer distance can be achieved by employing a class of initial encoding...

  14. Entanglement Transfer Between Cavity Fields and Excitons in a Driven Quantum Dot System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transfer from two separate cavities to the excitons in two quantum dots separately placed in the two cavities. The cavity fields and the excitons are treated as two continuous-variable (CV) subsystems. The time-dependent characteristic functions in the Wigner representation for the two subsystems are analytically obtained. Under the conditions that one of the two CV subsystems is initially prepared in a two-mode squeezed vacuum state and the other in its lowest energy state, we show that the entanglement reciprocation between the cavity Reids and the excitons is realizable.

  15. Spontaneous emission control of single quantum dots by electromechanical tuning of a photonic crystal cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Midolo, L; Hoang, T B; Xia, T; van Otten, F W M; Li, L H; Linfield, E; Lermer, M; Höfling, S; Fiore, A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the control of the spontaneous emission rate of single InAs quantum dots embedded in a double-membrane photonic crystal cavity by the electromechanical tuning of the cavity resonance. Controlling the separation between the two membranes with an electrostatic field we obtain the real-time spectral alignment of the cavity mode to the excitonic line and we observe an enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate at resonance. The cavity has been tuned over 13 nm without shifting the exciton energies. A spontaneous emission enhancement of 4.5 has been achieved with a coupling efficiency of the dot to the mode 92%.

  16. Optomechanics of Nanoparticles: Effect of Quantum Fluctuations in Levitating EM Field on Cavity-assisted and Cavity-less Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jazayeri, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanics of nanoparticles purports to reach the quantum regime, but experimental evidence suggests otherwise. We believe that the discrepancy is due to the omission of the deleterious effects of the EM field levitating the particle. This letter focuses on quantum fluctuations in the levitating field. In a cavity-assisted system, they lead to fluctuations in the gradient force, and encourage escape of the particle. In a feedback system, they lead to the detector shot noise besides fluctuations in the gradient force and radiation pressure, and render the system very vulnerable to the thermal noise of the feedback circuit.

  17. Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.

  18. 3. International Conference on Quantum Electrodynamics and Statistical Physics. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference deals with the up-to-data problems of quantum field theory and elementary particle theory, QED processes at high energy, cosmology, theory of irreversible processes, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, phase transition and diffusion processes in condensed matter and gases.

  19. Strong Coupling between a Trapped Single Atom and an All-Fiber Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinya; Aoki, Takao

    2015-08-28

    We demonstrate an all-fiber cavity quantum electrodynamics system with a trapped single atom in the strong coupling regime. We use a nanofiber Fabry-Perot cavity, that is, an optical nanofiber sandwiched by two fiber-Bragg-grating mirrors. Measurements of the cavity transmission spectrum with a single atom in a state-insensitive nanofiber trap clearly reveal the vacuum Rabi splitting. PMID:26371652

  20. Cavity-induced chiral states of fermionic quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Ameneh; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Kollath, Corinna

    2016-04-01

    We investigate ultracold fermions placed into an optical cavity and subjected to optical lattices which confine the atoms to ladder structures. A transverse running-wave laser beam induces together with the dynamical cavity field a two-photon Raman-assisted tunneling process with spatially dependent phase imprint along the rungs of the ladders. We identify the steady states which can occur by the feedback mechanism between the cavity field and the atoms. We find the spontaneous emergence of a finite cavity field amplitude which leads to an artificial magnetic field felt by the fermionic atoms. These form a chiral insulating or chiral liquid state carrying a chiral current. We explore the rich state diagram as a function of the power of the transverse laser beam, the atomic filling, and the phase imprint during the cavity-induced tunneling. Both a sudden onset or a slow exponential activation with the transverse laser power of the self-organized chiral states can occur.

  1. Measurements of Quantum-Electrodynamic Effects in Highly-Ionised Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Stephen Nicholas

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The 2^2S_ {1/2} - 2^2 P_{3/2} transition in the hydrogen-like silicon ion Si^{13+ } is observed by intra-cavity cw laser resonance spectroscopy of a fast silicon ion beam. The observed wavelength is consistent with a theoretical value of 734.03(2) nm. This experiment constitutes the first observation of a Lamb shift in this ion and the first intra-cavity cw laser resonance spectroscopy of highly charged ions. Precision measurements of this interval in ions of similar atomic number display a small discrepancy with theory and hence this transition is of current theoretical and experimental interest. This observation represents a stage in the development of a technique which may lead to more precise measurements of this interval. Resonance of the laser wavelength with the transition is detected by monitoring the Lyman-alpha X-ray decay of the stimulated 2^2 P state population. A five standard deviation resonance is observed from 16.6 mC of ion beam, at laser wavelengths within a natural linewidth of the theoretical transition wavelength. The reproducibility of the resonance data is limited by systematic effects arising from small changes in the ion and laser beam overlap geometry.

  2. Cross Kerr Effect Induced by Coupled Josephson Qubits in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yong; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Chen, You-Ling

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for implementing cross Kerr nonlinearity between two superconducting transmission line resonators (TLR) via their interaction with a coupler which is constructed by two superconducting charge qubits connected to each other via a superconducting quantum interference device. When suitably driven, the coupler can induce very strong cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two TLRs due to its N-type level structure and the consequent electromagnetically induced transparency in its lowest states. The flexibility of our design can lead to various inter-TLR coupling configurations. The obtained cross Kerr coefficient is large enough to allow many important quantum operations in which only few photons are involved. We further show that this scheme is very robust against the fluctuations in solid state circuits. Our numerical calculations imply that the absorption and dispersion resulted from the decoherence of the coupler are very small compared with the strength of the proposed XPM.

  3. On Real and Virtual Photons in the Davies Theory of Time-Symmetric Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, R E

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between virtual and real photons in the context of the Davies quantum relativistic extension of the Wheeler-Feynman classical electromagnetic theory. An alternative way of understanding this distinction is proposed, based on the transactional picture as first proposed by Cramer. It is noted that this proposed account of the relationship between virtual and real photons might have empirically detectable consequences.

  4. Compact quantum gates on electron-spin qubits assisted by diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers inside cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Constructing compact quantum circuits for universal quantum gates on solid-state systems is crucial for quantum computing. We present some compact quantum circuits for a deterministic solid-state quantum computing, including the CNOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates on the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers confined inside cavities, achieved by some input-output processes of a single photon. Our quantum circuits for these universal quantum gates are simple and economic. Moreover, additional electron...

  5. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992

  6. Coherent coupling of two different semiconductor quantum dots via an optical cavity mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas-Boas, Jose M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Laucht, Arne; Hauke, Norman; Hofbauer, Felix; Boehm, Gerhard; Kaniber, Michael; Finley, Jonathan J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter Schottky Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Full text. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of a strongly coupled system consisting of two spatially separated self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots and a single optical nano cavity mode. Due to their different size and strain profile, the two dots exhibit markedly different electric field dependences due to the quantum confined Stark effect. This allows us to tune them into resonance simply by changing the applied bias voltage and to independently tune them into the photonic crystal nano cavity mode. Photoluminescence measurements show a characteristic triple peak during the double anti crossing, which is a clear signature of a coherently coupled system of three quantum states. We fit the emission spectra of the coupled system to theory and are able to investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots directly via the cavity mode. Furthermore, we investigate the coupling between the two quantum dots when they are detuned from the cavity mode in a V-system where dephasing due to incoherent losses from the cavity mode can be reduced

  7. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-04-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.

  8. Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992

  9. Effect of Pure Dephasing and Phonon Scattering on the Coupling of Semiconductor Quantum Dots to Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlov, C.; Wodey, É.; Lyasota, A.; Calic, M.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E.

    2016-08-01

    Using site-controlled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) free of multiexcitonic continuum states, integrated with photonic crystal membrane cavities, we clarify the effects of pure dephasing and phonon scattering on exciton-cavity coupling in the weak-coupling regime. In particular, the observed QD-cavity copolarization and cavity mode feeding versus QD-cavity detuning are explained quantitatively by a model of a two-level system embedded in a solid-state environment.

  10. A study of high field quantum electrodynamics in the collision of high energy electrons with a terawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order

  11. Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic...

  12. Manipulating nanoscale atom-atom interactions with cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Arpita; Deb, Bimalendu

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically explore manipulation of interactions between excited and ground state atoms at nanoscale separations by cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED). We develop an adiabatic molecular dressed state formalism and show that it is possible to generate Fano-Feshbach resonances between ground and long-lived excited-state atoms inside a cavity. The resonances are shown to arise due to non-adiabatic coupling near a pseudo-crossing between the dressed state potentials. We illustrate our results with a model study using fermionic $^{171}$Yb atoms in a two-modal cavity. Our study is important for manipulation of interatomic interactions at low energy by cavity field.

  13. Generation of atom-light entanglement in an optical cavity for quantum enhanced atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Simon A.; Lau, Wing Yung Sarah

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the generation of atom-light entanglement via Raman superradiance in an optical cavity, and show how this can be used to enhance the sensitivity of atom interferometry. We model a realistic optical cavity, and show that by careful temporal shaping of the optical local oscillator used to measure the light emitted from the cavity, information in the optical mode can be combined with the signal from the atom interferometer to reduce the quantum noise, and thus increase the sensitivity. It was found in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.053002 that an atomic "seed" was required in order to reduce spontaneous emission and allow for single mode behavior of the device. In this paper we find that the optical cavity reduces the need for an atomic seed, which allows for stronger atom-light correlations and a greater level of quantum enhancement.

  14. A proposal for the realization of universal quantum gates via superconducting qubits inside a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obada, A.-S.F. [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Hessian, H.A. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, A.-B.A. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Community College, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj (Saudi Arabia); Homid, Ali H., E-mail: alihimad@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut (Egypt)

    2013-07-15

    A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via superconducting (SC) qubits coupled to a SC-cavity. The Hamiltonian for SC-charge qubits inside a single mode cavity is considered. Three- and two-qubit operations are generated by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux. Therefore, a number of quantum logic gates are realized. Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates. -- Highlights: •A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via SC-qubits coupled to a cavity. •Three- and two-qubit operations are generated via a classical field with the flux. •Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates.

  15. Electrodynamic modeling of strong coupling between a metasurface and intersubband transitions in quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Klem, John F; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal; Capolino, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Strong light-matter coupling has recently been demonstrated in sub-wavelength volumes by coupling engineered optical transitions in semiconductor heterostructures (e.g., quantum wells) to metasurface resonances via near fields. It has also been shown that different resonator shapes may lead to different Rabi splittings, though this has not yet been well explained. In this paper, our aim is to understand the correlation between resonator shape and Rabi splitting, and in particular determine and quantify the physical parameters that affect strong coupling by developing an equivalent circuit network model whose elements describe energy and dissipation. Because of the subwavelength dimension of each metasurface element, we resort to the quasi-static (electrostatic) description of the near-field and hence define an equivalent capacitance associated to each dipolar element of a flat metasurface, and we show that this is also able to accurately model the phenomenology involved in strong coupling between the metasurf...

  16. Quantum Noise Reduction and Generalized Two-Mode Squeezing in a Cavity Raman Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Druhl, K.; Windenberger, C.

    1998-01-01

    We study a generalized notion of two-mode squeezing for the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields in a model of a cavity Raman laser, which leads to a significant reduction in decoherence or quantum noise. The model comprises a loss-less cavity with classical pump, unsaturated medium and arbitrary homogeneous broadening and dispersion. Allowing for arbitrary linear combinations of the two modes in the definition of quadrature variables, we find that there always exists a combination of the two output...

  17. Anomalously Strong Scattering of Spontaneously Produced Laser Radiation in the First Free-Electron Laser and Study of Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Lasing in an Electric Wiggler with Quantum-Wiggler Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. H. Kim

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the scattering cross section of an electron with respect to the spontaneously produced laser radiation in the first free-electron laser (FEL) with quantum-wiggler electrodynamics (QWD). The cross section is 1016 times the Thomson cross section, confirming the result obtained by a previous analysis of the experimental data. A QWD calculation show that spontaneous emission in an FEL using only an electric wiggler can be very strong while amplification through net stimulated emission is practically negligible.

  18. QED of lossy cavities: Operator and quantum-state input-output relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of exact quantization of the electromagnetic field in dispersing and absorbing media the input-output problem of a high-Q cavity is studied, with special emphasis on the absorption losses in the coupling mirror. As expected, the cavity modes are found to obey quantum Langevin equations, which could be also obtained from quantum noise theories, by appropriately coupling the cavity modes to dissipative systems, including the effect of the mirror-assisted absorption losses. On the contrary, the operator input-output relations obtained in this way would be incomplete in general, as the exact calculation shows. On the basis of the operator input-output relations the problem of extracting the quantum state of an initially excited cavity mode is studied and input-output relations for the s-parametrized phase-space function are derived, with special emphasis on the relation between the Wigner functions of the quantum states of the outgoing field and the cavity field

  19. Quantum dot SOA/silicon external cavity multi-wavelength laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Shuyu; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Li, Qi; Guan, Hang; Magill, Peter; Bergman, Keren; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2015-02-23

    We report a hybrid integrated external cavity, multi-wavelength laser for high-capacity data transmission operating near 1310 nm. This is the first demonstration of a single cavity multi-wavelength laser in silicon to our knowledge. The device consists of a quantum dot reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and a silicon-on-insulator chip with a Sagnac loop mirror and microring wavelength filter. We show four major lasing peaks from a single cavity with less than 3 dB power non-uniformity and demonstrate error-free 4 × 10 Gb/s data transmission. PMID:25836504

  20. Implementation of quantum controlled phase gate and preparation of multiparticle entanglement in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xi; Chen Zhi-Hua; Zhang Yong; Chen Yue-Hua; Ye Ming-Yong; Lin Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Schemes are presented for realizing quantum controlled phase gate and preparing an N-qubit W-like state, which are based on the large-detuned interaction among three-state atoms, dual-mode cavity and a classical pulse. In particular, a class of W states that can be used for perfect teleportation and superdense coding is generated by only one step.Compared with the previous schemes, cavity decay is largely suppressed because the cavity is only virtually excited and always in the vacuum state and the atomic spontaneous emission is strongly restrained due to a large atom-field detuning.

  1. Efficient scheme for one-way quantum computing in thermal cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wen-Xing; Gong, Zhe-xuan

    2007-01-01

    We propose a practical scheme for one-way quantum computing based on efficient generation of 2D cluster state in thermal cavities. We achieve a controlled-phase gate that is neither sensitive to cavity decay nor to thermal field by adding a strong classical field to the two-level atoms. We show that a 2D cluster state can be generated directly by making every two atoms collide in an array of cavities, with numerically calculated parameters and appropriate operation sequence that can be easily...

  2. Three-qubit quantum-gate operation with an SQUID in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a method of realizing a three-qubit quantum gate with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) in a cavity. In this proposal, the gate operation involves the SQUID ground-states and the Fock states of cavity modes b and ĉ. The two field-modes act as the controlling qubits, and the two SQUID states form the target qubit. Since only the metastable lower levels are involved in the gate operation, the gate is not affected by the SQUID decay rates. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Nonlinear Temporal Dynamics of Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Cavity System

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arka; Bajcsy, Michal; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically analyze and simulate the temporal dynamics of strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity system driven by a resonant laser pulse. We observe the signature of Rabi oscillation in the time resolved response of the system (i.e., in the numerically calculated cavity output), derive simplified linear and non-linear semi-classical models that approximate well the system's behavior in the limits of high and low power drive pulse, and describe the role of quantum coherence in the exact dynamics of the system. Finally, we also present experimental data showing the signature of the Rabi oscillation in time domain.

  4. Dynamics of a vertical cavity quantum cascade phonon laser structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, W.; Akimov, A. V.; Campion, R. P.; Kent, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Driven primarily by scientific curiosity, but also by the potential applications of intense sources of coherent sound, researchers have targeted the phonon laser (saser) since the invention of the optical laser over 50 years ago. Here we fabricate a vertical cavity structure designed to operate as a saser oscillator device at a frequency of 325 GHz. It is based on a semiconductor superlattice gain medium, inside a multimode cavity between two acoustic Bragg reflectors. We measure the acoustic output of the device as a function of time after applying electrical pumping. The emission builds in intensity reaching a steady state on a timescale of order 0.1 μs. We show that the results are consistent with a model of the dynamics of a saser cavity exactly analogous to the models used for describing laser dynamics. We also obtain estimates for the gain coefficient, steady-state acoustic power output and efficiency of the device. PMID:23884078

  5. Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bacteria produce acids that cause decay. Tooth pain occurs after decay reaches the inside of the tooth. Dentists can detect cavities by examining the teeth and taking x-rays periodically. Good oral hygiene and regular dental care plus a healthy diet can help prevent cavities. ...

  6. Active Wavelength Control of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tracy; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    We present an active wavelength control system for grating-based external cavity lasers that increases the accuracy of predicting the lasing wavelength based on the grating equation and significantly improves scan-to-scan wavelength/frequency repeatability. The ultimate 3σ precision of a frequency scan is determined by the scan-to-scan repeatability of 0.042 cm−1. Since this control method can be applied to any external cavity laser with little to no modification, such a precision provides an excellent opportunity for spectroscopic applications that target molecular absorption lines at standard atmospheric conditions. PMID:23483850

  7. Active Wavelength Control of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Tracy; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    We present an active wavelength control system for grating-based external cavity lasers that increases the accuracy of predicting the lasing wavelength based on the grating equation and significantly improves scan-to-scan wavelength/frequency repeatability. The ultimate 3σ precision of a frequency scan is determined by the scan-to-scan repeatability of 0.042 cm−1. Since this control method can be applied to any external cavity laser with little to no modification, such a precision provides an...

  8. Influence of a tilted cavity on quantum-dot optoelectronic active devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum-dot laser diodes (QD-LDs) with a Fabry-Perot cavity and quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs) with 70 tilted cavity were fabricated. The influence of a tilted cavity on optoelectronic active devices was also investigated. For the QD-LD, high performance was observed at room temperature. The threshold current was below 30 mA and the slope efficiency was 0.36 W/A. In contrast, the threshold current of the QD-SOA approached 1000 mA, which indicated that low facet reflectivity was obtained due to the tilted cavity design. A much more inverted carrier population was found in the QD-SOA active region at high operating current, thus offering a large optical gain and preserving the advantages of quantum dots in optical amplification and processing applications. Due to the inhomogeneity and excited state transition of quantum dots, the full width at half maximum of the electroluminescence spectrum of the QD-SOA was 81.6 nm at the injection current of 120 mA, which was ideal for broad bandwidth application in a wavelength division multiplexing system. In addition, there was more than one lasing peak in the lasing spectra of both devices and the separation of these peak positions was 6-8 nm, which is approximately equal to the homogeneous broadening of quantum dots.

  9. Implementation of n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using resonant interaction in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm based on resonant interaction between the atoms and a single-mode cavity. In the scheme, the resonant transitions between two ground states and one excited state of an atom are changed alternately by adjusting the cavity frequency appropriately, and the operations required to complete the algorithm can be significantly simplified following the increment of the number of qubits. The implementation of the scheme in experiment would show the full power of quantum algorithm and would be significative and important for more complicated quantum algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  10. Spin pumping in electrodynamically coupled magnon-photon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui

    The electronics industry is quickly approaching the limitation of Moore's Law due to Joule heating in high density-integrated devices. To achieve new higher-speed devices and reduce energy consumption, researchers are turning to spintronics where the intrinsic spin, rather than the charge of electrons, is used to carry information in devices. Advances in spintronics have led to the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR), spin transfer torque etc. Another subject, cavity electrodynamics, promises a completely new quantum algorithm by studying the properties of a single electron interacting with photons inside of a cavity. By merging both spintronics and cavity electrodynamics, a new cutting edge field called Cavity Spintronics is forming, which draws on the advantages of both subjects to develop new spintronics devices utilizing light-matter interaction. In this work, we use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling in a microwave cavity at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling. Co-authored with M. Harder, C.-M. Hu from University of Manitoba, Y. P. Chen, J. Q. Xiao from University of Delaware, and X. Fan from Univeristy of Denver.

  11. Generation of GHZ-type and \\emph{W}-type entangled coherent states of three-cavity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, C H; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, Chun-Hua; Ou, Yong-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2005-01-01

    We present experimental schemes to prepare the three-cavity GHZ-type and \\emph{W}-type entangled coherent states in the context of dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics. The schemes can be easily generalized to prepare the GHZ-type and \\emph{W}-type entangled coherent states of $n$-cavity fields. The discussion of our schemes indicates that it can be realized by current technologies.

  12. Voltage-Controlled Quantum Dynamics and Generation Entanglement between Two Separated Quantum-Dot Molecules Embedded in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltage-controlled quantum dynamics of two quantum-dot molecules (QDMs) embedded in two separated photonic crystal cavities are theoretically investigated. We show numerically that generation of entangled states and population transfer between the two QDMs can be realized with the same coupling parameters. The effects of parameters deviation and dissipations on generation entangled states and populations transfer are also discussed. The results may be used for realization of new-type of solid state quantum devices and integrated electro-optical devices

  13. A scheme for conditional quantum phase gate via bimodal cavity and a Λ-type three-level atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Zheng Xiao-Juan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement a two-qubit conditional quantum phase gate for the intracavity field via a single three-level Λ-type atom driven by two modes in a high-Q cavity. The quantum information is encoded on the Fock states of the bimodal cavity. The gate's averaged fidelity is expected to reach 99.8%.

  14. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type quantum entanglement between coupled cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür; Hardal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We investigate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type spatial entanglement between two coupled, driven, dissipative and nonlinear optical cavities. We identify the required parameter regimes of polariton-exchange and nonlinearity coefficients as having robust EPR-type entanglement at the steady state. In addition, we examine the influence of weak and strong drives on these parameter regimes.

  15. Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen-type quantum entanglement between coupled cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-type spatial entanglement between two coupled, driven, dissipative and nonlinear optical cavities. We identify the required parameter regimes of polariton-exchange and nonlinearity coefficients as having robust EPR-type entanglement at the steady state. In addition, we examine the influence of weak and strong drives on these parameter regimes. (paper)

  16. PT-symmetric quantum oscillator in an optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The quantum harmonic oscillator with parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetry, obtained from the ordinary (Hermitian) quantum harmonic oscillator by an imaginary displacement of the spatial coordinate, provides an important and exactly-solvable model to investigate non-Hermitian extension of the Ehrenfest theorem. Here it is shown that transverse light dynamics in an optical resonator with off-axis longitudinal pumping can emulate a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum harmonic oscillator, providing an experimentally accessible system to investigate non-Hermitian coherent state propagation.

  17. Quantum phase gate through the dispersive atom–field interaction with atoms trapped in optical cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Dong; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Zou, Chang-Ling, E-mail: clzou321@ustc.edu.cn; Zou, Xu-Bo, E-mail: xbz@ustc.edu.cn; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-10-09

    We propose an experimental feasible scheme for implementing two-qubit quantum phase gate with atoms trapped in an optical cavity. The scheme is based on the dispersive interaction between the optical cavity mode and the three-level atoms in Λ configuration, which has been demonstrated in recent cavity-induced spin squeezing experiment (Leroux et al., 2010) [26]. We also discuss the influence of the cavity decay on the gate fidelity. It is shown that the fidelity of the phase gate is robust to the cavity decay and the high-fidelity quantum phase gate can be implemented with the current experimental technology. - Highlights: • A experimental feasible scheme for implementing two-qubit quantum phase gate. • Based on the dispersive interaction between the optical cavity mode and the symmetrically configurated three-level atoms. • Influence of the cavity decay on the gate fidelity is discussed.

  18. Out-of-equilibrium quantum dot coupled to a microwave cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytruk, Olesia; Trif, Mircea; Mora, Christophe; Simon, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    We consider a superconducting microwave cavity capacitively coupled to both a quantum conductor and its electronic reservoirs. We analyze in detail how the measurements of the cavity microwave field, which are related to the electronic charge susceptibility, can be used to extract information on the transport properties of the quantum conductor. We show that the asymmetry of the capacitive couplings between the electronic reservoirs and the cavity plays a crucial role in relating optical measurements to transport properties. For asymmetric capacitive couplings, photonic measurements can be used to probe the finite low-frequency admittance of the quantum conductor, the real part of which is related to the differential conductance. In particular, when the quantum dot is far from resonance, the charge susceptibility is directly proportional to the admittance for a large range of frequencies and voltages. However, when the quantum conductor is near resonance, such a relation generally holds only at low frequency and for equal tunnel coupling or low voltage. Beyond this low-energy near-equilibrium regime, the charge susceptibility and thus the optical transmission offer new insights into the quantum conductors since the optical observables are not directly connected to transport quantities. For symmetric lead capacitive couplings, we show that the optical measurements can be used to reveal the Korringa-Shiba relation, connecting the reactive to the dissipative part of the susceptibility, at low frequency and low bias.

  19. Implementing a quantum cloning machine in separate cavities via the optical coherent pulse as a quantum communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Zheng; Ye, Liu

    2015-04-01

    An efficient scheme is proposed to implement a quantum cloning machine in separate cavities based on a hybrid interaction between electron-spin systems placed in the cavities and an optical coherent pulse. The coefficient of the output state for the present cloning machine is just the direct product of two trigonometric functions, which ensures that different types of quantum cloning machine can be achieved readily in the same framework by appropriately adjusting the rotated angles. The present scheme can implement optimal one-to-two symmetric (asymmetric) universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) real-state cloning, optimal one-to-three symmetric economical real-state cloning, and optimal symmetric cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution. In addition, photon loss of the qubus beams during the transmission and decoherence effects caused by such a photon loss are investigated.

  20. Dimensions and Units in Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, F W; Hehl, Friedrich W; Obukhov, Yuri N

    2004-01-01

    We sketch the foundations of classical electrodynamics, in particular the transition that took place when Einstein, in 1915, succeeded to formulate general relativity. In 1916 Einstein demonstrated that, with a choice of suitable variables for the electromagnetic field, it is possible to put Maxwell's equation into a form that is covariant under general coordinate transformations. This unfolded, by basic contributions of Kottler, Cartan, van Dantzig, Schouten & Dorgelo, Toupin & Truesdell, and Post, to what one may call {\\em premetric classical electrodynamics.} This framework will be described shortly. An analysis is given of the physical dimensions involved in electrodynamics and subsequently the question of units addressed. It will be pointed out that these results are untouched by the generalization of classical to quantum electrodynamics (QED). We compare critically our results with those of {\\sl L.B. Okun} which he had presented at a recent conference.

  1. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states; Quantenelektrodynamische Einfluesse auf die Lebensdauer metastabiler Zustaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, G.

    2007-07-17

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} and 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)({sup +12}{sub -5}) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3{sigma} and 4{sigma} to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  2. Micro-cavity lasers with large device size for directional emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-ling; Li, Peng; Shi, Jian-wei; Feng, Yuan; Hao, Yong-qin; Zhu, Dongda

    2014-10-01

    Optical micro-cavity structures, which can confine light in a small mode volume with high quality factors, have become an important platform not only for optoelectronic applications with densely integrated optical components, but also for fundamental studies such as cavity quantum electrodynamics and nonlinear optical processes. Micro-cavity lasers with directional emission feature are becoming a promising resonator for the compact laser application. In this paper, we presented the limason-shaped cavity laser with large device size, and fabricated this type of micro-cavity laser with quantum cascade laser material. The micro-cavity laser with large device size was fabricated by using InP based InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers material at about 10um emitting wavelength, and the micro-cavity lasers with the large device size were manufactured and characterized with light output power, threshold current, and the far-field pattern.

  3. Cavity-based quantum networks with single atoms and optical photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Rempe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Distributed quantum networks will allow users to perform tasks and to interact in ways which are not possible with present-day technology. Their implementation is a key challenge for quantum science and requires the development of stationary quantum nodes that can send and receive as well as store and process quantum information locally. The nodes are connected by quantum channels for flying information carriers, i.e., photons. These channels serve both to directly exchange quantum information between nodes and to distribute entanglement over the whole network. In order to scale such networks to many particles and long distances, an efficient interface between the nodes and the channels is required. This article describes the cavity-based approach to this goal, with an emphasis on experimental systems in which single atoms are trapped in and coupled to optical resonators. Besides being conceptually appealing, this approach is promising for quantum networks on larger scales, as it gives access to long qubit coherence times and high light-matter coupling efficiencies. Thus, it allows one to generate entangled photons on the push of a button, to reversibly map the quantum state of a photon onto an atom, to transfer and teleport quantum states between remote atoms, to entangle distant atoms, to detect optical photons nondestructively, to perform entangling quantum gates between an atom and one or several photons, and even provides a route toward efficient heralded quantum memories for future repeaters. The presented general protocols and the identification of key parameters are applicable to other experimental systems.

  4. Digital Quantum Rabi and Dicke Models in Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacapo, A.; Las Heras, U.; Pedernales, J. S.; Dicarlo, L.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2014-12-01

    We propose the analog-digital quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi and Dicke models using circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). We find that all physical regimes, in particular those which are impossible to realize in typical cavity QED setups, can be simulated via unitary decomposition into digital steps. Furthermore, we show the emergence of the Dirac equation dynamics from the quantum Rabi model when the mode frequency vanishes. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of this proposal under realistic superconducting circuit scenarios.

  5. Ultra-low-loss optical fiber cavities for applications in quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Single atoms strongly coupled to optical cavities are well suited as light-matter interfaces at the single photon level. The strength of the coupling is inversely proportional to the square root of the mode volume of the cavity, which depends on the radius of curvature of the mirrors. We report on the fabrication of near-spherical surfaces with small radii of curvature on the end facets of optical fibers using a CO2 laser at 9.3 μm wavelength. The surfaces are coated with a commercial, highly reflective, dielectric coating. Cavities built from two of these fibers show a finesse of up to 190000. Due to the small radii of curvature and the high finesse of these cavities, deviations from the paraxial approximation become relevant. This results in a frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes depending on the eccentricity of the mirrors. Our analytic model that explains this effect is in excellent agreement with our measurements. This allows for the control of the frequency splitting by the geometry of the mirror surfaces. Our results confirm the great prospects of laser-machined cavities for experiments in quantum information processing. The possibility of implementing a quantum repeater node based on our cavity technologies will also be discussed.

  6. Linewidth measurement of external grating cavity quantum cascade laser using saturation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2008-03-01

    A room temperature external grating cavity (EGC) quantum cascade laser (QCL) is characterized using saturation spectroscopy of NO2. The presence of two strong EGC QCL waveguide modes is evident from the saturation spectra. A linewidth of 21MHz for each EGC-QCL mode is measured from the width of the saturation peak at 10mTorr pressure of NO2.

  7. Intracavity Sensing via Compliance Voltage in an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate a technique for gas phase spectroscopy and sensing by detecting changes in compliance voltage of an external cavity quantum cascade laser due to intracavity absorption. The technique is characterized and used to measure the absorption spectrum of water vapor and Freon-134a.

  8. Geometric phase in cavity QED containing a nonlinear optical medium and a quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.-B. A.; Eleuch, H.

    2015-11-01

    The geometric phase (GP) in cavity QED filled with a nonlinear medium and containing a quantum well is analyzed. We observe collapses and revivals. The optical nonlinearity leads to high frequency oscillations of the GP. The GP is very sensitive not only to the dissipation rates but also to the amplitude of the laser pump.

  9. Quantum-state input-output relations for absorbing cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantized electromagnetic field inside and outside an absorbing high-Q cavity is studied, with special emphasis on the absorption losses in the coupling mirror and their influence on the outgoing field. Generalized operator input-output relations are derived, which are used to calculate the Wigner function of the outgoing field. To illustrate the theory, the preparation of the outgoing field in a Schroedinger cat-like state is discussed

  10. Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).

  11. Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.;

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory......, the atomic state is determined in a Bayesian manner from the measurement data, and we present an iterative protocol, which determines both the atomic state and the model parameters. As a new element in the treatment of observed quantum systems, we employ a Bayesian approach that conditions the atomic...

  12. Quantum Dot Cavity-QED in the Presence of Strong Electron-Phonon Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson-Rae, I

    2001-01-01

    A quantum dot strongly coupled to a single high finesse optical microcavity mode constitutes a new fundamental system for quantum optics. Here, the effect of exciton-phonon interactions on reversible quantum-dot cavity coupling is analysed without making Born-Markov approximation. The analysis is based on techniques that have been used to study the ``spin boson'' Hamiltonian. Observability of vacuum-Rabi splitting depends on the strength and the frequency dependence of the spectral density function characterizing the interactions with phonons, both of which can be influenced by phonon confinement.

  13. Long-lasting hybrid quantum information processing in a cavity-protection regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A.; Santini, P.; Gerace, D.; Carretta, S.

    2016-03-01

    Implementing complex sequences of gates is crucial for any quantum computing architecture to become practical. This requires long-lived qubits which can be manipulated many times without errors. Here we propose a scheme to process hybrid qubits consisting of spin ensembles coupled to superconducting resonators in a cavity-protection regime, which enhances their coherence time by orders of magnitude. We perform numerical experiments for the quantum simulation of the X Y model and the quantum Fourier transform, by including all the main decoherence mechanisms and assuming system parameters that are guaranteed by present technology.

  14. Cavity-enhanced single photon emission from site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the emission dynamics of single In(Ga)As quantum dots formed in etched GaAs pits and integrated into micropillar cavities. The site-controlled quantum dots were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on nanoimprint lithography patterned GaAs(001) surfaces. Triggered single photon emission confirmed by photon autocorrelation measurements is demonstrated. Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments clearly show an effect of the cavity on the spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot.

  15. Cavity-enhanced single photon emission from site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots fabricated using nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommila, J.; Hakkarainen, T. V.; Schramm, A., E-mail: andreas.schramm@tut.fi; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Belykh, V. V.; Sibeldin, N. N. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Heinonen, E. [Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 7150, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2014-05-26

    We report on the emission dynamics of single In(Ga)As quantum dots formed in etched GaAs pits and integrated into micropillar cavities. The site-controlled quantum dots were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on nanoimprint lithography patterned GaAs(001) surfaces. Triggered single photon emission confirmed by photon autocorrelation measurements is demonstrated. Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments clearly show an effect of the cavity on the spontaneous emission rate of the quantum dot.

  16. Solving field equations in spinor electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bratchikov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    Solutions of classical and quantum equations of motion in spinor electrodynamics are constructed within the context of perturbation theory. The solutions possess a graphical representation in terms of diagrams.

  17. Ideal quantum gas in expanding cavity: nature of non-adiabatic force

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, K; Sobirov, Z A; Matrasulov, D U; Monnai, T

    2011-01-01

    We consider a quantum gas of non-interacting particles confined in the expanding cavity, and investigate the nature of the non-adiabatic force which is generated from the gas and acts on the cavity wall. Firstly, with use of the time-dependent canonical transformation which transforms the expanding cavity to the non-expanding one, we can define the force operator. Secondly, applying the perturbative theory which works when the cavity wall begins to move at time origin, we find that the non-adiabatic force is quadratic in the wall velocity and thereby does not break the time-reversal symmetry, in contrast with the general belief. Finally, using an assembly of the transitionless quantum states, we obtain the nonadiabatic force exactly. The exact result justifies the validity of both the definition of force operator and the issue of the perturbative theory. The mysterious mechanism of nonadiabatic transition with use of transitionless quantum states is also explained. The study is done on both cases of the hard-...

  18. Quantum backaction and noise interference in asymmetric two-cavity optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanay, Yariv; Sankey, Jack C.; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of cavity damping asymmetries on backaction in a "membrane-in-the-middle" optomechanical system, where a mechanical mode modulates the coupling between two photonic modes. We show that when the energy difference between the optical modes dominates (i.e., in the adiabatic limit) this system generically realizes a dissipative optomechanical coupling, with an effective position-dependent photonic damping rate. The resulting quantum noise interference can be used to ground-state cool a mechanical resonator in the unresolved sideband regime. We explicitly demonstrate how quantum noise interference controls linear backaction effects and show that this interference persists even outside the adiabatic limit. For a one-port cavity in the extreme bad cavity limit, the interference allows one to cancel all linear backaction effects. This allows continuous measurements of position-squared, with no stringent constraints on the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength. In contrast, such a complete cancellation is not possible in the good cavity limit. This places strict bounds on the optomechanical coupling required for quantum nondemolition measurements of mechanical energy, even in a one-port device.

  19. Optimized Multi-Ion Cavity Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Stephen; Vogt, Markus; Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Keller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Recent technological advances in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) are paving the way to utilize multiple quantum emitters confined in a single optical cavity. In such systems, it is crucially important to control the quantum mechanical coupling of individual emitters to the cavity mode. In this regard, combining ion trap technologies with CQED provides a particularly promising approach due to the well-established motional control over trapped ions. Here, we experimentally demonstrate coupling of up to five trapped ions in a string to a high-finesse optical cavity. By changing the axial position and spacing of the ions in a fully deterministic manner, we systematically characterize their coupling to the cavity mode through visibility measurements of the cavity emission. In good agreement with the theoretical model, the results demonstrate that the geometrical configuration of multiple trapped ions can be manipulated to obtain optimal cavity coupling. Our system presents a new ground for exploring CQED with multiple quantum emitters, enabled by the highly controllable collective light-matter interaction.

  20. Implementing an ancilla-free 1→M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine with superconducting quantum-interference devices in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a simple scheme to realize 1→M economical phase-covariant quantum cloning machine (EPQCM) with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits. In our scheme, multi-SQUIDs are fixed into a microwave cavity by adiabatic passage for their manipulation. Based on this model, we can realize the EPQCM with high fidelity via adiabatic quantum computation